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Sample records for chile aspectos generales

  1. Aspectos de la Sintaxis del Rromané de Chile en Textos Orales Tradicionales

    OpenAIRE

    Gastón Felipe Salamanca Gutiérrez; Álvaro Javier González Concha

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo corresponde a la segunda parte y final de nuestra investigación "Aspectos de la Sintaxis del Rromané de Chile en Textos Orales Tradicionales(I)". Se incluyen aquí los tipos de frases modificadas no descritas en nuestra primera presentación (FMAdj, FMAdv, FApos, FSeriada y FC-Eje) y los aspectos más relevantes de la sintaxis del rromané en el nivel de la Oración. Se describen los tagmemas identificados y sus instanciadores, además de los tipos de oraciones encontrados. Concluimos...

  2. Aspectos de manejo y bienestar en equinos de tiro urbano en el sur de Chile Husbandry and welfare aspects of urban draught horses in the south of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Tadich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sur de Chile los equinos de tiro continúan siendo la fuente principal de ingreso para numerosas familias. En muchas ocasiones estos equinos de trabajo no son mantenidos en óptimas condiciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las prácticas de manejo y parámetros relacionados con bienestar animal en un grupo de sesenta y un equinos carretoneros, pertenecientes a cincuenta propietarios, de tres ciudades del sur de Chile (Valdivia, Osorno y Puerto Montt. Se utilizaron métodos directos (basados en el animal y métodos indirectos. Estos incluyeron aspectos de salud, comportamiento y prácticas de manejo. La mayoría de los equinos presentaron una conformación masisa, pero más pequeña que la de las razas de tiro clásicas encontradas en otras áreas templadas en el mundo. En general presentaron buena condición corporal (59% y alertas (92%, con sólo unos pocos animales que presentaron una respuesta agresiva al momento de evaluar su comportamiento. Los principales problemas encontrados están relacionados con el manejo de cascos y las prácticas de alimentación. No se encontró asociación entre buena conformación de cascos y el uso de herreros o experiencia de los dueños. Esto se debe principalmente a una carencia de conocimiento y comprensión de prácticas de manejo y trabajo adecuados que permitan obtener un mejor rendimiento de sus equinos sin poner en riesgo el bienestar de éstos. La comunidad de dueños de equinos de trabajo se vería beneficiada con la instauración de programas educacionales en el futuro.In the south of Chile draught horses are the main source of household income for many families and often these working horses are kept in conditions that are far from ideal. The aim of this study was to determine husbandry practices and welfare parameters for a group of sixty one urban draught horses belonging to fifty owners, from three cities (Valdivia, Osorno and Puerto Montt in the south of Chile. Direct

  3. Cuidadores informales de personas dependientes en chile. Aspectos psicosociales y culturales

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso Miranda, Deiza Yanet

    2013-01-01

    [ES] La investigación trata sobre los cuidados informales a personas dependientes en Chile. El estudio empírico fue realizado en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, con cuidadores informales de personas con dependencias de diversas edades, y de estratos socioeconómicos bajos y medios-bajos. La información recopilada fue tratada con metodología cualitativa, específicamente la Teoría Fundamentada. Los principales hallazgos indican que los cuidados en Chile, tanto en zonas urbanas como...

  4. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  5. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas

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    Antonio Carlos Azevedo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la satisfación usuaria. Se analizan los principales dilemas del sistema de salud y las perspectivas de solución a la luz de las principales medidas tomadas en el presente. Hay buenas perpectivas de que el subsistema público mantenga su liderazgo histórico en la conducción y oferta de servicios en Chile debido a la rigurosa lógica geográfica y demográfica en la oferta de servicios, la disponibilidad estable de recursos financieros, una red de servicios suficiente y además, la considerable motivación de sus recursos humanos. Son mencionados aspectos innovadores que pueden ser útiles a otros sistemas, especialmente en América Latina, tales como: organización y gestión de servicios regionales de salud; metodologías innovadoras de pago de servicios; sistema de vigilancia sanitaria y la regulamentación estatal del financiamento privado en salud.

  6. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Azevedo Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la satisfación usuaria. Se analizan los principales dilemas del sistema de salud y las perspectivas de solución a la luz de las principales medidas tomadas en el presente. Hay buenas perpectivas de que el subsistema público mantenga su liderazgo histórico en la conducción y oferta de servicios en Chile debido a la rigurosa lógica geográfica y demográfica en la oferta de servicios, la disponibilidad estable de recursos financieros, una red de servicios suficiente y además, la considerable motivación de sus recursos humanos. Son mencionados aspectos innovadores que pueden ser útiles a otros sistemas, especialmente en América Latina, tales como: organización y gestión de servicios regionales de salud; metodologías innovadoras de pago de servicios; sistema de vigilancia sanitaria y la regulamentación estatal del financiamento privado en salud.

  7. Aspectos reproductivos del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edwards, 1837), frente a la costa de Concepción, Chile Reproductive aspects of the squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edward, 1837), off Concepción, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Palma G.; Patricio Arana E

    1997-01-01

    Se describen diversos aspectos reproductivos del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon) frente a la costa de Concepción (Chile), donde esta especie constituye una de las principales pesquerías de crustáceos del país. En esta zona se realizaron 15 cruceros entre agosto de 1988 y octubre de 1989, con 250 lances de 30 min de duración cada uno. Las capturas se efectuaron con redes de arrastre de fondo, en estaciones predefinidas a 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 y 300 m de profundidad. En este período...

  8. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  9. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  10. Satisfacción con el aspecto dental general y tratamientos deseados en estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Virginia Díaz Reissner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La apariencia dental es considerada un componente de la belleza facial, que al ser restaurada por el odontólogo, podría influir con un efecto positivo en la valoración personal y la calidad de vida. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la satisfacción general con la apariencia dental en estudiantes de las carreras de Artes Visuales y Diseño de Indumentaria del Instituto Superior de Arte de la Facultad de Arquitectura Diseño y Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, matriculados en el 2014. Se aplicó un cuestionario que contenía preguntas sobre datos demográficos, satisfacción con el aspecto dental general y con diversos aspectos dentales, así como también sobre el tratamiento estético deseado. La muestra quedó conformada por 108 estudiantes, que corresponde al 49,1% de la población. Se observó que el 48,2% se encontraba insatisfecho con el aspecto general de sus dientes, siendo los tratamientos de elección: blanqueamiento (63,9% y ortodoncia (47,2%. Los factores predisponentes a la insatisfacción fueron residir en Gran Asunción e interior del país y percibir sus dientes como desalineados. Por otro lado, favoreció la satisfacción el haberse sentirse a gusto con el color de sus dientes.

  11. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Azevedo Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la s...

  12. Tendencias generales en la toponimia del Norte Grande de Chile

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    Guillermo Latorre

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el autor se propone examinar las facetas más salientes de la preponderancia del sustrato indígena en la toponimia mayor del Norte Grande, asunto poco o nada tratado en descripciones del español de Chile. Pasa revista a voces como "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa" y otras. Finalmente, da algunas explicaciones de esa marcada presencia de topónimos autóctonos a pesar de cinco siglos de dominio español. (In this paper, the author examines the most salient features of the prevalence of indigenous backgrounds in the toponymy of Northernmost Chile, an aspect barely tackled, or simply neglected, in the descriptions of Chilean Spanish. The author reviews terms such as "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa", and others. Also, some explanations are offered that may justify the notorious presence of native placenames, in spite of five centuries of Spanish domination.

  13. Aspectos reproductivos del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edwards, 1837, frente a la costa de Concepción, Chile Reproductive aspects of the squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon H. Milne Edward, 1837, off Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Palma G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen diversos aspectos reproductivos del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon frente a la costa de Concepción (Chile, donde esta especie constituye una de las principales pesquerías de crustáceos del país. En esta zona se realizaron 15 cruceros entre agosto de 1988 y octubre de 1989, con 250 lances de 30 min de duración cada uno. Las capturas se efectuaron con redes de arrastre de fondo, en estaciones predefinidas a 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 y 300 m de profundidad. En este período se analizó un total de 147.871 ejemplares; 81.978 machos (56,4% y 65.893 hembras (44,6%. Las hembras ovíferas totalizaron 26.632 individuos, con el 18,0% de la muestra total. Las longitudes cefalotorácicas (Lc estuvieron comprendidas en ambos sexos entre 7,1 y 52,8 mm. La proporción sexual total fluctuó con porcentajes mensuales que variaron entre 35,6 y 67,9% en los machos, siendo en general predominante este sexo tanto en las muestras mensuales por zona y totales. Se determinó que la reproducción ocurre una vez al año, con mayor incidencia de hembras ovíferas entre mayo y octubre. La talla en que el 50% de las hembras alcanza la madurez sexual fue de 25,6 mm de Lc. El diámetro de los huevos varió entre 0,47 y 0,78 mm, apreciándose un incremento de tamaño en función del avance del desarrollo embrionario. Este comprendió entre 90 y 120 días y la eclosión de los huevos se produjo entre junio y octubre. El potencial reproductivo fluctuó entre 1.808 y 33.966 huevos, en ejemplares comprendidos entre 22,0 y 43,9 mm. De los modelos utilizados para ajustar la relación talla (Lc y fecundidad (NTH, el modelo de poder explicó mejor esta relación: NTH = 0,015*Lc3,844. La mayor contribución de nuevas crías a la población (55%, la realizaron las hembras comprendidas entre 25 y 29 mm de LcDiverse reproductive aspects of the squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon from the coast off Concepción (Chile, are described. This species is one of the main

  14. Aspectos generales sobre la elaboración del licor de limón

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    Arlyn Reyes-Linares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el licor de limón (limoncello. Se abordan aspectos generales de esta temática, así como las materias primas que se emplean en su elaboración y los procesos de obtención. Se comentan los trabajos reportados relacionados con el licor de limón, los que muestran investigaciones sobre la composición, su caracterización para establecer la calidad del producto en el mercado y las posibles adulteraciones, así como el proceso de producción tradicional y una nueva tecnología de innovación de extracción sólido-líquido para la obtención de este licor.

  15. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas The provision of health services in Chile: historical aspects, dilemmas and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Azevedo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la satisfación usuaria. Se analizan los principales dilemas del sistema de salud y las perspectivas de solución a la luz de las principales medidas tomadas en el presente. Hay buenas perpectivas de que el subsistema público mantenga su liderazgo histórico en la conducción y oferta de servicios en Chile debido a la rigurosa lógica geográfica y demográfica en la oferta de servicios, la disponibilidad estable de recursos financieros, una red de servicios suficiente y además, la considerable motivación de sus recursos humanos. Son mencionados aspectos innovadores que pueden ser útiles a otros sistemas, especialmente en América Latina, tales como: organización y gestión de servicios regionales de salud; metodologías innovadoras de pago de servicios; sistema de vigilancia sanitaria y la regulamentación estatal del financiamento privado en salud.Realiza-se breve análise histórica do sistema de saúde no Chile, a partir do Serviço Nacional de Saúde, com ênfase nas reformas ocorridas desde 1980,durante o regime militar, e as mudanças introduzidas a partir de 1990 pelos governos democráticos. Compara a oferta atual de serviços pelo sistema público com a do setor privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiários: a taxa de consultas, de exames de laboratório, de hospitalização, de altas e de cirurgias e a satisfação dos usuários. Analisa os principais dilemas do sistema de saúde e suas perspectivas à luz das medidas

  16. Casi La Verdad: Silencios Y Secretos En La Posdictadura Del General Augusto Pinochet En Chile.

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    Marcia Esparza.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ourstudy, AlmosttheTruth: Silences and Secrets in General Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship in Chile, examines intelligentsia, militaryand civilian staff's judicial testimonies, accused of participating in crimes committed during the Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship (1973-1990. Our aim is to interrogate the social role played by this silence influenced, we argue, by a persisting military culture. In these confessions, we identify subordination to the Armed Forces and not the acknowledgement for responsibilities for the crimes committed.

  17. Aspectos Generales de la Evaluación Hematológica en Fauna Silvestre y no Convencional

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    Martha Copete-Sierra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso de la evaluación hematológica en animales silvestres y no convencionales es fundamental para la evaluación general del estado de salud de estas poblaciones. La estandarización de los procedimientos de laboratorio, el conocimiento y la experiencia del analista en la identificación de las diferencias morfológicas, son fundamentales para obtener resultados confiables que proporcionan la mayor utilidad clínica. El objetivo de este documento es recopilar información básica para la realización adecuada de la evaluación hematológica en animales silvestres y no convencionales, así como los aspectos generales para su interpretación.

  18. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  19. Aspectos biológicos y conductuales del estadio infectante de Caligus rogercresseyi Boxhall & Bravo 2000 (Copepoda: Caligidae), en peces nativos y de cultivo de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Farias Aqueveque, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    El impacto nocivo producido por Caligus rogercresseyi en los centros de cultivo de salmónidos en el sur de Chile ha ido en aumento, por lo que es necesario tener un mejor conocimiento de la especie para poder combatirla haciendo énfasis en la etapa infectante de ésta, el estadío copepodito. Este estudio aporta conocimientos biológicos y conductuales de éste estadío frente al estímulo de tres especies de hospederos; Salmo salar, especie de cultivo, y Eleginops maclovinus e Hypsoblennius sordid...

  20. Movilidad sustentable en Chile: Oportunidades, experiencias locales y referencias globales

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Díaz Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo propone Premisas Conceptuales, Premisas Metodológicas y el desarrollo de Aspectos Estratégicos para la implementación de soluciones a la Movilidad Urbana. Se inspira en las ideas, experiencias e investigaciones de diversas personas quienes abordan desde lógicas puntuales aspectos temáticos específicos en el marco de la Planificación Urbana en general y de las aplicaciones en Transporte en particular. Chile atraviesa por una oportunidad histórica, quizás paradójicamente, a partir...

  1. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas The provision of health services in Chile: historical aspects, dilemmas and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos de Azevedo

    1998-01-01

    Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la s...

  2. Satisfacción con el aspecto dental general y tratamientos deseados en estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse Virginia Díaz Reissner; Milner Iván Morel Barrios; Nohelia María Pérez Bejarano

    2015-01-01

    La apariencia dental es considerada un componente de la belleza facial, que al ser restaurada por el odontólogo, podría influir con un efecto positivo en la valoración personal y la calidad de vida. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la satisfacción general con la apariencia dental en estudiantes de las carreras de Artes Visuales y Diseño de Indumentaria del Instituto Superior de Arte de la Facultad de Arquitectura Diseño y Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, matriculados en el 2...

  3. Latitudinal comparisons of reproductive traits in five Brachyuran species along the Chilean coast Comparaciones latitudinales de aspectos reproductivos en cinco especies de braquiuros a lo largo de la costa de Chile

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    ANTONIO BRANTE

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in reproductive investment and fecundity of marine invertebrates is important for determining the critical environmental variables affecting reproduction and thus, the spatial patterns of population dynamics. However, information on patterns of reproduction of marine invertebrates at large spatial scales are either scarce, or have been conducted by mixing species with contrasting modes of development. Brachyuran crabs are an ideal group to analyze large-scale patterns of reproduction not only because many species are commercially exploited, but also because they show a single mode of larval development and wide distributional ranges. Here, we report latitudinal patterns of reproductive variables in five Brachyuran crab species along the coast of Chile (18-54 ° S: Cancer setosus, Paraxanthus barbiger, Homalaspis plana, Ovalipes trimaculatus, and Taliepus marginatus. Five variables were analyzed: brood weight, fecundity, embryo dry weight, embryo volume, and embryo loss. Comparisons between northern (20 °S, central (29-33 °S and southern Chile (35-41 ° S were conducted for C. setosus and between central and southern Chile for the other four species. A total of 378 brooding females were collected and analyzed. Although we did not find a clear and consistent pattern in all reproductive variables in the five crab species analyzed along the coast of Chile, generalizations can be drawn from this study. First, brood weight did not vary between central and southern Chile in most of the species (except P. barbiger. Second, embryo loss did not vary between central and southern Chile in four of the species studied. Third, embryo dry weight tended to increase toward high latitudes in four of the five species. We suggest that the costs associated to oxygen provision to broods may explain some of the patterns found, but other factors need also be consideredEl estudio de los patrones de inversión reproductiva y fecundidad

  4. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

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    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  5. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The

  6. General Aspects of Corrosion and Plant Inhibitors [Aspectos Gerais Sobre Corrosão e Inibidores Vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia R. B. Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is a natural process that can easily be found in different types of surfaces and represents a major cause of economic losses in the industrial sector. Nowadays, the corrosion control involves different aspects such as economical, technical, and environmental.Generally, the chemical, electrochemical or electrolytic corrosion processes are spontaneous, leading to modifications in the physicochemical characteristics of materials. In this article, it isincluded the biocorrosion, which is influenced by microorganisms. In general, corrosion inhibitors are highly toxic limiting both handling and disposal. Recently, great scientific interest is focused in the natural inhibitors from plant sources due to the significant microbiological control as well as inhibitive property on electrochemical corrosion. In addition, vegetal inhibitors represent an important alternative in a biotechnological context.

  7. Cetamina: aspectos gerais e relação com a esquizofrenia Ketamine: general aspects and relationship with schizophrenia

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    Silvânia M. M. Vasconcelos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A cetamina é uma droga anestésica desenvolvida em 1965 pelos laboratórios norte-americanos Parke & Davis, tendo como objetivo principal sua utilização em anestesias humanas e veterinárias. Entretanto, seu uso tornou-se constante entre os jovens, sendo consumida em festas como um potente alucinógeno. Já quanto a pesquisas laboratoriais, essa droga tem sido utilizada como modelo para induzir esquizofrenia em animais. Com o objetivo de realizar-se um estudo de revisão da cetamina como anestésico e potencial modelo de esquizofrenia, foi feita uma pesquisa bibliográfica na internet, utilizando programas de pesquisa científica (Pubmed, Medline e Lilacs, além de pesquisa em trabalhos relacionados ao assunto. A administração da cetamina no homem promove o bloqueio dos receptores glutamatérgicos ionotrópicos do tipo N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA e antagoniza os receptores de acetilcolina nicotínicos e muscarínicos, bem como os receptores monoaminérgicos e opióides. O bloqueio dos receptores glutamatérgicos promoverá um quadro sintomático semelhante ao de um paciente esquizofrênico. Além disso, a administração da cetamina durante a sinaptogênese pode lesar neurônios corticais, límbicos, talâmicos e estriatais, promovendo uma disfunção na neurotransmissão glutamatérgica e propiciando a manifestação de sintomas psicóticos na vida adulta. Entre esses sintomas, podemos citar o surgimento da esquizofrenia. Somando-se a isso, a droga proporciona uma série de efeitos sistêmicos, desde uma simples anestesia, passando pela sedação, depressão respiratória e até a morte.Ketamine is an anesthetic agent developed in 1965 by Park & Davis laboratories to be used as a general anesthetic in humans and animals. However, its use became popular among young people and it's frequently available at parties to produce hallucination. In laboratorial researches, this drug has been used as a model of schizophrenia in animals. This work

  8. Diagnóstico das neuropatias periféricas aspectos gerais da população em estudo: general characteristics of the population under study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Marques Júnior; Amilton Antunes Barreira

    1992-01-01

    O presente estudo tem por finalidade analisar aspectos gerais de população de 209 pacientes com neuropatias periféricas, atendidos no Hospital dias Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto no período de março-1985 a fevereiro-1987. Poucos são os trabalhos que avaliam pacientes com vista ao estudo dos fatores que contribuem ou não para o diagnóstico daquelas afecções. Os tipos de neuropatias encontrados, em ordem de frequência foram: polineuropatias, mono-neuropatias e multineuropatias. No primeiro grupo se...

  9. Características geoquímicas generales del sistema salino del Salar de Llamara (Chile

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    Gimeno, M. J.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available «Norte Grande de Chile» is a wide area characterized by arid climatic features. This region contains numerous undrained basins in which development of saline systems called salars takes place. The scattered ponds in «salar de Llamará» system contain nearneutral brines of the Na-Cl type. Moreover, mineralogic composition of this salar deposits is mainly gypsiferous.This saline system has been sampled throughout two summer seasons. Compositional evolution of solutions (through application of chemical divide rule from Hardie and Eugster, 1970 shows that its trend has been influenced by the precipitation of calcite and gypsum. Saturation states calculated by PHRQPITZ geochemical code have pointed out that all brines sampled were saturated with regard to both minerals.Theoretical evolution of brines in advanced evaporative stages has been carried out by means of Valyashko diagram. Saline mineral s which appear together with gypsum in salar deposits confirm the forecasts of this method. After gypsum, progressive evaporation causes the precipitation of halite. Crystallization of more soluble sulphates, borates and nitrates would occur in more advanced stages near to brine dryness.El salar de Llamará es un sistema salino que se mantiene activo gracias a su especial situación geomorfológica y a las características climáticas de la zona donde se localiza, conocida como «Norte Grande de Chile». Las acumulaciones superficiales de agua constituyen verdaderas salmueras de tipo clorurado-sódico y pH aproximadamente neutro. Por otra parte, la composición de los depósitos bajo lámina de agua del salar es fundamentalmente yesífera.El desmuestre realizado sobre el sistema a lo largo de dos campañas estivales, y la interpretación de la evolución temporal de sus características composicionales a través de la regla de la divisoria química, han puesto de manifiesto que la composición de las salmueras se ha encontrado determinada por

  10. Aspectos generales del síndrome de dolor crónico posquirúrgico. Revisión sistemática-cualitativa

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Nathaly Ricaurte Gracia; Andrés Felipe Rey Rodríguez; Diego Fernando Ovalle Marroquín

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El dolor crónico posquirúrgico (DCP) es motivo frecuente de consulta, tiene alta prevalencia y es incapacitante. Dura entre dos y tres meses, y su causa se limita a una cirugía previa sin importar su indicación o técnica. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Medline, Embase y LILACS sin límites de idioma ni diseño, en procura de evidencias entre enero de 1990 y febrero de 2011. Se incluyeron artículos que trataran algún aspecto del DCP. La calidad de la información ...

  11. Diagnóstico das neuropatias periféricas aspectos gerais da população em estudo: general characteristics of the population under study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Marques Júnior

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por finalidade analisar aspectos gerais de população de 209 pacientes com neuropatias periféricas, atendidos no Hospital dias Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto no período de março-1985 a fevereiro-1987. Poucos são os trabalhos que avaliam pacientes com vista ao estudo dos fatores que contribuem ou não para o diagnóstico daquelas afecções. Os tipos de neuropatias encontrados, em ordem de frequência foram: polineuropatias, mono-neuropatias e multineuropatias. No primeiro grupo se destacaram as formas adquiridas e, no segundo, as lesões do plexo braquial. A média das idades foi 36,4 anos, com uma variação de 18 dias a 81 anos. O sexo masculino predominou, entre as polineuropatias, enquanto nas mo-noneuropatias o predomínio foi do feminino e nas multineuropatias a proporção entre os dois sexos foi semelhante. O tempo de seguimento dos pacientes foi menor que 6 meses para 52,6% dos casos e menor que 1 ano para 71,3%. Discutimos o significado e a importância de nossos achados.

  12. ASPECTOS LESIONALES MICROSCÓPICOS EN HÍGADOS DE SALMONÍDEOS, PROVENIENTES DE CENTROS DE CULTIVO DE LA Xª A XIIª REGIÓN DE CHILE (1988-1998. MICROSCOPIC LESIONS IN SALMONIDS' LIVERS COMING FROM FARM FISH IN THE TENTH TO TWELFTH REGION OF CHILE (1988-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. CUBILLOS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue determinar los tipos de lesiones microscópicas en hígados de salmonídeos provenientes de centros de cultivo de la Xª a XIIª Región de Chile en el período 1988-1998. Se seleccionaron cortes histológicos de muestras hepáticas correspondientes a 160 salmones coho (O. kisutch, 92 salmones del Atlántico (S. salar, 13 salmones chinook (O. tschawytscha y 90 truchas arcoiris (O. mykiss. Dichas muestras fueron obtenidas aleatoriamente a fin de determinar la localización de las lesiones en el parénquima, de acuerdo a la teoría de Rappaport (1973. \tAl relacionar los trastornos hepáticos (del crecimiento, circulatorios, degenerativos, inflamatorios y necróticos con su localización en el parénquima, llamó la atención que la mayoría de ellos presentaron localización difusa, acompañada en algunos casos de una segunda localización (periportal, mediozonal o centrolobulillar. En el caso de infiltrado linfoblástico, la localización de las células fue predominantemente periportalThe purpose of this report is to determine the kinds of microscopic lesions present in livers of salmonids grown in fish farms in the Tenth to Twelfth Region, from 1988 until 1998. Selected histological samples corresponding to 160 coho salmons (O. kisutch, 92 Atlantic salmons (S. salar, 13 chinook salmons (O. tschawytscha and 90 rainbow trouts (O. mykiss were observed in order to determine the localization of injuries in the liver parenchyma in the Animal Pathology Institute of the Veterinary Science Faculty. The kinds of pathologies found were classified in relation to their localisation in liver tissue according to the theory of Rappaport (1973 about the microcirculatory hepatic unit. The results of this research indicate that from the total amount of liver samples, the parenchyma localisation of the lesions, when connected to liver disorders (of growth, circulatory, infectious, degenerative, inflammatory and necrotic were

  13. Estado de conocimiento de las aves de aguas continentales de Chile Synopsis of the Inland aquatic birds of Chile

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    Pedro F Victoriano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se informa de manera sintética la composición de especies, distribución, estatus de conservación y algunos aspectos de la biología de las aves acuáticas de ambientes continentales de Chile. Esta avifauna está compuesta por un total de 133 especies, distribuidas en 69 géneros, 21 familias y 10 órdenes. El grupo representado por el mayor número de especies es el Orden Charadriiformes (51 especies, con una alta presencia en ambientes ecotonales estuarinos. En ambientes de aguas interiores el grupo con más especies es el Orden Anseriformes (29 especies. La distribución de la riqueza de especies se corresponde en términos generales con las tendencias de representación para cada Orden en Sudamérica. De acuerdo a esta revisión, una parte importante de los registros para Chile son esporádicos (28 especies o visitantes regulares (13 especies, y sólo un 69% del total pueden ser consideradas como residentes de nuestra avifauna acuática. De acuerdo a los estados de conservación, un total de 25 especies es considerada en algún sistema de clasificación, de las cuales una especie, Numenius borealis o zarapito boreal, se considera extinta en todo su rango distribucional. Según los registros de los últimos 50 años, el pidén austral (Rallus antarcticus es una especie extinta en la zona central de Chile, quedando sólo algunas poblaciones poco abundantes en el extremo sur del país y en el sur de Argentina. En Chile no existen especies de aves acuáticas endémicas. Sin embargo, al considerar como áreas de análisis las regiones biogeográficas clásicas de nuestro país, existen dos zonas con un alto número de especies exclusivas: en la ecorregión Desértica 9,1% del total nacional son endémicas de esa zona, mientras que la Tropical o Puna incluye un 7,6%. A pesar de que en las ecorregiones Mediterránea y Oceánica existe un alto número de especies, éstas muestran pocos taxa propios (3% y 2,3% respectivamente. Se

  14. Aspectos generales y académicos de los aspirantes y los admitidos a la Especialidad en Pediatría de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia

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    Jairo Echeverry-Raad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El presente artículo es un avance de investigación, de las pocas que existen alrededor de la admisión a especialidades médicas. En este se indagaron aspectos concernientes a la admisión a la Especialidad en Pediatría de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, entre los cuales se encuentran: tipo de aspirantes, características del proceso de admisión y resultados de las pruebas.Existe escasa investigación del proceso de admisión a las especialidades medico-quirúrgicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los aspirantes y admitidos a la Especialidad en Pediatría de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UN. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron aspirantes y admitidos al programa, cohortes 2009 a 2011, y se estimó la tasa de admisión y factores relacionados con ella. Resultados: Se identificaron 997 aspirantes, de predominio femenino (71%, mediana de 28 años, provenientes de Bogotá. La mitad de ellos eran egresados de universidades públicas. Se convocó a entrevista a 125 (12.5% y 42 fueron aceptados: 34% de los convocados a entrevista y 4.2% de los inscritos. La calificación promedio en la prueba cognitiva y en la prueba de inglés fue 2.72 y 2.63, respectivamente. En los preseleccionados no admitidos, la calificación final fue 3.19, y en los admitidos 3.54. Dentro de los admitidos predominaron mujeres (60%, de 28 años, egresadas de universidades públicas (88%. Significativamente, la admisión pudo ser predicha por: la calificación en la prueba cognitiva, la calificación de la hoja de vida, ser egresado de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, la calificación en la entrevista, el sexo masculino, tener menor edad, y la calificación en la prueba de inglés (LR ji²(7=307.93, R²=94.7%, p=0.0000. Después de controlar las demás variables, la admisión es explicada casi exclusivamente por la calificación en la prueba cognitiva, (LR ji²(1=300.53, R²=92.08%, p=0.0000. Conclusión: Este trabajo muestra la consistencia y

  15. Modelación y análisis probabilístico del balance hídrico superficial de un sistema de riego en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, José Manuel; Gurovich R., Luis A.; Varas, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta una propuesta de modelación de los elementos y procesos involucrados en la oferta superficial y demanda hídrica de un sistema de riego de la zona central de Chile, como metodología para el estudio del balance hídrico predial en la planificación de los recursos hídricos disponibles. El estudio contempló una descripción y evaluación general del sistema mediante visitas de terreno y recolección de información, teniendo en cuenta aspectos de suelos, cultivos, agua...

  16. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  17. The concession contracts assignment: general issues and controversies; A cessao de direitos e obrigacoes no contrado de concessao: aspectos gerais e questoes controversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Renata Gualberto Cordeiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Considering the activities of exploration and production of oil and natural gas and the concession regimen applicable to them in Brazil, the assignment of rights and obligations of the concession contract is analyzed from the points of view of the Petroleum Law and the contract itself. This paper intend to address the legal aspects that support the general legal authorization and the rules of the concession contract, as well as the role of ANP in the approval of the transfer and in the development of technical rules, regarding its function as a regulatory agency. Two controversial issues, the transfer with retroactive effects and the transfer of part of the concession area, are analyzed in light of the general features of the transfer of rights and obligations. Finally, the 'cessao de fato' and its consequences will be considered for the study of assignment of rights with retroactive effects and the operations of sole risk.. (author)

  18. Aspectos generales de la metodología para el cálculo del Margen Bruto Estándar 2000

    OpenAIRE

    San Juan Mesonada, Carlos; Mora, Ricardo; Torre, J. E. de la; Pomares, Patricia; Ulloa, Camilo A.; Sánchez, María

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este documento de trabajo es presentar la metodología para el cálculo del Margen Bruto Estándar con periodo de referencia 1999, 2000 y 2001 (MBE 2000) y para el conjunto de categorías agrícolas definidas en el anexo de la Decisión de la Comisión 2003/369/CE. En este documento, dichas categorías vienen recogidas en el cuadro 2 del anexo. Este documento de trabajo se divide en tres secciones. En la sección 1 se presenta el marco metodológico general recogido en ...

  19. Aspectos generales de la inmigración y la demografía china en el Perú (1849-1903

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    Gonzalo Alonso Paroy Villafuerte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to presents the development of the Chinese community in Peru throughout quantitative data, form their immigration and the knowing data about it “mixture” in the Peruvian-lima society. We will show the immigration throughout its general characteristics, as well as the context of the immigration, the travel to China to Peru and the labor market at which it was introduced. The, it will be observe the “composition” of Peruvian-lima society, regarding the Chinese community, introducing different graphics and contrasting different sources.

  20. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Donoso Scroppo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to d...

  1. APOPTOSIS: MUERTE CELULAR PROGRAMADA. ASPECTOS ENERALES Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS ENFERMEDADES CARDIOVASCULARES / Apoptosis: programmed cellular death. General aspects and its relation with cardiovascular diseases.

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    Mirka Navas Contino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The apoptosis is a very important and definitive form of cellular death, and has a close relation with cardiovascular diseases. A review of this topic is made in this work taking into account not only the antecedents of this process but also the general aspects involved in it. One of the main challenges for cardiovascular medicine in the next decades is to prevent the development of cardiacinsufficiency. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to increase the knowledge on the mechanisms which signal the beginning and evolution of the functional deterioration of the myocardium. The overcoming of these difficulties could turn the apoptosis into a paradigmatic example of the cellular-molecular approach which nowadays is a must for the understanding of the heart and blood vessels diseases.

  2. Metodología LC-MS.Aspectos generales de la técnica y sus aplicaciones en el campo de la toxicología

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    O. Quintela

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años el aumento de publicaciones de aplicaciones de la cromatografía de líquidos acoplada a la espectrometría de masas (LC-MS en numerosos campos analíticos, incluyendo la toxicología y las ciencias forenses, ha sido verdaderamente espectacular. Este hecho, que no deja de aumentar, se debe probablemente tanto a los avances tecnológicos de la técnica como al descenso real de los precios en torno a esta “novedosa tecnología”. Es por ello que numerosos laboratorios están en disposición de adquirir una herramienta, que si bien en sus partes por separado no es desconocida (la cromatografía de líquidos, y la espectrometría de masas, unidas poseen unas características que la hacen especial, tanto en el modo de trabajar como en las aplicaciones a las que puede estar destinada. El presente trabajo trata de abordar someramente los principios físico-químicos sobre los que se basa la particular forma de compatibilizar el líquido procedente del cromatógrafo de líquidos con un espectrómetro de masas que únicamente puede trabajar con muestras en estado gaseoso. En una segunda parte se describe las interfases de Ionización a Presión Atmosférica (API, con sus dos fuentes de ionización más representativas: Electrospray (ES, e Ionización Química a Presión Atmosférica (APCI. Ya por último se realiza una revisión de las aplicaciones de la técnica en un laboratorio de toxicología forense, en donde aparecen reflejadas las más recientes aplicaciones de la técnica, como es el caso del screening general de xenobióticos.

  3. Intelligent Organization in a Learning Environment: an Exploration of its General Aspects La organización inteligente en un ambiente de aprendizaje: una exploración de sus aspectos generales

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    Noé Chávez Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the important aspects to be considered within learning organizations focused on continuous learning at the individual, group and organizational level, in order to develop the necessary competences and face their environment in a competitive way. This article aims to present several topics covered, from its introduction and identification of knowledge attributes and learning, until what is an intelligent organization, the structural design to be adopted as well as the skills of management to be implemented. The intention of this paper is to contribute to the stock of current theoretical information that serves as a reference for the practical research of the academics.Este artículo es un estudio de los aspectos que deben ser considerados dentro de las organizaciones inteligentes cuyo enfoque se centra en el aprendizaje constante (tanto individual como organizacional como una estrategia para desarrollar las competencias que les permitan enfrentar el entorno de una manera competitiva. Al exponer dichas temáticas, desde la presentación e identificación de las características del conocimiento y el aprendizaje dentro de una organización inteligente, hasta el diseño estructural a adoptar y las habilidades de gestión gerencial a ejecutar, nuestra intención es contribuir a la aplicación del conocimiento dentro del ámbito de la gestión empresarial.

  4. Aspectos generales de la propia imagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Ceballos Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hablar en nuestros días de activos intangibles genera la idea de estar hablando de activos de contenido económico que hacen parte de los activos de una compañía, empresa o una persona natural que ejerce actos de comercio, esto es, un comerciante. En efecto, doctrinariamente se ha tendido a señalar que los bienes intangibles son “activos no materiales que consisten en un recurso controlado por la empresa como resultado de eventos pasados y de los cuales se espera que generen beneficios futuros a las entidades o individuos que controlan su aplicación”. Pues bien, debe quedar claro, en primera medida, que no sólo los signos distintivos, los derechos derivados de las nuevas creaciones o de los derechos de autor, el secreto empresarial, el good will, entre otros, son bienes que hacen parte del género de los bienes intangibles; en este amplio espectro –que se encasilla en la definición del Artículo 653 del Código Civil– se encuentran los derechos derivados de la propia imagen, tanto en su esfera moral como en la patrimonial.

  5. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  6. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  7. Policy-Driven Productivity in Chile and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Soto; Raphael Bergoeing; Timothy Kehoe; Patrick Kehoe

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, but Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Using growth accounting and a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model, we conclude that the crucial determinant of this difference between the two countries was the faster productivity growth in Chile, rather than higher investment or employment. Our hypothesis is that this difference in productivity was driven by earlier policy reforms in Chile, the most crucial ...

  8. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  9. Fundacion Chile Incubator : Chile Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Foundation Chile was created in 1976 as a nonprofit governed jointly by the Chilean government and a large American conglomerate. It proactively introduces technology innovations and develops companies in target industries including agribusiness, marine resources, forestry, environment and chemical metrology, human capital, and information and communication technologies. Among its successe...

  10. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  11. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  12. Unconfined Aquifer Permeability near hand-dug Wells in the Coastal and Interior dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, Chile Permeabilidad de Acuíferos No-Confinados cerca de Pozos Norias en el Secano Costero e Interior, Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Rupp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region in Chile, most farmers rely on wide and shallow hand-dug wells as their primary source of water during the dry summer. Few of these wells have sufficient yield for more than domestic use (human consumption, livestock, and irrigation of a subsistence garden. To more accurately assess available groundwater resources, saturated hydraulic conductivity (K of aquifers in the eight counties that comprise this region’s dryland was estimated using evacuation and recovery tests in 353 hand-dug wells. K followed a log-normal distribution and ranged over nearly five orders of magnitude. County median K varied by a factor of 5 and a slight increasing K trend in the southward direction. In one northern county, less than 4% of the sites had K > 4 m d-1. In the t two southernmost counties, approximately one-quarter of the K values exceeded 4 m d-1. This is approximately the minimum K required for a typical well (1 m diameter and 3 m depth below the water table to yield 1 L s-1 of water, which is roughly the yield required to irrigate 1 ha. Aquifers located where parent material was predominantly intrusive granite had slightly higher and statistically significant K than those formed predominantly of metamorphic and sedimentary rock. A semi-variogram of K provided weak evidence of a characteristic length scale of approximately 4 km.La mayoría de los agricultores del secano de la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins depende de pozos noria, constituyendo su principal fuente de agua durante el verano. Pocos pozos tienen rendimiento suficiente para un uso mayor que el doméstico (consumo humano, ganadería y riego. A fin de evaluar con mayor precisión los recursos hídricos subterráneos disponibles, mediante pruebas de bombeo-recuperación se estimó la conductividad hidráulica saturada (K de los acuíferos en 353 pozos distribuidos en ocho comunas del área. K siguió una

  13. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...

  14. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  15. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  16. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gentina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first commercial operation in the world exclusively via bioleaching copper sulfides. Nowadays, all bioleaching operations run in the country contribute to an estimated 10% of total copper production. This article presents antecedents that have contributed to the development of copper bioleaching in Chile.

  17. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D. González-Acuña; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L.; Castro, D.

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  18. Las fábricas de la charla en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Areli Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo expone los resultados preliminares de la investigación doctoral en Antropología, orientada a conocer la materialidad y la subjetividad del trabajo de los call centers en Chile. Un salario definido por metas inalcanzables, el maltrato, el cansancio de nuevo tipo, la doble extracción del valor productivo y reproductivo de las mujeres trabajadoras y su entorno familiar, la explotación de las capacidades subjetivas, entre otros aspectos, dan cuenta de las nuevas formas que asume la ...

  19. Hábitos alimentarios y bienestar subjetivo en estudiantes universitarios del sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Marianela Denegrí; Horacio Miranda; José Sepúlveda; Ligia Orellana; Galo Paiva; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de estudiantes universitarios en el sur de Chile, en base a su nivel de satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos alimentarios dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, aspectos asociados a la salud y características demográficas. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra no probabilística de 347 estudiantes de la Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco-Chile. El instrumento de recogida de información...

  20. Morfología de los Adjetivos Demostrativos en el Rromané Jorajané de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonzalo Lizarralde Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, dividido en dos artículos, presenta una descripción en el plano morfológico para una lengua poco estudiada en el ámbito nacional: el rromané jorajané hablado por los gitanos de Chile. Este primer artículo contiene una introducción etnográfica -donde se presentan unas notas breves sobre los aspectos más prominentes de la lengua de los gitanos-, los antecedentes de la investigación, los objetivos generales y específicos planteados, el marco de referencia y metodología utilizados, y, como foco, un análisis morfológico de los demostrativos. Este último punto contiene una nota introductoria sobre el tratamiento de los demostrativos en la gramática castellana, un cuadro con las formas de los demostrativos en rromané de Chile, una propuesta de segmentación morfémica, y una propuesta de asignación de morfos a morfemas. A cada uno de los puntos recién mencionados, le siguen observaciones que abordan aspectos morfológicos, fonémicos y comparativos respecto del español.This study, divided into two anieles, is a description of the morphology of a language that has drawn little attention nationally: Rromané Jorajané, spoken by Gypsies in Chile. This first article contains an introduction to Gypsy ethnography -which includes some brief notes regarding the most prominent features of the language-; earlier research; proposed general and specific objectives; the theoretical framework and methodology employed; and, as a focal point, the morphological analysis of demonstrative adjectives. This final point includes an introductory note regarding the treatment of demonstrative adjectives in Spanish grammar, a chart of demonstrative adjective forms in Chilean Rromané, a proposal for morphemic segmentation, and a proposal for assigning morphs to morphemes. Observations regarding morphological, phonemic, and comparative aspeets with respect to Spanish follow each of the foregoing points.

  1. Del dicterio al encomio: Estrategias semánticas generales y la imagen de las superpotencias en El Siglo de Chile (1957-1962) From denigration to praising: General semantic strategies and the image of superpowers in El Siglo in Chile (1957-1962)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Latorre; Olly Vega

    2003-01-01

    Chile no escapó a la pugna ideológica durante la Guerra Fría. Esta se manifestó claramente en editoriales y artículos de opinión. 45 textos de El Siglo entre 1957 y 1962 fueron examinados según criterios derivados del análisis del discurso racista y sexista. Se discute el papel de la ideología en la estructuración textual. Dos estrategias semánticas aparecen como mayoritarias: la acusación y la autopresentación positiva. La investigación indica que las categorías discursivas observadas en la ...

  2. Infrastructure Concessions in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Hinojosa, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    To increase investment in infrastructure, in the early 1990s Chiles government introduced private capital into the transport infrastructure sector, covering roads and highways, bridges, tunnels, and airports. The chosen mechanism: a concession scheme through which private firms would finance and build a given project and then operate the infrastructure for a set of number of years, recover...

  3. The Geology of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Calafat, A.; Gimeno, D.; Liesa, M.; Proenza, J.; Sàbat, F.; Sáez, Alberto; Santanach, Pere

    2008-01-01

    6 páginas.-- Book review of "The Geology of Chile", by Teresa Moreno and Wes Gibbons (eds.) (2007). Geological Society. London (United Kingdom). 414 pages, 286 figures including maps, charts and pictures; 27, 5 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-1- 86239-219-9 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-86239-220-5 (softback).

  4. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  5. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Tierra. En este trabajo Molina compara repetidamente los paisajes del norte y el sur, la actividad volcnica y la geologa de Italia y Chile. Su prxima obra, Memorie di storia naturale, fue publicada en 1821 y estuvo basada en sus clases dadas en la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia. Contena 14 Memoria -clases- referidas a diferentes aspectos de las ciencias naturales, incluyendo seis tpicos geolgicos. En 1815, en una de las clases de Molina -posteriormente Memoria XIV-, fue publicado bajo el ttulo Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la naturaleza. En esta clase Molina discuta las similitudes entre minerales, vegetales y animales dentro del marco de la entonces aceptada filosofa de la Gran Cadena del Ser. Debido a que sus ideas y enunciados, que aparentemente dotaban a plantas y animales caractersticas humanas, Molina fue denunciado y posteriormente apartado por heterodoxia. El Abate Molina hizo una importante contribucin para el estudio de la Historia Natural de Chile, y en general para las ciencias naturales de Amrica del Sur. Aunque Molina vivi la mayor parte de su vida fuera de Chile, aliment un profundo amor y orgullo por su pas. Este cuadro que emerge de sus escritos contribuy en un alto grado a que el mundo conociera su tierra nativa y su gente.

  6. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  7. Aspectos computacionais do ambiente IMAGUS

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, André Luís Alice; Giraffa, Lúcia Maria Martins

    2000-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta a descrição do ambiente IMAGUS enfatizando aspectos da implementação do protótipo do ambiente. O IMAGUS permite a construção de materiais com fins pedagógicos que se utilizam de vídeos acessado via Internet. O protótipo foi desenvolvido para validar a arquitetura proposta para o ambiente. São apresentadas as soluções a nível de modelagem e a implementação do protótipo baseada na utilização da interface Java Media Framework

  8. Reuso de Aspectos en AspectJ

    OpenAIRE

    Vanoli, Verónica; Casas, Sandra; Marcos, Claudia; Márquez, Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    La Programación Orientada a Aspectos (POA) permite implementar los requerimientos no funcionales de los sistemas software en unidades separadas denominadas aspectos. Ciertos aspectos son comunes a distintas aplicaciones de software, lo que hace necesario y beneficioso su reusabilidad. Pero no todas las herramientas y/o lenguajes de programación orientados a aspectos están preparados para dar soporte a esta importante característica, como es el caso de AspectJ. En este trabajo se presenta una ...

  9. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  10. Sensibilidad de la Demanda con Consumidores Desinformados: El Caso de las AFP en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Berstein; José Luis Ruiz V

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la sensibilidad de la demanda previsional con respecto a las variables relevantes, como uno de los elementos fundamentales que ha marcado el comportamiento de la industria de AFP en Chile. Es decir, se analizará el impacto que pueden tener las diferencias en comisiones cobradas y rentabilidades obtenidas por los Fondos de Pensiones en las decisiones de cambiarse o permanecer en una administradora. Cabe destacar que un aspecto distintivo del producto previsional es su obl...

  11. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Donoso Scroppo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to describe in general terms the main aspects of Operation Access and the National Hemostasis and Thrombosis Program, the results of which will be described in a subsequent article of this series.

  12. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  13. Waste management in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main radioactive waste management issues to be faced by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) are discussed herein. Research reactor spent fuel management is the most outstanding challenge at the beginning of the 21st century. Interim storage appears to be the most promising alternative, allowing fuel safekeeping until a definitive step is taken. The situation regarding radioactive waste resulting from radioisotope applications in Chile will not undergo considerable change in the near future. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste management is being safely performed followed by interim storage of conditioned wastes. The strategy in the radioactive waste management plan, to be described as well, is meant to ensure the safe storage of radioactive wastes produced in Chile. (author)

  14. Estimación de la biomasa de langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johni, aplicando Modelo Lineal Generalizado a registros de captura por área barridaen la zona central de Chile Estimating yellow squat lobster (Cervimunida johni biomass by applying a generalized linear model to catch records per swept area in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Canales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La información obtenida en cruceros de evaluación directa de langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johní realizados en la zona central del Chile (32°-38°S entre 1997 y 2009, permitió modelar los cambios en la densidad anual de este recurso mediante Modelo Lineal Generalizado (MLG. El objetivo de este enfoque fue tanto minimizar el efecto de los distintos criterios y diseños de muestreo que han sido empleados en el tiempo, como también determinar los efectos que explican las variaciones en la densidad de este recurso. Lo anterior permitió estimar el valor esperado de la densidad anual para el cálculo de biomasa mediante el método de "área barrida". Los registros lance a lance de captura por unidad de área barrida (CPUA permitieron la identificación y medición de los focos de abundancia, además de caracterizar la distribución y área que ha ocupado el recurso en el tiempo. El MLG identificó como efectos significativos el año, la zona, la profundidad, y las interacciones anuales de primer orden, explicando con ello el 43% de la devianza residual del modelo. Los principales efectos que explican las variaciones de la CPUA son el año y la interacción año-zona. Se determinó que la zona con mayor abundancia promedio corresponde a la delimitada entre 32° y 34°S, de igual manera que en el rango de profundidad menor a 250 m. Dentro del período analizado, se determinó que la población de este recurso incrementó en biomasa de manera sostenida hasta el 2006, principalmente en la zona norte del área de estudio, seguida de una fuerte reducción que al 2009 equivale al 75% respecto del máximo, reflejada en una biomasa de 11.000 ton.Changes in the annual density of the yellow squat lobster (Cervimunida johni were modeled using a generalized linear model (GLM, using information obtained during direct stock assessment cruises carried out in central Chile (32°-38°S between 1997 and 2009. The purpose of this approach was to minimize the

  15. Toxicologia do praguicida aldicarb ("chumbinho": aspectos gerais, clínicos e terapêuticos em cães e gatos Aldicarb toxicology: general, clinic and therapeutic features in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Galtarossa Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O aldicarb (Temik®, um agente anticolinesterásico carbamato vulgarmente conhecido como "chumbinho", é considerado um dos praguicidas mais tóxicos disponíveis comercialmente. No Brasil, embora seja registrado para uso agrícola exclusivo, tem sido freqüentemente apontado como o responsável por diversos casos de intoxicação em seres humanos e em animais. Desta forma, o presente estudo faz uma abordagem da toxicologia deste agente, enfocando as propriedades químicas, a toxicocinética, a toxicodinâmica, o diagnóstico e os aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos da intoxicação em cães e gatos.Aldicarb (Temik®, an anticholinesterase inhibitor of the carbamate group known as ‘chumbinho’, is one of the most toxic of registered pesticides, and has its use restricted to agriculture in Brazil. In spite of it, aldicarb is being very often involved in severe intoxication in humans and animals. It is largely and illegally sold as rodenticide and often used in baits for intentional poisoning of companion animals. Because of this the aldicarb toxicology was reviewed empathizing its chemical properties, toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic, diagnostic and the clinical and therapeutics aspects in dogs and cats.

  16. Máquina de Aspectos: un enfoque alternativo para la implementación de aspectos.

    OpenAIRE

    Gesto, Esteban; Hallar, Karim; Casas, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    La Programación Orientada a Aspectos (POA) es un nuevo paradigma de programación que propone mecanismos para soportar la separación de los aspectos no funcionales de los sistemas software. Una herramienta POA consiste en tres componentes principales: un lenguaje de programación base, un lenguaje de programación orientado a aspectos y un tejedor de aspectos (weaver). El presente trabajo propone un enfoque alternativo para la implementación de aspectos basado en la especificación de los mism...

  17. Aspectos moleculares da anemia falciforme

    OpenAIRE

    Galiza Neto Gentil Claudino de; Pitombeira Maria da Silva

    2003-01-01

    No presente artigo abordaram-se vários aspectos relacionados à natureza molecular da anemia falciforme, desordem hematológica de caráter hereditário que acomete expressivo número de indivíduos em várias regiões do mundo. As pesquisas realizadas em torno desta patologia da hemácia, ao longo de quase um século, a partir de 1910, cooperaram para a criação de um novo e importante segmento da ciência, denominado biologia molecular. A descoberta dos polimorfismos da mutação (GAT->GTG) no gene que c...

  18. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  19. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  20. BIOFILMES EM INDÚSTRIAS DE LATICÍNIOS: ASPECTOS GERAIS E USO DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS COMO NOVA ALTERNATIVA DE CONTROLEBiofilms in the dairy industries: general aspects and the use of essential oils as a new control alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra M. M. de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilmes são comunidades de microrganismos que podem se formar sobre superfícies industriais em decorrências de falhas no procedimento de higienização. Indústrias processadoras de leite e produtos lácteos são muito susceptíveis à formação de biofilmes por processarem matéria-prima rica em nutrientes e, geralmente, com microbiota diversa e abundante. Biofilmes microbianos representam sérios riscos para este setor, uma vez que células sésseis podem se desprender e contaminar os alimentos que passam pelo local, causando problemas de ordem econômica pela deterioração precoce dos produtos ou colocando em risco a saúde pública. Dentre as novas alternativas pesquisadas para o controle de biofilmes microbianos encontra-se a utilização de soluções sanitizantes contendo óleos essenciais ou seus constituintes. Óleos essenciais são metabólitos secundários de vegetais que apresentam ação antimicrobiana primariamente por atuar na bicamada lipídica da membrana citoplasmática. Esta revisão bibliográfica foi desenvolvida com intuito de abordar os principais aspectos inerentes a biofilmes microbianos de importância para as indústrias de laticínios, como: características gerais, locais de formação, causas e consequências do seu desenvolvimento, além da utilização de detergentes e sanitizantes químicos como alternativa convencional de controle. A utilização de óleos essenciais e seus constituintes como novas alternativas de controle foram assuntos tratados em seguida, enfatizando o mecanismo de ação antibacteriana e os estudos já desenvolvidos utilizando soluções contendo estas substâncias para o controle de biofilmes bacterianos.

  1. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  2. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  3. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  4. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  5. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  6. Aspectos moleculares da anemia falciforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiza Neto Gentil Claudino de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo abordaram-se vários aspectos relacionados à natureza molecular da anemia falciforme, desordem hematológica de caráter hereditário que acomete expressivo número de indivíduos em várias regiões do mundo. As pesquisas realizadas em torno desta patologia da hemácia, ao longo de quase um século, a partir de 1910, cooperaram para a criação de um novo e importante segmento da ciência, denominado biologia molecular. A descoberta dos polimorfismos da mutação (GAT->GTG no gene que codifica a cadeia beta da hemoglobina, originando diferentes haplótipos da doença, permitiu um melhor e mais amplo conhecimento em torno da heterogeneidade clínica nos pacientes falcêmicos. Analisando a hemoglobina na sua estrutura normal e mutante, sua produção e evolução, pode-se ter um entendimento mais completo da fisiopatologia desta doença e da sua complexidade clínica.

  7. Cultura, lenguaje y cognición: algunos aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de Oliveira, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    El artículo trata de algunos aspectos generales sobre cultura y cognición, con especial interés en la cuestión del lenguaje, partiendo de estudios de antropología social y cultural, psicología, lingüística, neurociencia y paleoantropología. Se discute rápidamente el tema de la evolución, relacionándola al desarrollo cognitivo humano, y algunas implicaciones políticas sobre lenguaje, cultura y cognición en el mundo moderno. The article deals with some general aspects of culture ...

  8. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  9. a-galactosidase: general aspects and its application on soybean oligosaccharides/
    a-galactosidase: aspectos gerais e sua aplicação em produtos a base de soja

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Lucia Luiz Ribeiro; Silvana Pedroso de Góes

    2002-01-01

    This literature review has the aim to present topics related to a-galactosidase, considering its general characteristics, sources, functions and methods used in its determination. This enzyme, lacking in the human digestive tract, hydrolises µ-(1,6) bonds from oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. These carbohydrates, called flatulents, are found in leguminoses like soybean, a rich source of protein. However, due to the presence of these flatulents sugars, antinutritional factors are attr...

  10. Aspectos de seguridad social contenidos en la Ley No. 16.320 de Rendición de Cuentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pittamiglio Borges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contnido: El empleo.Organos creados: Dirección Nacional de Empleo. Junta Nacional de Empleo. Fondo de Reconversión Laboral. Consideraciones generales sobre el empleo. Aspectos relativos a la contingencia de enfermedad común. El decreto reglamentario. Consideraciones generales sobre los aspectos vinculados al segurosocial de enfermedad.Comentarios a la reforma del régimen jubilatorio

  11. Gender Effects of Social Security Reform in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Edwards, Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    In 1981 Chile replaced a mature government-run social security system that operated on a pay-as-you-go basis with a privately managed system based on individual retirement accounts. The new system is more fiscally sustainable because pension benefits are defined by contributions. The minimum pension guaranteed to beneficiaries with at least 20 years is funded from general taxes, preserving...

  12. a-galactosidase: general aspects and its application on soybean oligosaccharides/ a-galactosidase: aspectos gerais e sua aplicação em produtos a base de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Luiz Ribeiro

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This literature review has the aim to present topics related to a-galactosidase, considering its general characteristics, sources, functions and methods used in its determination. This enzyme, lacking in the human digestive tract, hydrolises µ-(1,6 bonds from oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. These carbohydrates, called flatulents, are found in leguminoses like soybean, a rich source of protein. However, due to the presence of these flatulents sugars, antinutritional factors are attributed to soyben, decreasing its consumption. a-galactosidase produced by some microorganisms and vegetables can be used in soybean based foods to reduce the interaction of the intestinal flora with the oligosaccharides, decreasing in this way the flatulence.This literature review has the aim to present topics related to a-galactosidase, considering its general characteristics, sources, functions and methods used in its determination. This enzyme, lacking in the human digestive tract, hydrolises µ-(1,6 bonds from oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. These carbohydrates, called flatulents, are found in leguminoses like soybean, a rich source of protein. However, due to the presence of these flatulents sugars, antinutritional factors are attributed to soyben, decreasing its consumption. a-galactosidase produced by some microorganisms and vegetables can be used in soybean based foods to reduce the interaction of the intestinal flora with the oligosaccharides, decreasing in this way the flatulence.

  13. Tres aspectos y una estrategia en el edifi cio SEIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ravetllat Mira, Pere Joan

    2015-01-01

    A principios de los 60, la empresa automovilística SEIDA encarga al arquitecto Francesc Mitjans la reordenación de una manzana de Barcelona situada en la confl uencia de General Mitre con Avenida de Sarrià. Dicha reordenación tenía que acoger sus talleres de reparación, el almacén de vehículos, una gasolinera y además un edifi cio residencial de considerables dimensiones. A partir de dicho edifi cio, me gustaría refl exionar en este texto sobre tres aspectos especialmente desta...

  14. Analýza předpokladů Chile pro rozvoj cestovního ruchu

    OpenAIRE

    Salačová, Kristýna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the presumptions of Chile for the development of tourism. The intention is to set off Chile from the general characteristic of a country of "Latin America" and present this exotic destination to a Czech tourist. Other task is to map the range of Czech travel agencies tour offers to this country and see whether they are able to cover the potential of the area of Chile. The thesis also includes a SWOT analysis of Chile as a tourist destination. Finally, th...

  15. LA PRODUCCIÓN DE TEXTOS ESCOLARES EN CHILE Y EN BRASIL: relaciones entre currículum, contenidos geográficos y requerimientos técnicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Pérez Cisternas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desea responder a la inquietud sobre cómo es el proceso de construcción de los textos escolares en Chile y en Brasil, considerando específicamente los contenidos geográficos para el último año de enseñanza media en ambos contextos. De esta forma, se establecen los aspectos generales sobre la producción de textos escolares y políticas educativas y, se señalan las relaciones entre lo que indica el currículum y lo que solicitan los criterios/requerimientos para la elaboración de los textos escolares. Además, de considerar el desarrollo de estos procesos, sus semejanzas y diferencias. RESUMO: Este artigo deseja responder à inquietude sobre como é o processo de construção dos livros didáticos no Chile e no Brasil, considerando especificamente os conteúdos geográficos para o último ano do ensino médio em ambos os contextos. Desta forma, estabelecem-se os aspectos gerais sobre a produção dos livros didáticos e políticas educativas e assinalam-se as relações entre o que indica o currículo e o que é solicitado nos critérios/requerimentos para a elaboração desse material. Além de considerar o desenvolvimento desses processos, suas semelhanças e diferenças.

  16. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  17. Urbanización e inmigración española en Chile a comienzos del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldomero Estrada Turra

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La colectividad española en Chile durante el siglo XX constituyó el grupo europeo más importante del país. A medida que transcurrió el siglo su preponderancia fue en aumento debido fundamentalmente a la disminución de los otros grupos foráneos. La sociedad receptora mostró una actitud receptiva que facilitó su inserción laboral que se fue consolidando en los sectores comercial e industrial. Si bien es cierto que, en general, se desarrollaron con estableimientos de escasa capitalización se advierte un palmario proceso de crecimiento que, al mismo tiempo, implicó una perceptible movilidad social vertical ascendente. Las limitadas posibilidades laborales que ofrecía el país frustraron las migraciones masivas. Por lo cual la inmigración se nutrió fundamentalmente de inmigración espontánea, a través de cadenas y redes parentales. Por otro lado, es interesante advertir el desarrollo de la colectividad en sus organizaciones étnicas, que estimuló el quehacer económico y la cohesión interna del grupo que evidenció un comportamiento matrimonial endogámico, lo cual constituyó un factor importante en la acción conjunta y el mantenimiento de aspectos identitarios y culturales del grupo.

  18. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    HECTOR ALCAINO; TEXIA GORMAN

    1999-01-01

    PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  19. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  20. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  1. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ALCAINO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  2. Uso de las concesiones acuícolas de mar en la industria salmonera en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión sobre las concesiones de acuicultura del salmón en la zona sur de Chile, específicamente entre las regiones de Los Lagos y Magallanes. La industria del salmón en Chile ha tenido un incremento en ingresos y producción, que se redujo por el virus ISA entre los años 2008 y 2009, pero tuvo una recuperación posterior. Se comenta sobre los aspectos de costos y tópicos de manejo desde los puntos de vista técnico, económico y legal asociados a la industria del salmón.

  3. Identidad marginal entre personas sin hogar de la ciudad de Temuco, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Berho

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo constituye una breve síntesis antropológica teórica y sustantiva enque se establecen algunos aspectos del proceso de configuración de una identidad socialmentedesacreditada. A partir de una base de datos cuanti-cualitativos derivados de una serie deacercamientos etnográficos -realizados entre 1998 y 2005-, centrados en los mundos de la vida de unas sesenta personas sin hogar de una ciudad de Chile, se proporciona una visión condensada del proceso de configuración de su ide...

  4. Chile: ¿autosuficiencia o “autismo” energético?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizalde, Antonio; González Gutiérrez, Mario

    2014-01-01

    El escenario energético de escasez a nivel mundial se empieza a reflejar fuertemente en América Latina. Chile tiene una política energética diseñada en el período dictatorial, y administrada en la democracia, que hace muy vulnerable su economía, su medio ambiente y su seguridad. En este artículo se analizan críticamente los diversos aspectos que inciden fuertemente en el actual escenario energético chileno, sobre todo en lo que respecta a la política de integración con sus vecinos latinoameri...

  5. El aporte de los exiliados políticos al retorno a la democracia en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Avaria, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Chile sufrió una dictadura militar encabezada por el general Augusto Pinochet que se extendió por diecisiete años, de 1973 a 1990. Es así como Chile pasó a engrosar la lista de las demás dictaduras que pululaban en América Latina y particularmente en el Cono Sur, donde Paraguay, Brasil, Bolivia y Uruguay se encontraban bajo la bota militar, sumándoseles Argentina en 1976. Al igual que en los países vecinos, en Chile se instauró la práctica milenaria del exilio. La pena del destierro ha sid...

  6. Historias de vida y violencia de género en la pareja a mujeres mayores en Santiago de Chile (1940-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Investigación cualitativa y de carácter exploratorio sobre la violencia contra mujeres mayores en relaciones de pareja en Chile. Utilizando el modelo ecológico y las historia de vida de 21 mujeres mayores de 60 años de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, se analizan distintos aspectos de su vida en la infancia, juventud y madurez, puestas en el contexto histórico, social y cultural en que se desarrollaron, los que sirven de base para analizar la violencia basada en el género que vivieron de parte...

  7. Sociedades Cooperativas. Aspectos Contables Singulares

    OpenAIRE

    Zubiaurre Artola, Miguel Ángel

    2004-01-01

    [ES] Las sociedades cooperativas han visto recientemente reforzada su normativa contable con la aprobación de la ORDEN ECO/3614/2003 que tiene por objeto la adaptación de las Normas de valoración y elaboración de cuentas anuales aprobada en el Plan General de Contabilidad a las características de estas entidades. En el artículo tras estudiar en la introducción las propiedades de las sociedades cooperativas se analizan las consecuencias económicas y contables que de las mismas derivan sobre...

  8. El contrato internacional de construcción: Aspectos generales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Contratos Internacionales de Construcción y las relaciones jurídicas que se generan gracias a su ejecución son motivo de estudio y evaluación por parte de diferentes instituciones y académicos a lo largo y ancho del planeta, e interpretados desde el punto de vista jurisprudencial y arbitral por las diferentes cortes y tribunales de diferentes países. Ese desarrollo y estudio ha generado la creación de unos usos, prácticas y reglas propias aplicables a este tipo de contratos, que se reflejan particularmente en los contratos modelos creados por diferentes instituciones como FIDIC. Estas reglas usos y prácticas es lo que la doctrina ha denominado Ius Ingeniorum o la Lex Mercatoria de los contratos internacionales de construcción. A través del presente documento pretendo hacer una breve introducción al tema de la construcción internacional como actividad creadora de reglas autónomas e independientes en el ámbito internacional. Igualmente, haré mención a algunas de las cláusulas que considero más relevantes a este tipo de contratos, tomando como base de estudio la perspectiva que nos ofrecen los contratos modelo o tipo creados por FIDIC.

  9. Aspectos generales sobre colisión de actividades peligrosas

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles Montoya, Ana María; Henao Cadavid, María Mercedes

    2006-01-01

    El estudio realizado parte de una acercamiento teórico a la presunción establecida en el artículo 2356 de Código Civil Colombiano, en el que la doctrina y la jurisprudencia han afirmado que es posible identificar la responsabilidad civil por los daños causados en el ejercicio de actividades peligrosas.

  10. Aspectos generales de la reintegración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stack

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Hasta hace poco la ciencia había venido descalificando y subestimando aquellos saberes o creencias que escapaban de la evidencia experimental, lógica, y predecible; el sabio occidental rehuía del espíritu y se abrazaba a la tangible materia como a la verdad más cierta. Hoy comienza a comprender que atrás del telón de la fenomenología opera un vastísimo campo de energías y tras los últimos avances la física teórica ha tenido que corregir sistemáticamente sus nociones clásicas de tiempo y espacio así como renunciar a sus viejas pretensiones deterministas para resignarse a un cierto grado de incertidumbre infranqueable.

  11. El diseño de sistemas interactivos multimedia de aprendizaje : aspectos básicos

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado Morueta, Ramón

    1996-01-01

    Tomando como punto de partida el desarrollo del concepto de Sistemas Interactivos Multimedia para el Aprendizaje (SIMA) en base a su caracter interactivo y multimedia, este trabajo trata de ofrecer pistas relativas a su diseño. Se exponen diversas dimensiones que se encuentran en la literatura sobre Diseño de Sistemas Instruccionales (DSI) como aspectos básicos y generales en el desarrollo del proceso de diseño de SIMA. Estos aspectos básicos son herramientas que pueden utilizarse...

  12. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  13. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Chile's equity market is fairly large and successful. The market capitalization of the 249 listed firms represented 89 percent of GDP at year-end, 2001. Corporate ownership is concentrated and pyramid structures are common. Business groups/conglomerates are the predominant corporate form. Institutional investors, especially pension funds, are active equity investors. The Securities Market ...

  14. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De social...

  15. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal. Población y muestra: 30 adolescentes embarazadas asistentes al Programa, el muestreo por conveniencia. Se utilizó la encuesta y la observación directa, previa autorización del Director de la empresa. Resultados: Caracterización de la población: predominó la edad de 15 a 19 años (adolescencia tardía, uniones libres, baja escolaridad debido a la deserción escolar, ingreso económico menor al salario mínimo legal vigente. Aspectos Biológicos: la menarquía a temprana edad (9 a 14 años, y en ella la mitad de los embarazos. La mayoría de los segundos embarazos terminaron en parto, la minoría en cesárea y aborto. La captación para los controles prenatales fue tardía, algunas no cumplieron con las citas programadas. Aspectos Psicológicos: inestabilidad con la pareja al enterarse del embarazo, tuvieron soporte familiar moral y económico, abandonaron sus estudios y presentaron malestares como estrés, depresión y tristeza. Aspectos Sociales: predominó la convivencia con la familia extensa. Hubo aceptación en el colegio y en los amigos. Discusión y Conclusiones: Se plantean estrategias para disminuir estos aspectos: elaboración de una cartilla sobre “Cuidado de la adolescente embarazada”, creación de espacios de reflexión, jornadas lúdicas educativas, entre otros. (Rev Cuid 2012; 3(3:385-93.Palabras clave: Embarazo en Adolescencia, Bienestar Materno, Atención Prenatal. (Fuente: De

  16. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  17. ESTATISMO Y NEOLIBERALISMO: UN CONTRAPUNTO MILITAR CHILE 1973-1979

    OpenAIRE

    VERÓNICA VALDIVIA ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE

    2001-01-01

    This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between t...

  18. Employment Generation, Firm Size, and Innovation in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Alvarez; José Miguel Benavente; Rolando Campusano; Conrado Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    This paper compiles and analyzes several sources of information to shed light on the relationship between innovation and employment growth in the manufacturing industry in Chile in the last 15 years. Our overall conclusions are that process innovation is generally not found to be a relevant determinant of employment growth, and that product innovation is usually positively associated with an expansion in employment. These results seem to be similar regardless of firm size and hold for both lo...

  19. Integrated design for the development of energy efficient housing in Chile: Threading abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Underlea Miotto Bruscato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El diseño integrado es una estrategia para desarrollar proyectos de arquitectura sustentable, incorporando trabajo multidisciplinario y evaluaciones de desempeño, que ha demostrado ser un aporte relevante en la ejecución de edificios públicos de países desarrollados. Este artículo presenta la revisión de aspectos de diseño integrado para la elaboración de viviendas energéticamente eficientes en la zona sur de Chile, destinadas en particular a la reconstrucción post terremoto del 27 de Febrero del 2010. Realizando primeramente una síntesis de características de los procesos de diseño integrado, sus condiciones implícitas, participantes, etapas, recursos y resultados esperados según referencias internacionales. Luego se contrasta con la práctica regular de diseño de viviendas en Chile según la regulación vigente y entrevistas a profesionales. Posteriormente se analizan procesos de diseños de casas experimentales y conjuntos habitacionales particularmente enfocados al desempeño energético, realizando seguimientos y entrevistas para revisar aspectos significativos. Identificando algunas consideraciones y recursos relevantes aplicados en el diseño de las viviendas que permitieron el logro de mejoramientos ambientales.

  20. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Amado M. Padilla; Lillian Comas Díaz

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychologic...

  1. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  2. Aspectos Neuropsiquiátricos do Cerebelo

    OpenAIRE

    Salomé Xavier; Berta Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    As funções neurológicas do cerebelo na regulação do equilíbrio e do movimento são conhecidas desde há longa data. No entanto, nas últimas décadas, a partir dos estudos seminais de Schmahmann, tem sido progressivamente reconhecida a sua participação em processos cognitivos e emocionais e no comportamento. As autoras pretendem rever de forma sumária os principais aspectos da fisiologia “clássica” do cerebelo. Serão depois revistas mais detalhadamente as funções neuropsiquiátricas do cerebelo e ...

  3. Aspectos fundamentales de los sistemas de riego

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Tobón, Julio César

    2002-01-01

    El impreso universitario ASPECTOS FUNDAMENTALES DE LOS SISTEMAS DE RIEGO sirve como documento base en el entendimiento técnico de la aplicación de agua a los cultivos, siendo igualmente un referente para que los técnicos de las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales lo utilicen para implementar políticas fijadas en la Ley 373/97, "POR LA CUAL SE ESTABLECE EL PROGRAMA PARA EL USO EFICIENTE Y AHORRO DEL AGUA", buscando con ello una mejora en la utilización de uso de los recursos de agua y suelo, te...

  4. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  5. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  6. Chile : Household Risk Management and Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This report is part of the World Bank's advisory and analytical assistance to the Government of Chile. The report examines whether Chile has a social protection "system" - broadly defined to include policy interventions, public institutions, and the regulation of private institutions that lower the welfare costs of adverse shocks to income from job loss and extended unemployment, health ep...

  7. Earthquake engineering research program in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoni, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquake engineering research in Chile has been carried out for more than 30 years. Systematic research is done at the university of Chile in Santiago. Other universities such as the Catholic University, university of Concepcion, and the Federico Santa Maria Technical University have begun to teach and conduct research in earthquake engineering in recent years. 

  8. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  9. Dimensiones geográficas territoriales, institucionales y sociales del terremoto de Chile del 27 de febrero del 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Aravena Hugo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los aspectos territoriales, sociales e institucionales deben ser comprendidos como componentes de los eventos desastrosos. Sin embargo, luego del terremoto y maremoto que afectó a Chile el 27 de febrero del 2010, persiste en este país la idea de que un sismo es un evento solamente natural. Por esto, no se aprecian avances significativos en los aspectos institucionales que dicen tener relación con la prevención y gestión de los riesgos y los desastres. Esto queda demostrado al evaluar los planes de ordenamiento territorial existentes para las ciudades afectadas, los procedimientos de discusión y aprobación de estos y, en particular, el funcionamiento de las instituciones encargadas del manejo de las emergencias.

  10. Sistema de salud de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  11. Analysis of the dynamic of underground water in Agua Verde, Quebrada de Taltal, region of Antofagasta, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extreme aridity and geological situation in northern. Chile requires an exhaustive investigation on water resources for supporting rational usage. The Direccion General de Aguas and Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear have performed studies in arid zones in northern Chile using isotopic and hydrochemical tools. In Quebrada de Taltal's basin, located in one of the must arid arid zones of Chile (Segunda Region de Antofagasta), was studies groundwater dynamics and recharge process from a geochemical approach in terms of water quality, temperature and isotopic composition (2H, 18O, 3H, 14C). The recharge generated above 3000 m a.s.t has a slow dynamics and involve little flow (author)

  12. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales boscosos de agua dulce son áreas naturalmente inundadas o saturadas, que sustentan vegetación boscosa hidrófila, están presentes en todo el mundo, y en Chile son conocidos como "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues". El presente estudio entrega el estado del conocimiento de estos humedales en Chile, mediante una descripción de sus características biológicas, fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicas, identificando las principales amenazas para su conservación y las principales necesidades de investigación. Estos ambientes pueden presentar inundación permanente o temporal, dependiendo de un conjunto de procesos microclimáticos, biológicos y edafológicos. Su vegetación, del tipo hidrófila boscosa, es dominada por especies de la familia Myrtaceae. Tanto el comportamiento hídrico como la estructura vegetacional destacan dentro de los aspectos que determinan directamente las características fisicoquímicas del agua y los patrones de distribución de las comunidades biológicas. Los humedales boscosos de Chile han sido ampliamente estudiados desde un punto de vista vegetacional y florístico, pero carecen de estudios limnológicos, hidrológicos o faunísticos básicos, de lo cual deriva un total desconocimiento en relación a su funcionamiento a nivel ecosistémico y los efectos que pueden tener las actividades humanas en sus cuencas (e.g., agrícola, ganadera, forestal sobre sus componentes hídricos y biológicos. A pesar de ser ecosistemas de gran relevancia cultural y ecológica, se identifican importantes falencias en cuanto a su estado de conservación, al no encontrarse protegidos por las actuales herramientas de conservación existentes en el país. Por lo tanto, emergen como ecosistemas únicos, de relevancia mundial, prácticamente desconocidos en Chile y de gran interés para el desarrollo de numerosas líneas de investigación, aunque su alta susceptibilidad ante perturbaciones de origen antrópico amenaza su permanencia

  13. Algunos aspectos de la ciudad islámica: un recorrido urbano desde Oriente a Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Orihuela, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Se presentan aspectos generales del urbanismo islámico y se describen algunas de las teorías recientes que explican la evolución de la ciudad medieval en el occidente islámico. A continuación se señalan algunas reminiscencias del derecho malikí en las antiguas Ordenanzas municipales de Toledo y de Granada (1552).

  14. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  15. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  16. Chile's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, a new emphasis has been placed on increasing solid fuel availability in Chile, to reach the northern mining operations where demand for power is soaring. The south of the country is well served by hydroelectric power plants (2.3 million kW). The coal industry has doubled its capacity to cope with increased copper production - the Tocopilla power plant at the Chuquicamata copper mine has been converted from oil to coal - and there has been a major investment programme in the steel industry. In 1986, 1.4 million tons of coal was mined, mostly from the Provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the remainder from Valdivia. Since then, 70 million US dollars has been invested by COCAR SA in the Pecket deposit near Punta Arenas. Coal from Pecket should cost around 26 dollars/t compared with 60 dollars/t for underground coal. It should support an expanded coal market in Chile and may also be able to compete in the Brazilian and Argentine markets. Reserves are estimated at over 200 Mt. Petroleum reserves in Tierra del Fuego are nearly exhausted; seismic surveys in the Atacama desert are promising.

  17. Análisis de la correlación entre los programas de estudio para la enseñanza del inglés en educación general básica en Chile y la teoría del desarrollo intelectual de Piaget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya García, Marcela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo tiene por objetivo principal analizar la correlación existente entre los Programas de Estudio para la Enseñanza del inglés en Educación General Básica (E.G.B. y la Teoría del Desarrollo Intelectual de Piaget, así como determinar el modelo pedagógico inscrito. Para ello, se parte de una muestra constituida por cuatro Programas de Estudio -de Quinto a Octavo Básico- elaborados y distribuidos por la Unidad de Evaluación y Currículum del Ministerio de Educación de Chile y que se encuentran vigentes desde 2010. La técnica de investigación empleada en el estudio corresponde a la documental, pues parte del discurso docente se trabaja sobre documentos. Los resultados indican que los Programas de Estudio de Educación General para la Enseñanza del inglés tienen una correlación parcial o nula con los planteamientos de Piaget sobre el desarrollo intelectual, ya que se centran en el logro de objetivos ligados con operaciones por parte de los niños que requieren el procesamiento del pensamiento abstracto y no la realización de operaciones concretas que pueden, según Piaget, efectuar estudiantes entre 10 y 14 años. A su vez, los Programas de Estudio de Educación General para la Enseñanza del inglés corresponden al modelo por objetivos, mientras que los propósitos fundamentales planteados por el Ministerio de Educación apuntan hacia el logro de estos por parte de los niños sin contemplar las etapas del desarrollo intelectual sostenidas por Piaget.Abstract: This article intended primarily to analyze the correlation between the Curriculum for Teaching English in General Basic Education (EGB and the Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development, as well as to determine the pedagogical model present in their programs. This is part of a sample of four Curriculum, fifth to eighth grade, developed and distributed by the Curriculum and Assessment Unit of the Ministry of Education of Chile, which are in force

  18. Aspectos neurológicos da Pelagra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Marques

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudadas as várias questões gerais da Pelagra, nomeadamente os aspectos clínicos e etiopatogênicos. As formas clássicas se traduzem por manifestações intensificadas na época de maior insolação e evidenciadas por desordens da pele, do aparelho digestivo e sistema nervoso. Lembra o autor que, não obstante se deva ter em primeira conta esses aspectos do mal, na prática não se podem descuidar os oligossintomáticos, frustos e larvados. Com referência a tais formas, acredita ser de grande importância salientar os exemplares em que se não encontram sintomas cutâneos e configuram a "Pelagra sine Pelagra". A seguir, procura mostrar a freqüência dos aspectos neurológicos e psiquiátricos da condição e afirma que, se não se descrevem mais amiúde, é porque os médicos que se ocupam da Pelagra, descuidam de esmiuçar a existência de sinais e sintomas nervosos e mentais muito sutis que com freqüência passam despercebidos. Também recorda que os aspectos neurológicos da Pelagra não se encontram mais vezes, porque, via de regra, só se diagnostica a doença quando as lesões cutâneas são evidentes; de hábito deixam-se de lado os exemplares de "Pelagra Sine Pelagra", os de tradução clínica destituída de eritema ou outros fenômenos dermatológicos. Baseado na sua experiência, diz que as manifestações nervosas e mentais da Pelagra são em muito maior número do que é de supor-se. Para documentar essa afirmação, recorda a observação que tem feito em mais de uma oportunidade e os casos publicados pelos autores brasileiros; nem só os registados especialmente do ponto de vista neurológico mas, também, aqueles em que se não deu particular apreço a esse aspecto e em que a simples leitura das observações evidencia fenômenos neuro-psiquiátricos muito caraterísticos. Os quatro exemplares relatados no trabalho, foram colhidos do Serviço de Clínica Neurológica do Hospital Getúlio Vargas. Dois deles

  19. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  20. Holocene and deglacial paleoenvironmental history of the Peru-Chile current system and adjacent continental Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Kim, J.; Mohtadi, M.; Ruehlemann, C.

    2002-12-01

    A combined analysis of terrigenous and biogenic compounds in marine sediments from the Chilean continental slope allows detailed reconstructions of both the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history of this region during the last glacial and Holocene. Based on sediment cores recovered during two cruises with the German R/V Sonne, we found evidence for changes both in continental rainfall, most likely induced by latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies, and marine productivity as well as sea surface temperature (SST) changes within the Peru-Chile Current system on time scales ranging from Milankovitch to centennial-scale. On Milankovitch time-scales, we found strong evidence for precession-controlled shifts of the Southern Westerlies implying e.g. more humid conditions during the LGM in the Chilean Norte Chico and a trend towards more arid climates during the deglaciation culminating in the early Holocene. These shifts are paralleled by paleoceanographic changes indicating generally higher productivity during the LGM mainly caused by increased advection of nutrients from the south through an enhanced Peru-Chile current. SSTs off central Chile were about 3.5 C lower than present during the LGM. On shorter time-scales, extremely high resolution sediment cores from the southern Chilean margin provide evidence of significant short-term Holocene climate changes with bands of variability centred at ca. 900 and 1500 years, periodicities also well known from Northern Hemisphere records. Our data point to strong interhemispheric connections of climate change both on multi-centennial to millennial and Milankovitch time-scales with a major role of the tropics for the interhemispheric transfer of climate signals involving changes within the Hadley circulation and/or probably long-term modifications of the El Ni¤o-Southern Oscillation system. The recently drilled ODP Sites 1233 (ca. 41S) and 1234/1235 (ca. 36S) at the southern Chilean margin have the potential to extent

  1. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  2. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  3. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  4. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  5. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  6. Chile ushers in new hydro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned construction of two hydroelectric power plants at Peuchen and Mampil, will help to meet Chile's growing electricity demand. Securing finance for the project has been straight forward thanks to the optimal hydrological conditions, rivers with a very strong flow providing a large head of water over short distance. Hydropower plays a central role in Chile's generating capacity providing 70% of total energy consumption. Thus, the future of these projects will be highly successful, it is argued. (UK)

  7. Desigualdad geográfica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Brown, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measu...

  8. Trade and Integration Sector Note: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Mesquita Moreira

    2006-01-01

    This Trade and Integration Sector Note addresses a few different factors for trade in Chile: export diversification, trade and regional disparities, preferential agreements, trade and transport costs. The final section looks beyond the conventional tariff and non tariff-barriers to trade, and focuses on the role of transport costs. Given Chile's low tariff and non-tariff barriers and its network of trade agreements, the reduction of non-conventional trade costs are bound to offer the best ret...

  9. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  10. Inflation Uncertainty in Chile: Asymmetries and the News Impact Curve Inflation Uncertainty in Chile: Asymmetries and the News Impact Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Johnson

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historical analysis of inflation in Chile from 1933 to 2001, estimating generalized autoregressive heteroskedasticity models, including asymmetric extensions such as the Threshold, Quadratic and Box-Cox models. Traditional symmetric models accept the Friedman hypothesis establishing that inflation increases uncertainty. However, a more general class of asymmetric models rejects this hypothesis. This result is not valid for the asymmetric Box-Cox non linear model. Furthermore, we found that high levels of uncertainty in inflation increase the level of inflation with some lags, not rejecting the positive correlation established by Cukierman and Metzler. The News Impact Curve reflects those asymmetries. This article presents a historical analysis of inflation in Chile from 1933 to 2001, estimating generalized autoregressive heteroskedasticity models, including asymmetric extensions such as the Threshold, Quadratic and Box-Cox models. Traditional symmetric models accept the Friedman hypothesis establishing that inflation increases uncertainty. However, a more general class of asymmetric models rejects this hypothesis. This result is not valid for the asymmetric Box-Cox non linear model. Furthermore, we found that high levels of uncertainty in inflation increase the level of inflation with some lags, not rejecting the positive correlation established by Cukierman and Metzler. The News Impact Curve reflects those asymmetries

  11. ESTATISMO Y NEOLIBERALISMO: UN CONTRAPUNTO MILITAR CHILE 1973-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERÓNICA VALDIVIA ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between the State and development, and on the debate between neoliberalism and statism that was carried out within the armed forces

  12. General aspects of the cyclotrons and radiochemical separation of: {sup 11} C, {sup 15} O, {sup 18} F and {sup 14} N; Aspectos generales de los ciclotrones y separacion radioquimica de {sup 11} C, {sup 15} O, {sup 18} F y {sup 14} N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-07-15

    The particle accelerators, as the cyclotrons, are extraordinarily important as tools for the radioisotope production and its application in the area of the medicine. In this time, another method exists for the production of artificial radioisotopes, based on the irradiation of samples with alpha particles or with neutrons coming from a natural radioisotope being obtained a neutron source (Ra + Be, Rn + Be, Po + Be). However, its can be obtained a great quantity of radioisotopes by means of cyclotrons in very short time, compared with other methods. After the second world war, artificial radioisotopes took place by means of reactors and its had many applications, not only medical and in little time the accelerators were manufactured that were more indispensable that the reactors to produce radioisotopes with medical aims. For this reason, the accelerators, in few years became in machines very important for the production of artificial radioisotopes and consequently its were developed techniques of radioactive traces progressively more sophisticated, since it is evident that the production of radioactive nuclei through nuclear reactors its cannot satisfy all the demands. In general terms, only the neutrons can be used as nuclear projectiles in reactors and as a result, the production spectra of radioisotopes is limited and as alternative it is unavoidable that the cyclotrons are a good tool for this end. The use of a cyclotron to produce radioisotopes, it can be justified, only if the following conditions are completed. 1. If the radioisotopes of an element produced in a reactor don't favor with the nuclear properties for the purposes of the traced studies, for example: if the half life is very short or very big, if the decay system not to suit him. 2. If the wanted radioisotope cannot produce in the reactor with enough specific activity. (Author)

  13. Ridge-trench collision in Archean and Post-Archean crustal growth: evidence from southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of continental crust at convergent plate margins involves both continuous and episodic processes. Ridge-trench collision is one episodic process that can cause significant magmatic and tectonic effects on convergent plate margins. Because the sites of ridge collision (ridge-trench triple junctions) generally migrate along convergent plate boundaries, the effects of ridge collision will be highly diachronous in Andean-type orogenic belts and may not be adequately recognized in the geologic record. The Chile margin triple junction (CMTJ, 46 deg S), where the actively spreading Chile rise is colliding with the sediment-filled Peru-Chile trench, is geometrically and kinematically the simplest modern example of ridge collision. The south Chile margin illustrates the importance of the ridge-collision tectonic setting in crustal evolution at convergent margins. Similarities between ridge-collision features in southern Chile and features of Archean greenstone belts raise the question of the importance of ridge collision in Archean crustal growth. Archean plate tectonic processes were probably different than today; these differences may have affected the nature and importance of ridge collision during Archean crustal growth. In conclusion, it is suggested that smaller plates, greater ridge length, and/or faster spreading all point to the likelihood that ridge collision played a greater role in crustal growth and development of the greenstone-granite terranes during the Archean. However, the effects of modern ridge collision, and the processes involved, are not well enough known to develop specific models for the Archean ridge collison

  14. Aspectos emocionales del paciente crítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio A. Martha

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper analyzes the emotional answer of the people we call "critical patient", the relationship between nurse-patient is the most significant point of view and the influence of this relationship in the mental state of both; a special reference is made to the connotation of the "patient" and "critical" term and the emotional expression of comfort or discomfort.

    El presente ensayo es un análisis sobre las respuestas emocionales y en general las actitudes de aquellas personas a quienes llamamos "pacientes críticos", el aspecto novedoso consiste en que su mirada se hace desde la relación paciente-cuidador y en como ésta influye en los comportamientos de los involucrados; igualmente busca reflexionar acerca de las connotaciones que los vocablos "paciente" y "crítico" imprimen al manejo de la relación y como consecuencia al bien-estar o mal-estar de la persona enferma.

  15. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子

    1988-01-01

    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  16. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  17. Isotope hydrology in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotope analyses were done on samples from aquifers in the Pampa del Tamarugal and the Salar de Atacama drainage basin in northern Chile. In the Pampa it is possible to delineate individual groundwater bodies on the basis of their 18O and deuterium contents and, in some cases, to relate these to specific recharge areas. A marked displacement from the meteoric water line indicates that river recharge is an important mechanism for groundwater renewal. Groundwater ages appear high at distance from the Andes and much of the water found in the Pampa may have to be treated as a non-renewable resource. The groundwaters, springs and rivers of the Salar de Atacama drainage basin vary between -6.09 and -8.06%. No difference between the different waters can be recognized and an evaporative isotope enrichment indicates that also here river recharge is an important process. Some groundwaters adjacent to the Salar are very salty but 18O and deuterium data show that these waters are not refluxed brines but simply salty freshwater. The 14C contents in groundwaters and springs are very low but their delta13C values are high. It is concluded that this is probably due to the uptake of volcanic CO2. 14C age dating is thus not possible unless the delta13C values of all possible carbon sources can be defined and the geochemical evolution of the groundwaters is better understood. (author)

  18. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  19. Homogeneidade e heterogeneidade nos sistemas educacionais: Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México Homogeneity and heterogeneity on education systems in Argentine, Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rut Krawczyk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo focaliza a reconfiguração da gestão educacional a partir da nova lógica de regulação social e do novo papel do Estado, à luz da historicidade dos países estudados (Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México, examinando os fatores culturais que interferiram na dinâmica da reforma educacional da década de 90. Aspectos que evidenciam a homogeneidade e a heterogeneidade dessa reforma na região, bem como as especificidades nacionais que intervieram em sua concretização, são destacados. Afirma que a historicidade que caracteriza a realidade educacional tem sofrido, no México, o que poderíamos denominar "ruptura conservadora"; no Chile, "continuidade conservadora"; no Brasil, "renovação conservadora"; e, na Argentina, "ruptura interrompida". Recupera algumas conclusões alcançadas por meio da análise de 186 textos de caráter acadêmico sobre os impactos, nos países estudados, da reforma educacional da década.This study focus on the reconfiguration of educational management in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, which was promoted by the new logic of social regulation and the new role attributed to the State, considering each country's own historicity. So, the cultural factors that interfere on the dynamics of the 90' school reform are analyzed. Aspects that show the homogeneity or heterogeneity of these reforms in the region, as well as local specificities that block out the concretization of the reform are underlined. It is shown that the historicity that characterizes the educational reform has taken, in each country, a form that can be called, in Mexico, "conservative rupture"; in Chile, "conservative continuity"; in Brazil, "conservative renovation"; and, in Argentina, "interrupted rupture". Some conclusions about the impact of educational reform in the selected countries are recuperated through the analysis of 186 academic texts on the subject.

  20. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  1. Bienestar Subjetivo y Calidad de Vida en la Infancia en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Oyanedel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados de la Encuesta Internacional sobre Bienestar Subjetivo infantil (ISCWeB, aplicada en Chile en el año 2012. El cuestionario fue aplicado a una muestra de 2.734 niños y niñas, de 8, 10 y 12 años, residentes de las tres principales zonas urbanas del país. Los resultados dan cuenta de una alta satisfacción con la vida, existiendo diferencias al considerar las variables nivel socioeconómico y sexo, así como también distintos aspectos. Los ámbitos mejor evaluados corresponden a la familia, bienes materiales, y salud; en detrimento de aspectos como el barrio y el colegio. Asimismo, se observa que el conocimiento y percepción de que se respetan los derechos de los niños y niñas, disminuye con la edad. Las conclusiones enfatizan la necesidad de profundizar en el estudio de esta temática.

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  3. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  4. Direcciones futuras de la ecotoxicología en Chile: implicancias para la evaluación de riesgo ambiental de productos veterinarios utilizados en acuicultura Future directions of Chilean ecotoxicology: Implications for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary products used in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS H MEDINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación bidireccional de influencia que la acuicultura establece con el ambiente en el cual se desarrolla determina límites al crecimiento de esta actividad económica en Chile. Esto se ha traducido tanto en restricciones técnicas, como en conflictos ambientales y sociales. La creciente demanda de nuevos productos quimioterapéuticos y su consecuente vertido en ambientes acuáticos es considerado uno de los principales problemas ambientales que enfrenta la industria del salmón en Chile. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de los efectos que ejercen estas sustancias sobre especies no objetivo y, en general, sobre la estructura y función de los ecosistemas expuestos. Mediante la aplicación de teoría y métodos de ecología contemporánea, el trabajo aquí presentado busca contribuir oportunamente al desarrollo de una metodología que permita reducir el nivel de incertidumbre asociado a la evaluación de riesgo ambiental de productos veterinarios utilizados en acuicultura. Se revisa el estado actual de la evaluación de riesgo ambiental en Chile y se identifican aspectos críticos y factibles de corregir en el marco de los procedimientos utilizados. Finalmente, se entrega una propuesta metodológica general que contempla extender de un modo coherente las pruebas ecotoxicológicas estándar, combinando experimentación a niveles comunitario, poblacional e individual, junto a la modelización matemática de sistemas ecológicos.The bidirectional relationship that aquaculture has with the environment set limits to the growth this economic activity has in Chile. This condition has generated both technical constraints and environmental as well as social conflicts. The growing demand for new chemotherapeutic compounds and their reléase into aquatic environments is now considered one of the main problems being faced by the salmón industry in Chile. However, little is known about the effects these substances exert on non-target species and on the

  5. Hábitos tróficos de la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae) durante el periodo estival frente a Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Santa Cruz; Ciro Oyarzún; Gustavo Aedo; Patricio Gálvez

    2014-01-01

    La reineta Brama australis es un importante recurso pesquero artesanal en la zona central chilena, incorporado en los programas de seguimiento biológico, pero con escasas evaluaciones de sus aspectos tróficos. Para actualizar el estado del conocimiento, se analizó su dieta durante el verano austral época de mayor disponibilidad de este recurso en la zona central de Chile, mediante el análisis del contenido gástrico de 300 ejemplares capturados entre noviembre 2011 y marzo 2012. Se identificó ...

  6. Potencial osmótico en la absorción nutrimental y calidad de fruto en chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.).

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Cruz, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Con el objeto de estudiar la absorción nutrimental y determinar el potencial osmótico (PO) de la solución nutritiva, óptimo para incrementar la calidad de fruto de chile manzano se desarrolló un experimento factorial en condiciones de hidroponía. Se evaluaron 5 niveles de PO: -0.036, -0.054, -0.072, -0.09 y -0.108 MPa, y dos variedades: Puebla y Zongolica. Se evaluó la concentración de macro y micronutrimentos en la planta, además de algunos aspectos de calidad del fruto como: peso medio del...

  7. Contenidos de la actividad expresivo motriz en los programas de las carreras de pedagogía en Educación Física, en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alda Reyno Freundt

    2010-01-01

    La Reforma Educacional chilena obedece a la Ley Orgánica Constitucional (LOCE) de 1990 y busca mejorar los aspectos de calidad y equidad de la educación, abarcando la educación escolar y universitaria en Chile. El presente estudio forma parte de la Investigación Doctoral que tiene por objetivo extraer información acerca de los contenidos declarados en los programas relacionados con el Área de Expresión Motriz (AEM) de las Carreras de Pedagogía en Educación Física de las Universidades, c...

  8. Aspectos causales del precio de departamentos nuevos en la Comuna de Ñuñoa, Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo busca establecer de forma preliminar relaciones de causalidad entre atributos de barrio o microbarrio y los precios de los departamentos nuevos en un mercado en expansión. En ese sentido, se estableció un análisis mediante un modelo de producto y se sometió la base de datos resultante a un análisis geográfico y espacial. Posteriormente se aplicó un análisis multivariado, con miras a estimar coeficientes significativos de causalidad. La conclusión confirma el atributo inmobiliario más valorado es la distancia al centro de la microzona y que las áreas verdes se sitúan como un sustituto para proyectos que están más alejados del centro.

  9. ASPECTOS CAUSALES DEL PRECIO DE DEPARTAMENTOS NUEVOS EN LA COMUNA DE ÑUÑOA, SANTIAGO DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo busca establecer de forma preliminar relaciones de causalidad entre atributos de barrio o microbarrio y los precios de los departamentos nuevos en un mercado en expansión. En ese sentido, se estableció un análisis mediante un modelo de producto y se sometió la base de datos resultante a un análisis geográfico y espacial. Posteriormente se aplicó un análisis multivariado, con miras a estimar coeficientes significativos de causalidad. La conclusión confirma el atributo inmobiliario más valorado es la distancia al centro de la microzona y que las áreas verdes se sitúan como un sustituto para proyectos que están más alejados del centro.

  10. Income Inequality in Chile: 1990-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Hourton

    2012-01-01

    The entrance of Chile to the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, as the first South American country and second after Mexico in Latin America, sets a landmark in the development path that since the beginning of the 1990s decade has seemed to lead this country to a privileged position in the region. Given the reforms taken by the military regime in the 1980s, Chile is one of the most market-oriented countries in Latin America, with Free Trade Agreements and Economical Pa...

  11. Diseño de una metodología para determinar la localización de infraestructuras portuarias : un caso de evaluación de la localización de una plataforma logística en la VIII región de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer Barrientos, Jorge Humberto

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo de tesis doctoral versa sobre determinados aspectos relacionados con el sector marítimo portuario, en particularidad para Chile. Se describe la situación del sistema portuario actual de Chile, referente a su situación geográfica, política y económica. También se realiza un esbozo de los actuales procesos de toma de decisión de la localización de infraestructuras portuarias. Se expone mediante modelos gráficos algunos conceptos que explican en parte los procesos evolutivos de la d...

  12. Aspectos de la religión en la novela erótica griega

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Rojas y Álvarez Gayou

    2014-01-01

    Luego de una breve aproximación a la novela griega en general y de una sucinta presentación sobre la religión griega y las interpretaciones de los filólogos relativo a si las novelas son o no textos religiosos, se ofrece un tratamiento de los diversos aspectos de la religión en las novelas de Caritón de Afrodisias y de Aquiles Tacio, cuyo análisis se divide en tres apartados: los dioses, manifestaciones de los dioses y prácticas religiosas.

  13. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  14. Hallazgo de Ehrlichia canis en Chile, informe preliminar Ehrlichia canis in Chile; preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LÓPEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso de Ehrlichiosis canina detectado en Chile, causado por la rickettsia Ehrlichia canis y transmitida por el vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. El diagnóstico clínico fue confirmado en Alemania por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFATThe first case of canine ehrlichiosis detected in Chile is described. It is caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis and carried by the vektor Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in Germany using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFA

  15. Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Martin; Núñez, Lautaro; Cartajena, Isabel

    2005-10-01

    Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile has been found between 12 600 and 10 200 cal. yr BP. The new site at Salar Punta Negra (24°28S/60°53W/2976 m) includes about 1000 classifiable, mostly unifacial artefacts and, uniquely, three different diagnostic types of early projectile points. Two of the Lateglacial/early Holocene projectile types have wide distribution and are known from different geographical areas in South America: the Palaeoindian Fell fish-tail point mainly from the southern cone of South America, and the triangular Tuina points typical of the Puna of the south-central Andes in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. In addition, we found a third type, a stemmed point typical for the Salar Punta Negra. Filling a large geographical gap of Fell occupation, the site at Salar Punta Negra provides evidence for generally much higher mobility and diversity of early cultures, and supports an Andean-Pacific route for early human exploration of South America to the south through the desert at intermediate altitudes. Contemporaneous high-amplitude climatic changes were fundamental preconditions to provide adequate environments and habitats, and to make Palaeoindian hunting-gathering occupation possible in the Atacama Desert.

  16. Astronomy Outreach Activities in Chile: IYA 2009 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.

  17. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  18. [Diabetic renal disease: the World Kidney Day in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles, Leopoldo; Mezzano, Sergio

    2010-04-01

    The third version of the World Kidney Day will be held on May 13, 2010 in Chile and will be focused in diabetic renal damage, the main cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, we are living a pandemic of CKD, a progressive and irreversible condition with high social and economic impact. In Chile, we have 857 patients per million inhabitants in hemodialysis and 35% are secondary to diabetes. Our general prevalence of diabetes is 4.2%, rising to 15% in people aged more than 64 years. With a 34% prevalence of hypertension, an aging population, high prevalence of obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle, there is an estimation of a rise in 85% of the prevalence of diabetes in South-America, for the next decades. The steps to be taken are clear: campaigns should be aimed at (1) prevention of type 2 diabetes; (2) screening for early diabetic kidney disease; (3) increasing patient awareness of kidney disease; (4) using medications of proven strategy and finally (5) research on new therapies. These concepts must be included in community and professional education to reduce the effects of this pandemic. PMID:20668785

  19. Aspectos fundamentales del método de Edith Stein

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Crespo

    2010-01-01

    este trabajo aborda tres aspectos fundamentales del método filosófico de Edith Stein. En primer lugar, se alude a las cosas mismas como el punto de partida del filosofar de esta autora. En segundo lugar, se considera el aspecto que constituye uno de los aportes fundamentales del método fenomenológico y que es claramente reconocible en nuestra autora, a saber, el haber puesto de manifiesto la imposibilidad de hacer filosofía primera sin tomar en cuenta la vida consciente ante la que todas las ...

  20. Aspectos legales del comercio electrónico

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Usero, José Ángel

    2000-01-01

    El comercio electrónico constituye uno de los ámbitos de mayor investigación científica y más actividad en la creación de un marco legislativo. El crecimiento de un mercado electrónico global ha afectado a numerosos aspectos legales, que incluye: seguridad en la red y las transacciones, protección de los derechos de propiedad intelectual y material con copyright en el entorno digital, la gestión de los sistemas de pago, la legalidad de los contratos electrónicos y diferentes aspectos de la ju...

  1. Museos de Santiago de Chile. Directorio

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Andrea; Funes, Catherine; Heredia, Constanza; Herrera, Daniela; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Directory of the museums in Santiago of Chile categorized by subject, such as Art, Archaeology, Historic house, Science and technology, Natural science and Natural history, Specialized, Ethnography and Anthropology, History, Site museum and Other. It comprehends basic information about name, creation date, collections, services, contact info, social network accounts, website and entrance fee of the museums.

  2. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  3. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  4. A Decade of Environment Management in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthenberg, Ina-Marlene

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents an evaluation of the Environmental Institutions Development Project in Chile, selected by Bank management to be part of an intensive learning process in final project evaluation, given its contributing factor to the Bank's knowledge base on environmental institutional development projects. The first part of the publication focuses on the project as catalyst for cu...

  5. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  6. Los miedos en el niño: Aspectos teóricos y un estudio directo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En general se admite, tanto por el científico que estudia el comportamiento humano como por el observador atento de la realidad, que los fenómenos afectivos y emocionales (entre los que se incluyen los miedos son uno de los aspectos más significativos de la experiencia humana, umversalmente presentes en todo individuo a lo largo de su vida.

  7. Aspectos funcionales de la psicoterapia analítico funcional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Virués Ortega

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se considera una nueva psicoterapia de orientación conductual: la Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional. Se describen brevemente sus fundamentos teóricos, metodológicos y aplicados. Se discuten sus aspectos funcionales desde un punto de vista contextual.

  8. Aspectos psicosociales en el envejecimiento de las mujeres1

    OpenAIRE

    Castaño, Dolores; Martínez Benlloch, Isabel

    1990-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza el envejecimiento femenino y, con más detalle, aquellos aspectos diferenciales como son los peculiares rasgos sociales del rol femenino y su repercusión sobre el envejecimiento, la menopausia y los derivados del papel de ama de casa cuando llega la jubilación.

  9. Aspectos legales de la seguridad informática

    OpenAIRE

    Lomas García, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo consiste en el estudio de tres casos, que cubren diversos aspectos legales desde el punto de vista de la seguridad informática. Se tienen en cuenta, entre otros: la LOPD, el Código Penal, la Constitución Española...

  10. Variabilidad de las comunidades de parásitos metazoos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae) en Chile Variability of metazoan parasite communities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae) off Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO; ALEX MELLADO; SANDRA SAAVEDRA; JUAN CARVAJAL

    2009-01-01

    La comparación de las variaciones en el tiempo cronológico y en el espacio es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la ecología de las comunidades de parásitos. Por eso, en este estudio se compara la abundancia total, riqueza y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae), entre muestras tomadas en Chile centro-sur en tres localidades geográficas (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt y Punta Arenas), y en dos momen...

  11. Extensión y Aplicación de AspectZ a la Administración de un Sistema de Fichas de Salud Electrónicas en Chile Extension and Application of AspectZ to the Management of an Electronic Health Card System in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Vidal; Carolina Del Río; Rodrigo Saens

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una extensión de AspectZ con el objetivo de modelar los requerimientos del software que administra un sistema de fichas electrónicas de salud en Chile: SYSFIC 1.0. AspectZ es un lenguaje de especificación formal orientado a aspectos que preserva las características bases del lenguaje Z y que ayuda a encapsular incumbencias transversales del sistema en entidades separadas e independientes. La aplicación incluye el uso de diagramas con Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado (LUM)...

  12. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  13. Aspectos del dengue investigados en Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Martínez

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre 1998 y 2003 se registraron en Colombia 256,831 casos de dengue (22,834 de dengue hemorrágico DH de los cuales 41,325 (36% fueron en Santander (3,265 DH (1,2. En este período ocurrieron brotes en 1998 y 2001 observándose incremento de casos severos en el segundo (2. Por otro lado, existen inconvenientes con el diagnóstico que dificultan el manejo clínico oportuno y la vigilancia epidemiológica. Como consecuencia, los siguientes aspectos han sido investigados:

    1 Contribución de la circulación de los serotipos/genotipos al incremento del dengue hemorrágico, considerando que la entrada o emergencia de éstos se han asociado con epidemias (3. Entre 1998 y 2004 se hicieron 1,180 intentos de aislamiento viral en células C6/36 (4, detectándose los 4 serotipos. El DEN-2 se aisló todos los años con mayor frecuencia durante los brotes (43% y 40% de los cepas; el DEN-1 se detectó entre 1998 y 2001, siendo el prevalente en el primer brote (57%, pero el menos en el segundo (4%; el DEN-3 se detectó en el brote del 2001 con similar frecuencia al DEN-2 (36%, por primera vez en Colombia luego de 23 años ausente, y fue el prevalerte entre 2002-2004 (92% de los aislados, aunque en estos años no se reportó incremento del DH (2; el DEN-4 se aisló solo en el 2000 (27% y en el brote del 2001 (20%. El genotipo de cada serotipo se identificó por análisis de RSS-PCR (5,6. Se encontraron el subtipo A (ó III, C (ó I y B (ó II de los serotipos 2, 1 y 4, similares a los que están circulando en países de América y oriundos del Asia. Los DEN-3 fueron del subtipo C (ó III iguales al virus que entró en América en 1994 oriundo de Sri-Lanka, India. Los genotipos del 2 y 3 encontrados en Santander producen con mayor frecuencia DH (3,7.

    Coastal Upwelling off Chile: Ocean Productivity and Surface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeln, D.; Lamy, F.

    2002-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system of the Peru-Chile Current belongs to the most productive regions in the world oceans. In spite of this fact only very little is known about the sediment distribution in its southern part off the coast of Chile. To increase the knowledge about this region a multi-parameter study of the surface sediment distribution at over 100 sampling sites along the Chilean continental slope between 23°S and 45°S has been carried out. Detailed analyses of sedimentary data (TOC, carbonate, and biogenic opal contents, delta 15N) reveal a close relation to environmental conditions in the region. Coastal upwelling along the Chilean coast, centered around main upwelling centers such as off Antofagasta (23°S), off Lengua de Vaca (30°S), off Valparaiso (33°S), and off Concepci¢n (35-38°S), sustains the high productivity observed in satellite pigment data and in sediment data. However, the highest pigment concentrations are found south of 40°S where prevailing onshore winds of the Southern Westerlies generally prevent coastal upwelling. There, also highest estimated accumulation rates of organic carbon and biogenic opal at the sea floor are found. Thus, the general pattern of a southward increase of surface water productivity known from satellite data is closely reflected in the organic carbon, biogenic opal and ?15N data, although the observation of highest productivity south of the upwelling area is surprising. Probably, this high productivity in the south can be attributed to the advection of (macro-) nutrients by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, supplying so-called high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to the Chilean margin. Impinging on the Chilean margin these waters can take up micronutrients such as iron from the strong riverine input and from benthic exchange processes. The combination of macro- and micro-nutrients in this area most likely results in the high productivity of the area between 40°S and 45°S. From there these fertile

  14. Estudio serológico preliminar de hepatitis E en cerdos en Chile Swine hepatitis E preliminary serological study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. REINHARDT

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis E (VHE en el hombre puede provocar epidemias masivas de hepatitis aguda. Se transmite vía oro-fecal, especialmente por agua contaminada. Se ha demostrado que el cerdo puede ser infectado con el VHE humano. Se han detectado anticuerpos y ARN del VHE en cerdos y otras especies animales, lo que sugiere un reservorio animal. Por otro lado, se identificó un agente nuevo denominado VHE porcino, distinto del VHE humano. En Chile, en seres humanos se ha encontrado prevalencia de anti- HEV de hasta 7%, pero no se ha determinado su estudio por RT-PCR ni tampoco se ha investigado su significado en especies animales. Mediante ELISA se determinaron anti-VHE (IgG, en 200 sueros de cerdos de planteles de la zona central de Chile y en 175 de la provincia de Valdivia, de diferentes edades y ambos sexos. De estos se seleccionaron 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos para estudios de VHE por RT-PCR, usando secuencias de VHE humano. Por ELISA se detectaron 9.5% anti-VHE positivos (19/200 en planteles de la zona central y 0.6% (1/175 de la provincia de Valdivia, Chile. El estudio por RT-PCR de los 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos no visualizó las bandas de precipitación esperadas. Estos resultados preliminares indican, por primera vez en Chile, que el virus E está presente en poblaciones de cerdos. Sin embargo, se necesitan de estudios más acabados para evaluar la magnitud del problema, usando secuencias de VHE porcinos y lograr la determinación del genoma viralThe hepatitis E virus (HEV can cause acute epidemic hepatitis outbreak in humans. The path of transmission is oro-fecal, especially through contaminated water.It has been demonstrated that pigs can be infected with the human form of HEV. HEV antibodies and RNA from HEV have been found in pigs and other animals. Recently a new strain, called porcine HEV, was identified which differs from the human HEV. In Chile prevalence of anti-HEV in human general population reach 7%. However no studies

  15. Analysis of the Organizational Aspects of a Clinical Emergency Department: A Study in a General Hospital in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil Análisis de los aspectos de organización de un servicio de urgencias clínicas: estudio realizado en un hospital general del municipio de Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brasil Análise dos aspectos organizacionais de um serviço de urgências clínicas: estudo em um hospital geral do município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Franco Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for the Emergency Department (ED has increased, making the organization of work difficult. This quantitative, descriptive and documental study identifies and analyzes the characteristics of clinical care in the ED of a General Hospital in Ribeirão Preto, SP, in 2007, according to organizational variables. The study population included all clinical care consultations registered in the Hospital Management Information System. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and discussed considering the theoretical framework of the Single Health System (SUS. A total of 5,285 consultations were registered in the period, which were more frequent in patients from the city itself, in January (10%, on Mondays (16%, from 12pm to 12am (67.1%. The main reason for discharge from the unit was hospitalization (63.8% and the predominant length of stay in the unit was less than six hours (39.8%. The results support the management of human resources, materials and equipment, indicating the desirability of reorganizing emergency care in the hospital.La demanda por servicios de urgencia y emergencia ha aumentado, dificultado la organización del trabajo. Con el objetivo de identificar y analizar las características de las atenciones de clínica médica, en el Servicio de Urgencia del Hospital General en Ribeirao Preto, 2007, según las variables de organización fue realizado este estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo, utilizando datos documentales. La población de estudio fueron todas las atenciones clínicas, registrados en el Sistema de Información de Gestión Hospitalaria. Los datos fueron analizados según la estadística descriptiva y discutidos considerando el referencial teórico de reorganización del SUS. En el período ocurrieron 5.285 atenciones, que fueron más frecuentes en pacientes procedentes del propio municipio (63,8%, en el mes de enero (10%, los días lunes (16%, en el horario de la 12 a las 24h (67,1%, y el tiempo predominante de

  16. Chile: Report on Observance of Standards and Codes—Fiscal Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The Chilean government has succeeded in constructing and disseminating a clear view of its objectives and targets, both at the macroeconomic level and for individual budget programs. Government accountability to congress and the public is demonstrably being strengthened. A general reform challenge for Chile will be to institutionalize the many recent advances in transparency, so that they become permanent components of fiscal management. The flexibility inherent in such instruments as protoco...

  17. Micro-foundations of Financialization: Status Anxiety and the Expansion of Consumer Credit in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González, F.

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates why people in Chile acquired so much consumer debt in contexts of material prosperity, and asks what the role of inequality and commodification is in this process. The case raises an important challenge to the literature. Insofar as existing accounts assume that the financialization of consumption occurs in contexts marked by wage stagnation and a general deterioration of the middle classes, they engender two contradictory explanations: while political economists arg...

  18. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Horacio Miranda; José Sepúlveda; Marianela Denegri

    2012-01-01

    Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM) foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand o...

  19. REFORMAS DA EDUCAÇÃO SUPERIOR NO CHILE, NO BRASIL E EM PORTUGAL: UMA ABORDAGEM COMPARATIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Mendes Catani

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese case in allows them to observe determinative aspects of the reforms of the superior education of years 90 that they are inserted in a global context, with similarities and differences between such movements in countries of the central capitalism. Our object of study will be Chile case and, from there, will establish relations with the superior education in Brazil and Portugal. The recent reforms of the sector in Chile had been initiated under the military regimen (1973- 90, that it inaugurated the implementation of the neoliberalismo in Latin America in years 70 (Milton Friedman was council member of general Pinochet.

  1. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications. PMID:24448862

  2. Conditioning of radium sources in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process experimented in Chile to conditioning Ra-226 sources arising as waste from medical uses in Chile is described. The IAEA offered to participate in the Project for Conditioning Radium Sources in order to place all the radium sources in the country under an internationally accepted standard. These sources hare those that have been used in medical applications for many years. The CCHEN made its own modifications to the project's execution by using its own infrastructure and scientific and technical skill in this field. For this purpose, the CCHEN uses the human resources and facilities of the Radioactive Waste Management Unit (UGDR) and acquires materials that are commercially available in the country. IAEA assistance focused on quality assurance, so they supply all expensive items which the UGDR, cannot access, plus they certify the quality of the conditioned products. This assistance is achieved through the approval of procedures and methodologies based on those that are recommended

  3. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi3O8) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi3O8) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1Gy-10kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain-single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 deg.. C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika

  4. Evolution of Housing Prices in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Parrado H. /; Paulo Cox P.; Marcelo Fuenzalida C.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of real estate data is clearly limited in Chile, which makes more complex the discussion of the possible vulnerabilities of households and the financial sector to risks arising from real estate markets. This paper proposes a set of housing price indicators for measuring the potential pressures that could be developing in the credit market. Using these price measures, we find that the recent sustained rise in home prices coincides with the sustained increase in disposable inco...

  5. Unmarried cohabitation among deprived families in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm Santelices, Alejandra Margarita

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that unmarried cohabitation is increasing in Chile. It is less clear what unmarried cohabitation is and why is it rising. In Latin America cohabitation is common among low income groups, and has been described as a surrogate marriage for the disadvantaged. Cohabitation in the region entails conventional gender roles and having children. It has been explained by colonial dominance, poverty, kinship, and machismo. The evidence amassed here indicates that although in practice cohabit...

  6. Movilidad intrageneracional del ingreso en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio, Sapelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the different intra-generational mobility indicators for Chile on the basis of the Casen panel. Conclusions from the literature are evaluated in light of results that are based mainly on a discussion of the transition matrix. It is concluded that there is a mistaken interpretation of the data in part of the literature. A simulation is made that demonstrates that the Chilean transition matrix could be the consequence of random shocks to the effective distribution of income...

  7. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 an...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum annuum Capsicum_annuum_L.png Capsicum_annuum_NL.png Capsicum_annuum_S.png Capsicum..._annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum...+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  9. Structural Volatility in Chile: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Caballero

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies Chile's economic weaknesses and offers policy recommendations for increasing stability. Current problems include weak international financial links, a Central Bank mandate that is ill-designed to deal with terms of trade shocks, a propensity to waste scarce liquidity in the banking system; and limited development of financial markets. The paper's policy recommendations include improving external financial links, molding terms of trade contingencies into anti-cyclical pol...

  10. Aspectos gerais da deficiência de ferro no esporte, suas implicações no desempenho e importância do diagnóstico precoce General aspects of iron deficiency in sportsmen, its implications on performance and the importance of early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ragone Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A ingestão inadequada de ferro pode trazer consequências deletérias ao desempenho atlético. Os aspectos negativos provenientes da deficiência orgânica de ferro estão diretamente relacionados com os níveis de depleção desse mineral, que, em sua última instância, tem como principal agravo o desenvolvimento da anemia ferropriva. O presente artigo esclarece que, além da omissão férrica dietética, existem vários fatores agregados que não estão vinculados apenas à dieta, mas que, no conjunto, podem interferir sobre o balanço negativo do ferro, principalmente em atletas. Dentre os fatores etiológicos associados à prática esportiva, os mais evidentes são as hemorragias gastrintestinais, as hemólises por impacto e por radicais livres e as perdas férricas através da transpiração. Nota-se a suma importância do controle da ingestão de ferro e da manutenção de uma vigilância para a detecção precoce da deficiência desse mineral, evitando alteração na produção normal de hemoglobina e de outros compostos essenciais, o que pode causar redução considerável no desempenho do indivíduo, principalmente aeróbico. Embora seja crucial o papel da suplementação no restabelecimento do indivíduo com deficiência de ferro, a automedicação é contraindicada, devido às consequências negativas associadas às altas doses desse mineral. A abordagem desse tema é de extrema relevância para o meio esportivo, contendo informações sobre a anemia esportiva e o diagnóstico da deficiência de ferro, em uma revisão que visa o esclarecimento dos principais fatores etiológicos envolvidos.Inadequate iron intake can have a negative impact on athletic performance. The negative aspects caused by iron deficiency are directly related to the depletion levels of this mineral, and ultimately results in iron-deficiency anemia. The present article clarifies that in addition to low dietary iron intake, there are many aggregated factors that

  11. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  12. Aspectos topográficos y temporales en terapia familiar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Vaz Leal

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta un modelo teórico, construido para trabajar en el estudio de la familia; dicho modelo, basado en el concepto de «reglas» familiares, pretende tomar en consideración diversos aspectos territoriales y temporales relacionados con las mismas, para integrarlos en el proceso terapéutico. Se ofrecen diversos ejemplos clínicos para ilustrar cada uno de los puntos abordados

  13. Aspectos topográficos y temporales en terapia familiar.

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J Vaz Leal; Joaquín Ingelmo Fernández; Beatriz López Vinuesa

    1986-01-01

    En el presente artículo se presenta un modelo teórico, construido para trabajar en el estudio de la familia; dicho modelo, basado en el concepto de «reglas» familiares, pretende tomar en consideración diversos aspectos territoriales y temporales relacionados con las mismas, para integrarlos en el proceso terapéutico. Se ofrecen diversos ejemplos clínicos para ilustrar cada uno de los puntos abordados

  14. Aspectos claves para elaborar un estudio de clima laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Gómez, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo contiene los resultados de un estudio de medición de clima laboral, aplicando cinco dimensiones: Formación, Comunicación Interna, Situación Profesional y Perspectivas de Desarrollo e Imagen corporativa, realizado en una empresa de distribución alimentaria. Los distintos aspectos valorados en la elaboración de una encuesta se han aplicado en la investigación realizada.

  15. Aspectos fundamentales del método de Edith Stein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Crespo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available este trabajo aborda tres aspectos fundamentales del método filosófico de Edith Stein. En primer lugar, se alude a las cosas mismas como el punto de partida del filosofar de esta autora. En segundo lugar, se considera el aspecto que constituye uno de los aportes fundamentales del método fenomenológico y que es claramente reconocible en nuestra autora, a saber, el haber puesto de manifiesto la imposibilidad de hacer filosofía primera sin tomar en cuenta la vida consciente ante la que todas las cosas se abren. En tercer lugar, se remite a la individualidad de la persona como un aspecto de la antropología de Stein especialmente relevante. Al final del análisis de cada uno de estos tres aspectos metodológicos se intenta mostrar en qué sentido éstos pueden ser de relevancia para emprender el camino hacia la pregunta por la mujer.This paper addresses three fundamental aspects of Edith Stein's philosophical method. Firstly, it looks at issues such as the author's starting point of philosophizing. Secondly, it considers the aspect, which constitutes one of the fundamental contributions of the phenomenological method and is clearly recognizable in our author, such as having highlighted that it is impossible to carry out first philosophy without taking into account conscious life, before which all things are opened. Thirdly it looks at the individuality of the person as an especially relevant aspect of Stein's anthropology After analyzing each of these methodological aspects, this paper attempts to show how they may be relevant in laying out the path towards the question of the woman.

  16. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y

  17. A new gravity map of southern Chile and its preliminary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E. Murdie

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo mapade la gravedad en el sur de Chile y su interpretación preliminar. Se han recolectado datos de gravedad en el sur de Chile en la región continental frente al Punto Triple Nazca-Sudamérica-Antártica. El objetivo de este proyecto fue investigar los efectos de la subducción de una dorsal bajo el margen continental. El mapa de anomalías de Bouguer muestra una disminución regional de ellas hacia el este, correspondiendo con un engrosamiento de la cuña mantélica, un gran bajo circular de ca. 60 mGal de la anomalía de Bouguer en la vecindad del lago General Carrera y una tendencia linear en el borde occidental de la cordillera Andina Principal a lo largo de la zona de Fallas Liquiñe-Ofqui. Se utilizo la desconvolución de Euler para determinar la profundidad del cuerpo causativo principal, el que yace a profundidades subcorticales (ca. 65 km. La anomalía yace cerca de la posición predicha para los segmentos subducidos de la Dorsal de Chile y los autores sugieren que la anomalía está, por lo tanto, relacionada con el proceso de subducción de dorsalesNew onshore gravity data have been collected in Southern Chile in the region onshore of the Chile Margin Triple Junction. The aim of the project was to investigate the effects of ridge subduction on the continental margin. The resultant Bouguer anomaly map shows a regional decrease in Bouguer anomaly to the east, corresponding with thickening of the mantle wedge, a large circular low of about -60 mGal in the Bouguer Anomaly in the vicinity of Lago General Carrera and a linear trend at the western edge of the main Andean Chain along the Liquiñe -Ofqui Fault. Euler deconvolution has been used to determine the depth to the principal causative body which lies at subcrustal depths (ca. 65 km. The anomaly lies close to the predicted positions of subducted segments of the Chile Rise and the authors suggest that the anomaly is associated with the ridge subduction process

  18. POR UNA LEGISLACIÓN SOCIAL EN CHILE: EL MOVIMIENTO DE LOS PANADEROS (1888-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yáñez Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia la evolución del movimiento de panaderos en Chile, desde fines del siglo XIX hasta 1930. En especial se hace referencia a la etapa de movilizaciones para la eliminación del trabajo nocturno en las panaderías durante 1923 y 1924. Se plantea como tesis central que el movimiento de panaderos estaba en un proceso de transición organizativa desde la modalidad de sociedad de resistencia hacia una organización sindical proclive a institucionalizar sus demandas y aceptar la legislación, aspecto que explica la demanda en pro de la eliminación del trabajo nocturno. El mejoramiento en las condiciones de trabajo supuso modernizar el mercado laboral y generar nuevas modalidades de control de la mano de obra.This article studies the evolution of the bakers' movement in Chile, from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the 1930s. Special reference is made to the demonstrations organized to elimínate night work in the bakeries in 1923 and 1924. The main argument is that the bakers' movement was in a transitional period of organization from a resistance society to a labour-union organization. As a result there was an attempt to institutionalize their demands and accept legislation, which explains their demand in order to elimínate night work. The improvement of working conditions implied the modernization of the labour market and the generation of new forms of labour control.

  19. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45’ S y 72º 40’ W. Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m y Conunhueno (360 m. Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. Se efectuaron mediciones de temperatura del aire y humedad a través de la ciudad para determinar la forma y la intensidad de la isla de calor urbano. Se utilizaron estaciones móviles e información de una estación meteorológica fija. La ciudad presenta un comportamiento térmico diferente a lo largo del día. Durante el día genera una isla de calor que responde en líneas generales al modelo ideal de calentamiento urbano. La intensidad de la isla calórica (∆Tu-r fue 6.3ºC y 1.2ºC durante el día y la noche, respectivamente. La influencia de los cerros que limitan la ciudad es importante. El estudio confirma la idea que el clima urbano de una ciudad es un mosaico de microclimas que interactuan continuamente.

  20. Thermal and lighting perception in four fully glazed office buildings in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vásquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Claudio Vásquez, School of Architecture, Catholic University of Chile. 1916 El Comendador str. Providencia, Santiago, ZIP: 7530091, Chile. Tel.: +56 9 92826305; E-mail: clvasque@uc.cl This paper is part of a general research project whose main objective is to establish a baseline for post-occupancy energy consumption and indoor environmental quality for office buildings in Santiago, Chile. This study aims at understanding how architectonical variables relate to, and can even determine, user comfort perception. Thus, one-year continuous monitoring in several floors at four office buildings was performed and seasonal surveys were completed. Survey participants were asked a series of questions regarding spatial orientation and comfort perception in their workspace. The data from the comfort survey and onsite measurements such as season of the year, case study, type of workspace and possibility of an outdoor view from the workstation were contrasted with the components obtained by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Three components were selected from the PCA, and three Maps of Perception (MP were produced. These maps were then analyzed and interpreted so as to obtain information on the general perception of thermal and lighting comfort at workspaces within several office buildings in Santiago.

  1. Accelerated nucleation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aitaro; Fukuda, Jun’Ichi; Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2016-04-01

    The earthquake nucleation process has been vigorously investigated based on geophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical studies; however, a general consensus has yet to be achieved. Here, we studied nucleation process for the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 megathrust earthquake located within the current North Chile seismic gap, by analyzing a long-term earthquake catalog constructed from a cross-correlation detector using continuous seismic data. Accelerations in seismicity, the amount of aseismic slip inferred from repeating earthquakes, and the background seismicity, accompanied by an increasing frequency of earthquake migrations, started around 270 days before the mainshock at locations up-dip of the largest coseismic slip patch. These signals indicate that repetitive sequences of fast and slow slip took place on the plate interface at a transition zone between fully locked and creeping portions. We interpret that these different sliding modes interacted with each other and promoted accelerated unlocking of the plate interface during the nucleation phase.

  2. Accelerated nucleation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aitaro; Fukuda, Jun'ichi; Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    The earthquake nucleation process has been vigorously investigated based on geophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical studies; however, a general consensus has yet to be achieved. Here, we studied nucleation process for the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 megathrust earthquake located within the current North Chile seismic gap, by analyzing a long-term earthquake catalog constructed from a cross-correlation detector using continuous seismic data. Accelerations in seismicity, the amount of aseismic slip inferred from repeating earthquakes, and the background seismicity, accompanied by an increasing frequency of earthquake migrations, started around 270 days before the mainshock at locations up-dip of the largest coseismic slip patch. These signals indicate that repetitive sequences of fast and slow slip took place on the plate interface at a transition zone between fully locked and creeping portions. We interpret that these different sliding modes interacted with each other and promoted accelerated unlocking of the plate interface during the nucleation phase. PMID:27109362

  3. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  4. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  5. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  6. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  7. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  8. Los Maestros en Chile: Carreras e Incentivos

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Mizala; Pablo González; Pilar Romaguera; Andrea Guzmán

    2000-01-01

    La reforma educacional que Chile está implementando requiere para su éxito que los maestros se pongan a la cabeza de la reforma, y para ello es necesario fortalecer la profesión docente y la carrera de pedagogía. Diseñar políticas efectivas hacia los maestros supone estudiar las características socioeconómicas y motivacionales de éstos, así como los incentivos y factores institucionales que determinan la composición del cuerpo docente y que influencian su desempeño profesional. Esto es lo que...

  9. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  10. Evaluación técnica, financiera y comercial de los sistemas de producción de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescen RYP) en México

    OpenAIRE

    G. Barrios Puente; L. E. Espinosa Torres; E. Figueroa Hernández; O. Ramírez Abarca

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas de producción de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens RyP) en México son de campo abierto bajo sombra de árboles de pino y frutales de temporada, e intensivo en hidroponía bajo condiciones de invernadero. Estos sistemas presentan diferencias significativas en los aspectos técnicos, financieros y comerciales como consecuencia de las innovaciones tecnológicas y por el grado de inversión de capital. Técnicamente el sistema intensivo bajo condiciones de invernadero es el más eficiente, ...

  11. Informe final INNOVA Chile. Desarrollo de tecnologías para la detección de toxinas marinas (mareas rojas) detoxificación de mariscos contaminados por estos compuestos.

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Méndez, F. L.; Córdova Masanes, J.G.; Pizarro Nova, G.M.; Núñez D.N.; Paredes C., M.A.; Frangopulos, M.; Alarcón Zapata, C.H.; Pacheco Valles, H.; Hinojosa Carrasco, Paola Y.; Zamora Amstein, C.V.

    2006-01-01

    Para Chile, la detoxoficación es una aspecto importante, por cuanto el negocio de los mariscos destinados a los mercados de exportación y para consumo interno representan un mercado del orden de los ciento cincuenta millones de dolares anuales. Además el volumen de choritos provenientes de la miticultura está incrementando sustancialmente cada año, justamente en las áreas que presentan este tipo de toxinas, y con una potencialidad reconocida en toda la gran macro zona sur austral. La aproxima...

  12. Patrones de uso de servicios entre adultos con problemas de salud mental, en Chile Service use patterns among adults with mental health problems in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamín Vicente; Robert Kohn; Sandra Saldivia; Pedro Rioseco; Silverio Torres

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón de uso de servicios generales y especializados entre los adultos con problemas de salud mental, así como su nivel de satisfacción con dichos servicios, con la finalidad de contribuir a optimizar los escasos recursos disponibles en la Región para la atención de la salud mental, particularmente en lo que corresponde a Chile. MÉTODO: Los diagnósticos y los patrones de uso de los servicios de salud mental se obtuvieron del Estudio Chileno de Prevalencia Psiquiátrica ...

  13. Aspectos psicológicos en el cáncer ginecológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Olivares Crespo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se abordan los aspectos psicológicos concomitantes a la patologíaoncológica ginecológica. De forma habitual estas pacientes están sometidas a diferentes modalidadesterapéuticas que provocan efectos acumulativos. En términos generales, el tratamiento deelección es quirúrgico, principalmente mastectomía e histerectomía. Estos tratamientos quirúrgicosprovocan efectos antes, durante y después de los mismos. Entre los que cabe citar: alteraciones sexuales, cambios en la imagen corporal, infertilidad y menopausia inducida. Para concluir, seespecifican los procedimientos terapéuticos psicológicos del proceso, tanto del diagnóstico como deltratamiento quirúrgico y de los efectos derivados del mismo.

  14. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  15. Algunos aspectos de la vida cotidiana en la comedia griega

    OpenAIRE

    García Soler, María José

    2011-01-01

    La comedia es uno de los géneros literarios que mejor refleja la vida diaria, donde encuentra numerosos elementos que le sirven de recurso para provocar la risa. El presente artículo se centra en cómo muestran los autores cómicos algunos aspectos de la vida pública (el funcionamiento de la asamblea popular y el sistema judicial) y de la vida privada (la alimentación y la gastronomía) de la Atenas de los siglos V y IV a.C.

  16. Ensayos con animales: aspectos éticos y legales

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Álvarez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    El Objetivo principal del trabajo Ensayos con animales: Aspectos éticos y legales es proponer medidas que permitan disminuir el uso de animales de experimentación. Para ello se han desarrollado otros objetivos secundarios encaminados a facilitar la tarea de los investigadores: Recopilar la normativa ética y legal, facilitar el acceso a la terminología, esquematizar el protocolo de investigación establecido en la normativa, verificar la existencia de bases de datos de las investigaciones, estu...

  17. Aspectos éticos de la crisis financiera

    OpenAIRE

    Montuschi, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Se analizan aspectos de la crisis financiera para identificar cuales fueron las principales causas que la llevaron a los límites conocidos. Es cierto que el problema encontró sus raices en el mercado de hipotecas subprime y en la falta de responsabilidad de las principales instituciones financieras. Pobres políticas económicas crearon el contexto adecuado para que la crisis tuviera los alcances que se conocen. Pero no puede dejar de considerarse el factor humano. En particular, debe tenerse e...

  18. Varizes ganglionares: fisiopatologia e aspectos ecográficos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, E; Cabral, P; Pinto, E.; Penha, D; Paixão, P; Germano, A

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: As veias gânglionares presentes no triângulo femoral constituem uma rede venosa subcutânea que liga vários pontos do sistema venoso superficial e profundo. A dilatação desta rede venosa pode ser causa de insuficiência do sistema venoso superficial ou, mais frequentemente, estar envolvida no processo de recorrência varicosa pós-safenectomia. OBJECTIVOS: Descrever os aspectos anatómicos e fisiológicos da rede venosa ganglionar do triângulo femoral, alertando para uma causa pouco...

  19. Aspectos financieros de las cesiones de carteras de siniestros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas López, María Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los aspectos financieros y económicos de las compañías de seguros a través de las cesiones de carteras de siniestros. Esta técnica da cobertura a ciertos riesgos financieros, permitiendo la optimización de riesgo soportado por la cedente, con el fin de diluir los efectos adversos del comportamiento de la variable aleatoria de la siniestralidad, para la mejora de la solvencia, el incremento de la capacidad de suscripción y salvaguardar el balance.

  20. Aspectos neuropsicológicos de la música

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez López, Guillermo Rubén

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Desde hace aproximadamente dos décadas el estudio de los aspectos neuropsicológicos relacionados con la música ha venido cobrando gran importancia en el ámbito de la Neurociencia. La música constituye un estímulo multimodal que transmite información visual, auditiva y motora a nuestro cerebro, que a su vez, como el lenguaje, cuenta con una red neural específica para su procesamiento. De este modo, la percepción y producción musical implican una gran parte de nuestras capac...

  1. Violencias y resistencias desde una Producción Narrativa con militantes del Chile postdictatorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fernández Droguett

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siendo la violencia política un tema relevante de nuestro pasado reciente y que sigue estando presente en la sociedad chilena, desde la aproximación de la Psicología Social de la Memoria en el presente trabajo revisamos y discutimos algunos aspectos relativos a las violencias y resistencias de la década del noventa en Chile y su articulación con el presente. El abordaje de este tema se desarrolla en función de una Producción Narrativa elaborada con sujetos que adscribieron al uso de la violencia como estrategia de lucha política revolucionaria durante la dictadura y en la transición a la democracia. La revisión y análisis de algunos segmentos de la Producción Narrativa da cuenta de las características de la violencia política del periodo y de las formas de resistencia a dicha violencia, así como de las concepciones que los sujetos tienen sobre el tema y sus manifestaciones en la actualidad. 

  2. Práctica y significado del consentimiento informado en hospitales de Colombia y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ovalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparo el significado y la práctica del consentimiento informado (CI en doshospitales de Colombia y Chile, mediante el método cualitativo de estudio de casos. Los resultadosempíricos los contrasté inductivamente con las tensiones, diferencias y vínculos entre los presupuestosteóricos de la bioética con los jurídicos en el período 2005-2008, en el marco de sus respectivaspolíticas públicas. Confirmé el incumplimiento del CI y el no reconocimiento de la autonomía de lospacientes y de las pacientes en la práctica del CI. Propongo como una manera de dirimir el conflictoentre los aspectos legales y bioéticos del CI, la fundamentación de un enfoque de derechos con unaperspectiva bioética, y planteo pautas a seguir durante el proceso de CI.

  3. Forest mapping with satellite in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, A. [SSC Satellitbild (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Chile has about 9.1 million ha of forest land, among which 7.6 million ha are native forest and 1.5 million ha are plantations of exotic species. The number of plantations is constantly growing due to the important role these areas play in the national economy. Pino Radiata (Pinus radiata) is found in most of the plantations while the remaining parts are dominated by Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) The governmental Instituto Forestal (INFOR) in Santiago de Chile, is monitoring the rapid changes in these areas through frequent inventories. As an inventory of this type takes about six years to complete in all areas (one region per year), it is of great importance to find quicker ways to cover these areas. The native forest has in recent years been the subject of debate, not only for economic reasons, but also as a result of ecological pressure for conservation. Where to conserve, where to put restrictions and where to allow forestry are the big issues. Against this background it is necessary to evaluate different data sources that can give information about the present forest situation and provide the means to monitor the changes. The aim of the project was to evaluate whether satellite imagery could fulfill INFOR`s demand for forestry information, and to investigate the kind of data source and methodology to apply when using satellite data

  4. The ecology of Chagas disease in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, C J; Apt, W; Miles, M A

    1982-01-01

    Chagas disease probably affects over half a million people in Chile, principally in rural communities in the fertile valleys of the arid 'norte chico' region, north of Santiago. The main domestic vector is Triatoma infestans, but Triatoma spinolai, although mainly in rocky sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes, also invades houses. Since the Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century, and particularly during the last 100 years, the endemic region has suffered an ecological breakdown, largely due to excessive timbering and over-grazing, which has led to a denuded landscape with severe loss of agricultural productivity. This breakdown, combined with uneconomically sized farms and poor marketing, exacerbates the poverty of the rural communities. As in other similar areas of Latin America, the combination of poverty and poor education discourages improvements in housing which would reduce the risk of vector-transmitted Chagas disease. This paper reviews the historical and ecological background of the endemic region of Chile, both as a basis for further work, and as a point of comparison with other endemic areas. The review attempts to show how the current status of Chagas disease is likely to be maintained through its association with poor quality housing, poverty and ecological degradation, drawing parallels with other endemic++ areas and suggesting ways by which the ecological damage might be reversed. PMID:6821391

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  6. Health insurance selection in Chile: a cross-sectional and panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Cristian; Schott, Whitney

    2014-05-01

    In Chile, workers are mandated to choose either public or private health insurance coverage. Although private insurance premiums depend on health risk, public insurance premiums are solely linked to income. This structure implies that individuals with higher health risks may tend to avoid private insurance, leaving the public insurance system responsible for their care. This article attempts to explore the determinants of health insurance selection (private vs public) by individuals in Chile and to test empirically whether adverse selection indeed exists. We use panel data from Chile's 'Encuesta de Proteccion Social' survey, which allows us to control for a rich set of individual observed and unobserved characteristics using both a cross-sectional analysis and fixed-effect methods. Results suggest that age, sex, job type, income quintile and self-reported health are the most important factors in explaining the type of insurance selected by individuals. Asymmetry in insurance mobility caused by restrictions on pre-existing conditions may explain why specific illnesses have an unambiguous relationship with insurance selection. Empirical evidence tends to indicate that some sorting by health risk and income levels takes place in Chile. In addition, by covering a less healthy population with higher utilization of general health consultations, the public insurance system may be incurring disproportionate expenses. Results suggest that if decreasing segmentation and unequal access to health services are important policy objectives, special emphasis should be placed on asymmetries in the premium structure and inter-system mobility within the health care system. Preliminary analysis of the impact of the 'Garantias Explicitas de Salud' plan (explicit guarantees on health care plan) on insurance selection is also considered. PMID:23558960

  7. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  8. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. PMID:26340665

  9. Clasificación y resolución de conflictos entre aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Sandra; Reinaga, Héctor; Vanoli, Verónica; Sierpe, Luis; Saldivia, Claudio; Pryor, Jane

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se introduce la problemática de conflictos entre aspectos circunscripta al paradigma de programación orientada a aspectos. En base a una taxonomía para la resolución de conflictos se analizan brevemente algunas lenguajes orientados a aspectos. El análisis nos permite establecer algunos requisitos para diseñar e implementar herramientas mas abarcativas y seguras para el desarrollo de aplicaciones bajo este enfoque, en lo que respecta al manejo de conflictos entre aspectos.

  10. Estudio comparativo de los planes de actuación frente al riesgo volcánico (Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, España, México y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Corominas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio hace una comparativa de actuación frente el riesgo volcánico entre varios países con la intención que sea una muestra de América Latina y España. El objetivo es comprobar si el nivel socioeconómico de un país se corresponde con la eficacia de los sistemas de prevención del riesgo volcánico que utilizan, analizar los motivos y los métodos en la medida de lo posible y aprender de los sistemas de trabajo para hacer frente a este riesgo, los cuales probablemente podrían ser aplicables a la prevención de otros riesgos. Se analizan 4 aspectos principales: 1 información general sobre el conocimiento del riesgo, 2 planes de prevención y vigilancia, 3 planes de emergencia y gestión y 4 planes educativos. El análisis comparativo final nos indica que el primer punto del estudio es directamente proporcional al nivel socioeconómico de los países, quedando España y México como los países con mayor conocimiento del riesgo, seguidos de Chile, Costa Rica y Ecuador. No obstante, en cuanto a los planes educativos, Nicaragua y el Salvador se sitúan en las primeras posiciones, siendo los países con menor índice de desarrollo humano, según ranking de las Naciones Unidas.

  11. Hemangiomas cavernosos do cranio: aspectos clinicos, radiologicos e terapeuticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kirchhoff

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available São discutidos os aspectos relativos ao diagnóstico e tratamento dos hemangiomas cavernosos do crânio. Os dados obtidos em 26 casos, são apresentados, sendo salientado que a localização dos hemangiomas foi maior na região frontal, sendo mais atingido o sexo masculino. Os outros aspectos são coincidentes com os demais autores. A problemática desses tumores, principalmente a sua demonstração radiológica e o seu tratamento, são ressaltados, chegando-se à conclusão final de que o melhor meio de demonstração radiológica é a punção para contrastação direta do tumor. O tratamento de escolha é o cirúrgico, sendo a extirpação em bloco preferida nos casos de comprometimento ósseo importante, sendo a intervenção direta com dissecção e excisão reservada para as localizações nos tecidos moles ou com mínima participação óssea.

  12. Chile; Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    Chile's economic performance was very strong during most of the 1990s, but the country suffered a recession in 1998–99. In early 1998, Chile faced a widening external current account deficit—resulting from surging domestic demand and a large drop in copper export prices—which together with turbulence in world financial markets weakened investor confidence and put downward pressure on the currency. Chile has maintained a very open trade regime and has continued with the unilateral phased...

  13. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G

    1989-12-01

    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342735

  14. CASO DE ESTUDIO: LA FUNDACION COCA-COLA CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE HERRERA

    2006-01-01

    This case gives an overview of the Coca-Cola System in Chile and focuses on the Coca-Cola Chile Foundation (CCFCH), a non-profit organization dedicated to education. Created in 1992 with donations from Coca-Cola de Chile S.A. (CCCH) and the bottling companies Embotelladora Andina S.A., Coca-Cola Embonor S.A. and Coca-Cola Polar S.A., the foundation now faces an expansion dilemma in its most important program, the TAVEC Laboratories. Under this program the CCFCH donated interactive scientific ...

  15. HACIA LA CONSTITUCIÓN DE UN CORPUS DIACRÓNICO DEL ESPAÑOL DE CHILE TOWARDS CHILEAN SPANISH LANGUAGE DIACHRONIC CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL CONTRERAS SEITZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y analiza la constitución de corpus diacrónicos hispánicos (españoles e hispanoamericanos con el objeto de situar el marco de referencia del CorDECh (Corpus Diacrónico del Español de Chile. El trabajo presenta una intersección entre disciplinas tradicionales, como la filología y la paleografía, con especialidades lingüísticas que se han revitalizado en los últimos años, como es el caso de la lingüística del corpus, en virtud de la conformación de un corpus diacrónico del español de Chile. Además, en este texto se da cuenta de los criterios de constitución de este corpus (cronológico, de selección y transcripción documental, diatópico y de variedad de registros; asimismo, se discuten aspectos de la automatización del corpus y las implicancias y proyecciones para el análisis del mismo. Finalmente, se repasan los criterios de etiquetación del corpus, de acuerdo con los aspectos de la Text Encoding Initiative (TEI, adoptados por la RAE en el Prontuario de Marcación SGML, utilizado para el CORDE (Corpus Diacrónico del Español, junto con presentar algunos ejemplos de estos aspectos, para lo cual se utilizó el editor XML/ XSLT Cooktop 2.5.The conformation of Hispanic diachronic corpora (Spanish and Hispano-American in order to place the framework of the CorDECh (Corpus Diacrónico del Español de Chile is described and analyzed in this paper. The work shows an intersection between traditional disciplines, such as the philolology and the paleography, with linguistic disciplines that have been revitalized in the last years, such as corpus linguistics, in order to shape a Chilean Spanish diachronic corpus. In addition, the criteria of corpus formation is presented in this text (chronological, documentary selection and transcription, diatopics and register varieties; in the same way, some aspects of corpora automatization and the implications and projections for its analysis is discussed here. Finally

  16. Aspectos preventivos y evaluación de riesgos de un comercio de venta de artículos deportivos

    OpenAIRE

    Rabanedo Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El estudio trata de la realización de una evaluación de riesgos y aspectos preventivos en un gran establecimiento del sector comercio. Dadas las múltiples actividades llevadas a cabo así como las múltiples herramientas utilizadas en este tipo de establecimientos se describen las más representativas. El estudio se inicia con la descripción general de la empresa y los puestos de trabajo con sus respectivas tareas. Seguidamente se comenta el sistema de gestión basado en la normativa Oshas 18001:...

  17. Evaluating the Chile Solidario program: results using the Chile Solidario panel and the administrative databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hoces de la Guardia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una evaluación de tres años realizada en las primeras cohortes del Programa Chile Solidario, el programa de reducción de la pobreza más importante de Chile. El artículo presenta una descripción del programa, haciendo hincapié en el mecanismo por el cual las personas fueron admitidas en el programa. A continuación, propone estrategias de evaluación y discute su validez. 8a evaluación final se realiza mediante un estimador de "Matching" (pareo, y se discuten los principios en base a los cuales se trataría de un método de evaluación válida. Los resultados iniciales usando el Panel de Chile Solidario sugieren que el programa ha tenido efectos positivos sobre el bienestar psicosocial y en la adopción de subsidios y programas sociales. Sin embargo, no es posible obtener resultados fiables debido a las deficiencias de datos, en particular la falta de una línea de base. Con el fin de resolver el problema, hemos generado una base de datos utilizando seis años de datos administrativos, incluyendo alrededor de 1.000.000 de registros de familias por año. Un método para superar el problema de sustitución de tratamiento es discutido y aplicado. Los resultados son mucho más robustos que los del Panel de Chile Solidario y muestran pequeños, pero evidentes efectos positivos de varias variables, especialmente relativos al número de trabajadores en el hogar, el porcentaje de trabajadores en el hogar y el empleo del jefe de hogar.

  18. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación de mayor alcance acerca del problema del papel de la novela durante y después de la Dictadura.For many critics and scholars the great novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile still remains a pending matter. This article, on the contrary, hypothesizes on the existence of a significant number of novéis published in Chile between 1977 and 2006, which out of their fragmentary character and peculiarity give a proper account of the causes and consequences of the coup d'état held on September llth 1973. The article seeks to set a preliminary basis for an epistemological discussion and further major research about the role of the Chilean novel, in the historical context of post modernity, during and after the dictatorship's era.

  19. Independencia y su expresión léxica en la Aurora de Chile Independence and its lexical expression in the Aurora de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Franco Figueroa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base documental el semanario Aurora de Chile, se realiza un análisis lingüístico que describe las caracterizaciones léxicas acomodadas a los nuevos contextos sociolingüísticos en esta época histórica de la independencia colonial y los fenómenos gramaticales que permiten observar rasgos diferenciadores en la lengua que se asienta en esta sociedad chilena. Por una parte, resulta interesante constatar la variación léxica que este texto periodístico, portavoz de una ideología ilustrada, proporciona para alcanzar un mejor conocimiento del grado de penetración del nuevo léxico político-social, con voces en muchos casos recreadas con las acepciones dominantes en las comunidades insurgentes. Por otra, la descripción de los fenómenos gramaticales y del léxico general de este corpus aporta datos concretos acerca de la preferencia de estas variantes lingüísticas y del grado de estandarización que van adquiriendo, como usos emergentes de la lengua española en Chile, bien como asentamientos de estructuras sintácticas y de léxico tradicionales o bien como mecanismos innovadores en la gramática y en el vocabulario diferencial americano.Based on the weekly newspaper Aurora de Chile, a linguistic analysis is here introduced including both the description of lexical characterizations as they adapted to the new sociolinguistic contexts in the historical period of the colonial emancipation and the grammatical phenomena that allow for the observation of differentiating features of the language being established in the Chilean society of the time. On the one hand, it is of interest to observe the lexical variation displayed in this journalistic text, which represents an illustrated ideology, in order to better understand the degree of penetration of the new political and social vocabulary, with voices in many cases recreated with uses dominating the insurgent communities. On the other hand, the description of the grammatical

  20. Prestigio y estigmatización en variantes anteriorizadas y posteriorizadas de las vocales del español de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Felipe Salamanca Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con esta investigación, pretendemos demostrar la pertinencia de correlacionar el parámetro fonético "dirección de la lengua" con la variable sociolingüística "estrato sociocultural". Focalizamos nuestro trabajo en el segmento etario comprendido entre los 18 y 25 años de edad, ello porque este segmento es el que exhibe una mayor consciencia de la norma lingüística y, en consecuencia, mayor distinción entre lo que se considera prestigioso y estigmatizado. Estimamos que este trabajo constituye un aporte a los estudios sociofónicos del español (de Chile en dos sentidos: a. En el aspecto fonético, aporta información sobre la alofonía del inventario de vocales del español hablado en Chile y b. En el aspecto sociolingüístico, da cuenta de la pertinencia de utilizar las nociones de prestigio y estigmatización no sólo para el inventario de consonantes -como han sido los estudios hasta aquí- sino también para el inventario de vocales.With the following research, we intend to demónstrate the pertinence of correlat-ing the phonetic parameter "tongue position" with the sociolinguistic variable "sociocultural stratum". We focused our work on the age group between 18 and 25 years oíd because that segment shows a greater awareness of the linguistics norms and, consequently, they make a clearer distinction between what is considerad prestigious and stigmatized. We believe that this work is a contribution to the sociophonetic studies of the Spanish spoken in Chile in two ways: 1. In the phonetic aspect, it gives information about the allophones in the vowel inventory of the Spanish spoken in Chile 2. In the sociolinguistic aspect, it accounts for the relevance of using the notions of status and stigmatization for not only the consonant inventory -as the researches have done so far- but the vowel inventory also.

  1. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

  2. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  3. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  4. Petrogenesis of the Eocene and Mio Pliocene alkaline basaltic magmatism in Meseta Chile Chico, southern Patagonia, Chile: Evidence for the participation of two slab windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Felipe; Morata, Diego; Pelleter, Ewan; Maury, René C.; Suárez, Manuel; Lagabrielle, Yves; Polvé, Mireille; Bellon, Hervé; Cotten, Joseph; De la Cruz, Rita; Guivel, Christelle

    2005-06-01

    The Meseta Chile Chico (MCC, 46.4°S) is the westernmost exposure of Eocene (lower basaltic sequence, LBS; 55-40 Ma, K-Ar ages) and Mio-Pliocene (upper basaltic sequence, UBS; 16-4 Ma, K-Ar ages) flood basalt volcanism in Patagonia. The MCC is located south of the Lago General Carrera-Buenos Aires (LGCBA), southeast from the present day Chile Triple Junction (CTJ), east of the actual volcanic gap between Southern South Volcanic Zone and Austral Volcanic Zone (SSVZ and AVZ, respectively) and just above the inferred location of the South Chile Ridge segment subducted at ˜6 Ma (SCR-1). Erupted products consist of mainly ne-normative olivine basalt with minor hy-normative tholeiites basalt, trachybasalt and basanite. MCC lavas are alkaline (42.7-53.1 wt.% SiO 2, 3-8 wt.% Na 2O+K 2O) and relatively primitive (Ni: 133-360 ppm, Cr: 161-193 ppm, Co: 35-72 ppm, 4-16.5 MgO wt.%). They have a marked OIB-like signature, as shown by their isotopic compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr o=0.70311-0.70414 and ɛNd=+4.7-+5.1) and their incompatible trace elements ratios (Ba/La=10-20, La/Nb=0.46-1.09, Ce/Pb=15.52-27.5, Sr/La1, Sr/La>25, low Ce/Pb, Nb/U) compatible with contamination by arc/slab-derived and/or crustal components. We propose that the genesis and extrusion of magmas is related to the opening of two slab windows due to the subduction of two active ridge segments beneath Patagonia during Eocene and Mio-Pliocene.

  5. Mycotrophy in Gilliesieae, a threatened and poorly known tribe of Alliaceae from central Chile Micotrofía en Gilliesieae, una tribu amenazada y poco conocida de Alliaceae de Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    GUSTAVO A TORRES-MELLADO; INELIA ESCOBAR; GOTZ PALFNER; M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2012-01-01

    The five known genera of Gilliesieae have their diversity center in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile, where many of their habitats are threatened by urban expansion, industrial and agroforestry activities, as well as other anthropogenic impacts. Very little is known about the biology of these particular geophytes, the majority of which currently have either vulnerable or endangered status, mainly due to their dispersed and small populations generally associated to remnants of native ve...

  6. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Moreno

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean...

  7. Beyond Income: A Study of Multidimensional Poverty in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bronfman, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared t...

  8. Transportation in Developing Countries: Greenhouse Gas Scenarios for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl O'Ryan; Daniel Sperling; Tom Turrentine; Mark Delucchii

    2001-01-01

    Chile is a lightly populated country of 15 million that has undergone large economic transformations. Over the past 25 years, the economy has evolved from a slow-growing state-directed economy into a fast growing, market-oriented economy. Its South American neighbors are imitating this transformation. The changes have been especially great in the transport sector, with the private sector taking over many traditional public sector activities. This report addresses the implications of Chile's e...

  9. Decades lost and found: Mexico and Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, yet Chile recovered much faster than Mexico. This study analyzes four possible explanations for this difference and rules out three, explanations based on money supply expansion, real wage and real exchange rate declines, and foreign debt overhangs. The fourth explanation is based on government policy reforms in the two countries. Using growth accounting and a calibrated growth model, the study determines that the on...

  10. Water governance in Chile: Availability, management and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Roberto; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Olivares, Claudio; Vera, Mauricio; Balocchi, Francisco; Pérez, Felipe; Vallejos, Carlos; Fuentes, Roberto; Abarza, Alejandro; Helwig, Bridget

    2014-11-01

    Chile has a unique geography that provides an extraordinary variety of climatic conditions and availability of water resources. The objective of this manuscript was to describe and analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, as well as the management of water resources, along a country with a narrow distance from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This presents challenges to water governance from data collection and analysis perspectives, and for administration of the resource. The Water Resources Directorate (Dirección General de Aguas, DGA), is the federal government organization in charge of the water resources of the country. The DGA and other relevant public and private institutions are examined in terms of competition and conflict resolution across different scales and levels of interaction associated with water resources governance. Both monitoring stations (rainfall, streamflow, water quality, groundwater, sediment and snowfall), and the Chilean management and legislation of water resources are also analyzed. Finally, the success (or lack) of the national administration to upgrade its monitoring stations and equalize water resources distribution throughout the country is discussed including the influence of climate change on data collection, and decision making across different scales of water governance.

  11. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile Primeiras observações sobre a biologia da nidificação de Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae no vale de Azapa, norte do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Méndez-Abarca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only preys recorded in the cells were Geometridae (Lepidoptera caterpillars and the presence of the parasitoid Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae was also recorded. A number of arthropods belonging to different groups, mainly spiders, were found occupying empty nests.Primeiras observações sobre a biologia da nidificação de Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae no vale de Azapa, norte do Chile. Alguns aspectos da biologia da nidificação da vespa Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 são registrados pela primeira vez. As observações foram conduzidas no vale de Azapa, deserto litoral do norte do Chile. Sessenta ninhos foram coletados e examinados, cada um composto por 1-14 células. A maioria dos ninhos estava aderida a postes de concreto. As únicas presas registradas nas células foram larvas de Geometridae (Lepidoptera. Um parasitóide, Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae, foi também registrado. Vários artrópodes, principalmente aranhas, foram encontrados utilizando ninhos vazios.

  12. La Entomofagia en México. Algunos aspectos culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Carlos Viesca González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan aspectos culturales del consumo de insectos con fines alimenticios en México y el mundo; particularmente se analiza la entomofagia en la época prehispánica y nuestros días, así como las causas por las cuales ha disminuido el consumo de estos artrópodos. Se explica porqué se ha creado una aversión hacia los insectos en diversos países y algunas regiones de México. Se reflexiona acerca del valor nutritivo de los insectos y las distintas culturas que han hecho posible que sobreviva esta práctica culinaria en el centro y sur del territorio nacional, algunas formas de preparar platillos basados en insectos, así como los problemas que enfrenta actualmente esta costumbre alimenticia entre los mexicanos y sus perspectivas.

  13. Jeroky Mbaekua - aspectos da etnoarte indígena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseias de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A idéia de arte compartilhada na cultura ocidental tradicionalmente tem sido entendida a partir de elementos conceituais e categorizações que não podem ser aplicados na cultura indígena. Assim, considerar a arte indígena significa observar sua complexidade, de forma a perpassar todas as instâncias da vida desses sujeitos. Desta forma, o texto busca discutir aspectos da etnoarte indígena que não é focada em uma noção de arte centralizada e homogeneizadora mas, sim atenta à uma perspectiva que busca contemplar melhor o seu modo de construção de símbolos, significados e representações culturais.

  14. Aspectos fisiológicos do mountain biking competitivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Dantas De Lucas; Carlos Eduardo Polazzo Machado; Kristopher Mendes de Souza; Mariana Fernandes Mendes de Oliveira; Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo; Veronica Vleck; Benedito Sérgio Denadai

    2010-01-01

    A prática do ciclismo off-road (mountain biking - MTB), cresceu muito nas últimas duas décadas, sendo incluído como esporte olímpico, nos Jogos de Atlanta em 1996, na modalidade Cross Country. Na última década, houve um aumento no número de publicações científicas que verificaram a demanda fisiológica durante competições, assim como o estudo de possíveis preditores da performance nesta modalidade. O objetivo deste estudo de revisão foi descrever alguns aspectos fisiológicos específicos do MTB...

  15. El discurso escolar: aspectos de su formación

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda, Apolo

    2006-01-01

    En este escrito se analizan los aspectos que configuran el discurso matemático escolar a fin de conocer su naturaleza, eminentemente social, y contribuir a los propósitos específicos de la investigación socioepistemológica que se busca, entre otras acciones, las reconstrucción del discurso matemático escolar. Este análisis se apoya de los resultados de la investigación de Castañeda, (2004) relativo al análisis de obras de texto de antaño, a su tratamiento didáctico y al fenómeno de difusión d...

  16. Cefaleia em salvas: aspectos clinicos e terapeuticos em 26 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e seis casos de cefaléia-em-salvas são estudados do ponto de vista clínico e terapêutico. Nos aspectos clínicos são ressaltados a dramaticidade deste tipo de cefaléia, o nítido predomínio no sexo masculino, a média de idade dos pacientes, a presença de manifestações associadas e os fatores desencadeantes das crises nos períodos suscetíveis. Do ponto de vista terapêutico três esquemas medicamentosos foram utilizados: maleato de metisergida, prednisona e associação de ambas as drogas. Em 88,3% dos casos um resultado significativo foi alcançado, traduzido por melhora ou abolição das crises.

  17. Could Higher Taxes Increase the Long-Run Demand for Capital?: Theory and Evidences for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Bustos; Eduardo Engel; Alexander Galetovic

    2002-01-01

    Is a tax increase always detrimental for capital formation? This paper estimates a long-run demand for capital in Chile, and studies the responsiveness of firms’ desired capital stock to variations in tax rates. We combine the neoclassical model with a cointegration argument to obtain a long-run demand for capital that is valid for a general adjustment-cost structure. On theoretical grounds alone, there is no a priori reason why higher taxes should reduce the desired capital stock. Higher tax...

  18. El perfeccionamiento docente en Chile (1990-2007): ¿Estado versus mercado?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Donoso Díaz

    2008-01-01

    La formación continua de los docentes en Chile es un área desregulada del Estado, la cual pese a su importancia estratégica, reconocida por todos los actores sociales políticos e institucionales, ha carecido de una política que ordene y provea un marco regulatorio para su actuar. Este fenómeno es de relevancia por el deterioro general de la educación y porque la reforma de los años de 1990 parece no haber superado cuestiones claves en este sentido; y también porque en sus raíces se encuentran...

  19. Ganas de Emprender y Felicidad: un Estudio Exploratorio a Partir del Global Entrepreneurship Monitor en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Hinojosa-Martinez; Carlos Albornoz-Pardo

    2013-01-01

    En este documento se utilizan datos del Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 (GEM) para estimar empíricamente los determinantes de la Intención de Emprender (IE) en Chile, entre los que se incluye la felicidad. Trabajos previos han estudiado indirectamente, y de manera muy general, el rol de la felicidad en la IE, sin incorporarla como una variable explicativa. En consecuencia, inspirados en las recomendaciones de Casrud y Brannback (2011), y en la invitación de Elfing et al. (2009) de ajusta...

  20. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    , vegetables and animals within the framework of the then accepted philosophy of the Great Chain of Being. Because of his ideas and statements, apparently endowing animals and plants with human characteristics, Molina was denounced for and then cleared of heterodoxy. Abbot Molina made an important contribution to the study of Chile's Natural History, and to the South American natural sciences in general. Although Molina lived most of his life outside of Chile, he nurtured a deep love and pride for his country. The picture that emerges from his writings contributed to a large degree in acquainting the world with his native land and its native peoples.

  1. Prevalencia del abuso sexual masculino en el extremo norte de Chile : secuelas a largo plazo, factores de protección y de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Cortez, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Chile is studied, specifically in the male population in the far north of the country. The reason for doing this arises from the need in Latin America in general and Chile in particular to develop this type of work, addressing the importance of incorporating the gender variable in the field of research on sexual abuse. In this context, the following objectives were also established: (1) To determine the long-term effects of child sexual...

  2. Communication of 4 July 1995 received from the permanent mission of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 12 July 1995, the Director General received from the Permanent Missions of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru a Statement of 4 July 1995 by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Member States of the Permanent South Pacific Commission in response to the announcement by the President of the Republic of France regarding the resumption of nuclear testing by France in the South Pacific. As requested by the Permanent Missions of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, the text of the Statement is being circulated for the information of Member States of the Agency

  3. The Image of E-Learning: Perceptions about a Chilean University and the E-Learning System in the Context of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the image of a Chilean university, as perceived by those inside and outside of the institution, in contrast with the general image of the e-learning system in Chile. The internal perceptions are those of current students and graduates of this Chilean university, while the external perceptions are those…

  4. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE LA SITUACIÓN LABORAL DE LAS MUJERES RURALES: Vitivinicultura, Industria Vitivinícola y Turismo Enológico. El Caso del Valle de Colchagua, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dávila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La inserción de la mujer rural en espacios laborales fuera de su hogar, forma parte de un escenario de cambios, que se conoce como “nueva ruralidad”. Asimismo la llegada del turismo rural a diferentes zonas y la inclusión de las mujeres rurales en esta nueva actividad productiva, son aspectos que se hacen relevantes en zonas vitivinícolas como el valle de Colchagua, Chile. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo determinar los cambios socioeconómicos en la situación de las mujeres rurales producto de su participación en empresas y actividades de turismo enológico y establecer si estos cambios observados modifican la situación de las mujeres que trabajan en la agricultura y en la agroindustria.  A través de entrevistas realizadas a tres grupos de mujeres, pertenecientes al ámbito de la agricultura, la agroindustria y el turismo de las viñas, se realiza un análisis comparativo de los cambios generados, tanto en el contexto familiar, como en las condiciones de trabajo y en aspectos de formación y capacitación de la mujer rural. Palabras claves: Turismo Enológico. Mujeres Rurales. Empleo Rural. Vale Colchagua. Chile

  5. Aspectos generales de la automatización industrial del sector farmacéutico

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Bibiana M; Vallejo, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    El presente artículo recopila la información sobre las tendencias mundiales en automatización de procesos industriales, aplicados al campo de los procesos de transformación de materiales en el sector farmacéutico. Se plantean los diferentes niveles de automatización que pueden ser de interés para la industria farmacéutica nacional y se hace una reflexión sobre el grado de avance para nuestra industria, seleccionando información sobre casos exitosos de automatización llevados a cabo desde la a...

  6. Verifique sus conocimientos sobre aspectos generales de fisiopatología

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Periz, Lola; Force Sanmartín, Enriqueta

    2011-01-01

    Para proporcionar cuidados de calidad a los pacientes es imprescindible tener unos conocimientos esenciales de fisiopatología, que es la ciencia que estudia los trastornos que se producen en las estructuras y en la función de los órganos y que comportan el proceso de enfermar. Ya que en ocasiones es difícil establecer una diferencia clara entre las causas y los procesos que ocasionan una enfermedad, la fisiopatología también estudia dichas causas. El término patogenia define más específicamen...

  7. Aspectos generales de la pesca del bonito (Sarda sarda)en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Basic aspects of the fising of Bonito in Argentina such as: catch statistics, fleet and gears, season and fishing grounds, and catch per unit effort (CPUE)are analized. FAO World Catch Statistics show that none of the different populations of Sarda sarda or other species of the Genus may support a highly productive fishery Exceptions are Sarda chilensis and S.sarda from the Black Sea, which us exploited by Turkey. On the basis of available information it may be inferred that the Bonito of Arg...

  8. Aspectos generales sobre el consentimiento informado en Obstetricia y Ginecología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Couto Núñez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El consentimiento informado se define como la conformidad de un enfermo respecto a una modificación de su organismo mediante tratamiento médico-quirúrgico, con fin curativo, y efectuado de acuerdo con las normas de las ciencia médicas, cuyos requisitos son: información, comprensión, voluntariedad, competencia y consentimiento; sin embargo, resulta frecuente observar en la práctica médica actual el empleo de procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos sin cumplir con dichos requisitos. La siguiente revisión tiene como objetivo ofrecer a los profesionales los elementos básicos sobre el consentimiento informado, que le permitan enfrentar los dilemas éticos que se presentan en Obstetricia y Ginecología, para garantizar la excelencia en los servicios de salud. Se concluye que el consentimiento informado constituye una herramienta de extraordinario valor en la relación médico-paciente y se ha convertido en un derecho de este último y en un deber de los médicos.

  9. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE LA BANCA CHILENA EN INTERNET PARA LA GENERACIÓN DE ESTRATEGIAS DE NEGOCIOS BANCARIOS EN LA WEB EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNET BANKING IN CHILE FOR THE GENERATION OF WEB-BASED BANKING BUSINESSES STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Vergara

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo principal analizar la efectividad de los servicios bancarios a través de Internet en Chile provistos por trece bancos nacionales. Para ello se consideraron dos etapas, la primera correspondió a la evaluación de funcionalidades de los sitios Web bancarios, utilizando una adaptación del modelo de evaluación de sitios Web de Hersey, y la segunda a la evaluación de los servicios según las percepciones de los clientes. Para la determinación de las funcionalidades fue necesario detectar la presencia o ausencia de treinta y siete elementos evaluados, según lo cual fue posible clasificar al sector bancario chileno en términos de lo que ofrece o no cada institución. Por otra parte, la encuesta aplicada tanto a usuarios como no usuarios de la banca en línea permitió conocer variados factores referentes al uso y no uso de los servicios. A pesar de que existen algunos aspectos en los que la banca nacional se desempeña sólo de forma regular, en el contexto global lo hace con un alto grado de efectividad. Además, el buen desempeño en el contexto general se hace evidente al observar la gran equiparidad existente entre los resultados nacionales y los de la banca neocelandesaThe main objective of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the services of Internet banking provided by thirteen Chilean banking institutions. To achieve this objective, two stages were considered. The first stage corresponded to the evaluation of the functionalities offered by the banking Web sites, using an adaptation of the Hersey Web site evaluation model. The second stage corresponded to the evaluation of the services according to the clients' perceptions. In order to determine the functionalities offered by banking Web sites it was necessary to detect the presence or absence of thirty seven elements. This approach permitted to rank the Chilean banking sector based on the Internet offer of each institution. On the other hand

  11. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  12. El no lugar de la música indigenista en Chile: hacia una etnomusicología de la soledad The Non-place of the Indigenous Music in Chile: towards an Ethnomusicology of Loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Díaz Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se centra en el estudio de los nuevos espacios que surgen en la sociedad contemporánea, para manifestaciones musicales adscritas a los pueblos originarios de Chile. Se sostiene que, junto con la diaspora socio-estética de la performática musical indígena, se ha producido paralelamente el desplazamiento de sus espacios rituales hacia sitios en donde ninguna actividad artística había encontrado su lugar antes del advenimiento de la sobremodernidad. Esta reconfiguración espacial ofrece nuevos retos para la etnomusicología. Ya no sólo se trata del desafío de estudiar nuevas formas de arte étnico en un contexto intercultural, sino también de incluir el complejo parámetro del lugar antropológico, que modifica los aspectos (y espectros del arte oral y que resitúa al investigador en una nueva coordenada, la del «no-lugar».The article focuses on the analysis of the new cultural places raised within contemporary society, which affects musical expressions attached to aboriginal cultures in Chile. The article claims that, next to the socio-aesthetical Diasporas of indigenous musical performance, a parallel shift is being produced, from ritualistic places to spaces where no artistic expressions had been before hypermodernity. This reconfiguration of space is a new challenge to Ethnomusicology because nowadays, not only the study of new forms of ethnic art in an intercultural context is required, but also the inclusion of the anthropological place. This modifies the aspects (and specters of oral art and relocates the researcher in a new coordinate, the «non-place».

  13. TRICOMONOSIS EN ADOLESCENTES EMBARAZADAS DE ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE

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    HERNAN SAGUA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los problemas de salud de la adolescencia se caracterizan por una carga psicosocial elevada y un nivel de daño relativamente bajo en términos de morbilidad y mortalidad, sin embargo, la disminución de la edad promedio de la menarquia y el inicio precoz de actividad sexual coital son factores de riesgo para el embarazo y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS entre los adolescentes. En este trabajo se investigó la infección por Trichomonas vaginalis y los factores epidemiológicos y obstétricos relacionados entre 300 adolescentes embarazadas de la ciudad de Antofagasta, cuyas edades variaron entre 12 y 18 años, de las cuales el 87,7 % se concentró en el rango 15 y 17 años, en tanto que el 76,0 % tuvo su menarquia entre los 12 - 14 años y el 27,3 % inició su actividad sexual antes de los 15 años. Se determinó una tasa de infección por T. vaginalis de un 5,7 % .TRICHOMONOSIS IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENT FROM ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE A large psychosocial load and a relatively lower impact in terms of morbidity and mortality characterize adolescence’s health problems. For adolescents, however, a decrease in the average for the first menstruation and an early start in sexual activity, are two risk factors for both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In this work, we have investigated Trichomonas vaginalis’ infection and its related epidemiological and obstetric factors, among 300 pregnant adolescents from Antofagasta in northern Chile, between the ages of 12 to 18. Most adolescents studied (87.7% were in the range of 15-17 years old; 76.0% had the first menstruation at the range of 12-14 years old and 27.3 % started sexual activity before the age 15. A T. vaginalis’ infection rate of 5.7 % was obtained

  14. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  15. De la represión al patrimonio: vestigios de la violencia de estado en Madrid y Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchini, Maria Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores social practices related to two sites of repression both resulting from 20thcentury dictatorships: Villa Grimaldi in Santiago, Chile, and Carabanchel Prison in Madrid, Spain. The conservation and memorialization of «sites of memory» is a common practice in the contemporary world. The objective here is to analyse critically certain aspects of the memorial culture in which these practices are generated and developed, demonstrating the existence of transnational dialogues and mimetic processes between communities rooted in different contexts. Taking this transnational perspective as its starting point, the article explores the actors, languages, rituals and timing of the heritage valuation processes affecting these two sites in the 21st century, and compares and contrasts similarities and differences, demonstrating the development of a common memorial culture. This dialogue suggests a reflection on various critical aspects of the transnational culture in which these two processes are framed.Este artículo investiga las prácticas sociales que se desarrollan en torno a dos lugares de represión de dos dictaduras del siglo XX: Villa Grimaldi en Santiago de Chile y la Cárcel de Carabanchel en Madrid, España. La conservación y memorialización de «sitios de memoria» es una práctica difundida en el mundo actual. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar críticamente algunos aspectos de la cultura memorial en la que estas prácticas nacen y se despliegan, mostrando la existencia de intercambios y procesos de mímesis entre comunidades de distintos contextos. Adoptando esta perspectiva transnacional, se investigan los actores, los lenguajes, los rituales y los tiempos de los procesos de valorización patrimonial que han afectado a estos sitios en el siglo XXI, evidenciando algunas similitudes y diferencias que indican el desarrollo de una cultura memorial común. Este diálogo sugiere una reflexión sobre algunos aspectos cr

  16. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  17. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  18. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  19. Presentaci??n de la Mesa de debate sobre "aspectos fundamentales de las redes

    OpenAIRE

    L??pez Rodr??guez, Marta Sof??a

    2012-01-01

    Redes sociales: de la indignaci??n al cambio. Aspectos Fundamentales de las Redes. Presentaci??n de la Mesa de debate sobre "aspectos fundamentales de las redes" por Marta Sof??a L??pez Rodr??guez (Universidad de Le??n, filolog??a) que modera la mesa. Curso de verano: "Redes sociales: de la indignaci??n al cambio (aspecto ??ticos, pol??ticos y est??ticos)", MUSAC, 21-23 septiembre de 2012, organizado en cooperaci??n con la Universidad Polit??cnica de Munich (HM), BITrum y MyUniversity.

  20. La influencia del Aspecto en la eficiencia del mensaje gráfico publicitario

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Bouza, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    La investigación se centra en cómo mejorar la eficiencia del mensaje gráfico publicitario desde la perspectiva formal del diseño y concreta la variación de la preferencia del receptor ante los cambios en los estímulos visuales provocados por los cambios de Aspecto del mensaje gráfico publicitario, así como la importancia del aspecto en el rendimiento comunicativo. El trabajo se orienta hacia el estudio de la influencia del Aspecto en la eficiencia del diseño gráfico aplicado a un sector en al...

  1. Hábitos tróficos de la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae durante el periodo estival frente a Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santa Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La reineta Brama australis es un importante recurso pesquero artesanal en la zona central chilena, incorporado en los programas de seguimiento biológico, pero con escasas evaluaciones de sus aspectos tróficos. Para actualizar el estado del conocimiento, se analizó su dieta durante el verano austral época de mayor disponibilidad de este recurso en la zona central de Chile, mediante el análisis del contenido gástrico de 300 ejemplares capturados entre noviembre 2011 y marzo 2012. Se identificó una dieta dominada por Euphausia mucronata (IIR = 92,33, aunque a escala mensual se identificó una dieta mixta de E. mucronata durante noviembre, diciembre 2011 y marzo 2012, además de Pterygosquilla armata y anfípodos hipéridos durante enero y marzo 2012. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre ambos sexos (P > 0,01. Estos resultados demuestran y corroboran que B. australis es un depredador pelágico con un reducido espectro trófico en el litoral de Chile central.

  2. Escalas de producción en economías mineras: El caso de Chile en su dimensión regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaly Rivera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Una proporción importante de la producción de cobre en Chile está geográficamente concentrada en dos regiones: Antofagasta y Atacama. A pesar de la evolución positiva del precio del cobre, el ingreso promedio de estas localidades ha presentado variaciones. Así, durante periodos de incrementos en el precio del cobre el ingreso promedio de Atacama ha aumentado, mientras que lo mismo no ha ocurrido en Antofagasta· Este trabajo analiza esta diferencia a partir del rol de las escalas de producción en el sector minero. Utilizando un análisis de sensibilidad para un modelo insumo-producto desagregado, se calculan encadenamientos y multiplicadores por escalas de producción a nivel regional. Esta estrategia permite identificar y cuantificar el impacto de cada escala de producción, confirmando efectos heterogéneos de la minería sobre la producción e ingreso local, aspectos que adquieren especial relevancia al analizarse la política minera actual en Chile.

  3. Factores de riesgo psicosocial y estrés percibido en trabajadores de una empresa eléctrica en Chile

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    Marjory Güilgüiruca Retamal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la correlación entre riesgos psicosociales laborales y estrés percibido en trabajadores de una empresa del rubro eléctrico en Chile Material y Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo, de alcance asociativo y de corte transversal, en el cual participaron 292 trabajadores. Se aplicó el instrumento SUSESO ISTAS-21, versión corta de la Superintendencia de Seguridad Social (SUSESO del Gobierno de Chile y la Escala de Estrés Percibido validada para población chilena. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS versión 17.0. Resultados: Los resultados indican que todos los factores de riesgos psicosociales estudiados presentan asociaciones estadísticamente significativas con estrés percibido. Destacan las relaciones de apoyo social y exigencias psicológicas con estrés percibido, así como la relación entre género y doble presencia, antigüedad laboral y trabajo activo, sistema de turno y compensaciones. Conclusiones: Los trabajadores evaluados manifiestan que en la medida que aumenta la percepción de riesgo de los factores psicosociales del trabajo, también aumentan sus niveles de estrés percibido con aspectos del contenido y organización del trabajo.

  4. Corrupción pública y privada. Cuatro aspectos: Ética en el servicio, contratos, financiación electoral y control

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas Junior, Salamão Antonio

    2013-01-01

    [ES] La presente tesis tiene dos objetivos generales: a) la realización de investigaciones sobre aspectos lingüísticos, jurídicos, económicos y sociológicos de la corrupción; b) la divulgación al público de la investigación, el análisis y las conclusiones extraídas sobre el fenómeno de la corrupción. Cuatro aspectos concretos serán examinados más atentamente em el desarrollo del tema: Corrupción Pública y Privada. Los cuatro son: Ética de los Funcionarios Públicos; Contratación Pública, Fina...

  5. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  6. Primary and High School resources for teachers and students to improve the space physics education in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, P. V.; Pinto, V. A.; Stepanova, M. V.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Primary and High School educational programs in Chile include a wide geophysical section inside the natural sciences and physics courses. Unfortunately, teacher generally have a lack of preparation and knowledge in this field and there is small amount of available didactical material in the native languaje. This implies that in the reality the geophysical topics are ignored year after year in the school rooms. By the preparation of didactic material and web resources in magnetosphere, solar wind and solar topics, in accordance with the official programs of the Chilean Ministry of Education, we are collaborating to the outreach of the space physics in Chile. As the primary diffusion mechanism is the web, we hope that all the spanish talking community in Latin America can benefit from the public teaching resources that we are developing. There are a growing number of space scientist and graduate students volunteering for this endeavour.

  7. Desarrollo de la educación parvularia en Chile - Preschool education development in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Caiceo, Chile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available DESENVOLVIMENTO DA EDUCAÇÃO PRÉ-ESCOLAR NO CHILEResumoA educação pré-escolar no Chile tem início na segunda metade do século 19, especialmente por influência alemã, trazida ao país por José Abelardo Núñez. No começo se deu de forma particular, formando-se os primeiros jardins de infância. Somente em 1906 foi fundado o primeiro jardim da infância mantido pelo Estado, anexo à Escola Normal n. 1. Para isso foi contratada a educadora austríaca Leopoldina Maluschka, que usou metodologias inspiradas em Fröebel. Na Universidad de Chile, a partir da década de 1930, teve início um movimento de renovação pedagógica orientado por Irma Salas, que havia se doutorado nos Estados Unidos com Dewey e trouxe o pensamento da Escola Nova para o país. Ela conduziu a criação da Escola de Educadoras de Pré-Escolares em 1944. A primeira diretora dessa escola foi a destacada professora Amanda Labarca. Isto facilitou a criação de berçários e creches no país. Neste texto, de caráter histórico, em que se recorrerá a documentos primários e secundários, se pretende descrever o desenvolvimento que o Estado do Chile tem mostrado pela educação pré-escolar no país, reconhecendo os direitos das crianças.Palavras-chave: jardins de infância, educação pré-escolar, Escola Nova, Junji/Integra. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN CHILEAbstractPreschool education in Chile has its beginnings in the second half of the nineteenth century due to the German influence brought to Chile by José Abelardo Núñez. The first kindergarten was formed in a particular way. After that, the first public kindergarten, attached to the Normal School No. 1, was founded in 1906. At the same time, the austrian educator Maluschka Leopoldina was hired and the Froebelian method was used. At the University of Chile, in the 30s of the twentieth century, an improved movement was carried out by Irma Salas who studied for her doctorate in The United States with Dewey

  8. Psicopatología descriptiva : aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos

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    Germán E. Berrios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se discuten algunos aspectos que afectan a la comprensión y al funcionamiento de la psicopatología descriptiva (PD, la cual proporciona un lenguaje descriptivo a la psiquiatría y las bases para sus constructos nosológicos. La PD formula postulados sobre la naturaleza de su objeto de estudio y sus causas subyacentes (haciendo uso del modelo médico. Se propone que la PD necesita una recalibración histórica, clínica y numérica. En relación a esto, se sugiere que en algunos casos, en contra de los principios psicométricos tradicionales, ciertos instrumentos deberán ser construidos de un modo flexible que permita que varíen de acuerdo a las necesidades descriptivas que presenten casos individuales. This paper deals with some of the issues that affect the understanding and functioning of descriptive psychopathology (DP. The latter remains the language of description in psychiatry and the basis for her nosological constructs. DP makes assumptions concerning the nature of its object and its underlying causes (i.e. makes use of the medical model. DP needs historical, clinical and numerical recalibration. It is suggested that in some cases, and against traditional psychometric principles, some instruments will have to be constructed that show flexibility and can be varied according to the descriptive needs presented by individual cases.

  9. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regulations to allow the importation into the continental United States of figs and pomegranates from Chile... production that is registered with the Government of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence...

  10. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... continental United States of pomegranates from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems... plant protection organization of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence of Brevipalpus...

  11. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  12. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a... United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems approach, the fruit must be grown in a place of production that is registered with the Government of Chile...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  14. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we are recognizing an additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for... the documentation submitted by the Republic of Chile, which we made available to the public review...

  15. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  16. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  17. GESTIÓN DE LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DE PLANTAS INDUSTRIALES EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vilaboa B

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, las plantas industriales chilenas vienen automatizando sus procesos de producción, lo que ellas justifican, principalmente, en el alza sostenida de los salarios industriales. Sin embargo, tanto o más importante es la puesta en el mercado de tecnologías de reciente desarrollo y bajo costo, las que viabilizan muchos proyectos que hasta hace algunos años no eran factibles. En este trabajo se analizan los aspectos económicos y de gestión, relacionados con la automatización de los procesos productivos en Chile. Como estudio de caso, se muestra la robotización de los procesos de inspección visual de la producción, lo que permite apreciar, de un modo aproximado, los beneficios y los costos económicos asociados a estos proyectos. La principal conclusión del trabajo señala que, la automatización de los procesos productivos, constituye un desafío ineludible para la industria nacional, en los próximos añosIn recent years, Chilean industrial plants have been introducing automation production processes, the main reason for this decision being the raise of industrial salaries. An important effect of such policies has resulted in the materialization of many projects - that were not feasible in the past- through the use of the new low cost technologies available. In this paper, we study the economics and management problems, related to the automation activities in Chilean companies. As a case study, we chose the robotization of visual inspection process in factory output, which balances the amount of benefits and cost involved in the projects. The main conclusion of the paper, indicates that the automation of production process is an unavoidable challenge, for the national industry, in the years to come

  18. Stakeholder participation within the public environmental system in Chile: major gaps between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. PMID:21641109

  19. The National Immunization Plan for Chile: is it a priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Crocco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978, Chile has an expanded immunization program. Target population is all infants and children in the country, along with the elderly at age 65. If we review available World Health Organization data on the immunization monitoring system, in 2011 all vaccines had below 95% coverage. With the exception of BCG, vaccines are primarily applied in the primary care setting. One way to understand organizational priorities is to identify how present they are in the management systems. Thus, it is possible to determine the priority of the National Immunization Plan in Chile by looking into sectoral planning. A review of the most recent policy documents of the Ministry of Health of Chile, one titled “National Health Strategy to Achieve the Health Objectives of the 2011-2020 Decade" stands out. Upon reviewing this policy paper, the National Immunization Plan is not considered as an outcome as a whole, but only some of the vaccines it includes.

  20. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  1. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  2. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  3. ESTUDIO DE ASPECTOS RELEVANTES DE LOS HABITANTES DE CAZUCÁ (SECTOR 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Clavijo Parrado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación de tipo descriptivo tuvo como objetivo general el acercamiento a la realidad social, económi - ca y demográfica de un sector de la comunidad de Cazucá, en aspectos considerados relevantes, tales como: vivienda, educación, ocupación, ingresos, gastos, edad y otros. Aunque la observación de campo se realizó en el sector cuatro de Cazucá (Soacha/Cundinamarca, se podría considerar como una muestra representativa de lo que podría estar sucediendo con el total de la comunidad. Dadas las características socioeconómicas de las familias, como unidades de observación, los resultados de - tectaron su vulnerabilidad a través de dimensiones tangibles y no tangibles relacionadas con la pobreza que, posteriormente, podrían ser objeto de indagación más profunda. Los resultados se socializarán con la comunidad y con las entidades y organismos que en Cazucá están o estén adelantando programas culturales, educativos, microempresariales y otros.

  4. Aspectos cognitivos e sociais das práticas científicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Será um aspecto constitutivo dos juízos de aceitabilidade cognitiva de teorias o fato de serem feitos sob certas relações sociais que incorporam valores sociais específicos cultivados pelos pesquisadores (Helen Longino? Ou será que fazer juízos corretos desse tipo é apenas uma conseqüência de interações sociais que ocorrem sob essas relações (Philip Kitcher? Embora de maneira geral subscreva o segundo ponto de vista, faço uma distinção, ausente dos escritos de Longino e Kitcher, entre aceitação correta e endossamento (endorsement de uma teoria, e defendo a tese de que a concepção de Longino aplica- se ao endossamento.Is it constitutive of making judgments of the cognitive acceptability of theories that they are made under certain social relations that embody specific social values that have been cultivated among investigators (Helen Longino? Or is making sound judgments of this kind just a consequence of social interactions that occur under these relations (Philip Kitcher? While generally endorsing the latter view, I make a distinction, not made by the philosophers under discussion, between sound acceptance and endorsement of a theory, and argue that Longino's view applies to endorsement.

  5. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by dipping low velocity normal faults. Additionally, we show that the low velocity oceanic crust persists to depths of up to 200 km, well beyond the depth range where the eclogite transition is expected to have occurred. Our results suggest that young subducting lithosphere also has

  6. Brucelosis bovina, aspectos históricos y epidemiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Rodríguez Valera,; W. Ramírez Sánchez,; Antúnez Sánchez, G; F. Pérez Benet; Y. Ramírez Pérez; Adria Igarza Pulles

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo puntualiza algunos aspectos sobre la historia de la enfermedad, animales susceptibles, distribución, transmisión, reservorios naturales, fuente de infección, transmisión, factores de riesgo asociados y eliminación del agente al medio; aspectos epidemiológicos de suma importancia. The present work remarks some aspects of history of the disease, susceptible animals, distribution, transmission, natural reservorios, source infection, transmission, associate factors of risk and...

  7. Aspectos psicosociales asociados al comportamiento sexual en jóvenes

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez, Mayra; Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila; Álvarez, Javier; Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio exploratorio, transversal, con muestreo por conglomerados, consistió en detectar las opiniones de jóvenes sobre aspectos del contexto que influyen en su comportamiento sexual. El instrumento utilizado registra las opiniones acerca de la familia, escuela, pares, lugares, aspectos sexuales y otros. Las respuestas muestran diferencias significativas por sexo en cuanto a la percepción de la influencia de la información del padre sobre las mujeres y la recibida en ...

  8. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    OpenAIRE

    Mancilla, Claudio; de Lima, Philomena

    2014-01-01

    En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual....

  9. Competitividad de las exportaciones de chile seco mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Flores Sánchez; Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de la competitividad que ha mostrado México, en cuanto a sus exportaciones de chile seco, durante el periodo de 1993 a 2009, mediante la obtención del índice de ventaja relativa de exportaciones y aplicando el método de análisis de participación constante de mercado, los resultados que se obtuvieron muestran que las exportaciones de chile seco de México han crecido fuertemente, con una tendencia de crecimiento muy variable, por otro lado los...

  10. Migración y Mercado Laboral en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Contreras; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle; Paulina Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Los últimos procesos migratorios que ha vivido Chile han despertado el interés respecto a los efectos de la inmigración sobre la economía del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y analizar los efectos de la inmigración sobre el mercado laboral en Chile y la situación de los migrantes en el mercado laboral local. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta CASEN 2006 y 2009, y los datos de Extranjería del Ministerio del Interior y del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, encontramos que ...

  11. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Héctor Hugo; Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2005-01-01

    La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a ...

  12. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Hearne, Robert R.; Easter, K. William

    1997-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limari, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limari valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993, were analyzed to determine the gains-from-trade from market transfers. In the economic and financial analysis of water markets, crop budgets wer...

  13. Entendiendo las brechas salariales por genero en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Perticara; Ivonne Bueno

    2008-01-01

    El propósito de este paper es estudiar las brechas salariales por género en Chile usando una nueva base de datos, la Encuesta de Protección Social 2002-2006, la que permite controlar por la experiencia laboral efectiva y el timming de dicha experiencia. Las variables de experiencia laboral potencial no reflejan el patrón de participación laboral intermitente y poco continuo que tienen las mujeres en Chile. Se introducen también correcciones por selección ocupacional y se instrumentan dos vari...

  14. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  15. [General aspects of homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avello L, Marcia; Avendaño O, Cristian; Mennickent C, Sigrid

    2009-01-01

    Homeopathic medicine is a type of therapy that appeared in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century. At the present time, it is widely accepted in developed countries as a form of alternative medicine. In Chile, health regulation includes homeopathy as pharmaceutical products and homeopathy is also considered a form of complementary medicine, that is well accepted by the public. The scientific rationale of homeopathy is based on an empiric type of thought that goes from the general to the particular. The symptoms that are valued are those that are particular to each sick individual. It uses diluted solutions of plants, minerals, animals and even venoms. There are basically two hypotheses to explain its mechanisms of action: The "immunological memory" and the "memory of water" or the transmission of electromagnetic information of the water. There still is needed to perform new studies to scientifically assess homeopathy and its usefulness, as an accepted alternative therapy. PMID:19399332

  16. ¿Es el Chile de la post-dictadura feminista? Is post-dictatorial Chile feminist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Feliu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo presenta las nuevas tendencias de los feminismos en Chile y analiza cómo pasaron a ser parte del texto social. El trabajo discute el hecho de que los discursos feministas, luego de la dictadura (1973-1990, continúan sin cuestionar la categoría "mujeres", que generaliza y suprime las diferencias de clase y raza entre ellas mismas. Tal presupuesto es analizado frente al acuerdo de los gobiernos democráticos chilenos con los intereses de la oligarquía y de la iglesia católica en la manutención del status quo.Parte de este compromiso viene restringiendo los discursos feministas a la estructura familiar nuclear, de forma que temas como clase, raza y sexualidad no alcanzan a ser enteramente problematizadas. En la medida en que las feministas chilenas no están cuestionando su lugar de enunciación, problemas como derecho reproductivo o el acceso de las mujeres al espacio público continúan siendo vistos desde una perspectiva privilegiada, que anula las discriminaciones existentes entre las mujeres.This essay is about the new trends on Chilean feminisms and how they have become part of the social text. The paper discusses how feminist discourses after dictatorship (1973-1990 remain without putting into question the category of "women" as a generalization that erases class and racial differences among women. This is analyzed in the context of the compromise made by Chilean democratic governments with the interests of oligarchy and the Catholic Church in order to maintain the status quo. Part of this compromise has constrained feminist discourses to the nuclear family frame, within which class, race and sexuality cannot be fully problematized. Since Chilean feminists are not questioning their place of enunciation, problems such as reproductive rights or women access to the public space continue to be seen from a privileged perspective that obliterates the existing discriminations among women.

  17. Refractarios: un aspecto clave en la industria del cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Neira, Percy

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available To sit in judgement values of the technic level reached in a cement plant, it is surprisingly objetive to analyse work, planning and control development about Refractories subject. Considering and recognizing the validity of this pragmatic axiom it will offer unexpected improvement perspectives of the productivity rates and production records. This work pretends to be a contribution for this purpose, bringing some theoretic and practical accounts about de conditions offered by the Kiln-Exchanger-Cooler most diffused system, analyzing the characteristics that refractory material must have, in accordance with each zone, and finally, including some appraisals and recommendations regarding some of the manifold aspects which belongs to one of the most interesting ad complex fields of cement industry.

    Para establecer un juicio de valor respecto al nivel técnico alcanzado en una planta cementera resulta sorprendentemente objetivo analizar el trabajo, planificación y control que se desarrolla alrededor del tema de Refractarios. Considerarlo y reconocer la validez de este axioma pragmático ofrecerá inusitadas perspectivas de superación de índices de productividad y récords de producción. En este trabajo se pretende un aporte a tal objetivo proporcionando algunas consideraciones teórico-prácticas sobre las condiciones que se presentan en el sistema Horno Intercambiador-Enfriador, más difundido, analizando las características que debe reunir el material refractario para cada zona y, finalmente, incluyendo algunas apreciaciones y recomendaciones principalmente de criterio, respecto a algunos de los múltiples aspectos que forman parte de uno de los campos más interesantes y complejos de la industria del cemento.

  18. Aspectos anatomopatológicos del linfosarcoma en el cerdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RUIZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen tres casos de linfosarcoma en cerdos de planteles de crianza industrial, dos de los cuales tenían un peso vivo de 60 kg y el tercer caso correspondió a una hembra reproductora de 280 kg de peso vivo. Los animales no presentaban signos ni síntomas clínicos específicos atribuibles a la enfermedad. A la necropsia se observó: aumento de tamaño de los ganglios linfáticos, bazo, hígado y placas de Peyer; presencia de un puntillado o nodulaciones blancas de tamaño variable en hígado y riñón. Histopatológicamente estos tejidos tenían infiltraciones de células de origen linfoide, y de aspecto de linfosarcoma.Three cases of lymphosarcoma in industrially-bred pigs are described, in which two of the pigs had a live weight of 60 kg, and the third, a reproductive female, had a live weight of 280 kg. The animals did not present any signs, nor specific clinical symptoms attributable to the disease. During the necropsy, an enlargement in the size of the lymphatic nodes, spleen, liver, and Peyer’s Plate was observed, as was the presence of white spots or nodules of various sizes on the liver and kidney. The histopathology carried out on the tissue revealed the presence of cells of lymphoid origin, and of a histological aspect of lymphosarcoma.

  19. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  20. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  1. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel González-Acuña; Carolina Silva; Marta Soto; Sergei Mironov; Lucila Moreno; González-Gómez, Paulina L.; Hasan Badrul; Mike Kinsella

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile). Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp.) and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis). The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites r...

  2. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  3. Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1987 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39º30' - 40º00', 73º30' - 71º45'W, were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S, gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally throught the consuption of autochthonous fishes.

  4. Religion and intimate partner violence in Chile: macro- and micro-level influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Evelyn L; Lehrer, Vivian L; Krauss, Ramona C

    2009-09-01

    The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present study explores the puzzle posed by these seemingly opposing macro- and micro-level forces. Results based on data from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a questionnaire on gender-based violence administered to students at a large public university in Chile, show that moderate or low levels of religiosity are associated with reduced vulnerability to violence, but high levels are not. This non-linearity sheds light on the puzzle, because at the macro level the religious views shaping Chile's legal and social environment have been extreme. PMID:19856701

  5. Visit of His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office in Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Secretary-General; Mrs Juan Martabit. 0502017_07.jpg His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit, Ambassador,Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office in Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland visiting the ATLAS building site. From left to right: Prof. Giora Mikenberg, ATLAS Collaboration; Mr Maximilian Metzger, Secretary-General and His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit. 0502017_08.jpg His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit, Ambassador,Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office in Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland visiting the ATLAS cavern. From left to right: From left to right: Prof. Giora Mikenberg, ATLAS Collaboration; Mr Maximilian Metzger, Secretary-General; His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit and Mrs Juan Martabit.

  6. Loxoscelismo en Chile: estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales Loxoscelism in Chile: epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Schenone

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un enfoque panorámico de estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales referentes a Loxosceles laeta y loxoscelismo efectuados en 1955-1988 en Santiago, Chile. Se estudiaron 216 casos de loxoscelismo. Los hechos más relevantes fueron: 52,8% correspondió a mujeres; edad entre 7 meses y 78 años; 84,3% fué loxoscelismo cutáneo (LO y 15,7% loxoscelismo cutáneo-visceral (LCV; 73,6% sucedió en época calurosa; en 86,6% el accidente ocurrió en la vivienda, especialmente en dormitorios, mientras la persona dormía o se vestía. La araña fué vista en 60,2% de los casos e identificada en laboratorio como L. laeta en 17,7% (10,6% de los 216 casos. Los sitios más frecuen temente afectados fueron las extremidades con 67,6%, lancetazo urente fué el síntoma inicial más frecuente. Dolor, edema y placa livedoide, la cual posteriormente se transformaría en escara necrótica, fueron las manifestaciones locales predominantes. En LCV hematuria y hemoglobinuria fueron constantes, ictericia, fiebre y compromiso de conciencia se presentaron en la mayoría de los casos. Tratamiento: LC con antihistamínicos o corticoides inyectables, LCV con corti-coides inyectables. La condición de los pacientes en el último control fué: curación completa en 75,5%, curación con secuela cicatrizal en 8,3%, muerte en 3,7% (todos con LCV y abandono en 12,5%. Adicionalmente, se ha efectuado una serie de estudios experimentales, tanto in vivo como in vitro para esclarecer aspectos básicos sobre el veneno de L. laeta y el tratamiento del loxoscelismo.A panoramic sight of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies, referring to Loxosceles laeta and loxoscelism, carried out in 1955-1988, in Santiago, Chile is presented. Two-hundred and sixteen cases of loxosce lism were studied. The most relevant features were: 84.3% corresponded to cutaneous loxosce lism (CD and 15.7% to viscerocutaneous loxos celism (VCD; 73.6% ocurred in hot season; in 86

  7. Situación socioeconómica de las áreas de manejo en la región de Coquimbo, Chile The socioeconomic situation in managed areas of the Coquimbo region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zúñiga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio define y desarrolla un conjunto de indicadores que permite medir la situación socioeconómica de las comunidades de pescadores artesanales que operan el régimen de Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB en la región de Coquimbo (Chile. Los resultados del estudio señalan que el desempeño socioeconómico de estas AMERB medido mediante indicador sintético global es regular. También, que las AMERB en una escala de 0 a 1 muestran un resultado más favorable en el aspecto institucional (0,54, seguido por el aspecto social (0,49 y finalmente por el aspecto económico (0,30. Así, el desarrollo institucional y la situación social son actualmente "buenos" a diferencia de la situación económica que es actualmente "regular o mala". A nivel global, la situación socioeconómica de las organizaciones de Peñuelas-A, Río Limarí, Apolillado, Ñagué y Totoral es "buena", mientras que para las demás organizaciones es regular o mala. Respecto a las causas del desempeño socioeconómico de las AMERB, el estudio señala que el componente más relevante es económico. En efecto, el ingreso per capita aparece altamente correlacionado con el éxito, seguido por la antigüedad de la AMERB, y el que ésta pertenezca a una zona de influencia urbana. Finalmente, las especies objetivo no son determinantes en el éxito socioeconómico, y contrario a lo que se podría suponer, las AMERB que disponen del recurso loco (Concholepas concholepas obtienen en promedio un peor resultado comparado con las organizaciones que explotan otras especies.The present study defines and develops a set of indicators able to measure the socioeconomic situation of artisanal fishing communities operating under a regime of Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (AMERB, in Spanish in the Coquimbo region (Chile. The results of the study indicate that the socioeconomic performance of the AMERBs, as measured with a global

  8. Aspectos epidemiológicos sobre mordeduras caninas durante el año 2011 en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Armstrong,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes causados por mordeduras de perros y gatos son un problema de salud pública y concretamente las mordeduras de perro constituyen el riesgo más grave que estos animales suponen para la salud de las personas. A los costes económicos derivados del tratamiento de las lesiones físicas debemos añadir las secuelas psicológicas que muchas veces aparecen tras las agresiones. La prevención es el único camino para resolver este problema y puede efectuarse mejor cuando se conocen los diversos factores involucrados en la génesis de este tipo de accidentedebido a lo anterior el objetivo del estudio fue describir las características epidemiológicas asociadas a las personas mordidas por perros. La metodología utilizada para la recolección de datos fue la aplicación de una encuesta a 9 centros asistenciales de la ciudad de Temuco. Se solicitó información sobre pacientes atendidos por mordeduras caninas durante el año 2011 y los datos recolectados se ingresaron en una planilla de cálculos. Los resultados indican que niños y adultos presentan 52% de las mordeduras durante el año. Los hombres presentan una mayor incidencia con un 47% a diferencia de las mujeres con un 44%. Con respecto a la región corporal afectada los miembros superiores alcanzan un 25% de frecuencia ante el ataque y los miembros inferiores un 31.3%. Por otra parte, las mordeduras por perros presentaron una marcada estacionalidad en los meses de verano con un 30% de casos. Se concluye que las mordeduras caninas son un problema frecuente y de real importancia en el ámbito de salud pública, generando en la población secuelas físicas y psicológicas por las lesiones generadas durante el ataque.

  9. Aspectos epidemiológicos sobre mordeduras caninas durante el año 2011 en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldo Armstrong,; Gloria Ulloa

    2016-01-01

    Los accidentes causados por mordeduras de perros y gatos son un problema de salud pública y concretamente las mordeduras de perro constituyen el riesgo más grave que estos animales suponen para la salud de las personas. A los costes económicos derivados del tratamiento de las lesiones físicas debemos añadir las secuelas psicológicas que muchas veces aparecen tras las agresiones. La prevención es el único camino para resolver este problema y puede efectuarse mejor cuando se conocen los divers...

  10. National Television of Chile--New headquarters building acoustic projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaquin, Mario

    2002-11-01

    In the last 15 years TV stations in Chile have been incorporating in their facilities architectural acoustic and noise control approaches. This has been necessary as much for the technological advance, as for the necessity to achieve a better quality of sound that the listeners receive. In 1998, the National Television of Chile, with the sponsorship of the College of Architects of Chile, requested preliminary architectural designs in order to enlarge and to renovate its headquarters buildings in Santiago, Chile in stages. The Acoustic Project has been developed in an integral way, with three fundamental disciplines: noise and noise control; Machine rooms; vibrations and vibration control; Buildings, engines; architectural acoustics and acoustic comfort; TV studios and technical rooms. This presentation describes the Acoustic Project, phases I (1999), and II (2002), how it was possible to establish a common language with architects and engineers and the different specialties, to apply acoustic criteria and standards, the theoretical development and the projected acoustic solutions. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  11. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  12. Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960 (19:11 UTC), a Mw 9.5 earthquake occurred in southern Chile (39.5 S, 74.5 W). This was the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded. (It was...

  13. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA. PMID:24861179

  14. Popular Education for Peasant Communities in Chile. Chapter 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante R., Isabel; Letelier G., Eugenia

    The rural population of Chile has been served poorly by the formal educational system, rural educational attainment lags behind that of urban areas, and outmigration and alienation of rural youth are high. In the past decade, popular education has attempted to educate rural people and put them in control of their destinies by drawing on popular…

  15. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  16. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique kn...

  17. Reshaping Power Markets-Lessons from Chile and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, R. Peter; García, Hernán

    1996-01-01

    Power sector reforms in Chile and Argentina are now roughly fourteen and four years old. In both countries, restructuring and deregulation have increased efficiency, led to active entry by new generators, improved the quality of supply, and reduced prices in real terms. The authors' review of experience in both systems confirms that policymakers must apply effective measures to introduce a...

  18. 75 FR 11583 - The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...

  19. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  1. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2014-01-01

    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

  2. Towards a Vision for Agricultural Innovation in Chile in 2030

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a vision statement for the agricultural sector that may then guide the future investments in Chile's agricultural innovation system, A joint and shared perspective on how the sector might look and what role agricultural innovation should play in getting there is a prerequisite for any effective strategy. But developing such a vision is not only a function of what...

  3. Chile : A Strategy to Promote Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study is to provide the Government of Chile with a review of the portfolio of small and medium enterprise (SMEs) development programs and the institutions that provide them, leading to recommendations to improve the effectiveness of a streamlined portfolio. This emphasis is important for economic reasons, given the sectors role in employment, and the possibility of improving its integration ...

  4. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  5. The 2008 Eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile and National Volcano-Monitoring Programs in the U.S. and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Lara, L. E.; Moreno, H.

    2008-12-01

    Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, began erupting on 2 May 2008. The eruption produced 3 Plinian eruption pulses between May 2 and 8. Between Plinian phases the volcano emitted a constant column of ash to approximately 10 km, gradually diminishing to approximately 3 km by the end of June. The eruption of Chaitén was remarkable on several counts--it was the first rhyolite eruption on the planet since Novarupta (Katmai) erupted in 1912, and Chaitén had apparently lain dormant for approximately 9300 years. Though Chaitén is located in a generally sparsely populated region, the eruption had widespread impacts. More than 5000 people had to be quickly evacuated from proximal areas and aviation in southern South America was disrupted for weeks. Within 10 days secondary lahars had overrun much of the town of Chaitén complicating the prospects of the townspeople to return to their homes. Prior to the eruption onset, the nearest real-time seismic station was 300 km distant, and earthquakes were not felt by local citizens until approximately 30 hours before the eruption onset. No other signs of unrest were noted. Owing to the lack of near-field monitoring, and the nighttime eruption onset, there was initial confusion about which volcano was erupting: Chaitén or nearby Michinmahuida. Lack of monitoring systems at Chaitén meant that warning time for the public at risk was extremely short, and owing to the nature of the eruption and the physical geography of the area, it was very difficult to install monitoring instruments to track its progress after the eruption started. The lack of geophysical monitoring also means that an important data set on precursory behavior for silicic systems was not collected. With more than 120 Pleistocene to Holocene-age volcanoes within its continental territory, Chile is one of the more volcanically active countries in the world. The eruption of Chaitén has catalyzed the creation of a new program within the Servicio Nacional de Geología y

  6. Adaptation and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes in South Central Chile Adaptación e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Lino (Linum usitatissimum L. en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Berti

    2010-09-01

    ón y la interacción genotipo x ambiente de 16 genotipos de lino (incluyendo 10 procedentes de Norte América y 6 de Argentina los que se sembraron en 11 ambientes (localidad-año en Chile entre el 2003 y el 2007. El rendimiento de semillas observado fue de más de 5700 kg ha-1 en algunos ambientes lo que indicaría un alto potencial. De acuerdo a los modelos AMMI y SREG los 11 ambientes fueron clasificados en cuatro grupos por el modelo AMMI y en tres grupos por el modelo SREG. Los genotipos fueron clasificados en cinco grupos por el modelo SREG, donde cuatro de los grupos incluían un sólo genotipo. El promedio general de rendimiento de semillas fue similar para todos los genotipos, sin embargo, el genotipo Nekoma fue considerado el más estable y de mayor rendimiento de semillas en todos los ambientes evaluados. El ambiente con mayor rendimiento fue Chillán 2003-2004, pero esta localidad tuvo baja estabilidad en el tiempo. Los ambientes con más alto rendimiento fueron Chillán 2003-2004 y Los Ángeles 2004-2005, hay que considerar que ambos ambientes fueron regados durante floración y llenado de granos. El contenido de aceite fluctuó entre 420 y 530 g kg-1. Las diferencias climáticas entre ambientes no influenciaron la composición del aceite como se esperaba. El lino se adapta a la zona centro sur de Chile observándose diferencias entre genotipos para rendimiento de biomasa y semillas, índice de cosecha, peso del hectolitro, contenido y composición del aceite.

  7. Epidemiological aspects in neuroschistosomiasis Aspectos epidemiologicos na neuroesquistossomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Henrique Fernandes Vidal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization process of schistosomiasis has been described in the literature. The present report shows and discusses some epidemiological aspects of neuroschistosomiasis that emphasizes this trend. Method: The study was done between July, 2005 and June, 2006, and consisted of spinal cord schistosomiasis carriers at the moment of diagnosis. These patients were evaluated whatever the origin and period of the year that they developed the symptoms. Results: A total of 13 patients were evaluated. Ten cases (76.92% came from the Metropolitan Region of Recife, while the other zones (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão contributed with just three cases (23.07%. October, November and December (post rainy period concentrated the majority of the cases (61.54%. Conclusion: The high spatial and temporal concentration of cases in relation to a recent endemic area for Schistosomiasis suggests that the immunological status may be an important factor for installation of Sschistosomal myelitis.O processo de urbanização da esquistossomose vem sendo descrito na literatura. O presente estudo apresenta e discute alguns aspectos epidemiológicos na neuroesquistossomose que confirmam essa tendência. Método: O estudo foi realizado entre julho de 2005 e junho de 2006, sendo composto por portadores de mielite esquistossomótica no momento do diagnóstico. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à procedência e ao período do ano que desenvolveram a doença. Resultados: No total foram 13 pacientes avaliados, sendo 10 casos (76,92% provenientes da Região Metropolitana do Recife, enquanto as demais regiões (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão contribuíram com apenas um caso cada. Os meses de outubro, novembro e dezembro concentraram a maioria dos pacientes (61,54%. Conclusão: A alta concentração espacial e temporal de casos em relação a uma área endêmica recente para esquistossomose sugere que a participação de fatores imunológicos possa ser importante para o

  8. Aspectos fisiológicos do mountain biking competitivo

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    Ricardo Dantas de Lucas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A prática do ciclismo off-road (mountain biking - MTB, cresceu muito nas últimas duas décadas, sendo incluído como esporte olímpico, nos Jogos de Atlanta em 1996, na modalidade Cross Country. Na última década, houve um aumento no número de publicações científicas que verificaram a demanda fisiológica durante competições, assim como o estudo de possíveis preditores da performance nesta modalidade. O objetivo deste estudo de revisão foi descrever alguns aspectos fisiológicos específicos do MTB Cross Country (MTB CC competitivo (intensidade de provas, perfil fisiológico de atletas de elite, uso de suspensões e determinantes da performance em subidas. Observa-se na literatura analisada que as provas de MTB CC parecem impor uma sobrecarga fisiológica maior, quando analisada através da frequência cardíaca, do que provas de ciclismo de estrada com duração semelhante. Entretanto, quando analisada pela potência de pedalada, observa-se claramente a característica intermitente da modalidade, com variações de potência durante a prova entre zero e 500W, e potência média relativamente baixa em comparação aos valores de FC encontrados. Outro fator importante levantado neste estudo são as alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do uso de suspensões nas bicicletas de MTB CC. O uso deste equipamento reduz o estresse muscular provocado pelo terreno acidentado, embora pareça não afetar o gasto energético total, tanto em percurso plano como em subidas. Entretanto, é fato que o desempenho em circuitos acidentados é melhorado com o uso das suspensões. Com base nos estudos abordados nessa revisão, conclui-se que o MTB CC enquanto modalidade competitiva apresenta uma grande variação de intensidade (avaliada através da potência, sendo esta atribuída principalmente ao tipo de terreno (irregular e com muitas aclives e declives acentuados em que as provas de MTB CC acontecem.

  9. Sialometria: aspectos de interesse clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pinheiro Falcão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A saliva total é um complexo de secreções multiglandulares composto de fluido gengival, células epiteliais descamadas, microrganismos, produtos do metabolismo bacteriano, resíduos alimentares, leucócitos, muco da cavidade nasal e da faringe. A saliva possui diversas funções, incluindo reparação tecidual, tamponamento, proteção, digestão, gustação, ação antimicrobiana, manutenção da integridade do dente e sistema de defesa antioxidante. A redução do fluxo salivar (hipossalivação é um distúrbio comum, e estima-se que cerca de 20% da população geral tenham esta alteração. A hipossalivação pode ser decorrente de diabetes mellitus, hipotireoidismo, desidratação, comprometimento do parênquima glandular por processos infecciosos, doenças granulomatosas ou condições autoimunes e inflamatórias (como a síndrome de Sjögren e a artrite reumatoide, radioterapia da região cefálica e/ou cervical, bem como pode estar associada a distúrbios do humor, efeitos adversos ocasionados pelo uso de algumas medicações ou, ainda, ser de causa idiopática. As terapias convencionais para o tratamento da redução do fluxo salivar, com o uso de sialogogos gustatórios e químicos, ainda apresentam restrições. Contudo, novas alternativas têm mostrado grande perspectiva no tratamento deste problema. Diagnosticar um paciente como hipossalivador crônico é um desafio na prática clínica, e os métodos de avaliação do fluxo salivar são pouco conhecidos pelos reumatologistas. A avaliação seriada do fluxo salivar é importante para o correto diagnóstico e prognóstico de determinadas condições bucais e sistêmicas. Esta revisão aborda alguns aspectos relacionados à função da saliva, às consequências da hipossalivação e aos métodos de medição da taxa de fluxo salivar, conceitos úteis na prática diária do reumatologista.

  10. Aspectos imunológicos da Leishmaniose Cutis Difusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysio Argollo

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de Leishmaniose Cutis Difusa é estudado quanto aos seus aspectos imunológicos. A imunidade celular foi investigada com testes intradérmicos, sensibilização artificia! do DNCB e dosagem de fator de inibição do macrófago (MIF. Embora alguns antígenos injetados tivessem dado reação positiva, a leishmanina foi não reatora evidenciando uma anergia específica. As imunoglobulinas G e M estavam elevadas. 0 encontro de anticorpos circulantes por alguns autores associando ao fato de que o complemento C3 era baixo em nosso paciente, levou-nos a considerar o consumo deste que fixado a complexos Ag-Ac circulantes poderiam explicar os surtos de febre e artralgias. Por fim são considerados os pontos de vista de autores diferentes em relação ao fato de que a LCD seria causada por espécie diferente de leishmânia, ou por defeito imunológico do paciente, destacando-se o trabalho de Convit³ em favor desta útlima hipótese.A case of Cutis Diffuse Leishmaniasis is studied in respect to its immuno logical aspects. Cell mediated immunity was investigated with a battery of nine intradermal antigens, using disposable 1.0 ml tuberculin syringes, with 25 guage oedles. Also, artificial sensibilization to the DNCB and dosage of the Macrophage Inhibiting Factor (MIF were carried out. Some of the intradermal tests were positive and the leishmanine reaction was negative showing specific anergy. The G and M immunoglobulines were elevated. Since circulating antibodies have been described in the literatura and our patient had tpe C³ complement at a low level we ponder about its consumption fixed to Ag-Ac complexes, which could explain the episodes of fever and arthralgias. Finally, the view points of different authors are considered in relation to the fact that CDL would be caused by a different species of leishumania, or by immunological defect of the host. Convit's reatons undoubtedly favors th is last hypothesis.

  11. "Voces usadas en Chile" (1900: las cartas de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes a Rodolfo Lenz ("Voces usadas en Chile" (1900: the letters written by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes to Rodolfo Lenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo presentamos el contenido de cartas inéditas escritas por Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes a Rodolfo Lenz durante el proceso de elaboración de "Voces usadas en Chile", obra lingüística de tipo normativo publicada en 1900. Estas cartas sugieren que, aunque la influencia de Lenz como modelo científico de Echeverría es indudable, su participación efectiva en "Voces usadas en Chile", especialmente en su sección lexicológica, no fue tan importante. Lenz colaboró con Echeverría principalmente dando indicaciones generales y revisó (junto con otras personas los apartados fonético y gramatical durante los últimos años de preparación del manuscrito. (The following work shows the content of non published letters written by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes to Rodolfo Lenz during the making of "Voces usadas en Chile", a normative linguistic work published in 1900. These letters suggest that, although the influence of Lenz as scientific model for Echeverría is out of question, his direct involvement in "Voces usadas en Chile" was not so important. Lenz took part on the making of this work mainly by giving general observations and revising (in collaboration with other persons the phonetic and grammatical chapters, during the last years of revision of the manuscript.

  12. Antecedentes sobre el desarrollo de la carcinología en Chile Background of carcinology progress in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Jara

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile continental la utilización de los crustáceos se remonta al menos a 10.200 años atrás. Sin embargo, la descripción formal de los componentes de la carcinofauna chilena se inició hace alrededor de 200 años, reconociéndose a Juan I. Molina como el primer naturalista nacional y el primero en asignar nombres científicos a crustáceos de este país. El desarrollo de la carcinología en Chile es obra de un vasto conjunto de especialistas extranjeros y nacionales. Entre los extranjeros destacan viajeros como el inglés Charles R. Darwin, quien contribuyó al conocimiento de los cirripedios; el francés Alcide D'Orbigny, primero en describir decápodos fósiles de Chile; y el alemán Eduard Poeppig, a quien se debe la temprana descripción de decápodos marinos y dulceacuícolas. Entre las expediciones extranjeras destacan la del buque británico H.M.S."Challenger", la de la Universidad de Lund (Suecia a Chile y la más reciente del B/I alemán "Victor Hensen" a Magallanes. Entre los naturalistas chilenos destacan Claudio Gay, Rodulfo A. Philippi, Carlos E. Porter y Nibaldo Bahamonde, todos ellos relacionados con el Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y el último reconocido como el más importante promotor del desarrollo contemporáneo de la carcinología en Chile. Hoy el conocimiento de la carcinofauna chilena de decápodos puede considerarse relativamente completo a nivel de taxonomía alfa, pero es preliminar en relación con la biología y ecología de la mayor parte de las especiesAlthough the utilization of crustaceans in continental Chile is at least 10,200 years old, the formal description of the components of the Chilean carcinofauna only began about 200 years ago; Juan I. Molina having being the first Chilean naturalist to scientifically name autochtonous crustacean species. Many foreign and national scientists have contributed, with their efforts, to the development of carcinology in Chile. Among the foreigners we find

  13. Extensión y Aplicación de AspectZ a la Administración de un Sistema de Fichas de Salud Electrónicas en Chile Extension and Application of AspectZ to the Management of an Electronic Health Card System in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una extensión de AspectZ con el objetivo de modelar los requerimientos del software que administra un sistema de fichas electrónicas de salud en Chile: SYSFIC 1.0. AspectZ es un lenguaje de especificación formal orientado a aspectos que preserva las características bases del lenguaje Z y que ayuda a encapsular incumbencias transversales del sistema en entidades separadas e independientes. La aplicación incluye el uso de diagramas con Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado (LUM y un modelado formal del sistema con AspectZ. Se discuten, además, las principales características del paradigma de modelado orientado a aspectos, como la separación incumbencias y la solución de los problemas del código disperso y enmarañado. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que la unión del modelado orientado a aspectos y de un método formal de desarrollo de software permite obtener soluciones más confiables para sistemas de información críticos como SYSFIC.This paper presents an extension of AspectZ to model the requirements of software that manages a system of electronic health records in Chile: SYSFIC 1.0 . AspectZ is an aspect-oriented language that preserves the basic characteristics of language Z and that aims to encapsulate cross-cutting concerns of a system into separate and independent entities. The application includes the use of Unified Modeling Language (UML diagrams and a formal modeling of the system using AspectZ. The main features of the aspect-oriented modeling paradigm, such as the separation of concerns and the reduction and elimination of scattered and tangled code, are discussed. The results of this study show that the combination of aspect-oriented modeling and a formal method of software development allow obtaining more reliable solutions for critical information systems such as SYSFIC.

  14. Exotic plant invasions to the mediterranean region of Chile: causes, history and impacts Invasión de plantas exóticas en la región mediterránea de Chile: causas, historia e impactos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on patterns, causes, processes and impacts of exotic plants, primarily in the mediterranean region of Chile, considering three major non-independent drivers of the invasion process: (a Availability of exotic species propagules, (b attributes of the local communities in which exotic species establish and through which they will eventually spread out, and (c attributes of exotic species that either facilitate or constraint their spread into new sites. Regarding availability of propagules, central Chile matorral presents the communities with the greatest incidence of naturalized herbs, followed by the sclerophyllous forest and the espinal scrubland in the coastal range. In contrast, north-central communities have lower numbers and proportions of naturalized species of herbs in their seed banks. Availability and persistence of naturalized herbs do not differ between aboveground vegetation and seed bank. Regarding attributes of local communities associated with the establishment and the spread of exotics, grazing regime and land use emerge as the most prominent causes that render them more prone to invasion by exotics. Evidence on the effect of the fire regime is contradictory and native species richness does not seem to be an important factor. Regarding attributes of exotic species, results suggest that naturalized annuals germinate within a wide temperature range, are highly resistant to cold and dry conditions, and show some degree of physiological dormancy. Additionally, naturalized annuals are highly tolerant to poor soils, but are generally intolerant to shade. These general attributes have largely determined the invasion process in the mediterranean region of Chile. Historical data indicate that an important number of exotic species were intentionally introduced, and that the spread of exotic is uncontrolled. It has been demonstrated that arrival time of exotics is of great relevance to understand present day spread of

  15. Características de manejo y conducta en caballos estabulados en el sur de Chile: Estudio preliminar Husbandry and behaviour characteristics in stabled horses in the south of Chile: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Márquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La estabulación de los equinos es una forma de manejo cotidiana, principalmente en aquellos destinados a deporte, provocando modificaciones conductuales debido al cambio desde un ambiente natural a uno artificial, pudiendo afectar su bienestar. En Chile, las condiciones en que se mantienen los equinos estabulados en relación a su bienestar no han sido descritas. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir algunas de las condiciones de estabulación de equinos y determinar si éstas son las requeridas para mantener un estado de bienestar adecuado. Se evaluaron 283 equinos, de distintas razas, pertenecientes a 14 criaderos del sur de Chile (Provincias de Valdivia, Ranco, Osorno y Chiloé. Se utilizaron métodos directos e indirectos; éstos consideraron aspectos de salud, comportamiento, prácticas de manejo y capacitación del personal. El 88% de los equinos presentó buena condición corporal, mientras que pocos presentaron heridas (2,5% y claudicaciones (0,7%. Todos los criaderos se preocupaban de realizar manejo antiparasitario y la mayoría de vacunar contra enfermedades infecciosas. Las principales falencias fueron la presencia de problemas conductuales (18,4%; la baja frecuencia de la alimentación de los equinos, tamaño de las pesebreras y la capacitación del personal en el manejo equino, particularmente la capacitación en relación al bienestar animal. En todos los criaderos existe preocupación por el cuidado de sus animales, sin embargo, la falta de conocimiento en relación a los problemas presentados es una situación que debería ser solucionada. La capacitación del personal encargado del manejo equino, en cuanto a comportamiento normal, sería un aporte para mejorar el bienestar de estos animales.The use of stables for horses has become a routine practice, especially for those used in equestrian sports, affecting some behaviours due to the changes in their natural environment which can have a detrimental effect on their welfare

  16. Eletroconvulsoterapia na depressão maior: aspectos atuais Electroconvulsive therapy in major depression: current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barros Antunes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A eficácia da eletroconvulsoterapia em tratar sintomas depressivos está estabelecida por meio de inúmeros estudos desenvolvidos durante as últimas décadas. A eletroconvulsoterapia é o tratamento biológico mais efetivo para depressão atualmente disponível. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar o papel da eletroconvulsoterapia no tratamento da depressão e destacar aspectos atuais relativos à sua prática. MÉTODO: Foram revisados na literatura estudos de eficácia, remissão de sintomas, fatores preditores de resposta, assim como aspectos atuais acerca da qualidade de vida, percepção dos pacientes, mecanismo de ação, técnica e prejuízo cognitivos. RESULTADOS: Os principais achados desta revisão foram: 1 a eletroconvulsoterapia é mais efetiva do que qualquer medicação antidepressiva; 2 a remissão da depressão com a eletroconvulsoterapia varia, em geral, de 50 a 80%; 3 Ainda é controverso o efeito da eletroconvulsoterapia nos níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (acho que aqui pode colocar entre parenteses o "BNDF"; 4 a eletroconvulsoterapia tem efeito positivo na melhora da qualidade de vida; 5 os pacientes submetidos à eletroconvulsoterapia, em geral, têm uma percepção positiva do tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: A eletroconvulsoterapia permanece sendo um tratamento altamente eficaz em pacientes com depressão resistente. Com o avanço da sua técnica, a eletroconvulsoterapia tornou-se um procedimento ainda mais seguro e útil tanto para a fase aguda, quanto para a prevenção de novos episódios depressivos.OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in treating depressive symptoms has been established by means of innumerable studies developed along the last decades. Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective biological treatment for depression currently available. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the role of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression and

  17. Efectos de la privatización de servicios públicos en Chile: Casos sanitario, electricidad y telecomunicaciones (Effects of privatization on public services in Chile: The case of the sanitary, electricity and telecommunications sectors)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Fischer; Pablo Serra

    2004-01-01

    Este trabajo realiza una evaluación completa de la evolución, regulación, efectos sobre el bienestar, eficiencia y rentabilidad de los servicios públicos privatizados en Chile. Nuestra evaluación general es positiva. La inversión aumentó en los distintos sectores, lo que permitió mejorar la cobertura de los servicios en aquellos casos en que ésta era baja, y aumentar la calidad y variedad de los servicios, especialmente en telecomunicaciones. La calidad y los costos de los servicios son simil...

  18. Trastornos generalizados del desarrollo: Aspectos clínicos y genéticos Pervasive developmental disorders: Clinical and genetics aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Ruggieri; Claudia Arberas

    2007-01-01

    Los Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo se expresan con compromiso en la socialización, trastorno en el desarrollo del lenguaje (verbal y no verbal) e intereses restringidos con conductas repetitivas. La frecuencia estimada en la población general es de 27.5/10.000. En nuestro trabajo analizamos los aspectos clínicos y genéticos de los TGD: Autismo, Síndrome de Asperger, TGD no Especificado, Síndrome de Rett y Trastorno desintegrativo de la niñez. Desde el punto de vista clínico jerarquiz...

  19. Capital Flows and Long-Term Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in Chile Capital Flows and Long-Term Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Soto

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines. in the context of an empirical model. the impact of capital flows. among other fundamentals, on long-term real exchange rates in Chile. The real exchange rate and its fundamentals, which can be characterized as integrated processes, are found to cointegrate in the 1960-92 period. Co integration allows a re-interpretation of uniequational estimates of the equilibrium real exchange rate (ERER as consistent with long-run forward-looking behavioral models, It also permits the estimation of an error-correction model, capable of disentangling short-run from long-run shocks in the observed RER movements. In addition, the non-stationary nature of the fundamentals allows us to decompose innovations into permanent and transitory components. in order to get an empirical measure of sustainability of the fundamentals with which we determine the ERER.In general the estimation of the cointegration equation of the ERER and its corresponding dynamic error-correction specification corroborates the theoretical model and produces fairly consistent results. The derived ERER index and the corresponding RER misalignment (for given sustainable values of the fundamentals are successful in reproducing salient episodes of the recent macroeconomic history of Chile. Capital flows are disaggregated into four components: short-term capital flows, long-term capital flows, portfolio investment and direct foreign investment. As expected from economic theory, short-term capital flows and portfolio investment were found to have no influence on the ERER (though can affect the RER in the short-run. On the contrary, the other two components of capital flows have a significant effect on the ERER. The main implication of our results is that to the extent that the recent inflow of capital to Chile is dominated by long-term capital flows which are judged to be sustainable. then an important part of the ensuing RER appreciation is consistent with equilibrium behavior

  20. Some Generalities About Generality

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2015-01-01

    We survey a variety of cosmological problems where the issue of generality has arisen. This is aimed at providing a wider context for many claims and deductions made when philosophers of science choose cosmological problems for investigation. We show how simple counting arguments can be used to characterise parts of the general solution of Einstein's equations when various matter fields are present and with different spatial topologies. Applications are described to the problem of singularities, static cosmological models, cosmic no hair theorems, the late-time isotropisation of cosmological models, and the number of parameters needed to describe a general astronomical universe.

  1. El aprecio por el paisaje y su utilidad en la conservación de los paisajes de Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo de la Fuente de Val; José A. Atauri Mezquida; José V. de Lucio Fernández

    2004-01-01

    La transformación del paisaje mediterráneo de Chile Central comienza a plantearse en la sociedad como una prioridad en todas sus dimensiones y funcione. Se consideran no sólo sus factores ecológicos, sociales, económicos sino también culturales, escénicos y afectivos. Se ha sugerido la percepción del paisaje como una pieza significativa para emprender nuevas formas de relación con el entorno. Este trabajo ilustra los resultados generales de un amplio estudio de preferencias paisajísticas y me...

  2. CHILES 2: a finite element computer program that calculates the intensities of linear elastic singularities in isotropic and orthotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHILES 2 is a finite-element computer program that calculates the strength of singularities in linear elastic bodies. A generalized quadrilateral finite element that includes a singular point at a corner node is incorporated in the code. The displacement formulation is used and interelement compatibility is maintained so that monotone convergence is preserved. Plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric conditions are treated. Isotropic and orthotropic crack tip singularity problems are solved by this version of the code, but any type of singularity may be properly modeled by modifying selected subroutines in the program

  3. CHILES 2: a finite element computer program that calculates the intensities of linear elastic singularities in isotropic and orthotropic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzley, S.E.; Beisinger, Z.E.

    1978-02-01

    CHILES 2 is a finite-element computer program that calculates the strength of singularities in linear elastic bodies. A generalized quadrilateral finite element that includes a singular point at a corner node is incorporated in the code. The displacement formulation is used and interelement compatibility is maintained so that monotone convergence is preserved. Plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric conditions are treated. Isotropic and orthotropic crack tip singularity problems are solved by this version of the code, but any type of singularity may be properly modeled by modifying selected subroutines in the program.

  4. Patrones de distribución espacial y temporal de floraciones de Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid Balech 1985, en aguas interiores de la Patagonia noroccidental de Chile Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of blooms of Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid Balech 1985, on inland seas of northwest Patagonia, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MOLINET

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella en las aguas interiores de la Patagonia noroccidental, fue registrada en la década de los 90. A partir de 1995 se iniciaron programas de monitoreo de fitoplancton orientados al seguimiento de este dinoflagelado y sus efectos sobre los mariscos en la Décima y Undécima Región de Chile, financiados por distintas instituciones. Esto permitió recolectar una importante base de datos, aunque incompleta en muchos aspectos debido a la independencia de objetivos de los diferentes estudios. En esta revisión se agruparon todos los datos disponibles para buscar patrones que ayuden a la formulación de hipótesis sobre la dispersión e incidencia espacial y temporal de A. catenella en esta amplia zona y mucho más habitada que la Duodécima Región. Inicialmente se recolectaron muestras mensuales y desde fines de 2000 semanales tanto de fitoplancton como de mariscos en un número de estaciones que varió cada año. Desde fines de 1995 al 2002 se registraron cuatro floraciones de A. catenella, con intensidad y distribución variable, observándose una expansión de la distribución geográfica de esta especie hacia el norte (desde aproximadamente 45° 47' S en 1996 a 42° S, Chiloé en 2002. Las cuatro floraciones registradas fueron marcadamente estacionales, concentradas entre los meses de enero a marzo y coincidieron con los máximos registros del veneno paralizante de los mariscos. Los datos analizados sugieren que el origen de las floraciones de A. catenella en las aguas interiores de la región estaría asociada a la presencia de bancos de quistes, cuyo ciclo de vida se expresa con una variación bianual debido a la variación en condiciones ambientales que favorecen la germinación de estos organismos. La influencia de oscilaciones en el océano adyacente que estarían afectando las características de circulación general de las aguas interiores y las características de la columna de

  5. An International Report. UNESCO-ICHPER Study in Educational Planning for Physical Education, Health and Recreation for School Age Youth In and Out of School. Pilot Project in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Council on Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This report on a joint United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)--International Council on Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ICHPER) study in Chile reviews (a) how the study was approached in general, (b) its development and application, and (c) how it may serve as a model for similar studies conducted in…

  6. La gestión por procesos, su surgimiento y aspectos teóricos

    OpenAIRE

    Daysi Ruiz-Fuentes; Rosa Mercedes Almaguer - Torres; Isabel Cristina Torres-Torres; Alejandro Miguel Hernández-Peña

    2013-01-01

    Abordó aspectos históricos y teóricos relacionados con la gestión por procesos, se precisa las potencialidades de su aplicación para el perfeccionamiento de la dirección de las empresas. Presentó un análisis de diferentes definiciones de este término a partir del c ual se determinan las regularidades que lo caracterizan. Se puntualizan algunos aspectos teóricos vinculados con esta forma de gestión empresarial.

  7. La gestión por procesos, su surgimiento y aspectos teóricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Ruiz - Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordó aspectos históricos y teóricos relacionados con la gestión por procesos, se precisa las potencialidades de su aplicación para el perfeccionamiento de la dirección de las empresas. Presentó un análisis de diferentes definiciones de este término a partir del c ual se determinan las regularidades que lo caracterizan. Se puntualizan algunos aspectos teóricos vinculados con esta forma de gestión empresarial.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis: Aspectos microbiológicos, clínicos y epidemiológicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Matta, Salim; Arango, Álvaro I.; Visbal, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Se presenta una revisión completa de los principales aspectos microbiológicos, clínicos y epidemiológicos de Chlamydia trachomatis. Se hace énfasis en los mecanismos particulares de invasividad, tipo de receptores, aspectos epidemiológicos y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad entre otros. Se abordan las patologías que ocasiona Chlamydia trachomatis separando las infecciones en el hombre, mujer y niños. También se realiza una actualización sobre los diferentes métodos de diagnóstico d...

  9. Métricas aplicadas a la programación orientada a aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Baigorria, Lorena; Montejano, Germán Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Encontramos muchos problemas de programación para los cuales las técnicas de programación procedural o orientadas a objetos (OO) no son suficientes para capturar algunas de las decisiones importantes de diseño, que el sistema debe implementar. La Programación Orientada a Aspectos (POA) es una técnica que ha surgido para mejorar la separación de las competencias en la programación de software. La Orientación a Aspectos (OA) se basa en tecnologías existentes, como la orientación a objetos...

  10. Aspectos sobre travestilidade e envelhecimento : história, corpo e imigração

    OpenAIRE

    Mountian, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    Esse artigo traz algumas reflexões sobre travestilidade e envelhecimento, baseadas na pesquisa Travestilidade e Envelhecimento. O tema do envelhecimento da população travesti e transsexual é pouco investigado nas pesquisas brasileiras, e há aqui uma grande gama de aspectos que necessitam de visibilidade e debate. Considerando o contexto transfóbico em que se encontram, destaca-se aqui aspectos levantados na pesquisa relacionados à saúde da população travesti e das mulheres trans em relação às...

  11. Aspectos ambientales a considerar en vertederos: Emplazamiento y emisiones de biogás

    OpenAIRE

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco José; García Darás, Ferran; Vives Peris, Vicente; Herrera Prats, María Lidón; Robles Martínez, Fabián

    2013-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo ha sido identificar los aspectos ambientales que más se tienen en cuenta a la hora de otorgar la autorización ambiental a los proyectos de vertederos controlados. Cuando un proyecto de vertedero y su correspondiente estudio de impacto ambiental son sometidos al procedimiento administrativo de la evaluación de impacto ambiental, el órgano ambiental concede la autorización mediante la declaración de impacto ambiental. En ésta, además se detallan los aspecto...

  12. Aspectos psicosociales del embarazo en la adolescencia, año 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ávila Gálvez; Maylén Cid Santana; Ileana García Imia; Antonio Lorenzo González; Pablo Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio explicativo-observacional, de tipo estudio de casos y controles, en adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años, del sexo femenino, provenientes del Policlínico Docente "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez", en el año 2000, compartidos en 2 grupos: el estudio, con 53 casos que se embarazaron, y el control con 106 adolescentes que no lo hicieron. Se compararon diferentes aspectos de la sexualidad, esfera familiar y sociodemográficos, con el fin de determinar la influencia de algunos aspectos psicos...

  13. Lexicografía chilena finisecular. "Voces usadas en Chile" de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes (1900 (Chilean fin-de-siècle lexicography. "Voces usadas en Chile" by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes (1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alfero Wolff

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio corresponde al análisis metalexicográfico del diccionario "Voces usadas en Chile", publicado en 1900 por Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes. La investigación tiene por objetivo conocer y establecer el estado de la lexicografía practicada en Chile a fines del siglo XIX. La metodología básica de este estudio se centra en la aplicación sistemática de la plantilla de análisis metalexicográfico de Matus (1995a, que pretende describir, analizar y valorar críticamente los repertorios lexicográficos del español de Chile. El análisis, que inserta el inventario léxico bajo estudio de forma transversal en el desarrollo de la lexicografía en Chile, muestra la avanzada técnica científica incorporada en el procesamiento y sistematización del material léxico. Por otro lado, evidencia las estrategias por medio de las cuales el autor comienza a abandonar las ideas puristas y normativas imperantes en su época. En efecto, se reconoce más de un punto de referencialidad idiomática, propiciándose así una estandarización policéntrica (De Granda, 1994: 48. La polarización entre léxico oficial y léxico marginal se desdibuja, siendo este un aspecto que puede verse reflejado en la incorporación de términos «malsonantes» y tabuizados. Finalmente, se bosqueja la importancia de la obra de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes como un diccionario de transición entre lo precientífico y lo propiamente científico. (This paper is a metalexicographical analysis of the dictionary "Voces usadas en Chile", by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes published in Chile in 1900. It reviews the state of lexicography practiced in late 19th Century Chile. The analysis follows Matus’ metalexicographical analysis chart (1995, which allows description, analysis and critical evaluation of lexicographical works on Chilean Spanish. This work aims at reavealing (revealing the advanced scientific techniques used by Echeverría y Reyes in processing and systematizing

  14. La enseñanza básica en Chile desde 1970 hasta 2009. Continuidades, cambiantes paradigmas e influencia extranjera en la escuela básica chilena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    La enseñanza básica en Chile desde 1970 hasta 2009: Continuidades, cambiantes paradigmas e influencia extranjera en la escuela básica chilena. Palabras clave: Filosofía educacional, enseñanza básica pública, paradigmas, pedagogía Resumen: En esta ponencia nos proponemos analizar la enseñanza básica...... escuela primaria chilena en sus aspectos centrales, y en qué medida los distintos regímenes políticos la han cambiado radicalmente o en su caso, han conservado sus rasgos históricos. Nos interesa también investigar los aportes de las tradiciones europeas y norteamericanas en la enseñanza básica en...

  15. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile. PMID:27187810

  16. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  17. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2014-01-01

    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  18. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  19. El estado de la seguridad ciudadana en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    de Rementería, Ibán

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo desarrolla, desde una perspectiva crítica, un detallado “estado del arte” de la temática de “seguridad ciudadana” en Chile, delineando cómo esta problemática obedece más bien a una percepción de inseguridad instalada en la ciudadanía desde los medios de comunicación, y legitimada por los expertos interesados en asegurar la sostenibilidad de sus servicios en el emergente “mercado de la seguridad.” Se sostiene en el ensayo que en Chile la situación de seguridad ciudadana es la mej...

  20. Reforma educativa y política en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two important educational reforms introduced since the return to democracy in Chile. The first one was targeted at the poorest 10% of schools in Chile. The second was a fundamental reform of the primary educational sector. Both have been successful in meeting their objectives, and mark a fundamental shift from the educational reforms of the Pinochet government. The reasons for the success of the reforms are broken down into political, institutional and operational factors. In essence, a small team of trained educational reformers, with widespread support and strong backing from the Minister of Education and the President were able to overcome the resistance of the bureaucrats of the Ministry of Education and that of the school teachers union.

  1. [Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelart, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America. PMID:12261387

  2. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio MANCILLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  3. [Adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile, 1968-1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E; Albala, C; Icaza, G

    1994-12-01

    "The paper starts with a brief analysis of the sources and the quality of the data and the mortality indices [for trends in adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile]....A comparison is made of mortality among the 13 regions of the country and an attempt is made to relate the observed differences to some environmental and life-style factors. Rural-urban and educational differences of mortality by cause of death are also analyzed. The paper ends by comparing mortality by chronic disease in Chile with that of other countries of the Latin American region, noting some difficulties [in] such a comparison and proposing hypotheses for future studies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12290226

  4. Variables perceptuales y emprendimiento naciente en Chile: oportunidad versus necesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon Sabatini, Joaquin; Franetovic Parker, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    In this work we seek to assess how perception variables affect on the timely decision to undertake in Chile, measured by the nascent entrepreneurship, ie, those entrepreneurs who are starting a new business, including any form of self-employment or commersialisation of all types of goods or services. This, controlling for other relevant variables of demographic and economic nature . It seems particularly interesting to quantify how affect self-confidence, perception of opportunity, fear of fa...

  5. Growth, Poverty and Employment in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zepeda; Diana Alarcón; Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Guerreiro Osório

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient labour income and limited access to employment are critical problems that policy makers must address when designing development strategies in Latin American countries. The persistence of the high incidence of poverty and inequality can be explained largely by the poor performance of labour markets. This Working Paper uses household survey data for Chile, Brazil and Mexico, from the early 1990s to the early 2000s, to examine the link between the growth of labour income, employment...

  6. Physical dating violence among college students in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2007-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health concern both per se and because victimization in the young adult years can be a precursor to more severe incidents of domestic violence later, in the context of cohabitation or marriage. To date, no quantitative studies have examined dating violence among college students in Chile. To address this gap, a survey on this topic was administered to students at a major public university. The present analyses focused on the female sample (n=441). Generaliz...

  7. Peer Effects and Relative Performance of Voucher Schools in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Sapelli; Bernardita Vial

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of vouchers has been hindered by the lack of sufficient empirical evidence. The Chilean education voucher system was established at a national scale and has data for more than 15 years. The empirical literature developed to evaluate the voucher system in Chile faced methodological and/or data limitations up until late 1999, since there was no individual data available, and papers used the school as a unit of study. Additionally, the studies l...

  8. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global markets. Despite this support, a declining number of farmers and an aging population are observed in rural areas. Most rural development programs focus on increasing competitiveness, whereas the stay...

  9. Reviews of National Policies for Education : Tertiary Education in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón, Maria Paulina; Crawford, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tertiary education in Chile has been transformed radically over the past 20 years. As recently as 1990, tertiary education was an elite system centered on a handful of traditional universities which served a small number of well-prepared students. Today the system is diverse and dynamic, with over 6,000 programs of study offered by more than 200 institutions. More than 800,000 students are...

  10. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ...

  11. REASONS FOR CONGLOMERATION: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT RESPONSES IN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE TARZIJÁN M; JOSÉ RIVERA

    2000-01-01

    This paper is intended to contribute to the understanding of the motivations behind the diversification decisions of the Chilean “economic groups”. With this objective we surveyed the largest such groups in Chile. Our results show that the most important reasons for diversification for the top management of the Chilean business groups are managerial synergies (board of directors), financial synergies, information synergies and some specific operational synergies such as economies of scope in ...

  12. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  13. Price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Saens; Germán Lobos

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of a road pricing scheme to optimize the use of transport infrastructure depends on the available information regarding the price elasticity of demand for bridges, tunnels and highways. The aim of this paper is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile using the seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) method and a panel of 48 monthly data drawn from 21 toll plazas (48 x 21). Our results show that, even when controlling for gasoline prices and economic act...

  14. Eighty Years of History of the Central Bank of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Leonardo Hernández

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Chile was founded in 1925, to provide the country with an institution that could stabilize the currency, regulate interest and discount rates, and avoid disruptions in the country’s financial, industrial and economic development (Decree Law Nº486, August 22, 1925). But a weak institutional framework meant that the Bank, far from ameliorating these problems, aggravated them, leading to decades of high and persistent inflation. Inflation became under control only during the ...

  15. Talcahuano, Chile, in the wake of the 2010 disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Because of Chile’s geographical position, earthquakes and tsunamis are recurrent phenomena and reducing vulnerability to these events is imperative. To do this, one needs to understand the geophysical features of the hazards involved and the vulnerability that exposed communities live with. This article presents some unexpected findings of a research regarding the latter and devised to investigate the vulnerability realities that the devastating 2010 earthquake/tsunami event in Chile exposed....

  16. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Robles Farías

    2015-01-01

    Chile has a long history of implementing social policies. It was one of the first countries in Latin America to expand free health care coverage and education, incorporating cash and in-kind transfers to promote access to social services and offer diverse protection mechanisms for its most vulnerable population groups. That said, its current social protection model is the result of a series of efforts, institutions and policies that have been consolidated over time.(?)

  17. Business Incubator Financing and Financial Services in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Chandra; Magda Narczewska

    2009-01-01

    Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 20-25 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to organize risk...

  18. Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Postsecondary Degrees: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Loreto Reyes; Jorge Rodríguez; Sergio S. Urzúa

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the economic returns to different postsecondary degrees in Chile. We posit a schooling decision model with unobserved ability, observed test scores and labor market outcomes. We benefit from administrative records to carry out our empirical strategy. Our results show positive average returns to postsecondary degrees, especially for five-year degrees. However, we also uncover a large fraction of individuals with realized negative net returns. Although psychic benefits of postseconda...

  19. Residential Segregation Effects on Poor’s Opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Larrañaga Jiménez; Claudia Sanhueza Riveros

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify whether or not the spatial concentration of poverty –also called economic residential segregation- affects the opportunities of the poor in Chile. Residential segregation is understood as the concentration particular population groups in determined geographical areas within cities. To identify the effects of segregation we use a panel of cross sections of the Casen household surveys, although the measures of segregation are computed from the Census data. The result...

  20. Desigualdades sociales y tipos de territorios en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Las desigualdades sociales en Chile incluyen desigualdades territoriales que permanecen no observadas cuando se enfoca exclusivamente las regiones administrativas. Un conjunto entrelazado de tipos de territorios representativos del proceso de urbanización en un nivel subregional, es propuesto para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales desde una perspectiva territorial. Un territorio es delimitado por un mercado de trabajo común, lo que es medido por la conmutación o movilidad territorial.

  1. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Rodríguez; Luz Angélica-Muñoz; Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study´s theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.METHOD: Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses.RESULTS: among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, B...

  2. Quality Assurance and Large Scale Reform: Lessons for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    David Hopkins

    2006-01-01

    This synthesis report begins with a brief overview of the education system in Chile and the expressed need for a national system of quality assurance. Five case studies from British Colombia, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and Scotland are presented along with the 'twelve commandments' for effective quality assurance. The report concludes with key arguments for evidence based accountability and quality assurance. This report was created from presentations from the International semina...

  3. Managing Natural Resources Revenue: The case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    J. Rodrigo Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Countries abundant in natural resources face the dilemma of how to manage this source of revenues. The recent boom in commodity prices put this issue at the top of the agenda in natural resource rich economies. Chile, for instance, is the largest copper producer in the world, supplying 43% of world copper exports. In 2007, the state-owned corporation, CODELCO, produced one third of total Chilean copper output and the revenues from its copper exports accounted for 16% of total fiscal revenues....

  4. Nota técnica: Seguridad vial: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2011-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial ha servido de apoyo para el dialogo con el Gobierno Chileno en la preparación de la estrategia país del BID con Chile 2011-2014. En este se describe el estado de la situación de la seguridad vial en el país, se realiza un diagnostico del sector, se exponen los desafíos de desarrollo y se realizan recomendaciones de política.

  5. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities. PMID:25424677

  6. Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.

  7. Development of management system for fruit export from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of agencies in the control of fruit quality and of phytosanitary aspects have considerably increased in the last four years, resulting in an improvement in the quality of fresh fruits exported from Chile to the USA and Europe. Most of the produce, requiring shipping times of 2 to 3 weeks, is being shipped in refrigerated vessels. The Fundacion Chile has helped this export industry not only by training field inspectors, capable of checking quality of fruit before it has been packed, but also by certifying this quality when required by the exporter or his overseas customer. Strict quarantine requirements in importing countries have imposed a number of restrictions and produce is fumigated either in Chile or in the port of import. It is suggested that before irradiation is applied to Chilean fruits for export one should: (a) evaluate its effect on quality, with special reference on maturity at harvest, (b) demonstrate quarantine efficacy to a standard accepted by importing countries, (c) solve logistical aspects, (d) evaluate application technique in dependence of different packagings, (e) make cost assessments and (f) work towards bilateral agreement regarding acceptance of treatment and of facilities. (author)

  8. Partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral aisladas de achira (canna edulis ker.) afectada por clorosis en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Observaciones al microscopio electrónico de extractos de hojas de achira (Canna edulis) afectada por una clorosis, precedente del departamento del Huila (Colombia) revelaron la presencia de partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral de aproximadamente 600 nm x 10 nm. Este es el primer reporte de partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral infectando a achira en Colombia.

  9. Aspectos epidemiológicos y de análisis del síndrome de aborto bovino Epidemiological and analytical aspects of bovine abortion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gädicke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El aborto bovino es un factor limitante en las lecherías, por su impacto en la disminución de los reemplazos y producción del rebaño, por lo que constituye un desafío para la Medicina Veterinaria. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los principales aspectos relacionados con la epidemiología y formas de análisis del Síndrome de Aborto Bovino (SAB. El trabajo se organiza en dos partes, la primera incluye aspectos epidemiológicos, impacto y factores de riesgo; en la segunda se presentan algunas metodologías para su cuantificación, análisis y sistemas de vigilancia. En los estudios que tratan el tema de aborto bovino existe mucha disparidad en la presentación y formas de cálculo de indicadores epidemiológicos, así como en las definiciones empleadas para definir los eventos de importancia que se utilizan para el análisis de la presentación y factores de riesgo. Es necesario hacer una diferenciación clara entre los factores de riesgo del animal y del rebaño, los que pueden estar asociados a prácticas de manejo específicas que dependen del tipo de sistema productivo adoptado. En Chile se necesitan estudios que consideren el problema del SAB en forma integral. Además, los factores de riesgo establecidos en otros países no son totalmente extrapolables a las condiciones nacionales, por lo que se hace necesaria una mayor investigación en esta área para realizar un estudio ajustado a la realidad nacional que permita diseñar sistemas de intervención y control eficientes y efectivos.Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for the dairy sector, because it causes a decrease in milk production and the potential number of replacements of the herd, and also it constitutes a challenge for the veterinary profession. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology and different ways of analyzing the Bovine Abortion Syndrome (BAS. This review is divided in two parts; the first one presents an overview of the epidemiology, impact

  10. Análisis de la correlación entre los programas de estudio para la enseñanza del inglés en educación general básica en Chile y la teoría del desarrollo intelectual de Piaget

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya García, Marcela; Mardones Corrales, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: El presente artículo tiene por objetivo principal analizar la correlación existente entre los Programas de Estudio para la Enseñanza del inglés en Educación General Básica (E.G.B.) y la Teoría del Desarrollo Intelectual de Piaget, así como determinar el modelo pedagógico inscrito. Para ello, se parte de una muestra constituida por cuatro Programas de Estudio -de Quinto a Octavo Básico- elaborados y distribuidos por la Unidad de Evaluación y Currículum del Ministerio de Educación de ...

  11. Impacto de Parámetros de QoS en Aspectos de QoE: Análisis desde el Punto de Vista de la Sincronización Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagud Climent, M.A.; Boronat, F.; Martinez, M.; Belda, J.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    La sincronización multimedia ha sido un área de investigación clave desde los inicios de los sistemas multimedia. En este artículo se ofrecen una visión general y un análisis sobre el impacto de varios parámetros de QoS en diferentes aspectos de la QoE, desde el punto de vista de la sincronización m

  12. Excess Returns and Systemic Risk for Chile and Mexico Excess Returns and Systemic Risk for Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    McNelis, Paul D.; Guay C. Lim

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with excess returns in the equity markets and the evolution of systemic risk in Chile and Mexico during the years 1989-1998, a period of financial openness, policy reform and crisis. A time varying generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic in mean framework is used to estimate progressively more complex models of risk. They include the univariate own volatily model, the bivariate market pricing model, and the trivariate intertemporal asset pricing model. T...

  13. Excess Returns and Systemic Risk for Chile and Mexico Excess Returns and Systemic Risk for Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. McNelis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with excess returns in the equity markets and the evolution of systemic risk in Chile and Mexico during the years 1989-1998, a period of financial openness, policy reform and crisis. A time varying generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic in mean framework is used to estimate progressively more complex models of risk. They include the univariate own volatily model, the bivariate market pricing model, and the trivariate intertemporal asset pricing model. The results show no evidence of a significant reduction in systemic risk rather excess returns have remained volatile for both countries. For Chile, excess returns are significantly related to own lagged levels, while for Mexico excess are significantly related to own lagged variances. The influence of global factors are relatively minimal compared to potential home factors. This paper is concerned with excess returns in the equity markets and the evolution of systemic risk in Chile and Mexico during the years 1989-1998, a period of financial openness, policy reform and crisis. A time varying generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic in mean framework is used to estimate progressively more complex models of risk. They include the univariate own volatily model, the bivariate market pricing model, and the trivariate intertemporal asset pricing model. The results show no evidence of a significant reduction in systemic risk rather excess returns have remained volatile for both countries. For Chile, excess returns are significantly related to own lagged levels, while for Mexico excess are significantly related to own lagged variances. The influence of global factors are relatively minimal compared to potential home factors.

  14. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  15. Sinopsis de la justicia electoral en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Marshall Barberán

    2007-01-01

    En primer término, el artículo realiza un catastro de la legislación chilena que contiene alguna normativa electoral, para luego hacer una descripción general de la regulación y organización de los órganos de la justicia electoral de ese país. En segundo plano, el ensayo revisa las competencias resolutivas que se anidan en los órganos de la justicia electoral chilena.

  16. Los lagartos de malpelo (colombia): aspectos sobre su ecología y amenazas

    OpenAIRE

    López-Victoria, Mateo

    2012-01-01

    Se aportan nuevos aspectos sobre la historia natural de los saurios de la Isla deMalpelo y, como complemento al Libro Rojo de reptiles de Colombia, se plantea sunivel de amenaza y clasificación según los criterios de la UICN.

  17. Legislación y atención temprana. Notas sobre aspectos sociosanitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Ponte, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    En este artículo se revisan parte de las medidas legislativas que inciden sobre la atención infantil temprana (AIT), centrándose en la esfera sociosanitaria y dejando al margen los aspectos educativos y la financiación.

  18. Aspectos metodológicos en estudios de calidad del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Gutiérrez, Irene de

    1989-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza una revisión de distintas metodologías seguidas en estudios de calidad y contaminación de aguas superficiales y subterráneas, comentándose distintos aspectos prácticos y sus aplicaciones.

  19. Karu-INIA, nuevo cultivar de papa para Chile Karu-INIA, new potato cultivar for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Kalazich B.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karu-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. creado a partir del cruzamiento Yagana-INIA x Fanfare, por el Programa de Mejoramiento Genético de la Papa del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Remehue, Osorno, el año 1989. Es una planta semi erecta, de buen vigor, con tubérculos de tamaño medio a grande, uniformes, de forma oval alargada, piel roja y pulpa amarilla clara. Posee altos rendimientos y se adapta bien a la mayoría de las zonas y épocas de cultivo de la papa en Chile. Su uso preferente es para consumo fresco, aunque produce una fritura de calidad altamente aceptable, similar a Yagana-INIA.Karu-INIA is a new potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar, created from a cross between the cultivars Yagana-INIA x Fanfare by the Potato Breeding Program of the National Agricultural Research Institue (INIA, at the Remehue Regional Research Center, Osorno, Chile, in 1989. It is a semi-erect plant, with vigorous growth, a medium to large size, long oval-shaped tuber, red skin and clear yellow flesh. It is a high yielding cultivar and adapts well to the majority of the potato production areas and crop seasons in Chile. It is preferred for fresh consumption, although it has fairly good frying quality, similar to Yagana-INIA.

  20. Conservation biology in Chile: Are we fulfilling our social contract? Conservación biológica en Chile: ¿Estamos cumpliendo nuestro contrato social?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A SIMONETTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation needs to be informed by science. On this regard, scientific efforts ought to be allocated to tackle research priorities; offer sound and explicit advice, and results ought to be translated into conservation plans and programs. If such conditions are met, scientists would be fulfilling their social contract, sensu Lubchenco. In this brief essay I analyze the fulfillment of such a contract in Chile. In general, the scarce priorities set for addressing conservation issues are not considered, only a third of scientific publications in conservation-related issues offer explicit advice and a minor fraction of relevant scientific information is considered in the preparation of conservation plans. Current mismatch between conservation science and practice weakens longstanding efforts to achieve an effective conservation of the Chilean biota. Suggestions are advanced to close the gap.La conservación de la biodiversidad requiere apoyo científico. En este sentido, desde el ámbito científico se deberían destinar esfuerzos para abordar las prioridades de investigación, ofrecer recomendaciones explícitas, y los resultados de la investigación científica deberían ser incorporados a los planes y programas de investigación. De cumplirse estos pasos, los científicos estarían satisfaciendo su contrato social, sensu Lubchenco. En este breve ensayo analizo el cumplimiento de tal contrato en Chile. En general, el escaso conjunto de prioridades existente no ha sido abordado, solamente un tercio de las publicaciones científicas en temas de conservación biológica ofrecen consejo explícito y una fracción menor de la información relevante y pertinente es considerada en la elaboración de planes y programas de conservación. El desacople entre la ciencia y la práctica de la conservación debilita esfuerzos de larga data tendientes a lograr una efectiva conservación de la biota chilena. Para intentar cerrar esta brecha, ofrezco

  1. History of dental caries and need for dental treatment of children with visual disabilities, Chile, 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guidotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la historia de caries y la necesidad de tratamiento odontológico de niños con discapacidad visual entre 6-12 años, pertenecientes a Escuelas Especiales de Chile, el año 2014. Material y método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal. Se examinaron niños con discapacidad visual de escuelas especiales en Chile, según los criterios de la OMS, para obtener el ceod, COPD y la necesidad de tratamiento. Se registraron las lesiones de esmalte clínicamente detectables en superficies cavitadas y no cavitadas. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: 94 niños fueron examinados, pertenecientes a 7 escuelas especiales. El ceod promedio fue 2,05 (SD ± 2,6 y el COPD fue de 0,96 (SD ± 1,3. A los 6 años el ceod/COPD fue de 3/0 respectivamente. A los 12 años el ceod fue 0,17 y COPD fue 1,42. La prevalencia de caries fue de 56,3%. El 95% necesita sellantes, el 50% necesita a lo menos una restauración de una cara, y el 29% una restauración de 2 o más superficies. En cuanto a las lesiones de esmalte, el 34% de los niños presentaban al menos una lesión no cavitada y un 48% de ellos tenían una lesión cavitada.Conclusión: La historia de caries es similar a lo descrito en la población general, sin embargo, existe una alta necesidad de tratamiento preventivo. Es necesario realizar más investigaciones que permitan esclarecer si poseen un mayor riesgo cariogénico debido a su alteración visual, para así establecer estrategias promocionales/preventivas efectivas. Abstract: Objective: To determine the history of dental caries and the need for dental treatment of children with visual disabilities 6-12 years, belonging to Chile Special Schools, 2014.Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The target population was children with visual disabilities in special schools in Chile. A clinical examination was performed to obtain a deft, DMFT and

  2. Dentists’ training in Chile and some iberoamerican countries. Considerations for education, health and job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggelo Carrizo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, several studies focused on the training of dentists in Chile and other Ibero-American countries and its implications have been published. However, there is no analysis of all the evidence at a regional level. The aim of this article is to review the changes in training for dentists in Ibero-America, the educational and/or sanitary policies associated to these changes and the impact that they have for dentists in the future in Chile and the region. In general terms, a strong increase in the amount of available places for studying dentistry, without a clear sanitary or educational planning to justify it, has been observed in several countries of the region this rise does not show a positive impact in the access to dental treatment, especially for the poorest populations. Although the levels of satisfaction are high among dentists, an unemployment rise and a salary decrease have been observed over the last few years, which could impact professional satisfaction. In Ibero-America, an exponential increase of dental schools, without a positive impact on the oral health of the population, but negatively affecting workforce, is observed. RESUMEN En los últimos años se han publicado varias investigaciones centradas en el aumento de la formación de dentistas en Chile y otros países de Iberoamérica. Sin embargo, no existen análisis de toda la evidencia a nivel regional. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los cambios en la formación de dentistas en Iberoamérica, las políticas educativas y/o sanitarias asociadas a dichos cambios y el impacto que han tenido en el futuro para los odontólogos de Chile y la región. En términos generales se observa un fuerte incremento en la cantidad de plazas disponibles para estudiar odontología en varios países del área, sin una clara planificación sanitaria o educativa que lo justifique. Este crecimiento no ha mostrado un impacto positivo en el acceso a atención odontol

  3. Postgrado en Enfermería en Chile Nursing Postgrade in Chile, it’s historical evolution and present situation: Su evolución histórica y situación actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Jofré-Aravena

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra la situación de los programas de postgrado en Enfermería en Chile en strictus sensus (magíster y doctorado, incluyendo, una panorámica general de los postgrados en el país. Se hace una revisión de los principales hechos que han motivado la creación de los postgrados en enfermería en el país y las dificultades que se presentan en los distintos niveles en la creación y desarrollo de estos programas. La evolución histórica de estos programas se asemeja al de los demás programas de postgrado de enfermería en América Latina.This article shows the situation of the nursing postgrade in Chile in strictus sensus (magíster and doctorate, including, a general panoramic of the graduate degrees in the country. A revision of the main facts that have motivated the creation of the graduate degrees in infirmary in the country and the difficulties that are presented in the different levels in the creation and development of these programs is made. This programs resembles the historical evolution of the other programs of graduate degree of nursing in Latin America.

  4. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than

  5. Utility to Consumers and Consumer Acceptance of Information on Beef Labels in Southern Chile Utilidad y Aceptación de Información en el Etiquetado de la Carne Bovina en Consumidores del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Credence attributes (production system, animal welfare, traceability, among others have acquired importance for meat products in developed countries, representing information that must be included on label. A personal survey was administered to 770 consumers in the Bío-Bío and La Araucanía Regions, Chile, to determine the utility of information contained on the label and acceptance of information referred to as credence attributes, as well as to distinguish different consumer segments. The packaging and expiry dates were the most useful aspects of the current information. The greatest degree of agreement with respect to information that should be included was a quality seal, type of animal, handling regarding animal welfare, production system and feeding. Using cluster analysis, three segments were distinguished. The largest (49.2% agreed most strongly with including information about feeding, transport conditions, slaughtering, traceability, and production system. The second group (34.4% was indifferent to information about transport, slaughter and traceability. The smallest segment (16.4% disagreed with including information on slaughtering. Therefore, the information currently present on meat labels was useful for consumers, who would also value having information on the credence attributes associated with cattle production, such as production system, feeding and animal welfare.Considerando la importancia que han adquirido los atributos de credibilidad (sistema de producción, bienestar animal, trazabilidad, entre otros en el consumo de carne de los países desarrollados, aspectos que deben ser informados mediante el etiquetado, se realizó una encuesta personal a 770 consumidores de las Regiones del Bío-Bío y La Araucanía de Chile, para determinar la utilidad de la información contenida en el etiquetado, la aceptación de información referida a atributos de credibilidad, y distinguir diferentes segmentos de consumidores. La fecha de

  6. Rasgos de simplificación en el habla rural de dos localidades de Chile: descripción fonotáctica y discursiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Elizabeth Cid Uribe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El habla rural de Chile, variedad dialectal recurrente en alrededor del 14% de la población del país, según el último censo nacional, manifiesta rasgos particulares a nivel fonotáctico y discursivo que la caracterizan y la diferencian de otras variedades dialectales recurrentes en el país. Dentro de los aspectos fonotácticos se encuentran simplificaciones segméntales -elisiones, asimilaciones, sinalefas, sinéresis, sustituciones, entre otros- a las que se recurre con mayor o menor frecuencia; en el aspecto discursivo, la presencia y recurrencia de pausas llenas o vacías, las partidas falsas, las repeticiones, el alargamiento segmental se manifiestan en forma constante en esta variedad. En este artículo damos cuenta del comportamiento de los rasgos de simplificación en el habla rural de dos localidades de la Región Metropolitana desde el punto de vista de la manifestación fonotáctica de cada uno de estos rasgos en la elaboración de su discurso semiespontáneo.Chilean rural speech, variety spoken by nearly 14% of the population of the country according to the latest national census, shows specfñcphonotactic and discourse fea-tures which characterise and differentiate itfrom other dialectal varieties found in the country. Segmental simplfñcations like elisión, assimilation, gradation, compression, substitution,amongstothers,are tobe found as recurrentfeaturesat the phonotactic level; at the discourse level, phenomena like pauses -filled or empty-, false starts, repetitions, segmental lengthening are recurrent in this variety. In this article we give an account of the behaviour of such fea tures as they are manifested -phonotactically and discoursally- in two rural communities of the Metropolitan Región at the moment of producing semi spontaneous speech.

  7. Southern Hemisphere circulation signals in connection with winter rainfall forecasting in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of detecting easterly propagating low frequency signals in the Southern Hemispheric circulation is explored in connection with the assessment of a possible seasonal rainfall forecast in central Chile. The analysis has focused on the seasonal variability associated with the biennial component of the Southern Oscillation (SO) and on the one resulting from superimposed intraseasonal oscillations, in relation with winter precipitation and individual rainfall events, respectively. Based on a previous work, relating wet winters to frequent blocks to the SW of South America during warm events of the SO, time-longitude cross sections of a 5-day average blocking index (BI) calculated from ECMWF 200 hPa daily hemispheric analyses for the period 1980-1987 are presented. A general eastward displacement of western and central Pacific positive BI areas seems to characterize the developing phase of warm SO events and vice versa, while intraseasonal variability patterns appear to be related to single rainstorms, either when the positive BI phase of the wave amplifies while crossing the western Pacific or when it reaches the far southeastern Pacific, frequently with a double block structure. It is concluded that the behaviour of both sources of variability is consistent with previously described teleconnection patterns for ENSO events in the southern winter, and that a primary prospect for winter precipitation and for the occurrence of relatively large individual rainstorms in central Chile could be obtained following the filtered BI and 500 hPa height anomalies in both time scales during the fall season. (author). 28 refs, 12 figs

  8. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production. PMID:21752410

  9. Densidades de carga utilizadas para el transporte de bovinos destinados a matadero en Chile Stocking densities used to transport cattle to slaughter in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gallo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las densidades de carga empleadas en el transporte de 413 cargas (camionadas de bovinos, que comprendieron un total de 12.931 animales, recibidos en dos plantas faenadoras en Chile durante el año 2002, una en la X Región y la otra en la Región Metropolitana. Para las cargas recibidas en la planta de la X Región, las densidades de carga registradas fluctuaron entre 106 y 693 kg/m² (promedio 457 ± 6,6 kg/m² y en la Región Metropolitana fluctuaron entre 268 y 632 kg/m² (promedio 453 ± 9,7 kg/m². En ambas regiones se observó una tendencia a que las densidades de carga usadas en los vehículos de mayor tamaño (camiones simples y con carro fueran mayores; la mayoría de las cargas animales eran transportadas en este tipo de vehículo. Las densidades de carga encontradas para los viajes más largos no difirieron de aquellas usadas para los viajes cortos en el caso de la Región Metropolitana; sin embargo, en el caso de las cargas recibidas en la X Región se observó que en general los animales transportados por distancias más largas viajaron a densidades de carga mayores. En general, 32,4% de las 413 cargas revisadas, que correspondieron a 35,6% de todos los bovinos, sobrepasaron el límite de densidad de carga permitido por la legislación vigente (500 kg/m². Considerando que la literatura indica que el ganado bovino transportado a muy altas densidades, particularmente sobre 500 kg/m², sufre mayor estrés y produce inferior calidad de carne, especialmente en términos de mayor incidencia de contusiones, y que, además, en Chile las canales con contusiones que afectan el tejido muscular sufren una degradación en cuanto a la categoría de tipificación, reduciendo su valor económico, se recomienda, tanto desde el punto de vista de bienestar animal como de calidad de carne, al menos respetar el límite máximo de densidad de carga establecido para el transporte de ganado bovino en ChileThe stocking densities employed in

  10. Sinopsis de la justicia electoral en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Marshall Barberán

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En primer término, el artículo realiza un catastro de la legislación chilena que contiene alguna normativa electoral, para luego hacer una descripción general de la regulación y organización de los órganos de la justicia electoral de ese país. En segundo plano, el ensayo revisa las competencias resolutivas que se anidan en los órganos de la justicia electoral chilena.

  11. Postavení Chile na světovém trhu s mědí

    OpenAIRE

    Klajmonová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor's thesis is to analyse the world copper market and the role of Chile on this market. The first chapter describes the importance of copper for the world economy, copper production, usage and the world copper market. The second chapter describes the copper market in Chile. The copper market in Chile was transformed during the period of nationalization and privatization. These transformations have impact on the actual copper market in Chile as well. The state is owner of...

  12. Manejo de la neumonía comunitaria del adulto en el Servicio de Salud Viña del Mar-Quillota. Abril - Septiembre de 2003 Management of community-acquired pneumonia by general practitioners in Viña del Mar and Quillota Health Service, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Pavié G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC constituye una causa frecuente de consulta ambulatoria y hospitalización en la población adulta. Objetivos: describir el manejo de la NAC del adulto en el Servicio de Salud de Viña del Mar y Quillota durante la Campaña de Invierno de 2003. Resultados: Entre Abril y Septiembre, se atendieron 3.701 consultas por neumonía comunitaria del adulto, 73% en los servicios de urgencia y 27% en los consultorios de atención primaria. El 14% de los episodios de NAC requirieron hospitalización en el área de Viña del Mar y 21% en el área de Quillota. Se examinó una cohorte prospectiva de 229 adultos inmunocompetentes con NAC (± DE = 56 ± 21 años de edad de bajo riesgo y manejo ambulatorio según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias, quienes fueron atendidos en los hospitales de Quillota, Viña del Mar y Limache durante el período de otoño-invierno. El 40% de los episodios correspondieron a NAC tipo I y 60% a NAC tipo II. Los pacientes con NAC tipo I fueron manejados con Claritromicina (67,4% o Amoxicilina (32,6% y los pacientes con NAC tipo II fueron manejados con Amoxicilina-Acido clavulánico (74,5% o Levofloxacina (24,8% durante 10 días. El 98,7% de los casos evolucionaron favorablemente sin requerir hospitalización, y sólo tres pacientes fueron admitidos al hospital debido a fracaso del tratamiento ambulatorio. Los tres pacientes fallecieron debido a la infección pulmonar y/o descompensación de una comorbilidad (1,3%. Conclusión: La mayoría de los enfermos con NAC, sin criterios de gravedad, pueden ser manejados en el medio ambulatorio con bajos índices de hospitalización, riesgo de complicaciones y muerteCommunity-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a potentially serious infection that results in numerous general practitioner visits and hospital admissions each year. Objective: to evaluate the clinical management of CAP by general practitioners in the emergency

  13. Aspectos ambientales de la gesti??n empresarial del suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Guti??rrez Arag??n, ??scar, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    349 p. Esta tesis doctoral pretende abordar la necesidad de internalizar las variables medioambientales en los procesos habituales vinculados a la gesti??n empresarial en un entorno en el que, en la actualidad, se estima indispensable y esencial la consecuci??n de un desarrollo econ??mico sostenible, con el fin de que, cuando las empresas llevan a la pr??ctica sus actividades, el tratamiento y la consideraci??n del medio ambiente y los recursos naturales en general y del suelo ...

  14. El distrés psicológico y abuso de drogas en pacientes en centros de tratamiento del gran Valparaíso - Chile: implicaciones para las políticas y los programas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Basso Musso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de comorbilidad entre distrés psicológico y abuso/dependencia de drogas en pacientes en centros de tratamiento. Este estudio epidemiológico, multicéntrico, de corte transversal, realizado en 107 pacientes mayor es de 18 años, en tratamiento por abuso/dependencia de drogas, en centros de tratamiento de Valparaíso, Chile, mostró además otros factores involucrados como: aspectos sociodemográficos, funcionalidad familiar, características del consumo de drogas y aspectos de la atención otorgada. Para recolección de datos se usó el EULAC (Instrumento para diagnostico rápido de situación de tratamiento para problemas por consumo de drogas en el ámbito local el K 10 y Apgar familiar. Resultados: 48.6% presentaron distrés psicológico; 88.8% refirieron satisfacción por el tratamiento actual. 66.4% pertenece a una familia normo funcional. Los resultados obtenidos permitirán mejorar las intervenciones en pacientes que están en tratamiento y rehabilitación en los centros de tratamiento.

  15. El estudio de la segregación residencial en Santiago de Chile: revisión crítica de algunos problemas metodológicos y conceptuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-Tagle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un cuestionamiento a influyentes trabajos, se pretende introducir perspectivas alternativas en variados aspectos del estudio de la segregación residencial en Chile, desde esquemas metodológicos a interpretaciones conceptuales. La discusión critica cuatro aspectos de dichos estudios: i su método de estratificación, que define grupos sociales por medio de categorías altamente variables en el tiempo; ii su medida de la segregación, que no considera áreas suburbanas ni tampoco soluciona el problema de la escala; iii su conexión con problemas sociales, que presenta ciertos sesgos de reificación del espacio; y iv sus propuestas de política pública, que plantean líneas de acción fundadas en premisas discutibles. Dada la considerable influencia de estos estudios en la discusión de políticas públicas pro mixtura social, consideramos importante establecer nexos con la especificidad de nuestros contextos sociales, históricos y culturales, elaborando una racionalidad crítica que se extienda más allá de un excesivo empirismo.

  16. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... continental United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based... weeds via the importation of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: December...

  17. 77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA Joint Commission... State. ACTION: Notice of the next meeting of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Environmental Affairs... States Trade Representative (``USTR'') are providing notice that the United States and Chile intend...

  18. 75 FR 5034 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile... are advising the public that we have received a request from the government of the Republic of Chile... the Republic of Chile. After reviewing the documentation submitted in support of this request,...

  19. 76 FR 18511 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Figs From Chile into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Fresh Figs From Chile into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh figs from Chile. Based on the... importation of fresh figs from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: April 4, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  20. Patrones de uso de servicios entre adultos con problemas de salud mental, en Chile Service use patterns among adults with mental health problems in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Vicente

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón de uso de servicios generales y especializados entre los adultos con problemas de salud mental, así como su nivel de satisfacción con dichos servicios, con la finalidad de contribuir a optimizar los escasos recursos disponibles en la Región para la atención de la salud mental, particularmente en lo que corresponde a Chile. MÉTODO: Los diagnósticos y los patrones de uso de los servicios de salud mental se obtuvieron del Estudio Chileno de Prevalencia Psiquiátrica (ECPP, una investigación representativa de la población adulta del país, basada en una muestra aleatoria estratificada de 2 987 personas de 15 años y más, que abarcó el período de 1992 a 1999. Los diagnósticos psiquiátricos se obtuvieron por medio del instrumento de entrevista denominado Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Asimismo, se preguntó a los entrevistados acerca del uso de servicios generales y de salud mental en los seis meses precedentes y sobre las dificultades que encontraron para acceder a ellos. RESULTADOS: Más de 44% de los entrevistados tuvieron contacto con algún tipo de servicio de salud durante los 6 meses previos al estudio, pero solo 5,6% recibieron atención especializada. Quienes presentan los diagnósticos de trastorno obsesivo y de pánico consultan con mayor frecuencia, pero no en centros especializados. El consumo de sustancias tóxicas y la personalidad antisocial se relacionaron con un bajo nivel de consulta. El sistema formal de salud es la opción que más se menciona como recurso de ayuda. Más de 75% refieren satisfacción o gran satisfacción con la atención recibida. CONCLUSIONES: Se confirma la existencia de una amplia brecha entre las necesidades de atención y el tratamiento realmente recibido. Los recursos alternativos informales y folclóricos (sacerdote, familiares, curanderos, hierbateros [yerberos], etc. se utilizan con una frecuencia menor de la esperada. Las barreras

  1. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with:

  2. A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Male and female adults of a new species of Eupithecia Curtis from the Arica Province, Chile are described and illustrated. The species is compared with E. yubitzae Vargas & Parra, 2004, from the same locality, and E. galapagosata Landry & Rindge 1995, from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

  3. 76 FR 15225 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... request from the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile to allow the fresh baby kiwi fruit... repeated. The contents of the 200- mesh sieve would then be placed on a petri dish and analyzed for the... with the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile. Harvested baby kiwi must be placed...

  4. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  5. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  6. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, 63 FR 66529 (December 2, 1998); Notice of Amendment of Final... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999); Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms... foreseeable time. See Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations, 75 FR...

  7. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 50818) and determined on January 4, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR... COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  8. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M Baeza; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; M Negritto

    2008-01-01

    Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A ...

  9. Una nueva especie de Ithome Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae: Chrysopeleiinae del norte de Chile A new species of Ithome Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae: Chrysopeleiinae from northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR A VARGAS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción del adulto, larva y pupa de Ithome tiaynai Vargas sp. n. Las larvas antófagas viven asociadas a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae. La distribución de esta especie comprende los valles costeros de Azapa y Chaca, Primera Región de Chile. Ithome tiaynai es la primera especie descrita desde Chile para este géneroDescriptions of the adult, larva and pupa of Ithome tiaynai Vargas sp. n. are presented. The anthophagous larvae are associated with Acacia macracantha Willd (Fabaceae. The distribution of this species includes the coastal valleys of Azapa and Chaca, First Region of Chile. Ithome tiaynai is the first species described from Chile for this genus.

  10. Mineralogy of the Panulcillo skarn copper deposit, Coquimbo Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asahiko Sugaki

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panulcillo skarn copper deposit developed in an Early Cretaceous (Valanginian volcano-sedimentary sequence intruded by a Cretaceous diorite. The exoskarn zone of the deposit is composed of garnet skarn comprising grandite garnet (Ad12.9-47.4 and phlogopite with lesser amounts of diopside (Di89.6-91.6, clintonite, pargasitic hornblende, actinolite, pumpellyite, chlorite, quartz and calcite, exhibiting characteristic Mg-Al-rich assemblages. The principal ores consist of chalcopyrite, monoclinic pyrrhotite, sphalerite, pyrite, and magnetite with small amounts of galena, and locally secondary marcasite, hematite and covellite, generally filling interstices of the garnet skarn. Chalcopyrite shows characteristic polysynthetic twinning, normally including fine star-like crystals of sphalerite as exsolution products. Sphalerite contains 14.4 - 22.5 mol% FeS and 1.6 - 9.2 mol% MnS, and is associated intimately with chalcopyrite. It is highly likely that such Fe-rich sphalerite has coexisted primarily with hexagonal pyrrhotite under low-sulfidation conditions at higher temperatures than 275 - 254°C, below which monoclinic pyrrhotite is stableMineralogía del yacimiento cuprífero tipo skarn de Panulcillo, Región de Coquimbo, Chile. El yacimiento tipo skarn de cobre de Panulcillo se desarrolló en una secuencia volcano-sedimentaria de edad cretácica inferior (Valanginiana, la que es intruida por un cuerpo cretácico de composición diorítica. La zona del exoskarn característicamente presenta una asociación mineralógica rica en Mg y Al, y corresponde a un skarn de granate compuesto por granate tipo ugrandita (Ad12.9-47.4 y flogopita con candidades menores de diópsido (Di89.6-91.6, clintonita, hornblenda pargasítica, actinolita, pumpellita, clorita, cuarzo y calcita. Los minerales metálicos consisten mayoritariamente en calcopirita, pirrotina monoclínica, esfalerita, pirita, y magnetita con menos galena, localmente marcasita, hematita y

  11. Aspectos epidemiológicos de las mordeduras caninas Epidemiological aspects of dog bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palacio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Las mordeduras de animales a personas suponen un importante problema de salud pública. Dentro de éstas, las más frecuentes son las producidas por perros. Un primer paso necesario en la prevención de este tipo de accidentes es conocer los factores de riesgo implicados. El presente trabajo revisa la bibliografía más relevante en cuanto a la incidencia, los factores de riesgo y la prevención de las mordeduras de perros en personas. Así, según las características de las víctimas, se revisan determinados aspectos, como la edad, el sexo, la localización y la gravedad de las lesiones. En relación con los perros agresores, se describen las razas implicadas y el historial previo del animal. Igualmente, se describen los contextos en que se producen las mordeduras, en relación con la fecha, el número de perros, los lugares más frecuentes, la relación e interacción víctima-perro y la participación de las distintas categorías de agresividad del etograma canino. En el último apartado se recogen las recomendaciones más habituales halladas en la bibliografía para prevenir y reducir la incidencia de mordeduras sobre la población general.Animal bites in humans are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are dog bites. The first step in preventing this kind of accident is to identify the associated risk factors. The present article reviews the most important published articles on the incidence of dog bites, their risk factors, and preventive measures. Concerning victim profiles, features such as age, sex, location, and the severity of the wounds are reviewed. Regarding dogs, the most frequent breeds involved and the dog's previous history of aggression are described. In addition, the different contexts in which bites occur are reported. Thus, factors such as dates, number of dogs, places, victim-dog relationship and interaction, and the distinct involved categories of aggression of the canine ethogram are reviewed. The most

  12. Fuerza laboral de la mujer en Chile: cifras y características Woman labour force in Chile: data and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Jasna Stiepovich Bertoni

    1998-01-01

    El presente artículo muestra algunas características sociodemográficas de la fuerza laboral femenina en Chile y las dificultades que las mujeres deben enfrentar para acceder y mantenerse en su fuerza laboral, dada su condición de género.The present article shows us some sociodemographic characteristics of the women labour force in Chile, and the difficulties they have to accede and to maintain their labour source due to gender conditions.

  13. General Dentist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is a General Dentist? Article Chapters What Is a General Dentist? General ... Reviewed: January 2012 ?xml:namespace> Related Articles: General Dentists FAGD and MAGD: What Do These Awards Mean? ...

  14. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  15. FÍSICA: SU TRAYECTORIA EN CHILE (1800-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO GUTIÉRREZ GALLARDO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la Física en Chile desde los comienzos de la República hasta 1960, poniendo énfasis en el desarrollo interno de la disciplina, la evolución de su concepción y la transmisión de su saber. El trabajo enfrenta el mito de la inexistente tradición científica en Chile, mostrando que en el caso de la Física ha habido un largo y sostenido desarrollo. En este desarrollo de la Física se distinguen cuatro etapas: (1 como capítulo de la Filosofía Escolástica; (2 como ciencia útil o indistinguible de la ingeniería; (3 como ciencia cultural y centro de una concepción científica del mundo; y (4 como disciplina con problemas propios, donde la investigación deviene parte central de su desarrollo. Para el historiador de la ciencia la novedad es que su desarrollo sigue una lógica donde los parámetros locales tienen una influencia muy significativa en comparación con aquellos determinados por el desarrollo mundial de la disciplinaThis paper presents the development of Physics in Chile from the beginnings of the Republic until the year 1960, emphasizing the internal development of the discipline, the evolution of its conception and the transmission of its body of knowledge. This work faces the myth of the non-existent scientific tradition in Chile by showing in the case of Physics a long and sustained development. In this development we distinguish four stages of Physics: (1 As a chapter of Scholastic Philosophy; (2 As a discipline closely related to engineering and real-life problems; (3 As cultural science and base of a scientific view of the world; (4 As a discipline with its own problems, where research becomes a central part of its development. For the science historian the novelty is that this development follows a logic where the local parameters have strong influence as compared to those determined by the universal development of the discipline

  16. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  17. The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    1995-01-01

    Despite the growing reliance on payroll taxation worldwide, there is limited evidence on the incidence of payroll taxes. I provide new evidence by examining the experience of Chile before and after the privatization of its Social Security system. This policy change led to a sharp exogenous reduction in the payroll tax burden on Chilean firms; the average payroll tax rate in my sample fell from 30% to 5% over this six year period. I use data from a census of manufacturing firms, which contains...

  18. Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F J; Saldana, R C

    2007-12-01

    This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002-2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between sea and lake manure. Dry matter contents were low averaging c. 12-15%. Manures showed low OM contents with values heavy metal contents and a potential use in agricultural soils, which could reduce the risks of water pollution on water from fish farming. PMID:16962324

  19. Chanco formation, a potential Cretaceous reservoir, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecione, G.

    1983-07-01

    The Chanco embayment lies 300 km SSW of Santiago, Chile. The sequence within this basin above the metamorphic basement is: Chanco Formation (very clean sandstone), Quiriquina Formation (glauconitic sandstone, rich in organic matter), and Navidad Group (a very good caprock). This section thus contains reservoir, source and caprocks, and is therefore very promising for petroleum investigations. The offshore C-1 well yielded salt-water with gas shows, and two wells drilled onshore yielded shows of gas. The C-1 well lies on a gently-dipping EW-striking anticlinal structure, the presence of which makes the area very prospective.

  20. PRIMER HALLAZGO DE Cyclospora cayetanensis EN CONCEPCION, CHILE 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANCY RIVERA

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el hallazgo de Cyclospora cayetanensis en una muestra de deposición, en la cual se observó también formas vacuoladas de Blastocystis hominis y trofozoítos y quistes de Entamoeba coli. La muestra provenía de un paciente de 50 Es importante señalar que la sola observación años de edad, de sexo femenino, quien había visitado Cuba, y que, a los 5 días de regreso a Chile, comenzó con sintomatología. El examen parasitológico seriado de deposición se llevó a cabo 30 días después de su regreso al país. Se realizó observación al fresco de heces preservadas en fijador PAF (fenol, alcohol, formalina con lugol, MIF (merthiolate, lugol, formol, y yodo de D'Antoni; al mismo tiempo se prepararon 3 frotis del sedimento fecal los que fueron teñidos mediante tinción de Ziehl Neelsen modificada, Kinyou y Safranina. Una proporción de los O quistes encontrados fueron medidos. La identificación de C. cayetanensis fue confirmada en esta muestra por el Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Atlanta, Georgia, USA y por el Departamento de Parasitología del Hospital for Tropical Diseases (London UK. Este constituye el primer hallazgo de C. cayetanensis informado en Concepción, ChileThe finding of Cyclospora cayetanensis in a stool sample from a 50 year old Chilean female patient is reported. The patient had recently returned from a visit to Cuba and exhibited diarrhoeal symptons in the fifth day after arriving to Chile. The stool sample was obtained 30 days after her return to the country. Direct microscopic abservation were made in preparations of the stool sample preserved in phenol, alcohol, fonmalin (PAF with iodine, merthiolate, iodine-fonmalin (MIF and iodine de D'Antoni. In addition, three smears of the faecal sedimenl were stained with madified Ziehl-Neelsen, Kinyou, and Safranin. The oocyst sizes were measured. The identification of C. cayetanensis was confinmed in this sample by the Center for Disease control and

  1. Lejos de NYC: El hip-hop en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Quitzow

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se abordan las manifestaciones concretas de una forma cultural urbana exportada desde Occidente a los países en desarrollo. A través de una reconstrucción de la historia de la cultura hip hop en Chile, se han intendado esbozar algunas conclusiones sobre su influencia en la formación de una identidad cultural urbana, tratando además de relacionar el desarrollo histórico del movimiento y de las prácticas actuales de la juventud en Santiago con tendencias más amplias en la socie...

  2. Economic Residential Segregation and Educational Achievements: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Román, Miguel Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Using a database from Chile, we have tested empirically the effects of economic residential segregation on educational achievements. Our hypothesis is based on literature’s findings about segregation’s negative impact on individuals’ well being. We found that segregation has negative impacts. This result would have interesting policy implications and goes in the opposite directions of those investigations’ findings, which indicate that segregation has just negligible effects. Keywords...

  3. Fundamentos del Tipo de Cambio Real en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Cerda; Alvaro Donoso; Aldo Lema

    2003-01-01

    Un modelo basado en la relación gasto-producto (efecto Salter-Swan) y los términos de intercambio, habría predicho un incremento más pronunciado del tipo de cambio real (TCR) en Chile durante la segunda mitad de los '80, una caída menos acentuada entre 1990 y 1997, y un aumento más fuerte a partir de 1998 cuando irrumpió la crisis financiera internacional. Este trabajo incorpora en forma exhaustiva otros factores en la determinación de largo plazo del TCR, tanto de oferta como de demanda. Usa...

  4. Status of Implementation of the Code of Conduct in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to present the status of implementation in Chile of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (hereinafter referred to as the Code) and its supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (hereinafter referred to as the Guidance). It is presented as a contribution to the International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Maintaining the Continuous Global Con-trol of Sources throughout their Life Cycle, to be held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, from 27 to 31 October 2013. (author)

  5. El valle de Azapa en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cocilovo, José Alberto; Rothhammer, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza el proceso microevolutivo de la población prehistórica del Valle de Azapa (Norte de Chile), mediante un nuevo estudio de la información preparada con motivo de experiencias anteriores, relacionada con la obtención de una explicación genético-poblacional sobre la diferenciación biológica observada en el área. Hemos empleado matrices de distancias D2 de Mahalanobis calculadas entre cinco grupos de distintas fases cronológicas para la muestra total y para cada u...

  6. Health system reform in chile and colombia: results and balance

    OpenAIRE

    Granados Toraño, Ramón; Gómez Montoya, María C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the health system reforms, factors inherent to the health sector as well as external factors that gave origin to them must be considered. The policy of the World Bank acted as a determining factor and was taken into practice in the middle of processes that increased the inequalities in Latin America. The models of Chile and Colombia are examined from this background and some of the lessons that can be drawn from these experiences for other countries are pointed out.

  7. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  8. The dynamics of the labor markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor O. Lima; Ricardo D. Paredes

    2007-01-01

    A través de flujos provenientes de 3 estados, empleo, desempleo y fuera de la fuerza laboral analizamos la dinámica del mercado laboral en Chile en 1967-2007. Identificamos algunos períodos de distintos regímenes del mercado laboral y los relacionamos con cambios en flexibilidad. Encontramos que reformas tales como la de 1967, que introdujo la causa justa como requerimiento para despedir, no ayudó a los trabajadores a mantener sus trabajos, pero no hay evidencia de cambios sign...

  9. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  10. Valoración de Aspectos Cualitativos del Cuidado de Enfermería en Pacientes Hospitalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Consuelo Torres Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: Se presenta la valoración de aspectos cualitativos del cuidado de enfermería desde la percepción de los pacientes hospitalizados en una Institución prestadora de salud, de IV nivel. Objetivo: Describir aspectos cualitativos importantes del cuidado de enfermería a través de un análisis comparativo de los comentarios realizados por pacientes hospitalizados. Materiales y Métodos: El presente es un estudio descriptivo que reporta aspectos cualitativos manifestados por los pacientes ...

  11. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  12. LA ACCIÓN CONSTITUCIONAL DE PROTECCIÓN EN CHILE Y LA ACCIÓN CONSTITUCIONAL DE AMPARO EN MÉXICO The Constitutional Action of Protection in Chile and the Constitutional Action of Amparo in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Nogueira Alcalá

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo constituye un análisis de derecho procesal constitucional comparado de las acciones constitucionales de amparo en México y de la acción constitucional de protección en Chile, constatando las similitudes y diferencias existentes entre ambas instituciones de los dos países latinoamericanos, como asimismo, la necesidad de regular por ley la acción constitucional de protección, como es la regla general en el derecho comparado.This article is an analysis of comparative procedural constitutional law of the mexican constitutional "amparo" action, and the Chilean constitutional protection action, noting the similarities and differences existing between these institutions in both Latin-American countries, and the necessity of the regulation by law of the constitutional protection action, as is the general rule in comparative law.

  13. Prácticas evaluativas para la mejora de la calidad del aprendizaje: Un estudio contextualizado en La Unión- Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano Díaz, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta investigación ha sido caracterizar y analizar el proceso evaluativo que llevan a cabo los docentes de Educación General Básica municipalizados de la Comuna de La Unión-Chile. Partiendo del diseño y construcción de un cuestionario exploratorio sobre la evaluación del aprendizaje y entrevista semiestructurada sobre el proceso evaluativo, aplicados a profesores de educación general básica, en forma presencial. La presenta investigación se realizó sobre una pob...

  14. Atracción del picudo del chile a compuestos volátiles de sus hospederos.

    OpenAIRE

    Múñiz Merino, Manolo

    2014-01-01

    El picudo del chile (Anthonomus eugenii Cano), principal plaga del chile (Capsicum spp.) en América, responde a los aromas de sus plantas hospederas, por lo que estos podrían ser de utilidad como fuentes de atrayentes. En la presente investigación se analizaron los compuestos volátiles de las yemas florales y frutos de cinco hospederos de A. eugenii: chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L.), pimiento morrón (C. annuum), chile manzano (C. pubescens Ruiz y Pav), chile chiltepe (C. frutescens L) y hi...

  15. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Letelier V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  16. Aspectos ultra-estruturais da forma epimastigota do Trypanosoma cruzi em meio LIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available E feito um estudo da ultra-estrutura da forma epismastigota do Trypanosoma cruzi mantida em meio de cultivo acelular. O núcleo das formas em divisão apresenta um aspecto homogêneo. Microtúbulos intranucleares são observados durante a divisão. No entanto, a membrana nuclear permanece íntegra. O citoplasma apresenta-se com vacúolos de dimensões e aspectos variados. Com o método do ácido periódico-tiosemicarbazida-proteinato de prata, polissacaríáeos e/ou glicoproteínas foram localizados na membrana celular e na membrana que delimita certos vacúolos citoplasmáticos.

  17. Aspectos Psicológicos y Emocionales durante la gestación y el puerperio

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre Miras, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Decidí tratar el tema de los aspectos psicológicos y emocionales durante la gestación y el puerperio porque durante mi rotación por la Unidad de Hospitalización de Obstetricia del HURH realicé una valoración basada en la observación, mediante la que percibí que la forma en que las mujeres experimentaban la maternidad, no era siempre positiva y no recibían una atención especial, puesto que la prioridad de actuación está referida a los aspectos físicos. Para llevar a cabo mi TFG realicé una ...

  18. Aspectos da tomografia computadorizada craniana na neurocisticercose na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa M. Guerreiro

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam aspectos tomográficos da neurocisticercose na infância a propósito da análise de 27 exames em 18 pacientes, que foram distribuídos em três grupos segundo o quadru clínico e os achados tomográficos. O grupo 1 foi caracterizado basicamente por epilepsias e calcificações. O grupo 2 caracterizou-se por hipertensão intracraniana e diversos aspectos tomográficos: edema, cistos e nódulos em três pacientes; hidrocefalia e calcificações em dois pacientes e normal em um paciente. O grupo 3 consistiu clinicamente de epilepsia e cefaléia, com vários padrões tomográficos. Os resultados são discutidos à luz da literatura disponível.

  19. ASPECTOS NORTEADORES NA ORIENTAÇÃO DE MONOGRAFIA A DISTÂNCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    monica seixas mello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar os aspectos norteadores na orientação de monografia na modalidade a distância a partir de relato de experiência em curso de pó-graduação Lato Sensu em Gestão Pública., constatando-se que na orientação a distância em ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem as interações entre professor e aluno observam os seguintes aspectos: pedagógico, gerencial, social e técnico Palavras-chaves: educação, distância, orientação, monografia, pos-graduação.

  20. Chile2015: Lévy Flight and Long-Range Correlation Analysis of Earthquake Magnitudes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccar-Varela, Maria P.; Gonzalez-Huizar, Hector; Mariani, Maria C.; Serpa, Laura F.; Tweneboah, Osei K.

    2016-06-01

    The stochastic Truncated Lévy Flight model and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) are used to investigate the temporal distribution of earthquake magnitudes in Chile. We show that Lévy Flight is appropriated for modeling the time series of the magnitudes of the earthquakes. Furthermore, DFA shows that these events present memory effects, suggesting that the magnitude of impeding earthquakes depends on the magnitude of previous earthquakes. Based on this dependency, we use a non-linear regression to estimate the magnitude of the 2015, M8.3 Illapel earthquake based on the magnitudes of the previous events.