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Sample records for chile aspectos generales

  1. Aspectos de la Sintaxis del Rromané de Chile en Textos Orales Tradicionales

    OpenAIRE

    Gastón Felipe Salamanca Gutiérrez; Álvaro Javier González Concha

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo corresponde a la segunda parte y final de nuestra investigación "Aspectos de la Sintaxis del Rromané de Chile en Textos Orales Tradicionales(I)". Se incluyen aquí los tipos de frases modificadas no descritas en nuestra primera presentación (FMAdj, FMAdv, FApos, FSeriada y FC-Eje) y los aspectos más relevantes de la sintaxis del rromané en el nivel de la Oración. Se describen los tagmemas identificados y sus instanciadores, además de los tipos de oraciones encontrados. Concluimos...

  2. Aspectos de manejo y bienestar en equinos de tiro urbano en el sur de Chile Husbandry and welfare aspects of urban draught horses in the south of Chile

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    T Tadich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sur de Chile los equinos de tiro continúan siendo la fuente principal de ingreso para numerosas familias. En muchas ocasiones estos equinos de trabajo no son mantenidos en óptimas condiciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las prácticas de manejo y parámetros relacionados con bienestar animal en un grupo de sesenta y un equinos carretoneros, pertenecientes a cincuenta propietarios, de tres ciudades del sur de Chile (Valdivia, Osorno y Puerto Montt. Se utilizaron métodos directos (basados en el animal y métodos indirectos. Estos incluyeron aspectos de salud, comportamiento y prácticas de manejo. La mayoría de los equinos presentaron una conformación masisa, pero más pequeña que la de las razas de tiro clásicas encontradas en otras áreas templadas en el mundo. En general presentaron buena condición corporal (59% y alertas (92%, con sólo unos pocos animales que presentaron una respuesta agresiva al momento de evaluar su comportamiento. Los principales problemas encontrados están relacionados con el manejo de cascos y las prácticas de alimentación. No se encontró asociación entre buena conformación de cascos y el uso de herreros o experiencia de los dueños. Esto se debe principalmente a una carencia de conocimiento y comprensión de prácticas de manejo y trabajo adecuados que permitan obtener un mejor rendimiento de sus equinos sin poner en riesgo el bienestar de éstos. La comunidad de dueños de equinos de trabajo se vería beneficiada con la instauración de programas educacionales en el futuro.In the south of Chile draught horses are the main source of household income for many families and often these working horses are kept in conditions that are far from ideal. The aim of this study was to determine husbandry practices and welfare parameters for a group of sixty one urban draught horses belonging to fifty owners, from three cities (Valdivia, Osorno and Puerto Montt in the south of Chile. Direct

  3. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  4. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

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    Krisler Alveal

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?, Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furcellatus and Gigartina chamissoii in scatterd patches.

  5. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  6. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  7. Reproductive aspects of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides off southern Chile Aspectos reproductivos del bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides en el extremo austral de Chile

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    Patricio Arana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results for the reproductive biology of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides caught off southern Chile from January to March and June to November 2006. A total of 10,896 specimens were measured (55-220 cm total length, TL and sexed (7,049 males, 64.7%; and 3,847 females, 35.3%. Macroscopic observations showed that gonad maturation begins at 60 cm TL in both sexes, with an average maturation size of 81 cm TL in males and 89 cm TL in females. This species appears to have an ampie spawning period that occurs only off the far southern region of Chile. To date, no evidence indicates that this resource reproduces in any other areas of the Pacific Ocean off the coasts of South América, where no specimens were observed with mature gonads, percentages of atresia were high, and juvenile fish were not caught in trawl fishing operations targeting other commercial species.Se dan a conocer resultados sobre la biología reproductiva del bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides capturado en el extremo sur-austral de Chile, entre enero y marzo y de junio a noviembre de 2006. En dicho período se midió y determinó el sexo a 10.896 ejemplares, comprendidos entre 55 y 220 cm de longitud total (LT, de los cuales 7.049 correspondieron a machos (64,7% y 3.847 a hembras (35,3%. Mediante la observación macroscópica de las gónadas se determinó que en machos y hembras se observa el comienzo de la maduración gonádica a partir de 60 cm de LT, con una talla media de maduración (TMS50% en machos a 81 cm y en hembras a 89 cm. Se sugiere que esta especie presenta un período amplio de desove y que este proceso se efectuaría únicamente en la región austral de Chile, destacándose que hasta ahora no se cuenta con evidencias que este recurso se reproduzca en otra zona del océano Pacífico frente a la costa de Sudamérica en atención a la ausencia de ejemplares maduros en las capturas, altos porcentajes de atresia y ausencia de peces

  8. Satisfacción con el aspecto dental general y tratamientos deseados en estudiantes universitarios

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    Clarisse Virginia Díaz Reissner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La apariencia dental es considerada un componente de la belleza facial, que al ser restaurada por el odontólogo, podría influir con un efecto positivo en la valoración personal y la calidad de vida. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la satisfacción general con la apariencia dental en estudiantes de las carreras de Artes Visuales y Diseño de Indumentaria del Instituto Superior de Arte de la Facultad de Arquitectura Diseño y Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, matriculados en el 2014. Se aplicó un cuestionario que contenía preguntas sobre datos demográficos, satisfacción con el aspecto dental general y con diversos aspectos dentales, así como también sobre el tratamiento estético deseado. La muestra quedó conformada por 108 estudiantes, que corresponde al 49,1% de la población. Se observó que el 48,2% se encontraba insatisfecho con el aspecto general de sus dientes, siendo los tratamientos de elección: blanqueamiento (63,9% y ortodoncia (47,2%. Los factores predisponentes a la insatisfacción fueron residir en Gran Asunción e interior del país y percibir sus dientes como desalineados. Por otro lado, favoreció la satisfacción el haberse sentirse a gusto con el color de sus dientes.

  9. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Azevedo Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la s...

  10. Tendencias generales en la toponimia del Norte Grande de Chile

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    Guillermo Latorre

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el autor se propone examinar las facetas más salientes de la preponderancia del sustrato indígena en la toponimia mayor del Norte Grande, asunto poco o nada tratado en descripciones del español de Chile. Pasa revista a voces como "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa" y otras. Finalmente, da algunas explicaciones de esa marcada presencia de topónimos autóctonos a pesar de cinco siglos de dominio español. (In this paper, the author examines the most salient features of the prevalence of indigenous backgrounds in the toponymy of Northernmost Chile, an aspect barely tackled, or simply neglected, in the descriptions of Chilean Spanish. The author reviews terms such as "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa", and others. Also, some explanations are offered that may justify the notorious presence of native placenames, in spite of five centuries of Spanish domination.

  11. Aspectos generales sobre la elaboración del licor de limón

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    Arlyn Reyes-Linares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el licor de limón (limoncello. Se abordan aspectos generales de esta temática, así como las materias primas que se emplean en su elaboración y los procesos de obtención. Se comentan los trabajos reportados relacionados con el licor de limón, los que muestran investigaciones sobre la composición, su caracterización para establecer la calidad del producto en el mercado y las posibles adulteraciones, así como el proceso de producción tradicional y una nueva tecnología de innovación de extracción sólido-líquido para la obtención de este licor.

  12. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas The provision of health services in Chile: historical aspects, dilemmas and prospects

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    Antonio Carlos Azevedo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la satisfación usuaria. Se analizan los principales dilemas del sistema de salud y las perspectivas de solución a la luz de las principales medidas tomadas en el presente. Hay buenas perpectivas de que el subsistema público mantenga su liderazgo histórico en la conducción y oferta de servicios en Chile debido a la rigurosa lógica geográfica y demográfica en la oferta de servicios, la disponibilidad estable de recursos financieros, una red de servicios suficiente y además, la considerable motivación de sus recursos humanos. Son mencionados aspectos innovadores que pueden ser útiles a otros sistemas, especialmente en América Latina, tales como: organización y gestión de servicios regionales de salud; metodologías innovadoras de pago de servicios; sistema de vigilancia sanitaria y la regulamentación estatal del financiamento privado en salud.Realiza-se breve análise histórica do sistema de saúde no Chile, a partir do Serviço Nacional de Saúde, com ênfase nas reformas ocorridas desde 1980,durante o regime militar, e as mudanças introduzidas a partir de 1990 pelos governos democráticos. Compara a oferta atual de serviços pelo sistema público com a do setor privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiários: a taxa de consultas, de exames de laboratório, de hospitalização, de altas e de cirurgias e a satisfação dos usuários. Analisa os principais dilemas do sistema de saúde e suas perspectivas à luz das medidas

  13. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  14. Aspectos generales de la estampa en el Nuevo Reino de Granada (siglo XVI-principios del siglo XIX

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    Laura Liliana Vargas Murcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo da a conocer algunos aspectos generales de la estampa en cuanto a sus características físicas, temas, comercio y usos desde el siglo XVI hasta los primeros años del XIX en el Nuevo Reino de Granada. El hallazgo de documentos en archivos y de imágenes impresas europeas, llegadas durante la época colonial, ha permitido aportar nueva información en torno a estas obras, de diversas temáticas religiosas y civiles, que tuvieron significativa importancia en la evangelización y en la propagación de mensajes, como objetos devocionales, elementos decorativos y simbólicos, ilustradores de libros, al igual que como fuentes de inspiración y conocimiento para artesanos.

  15. La provisión de servicios de salud en Chile: aspectos históricos, dilemas y perspectivas The provision of health services in Chile: historical aspects, dilemmas and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos de Azevedo

    1998-01-01

    Se hace un breve análisis histórico del Sistema de Salud en Chile, desde el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con énfasis a las reformas ocurridas a partir de 1980, durante el régimen militar y los cambios introducidos desde 1990 por los gobiernos democráticos. Se compara la oferta actual de servicos por el subsistema público com aquella del privado utilizando como indicadores por mil beneficiarios: la tasa de consultas, de exámenes de laboratorio, de hospitalizaciones, de altas y de cirugías y la s...

  16. Satisfacción con el aspecto dental general y tratamientos deseados en estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Clarisse Virginia Díaz Reissner; Milner Iván Morel Barrios; Nohelia María Pérez Bejarano

    2015-01-01

    La apariencia dental es considerada un componente de la belleza facial, que al ser restaurada por el odontólogo, podría influir con un efecto positivo en la valoración personal y la calidad de vida. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la satisfacción general con la apariencia dental en estudiantes de las carreras de Artes Visuales y Diseño de Indumentaria del Instituto Superior de Arte de la Facultad de Arquitectura Diseño y Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, matriculados en el 2...

  17. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

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    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  18. Latitudinal comparisons of reproductive traits in five Brachyuran species along the Chilean coast Comparaciones latitudinales de aspectos reproductivos en cinco especies de braquiuros a lo largo de la costa de Chile

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    ANTONIO BRANTE

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding large-scale patterns in reproductive investment and fecundity of marine invertebrates is important for determining the critical environmental variables affecting reproduction and thus, the spatial patterns of population dynamics. However, information on patterns of reproduction of marine invertebrates at large spatial scales are either scarce, or have been conducted by mixing species with contrasting modes of development. Brachyuran crabs are an ideal group to analyze large-scale patterns of reproduction not only because many species are commercially exploited, but also because they show a single mode of larval development and wide distributional ranges. Here, we report latitudinal patterns of reproductive variables in five Brachyuran crab species along the coast of Chile (18-54 ° S: Cancer setosus, Paraxanthus barbiger, Homalaspis plana, Ovalipes trimaculatus, and Taliepus marginatus. Five variables were analyzed: brood weight, fecundity, embryo dry weight, embryo volume, and embryo loss. Comparisons between northern (20 °S, central (29-33 °S and southern Chile (35-41 ° S were conducted for C. setosus and between central and southern Chile for the other four species. A total of 378 brooding females were collected and analyzed. Although we did not find a clear and consistent pattern in all reproductive variables in the five crab species analyzed along the coast of Chile, generalizations can be drawn from this study. First, brood weight did not vary between central and southern Chile in most of the species (except P. barbiger. Second, embryo loss did not vary between central and southern Chile in four of the species studied. Third, embryo dry weight tended to increase toward high latitudes in four of the five species. We suggest that the costs associated to oxygen provision to broods may explain some of the patterns found, but other factors need also be consideredEl estudio de los patrones de inversión reproductiva y fecundidad

  19. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The

  20. MOVILIDAD SUSTENTABLE EN CHILE: OPORTUNIDADES, EXPERIENCIAS LOCALES Y REFERENCIAS GLOBALES

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    Jorge Díaz Tejeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone Premisas Conceptuales, Premisas Metodológicas y el desarrollo de Aspectos Estratégicos para la implementación de soluciones a la Movilidad Urbana. Se inspira en las ideas, experiencias e investigaciones de diversas personas quienes abordan desde lógicas puntuales aspectos temáticos específicos en el marco de la Planificación Urbana en general y de las aplicaciones en Transporte en particular. Chile atraviesa por una oportunidad histórica, quizás paradójicamente, a partir de un evento de catástrofe ocurrido en Febrero del 2010; esta oportunidad es la de re-plantear el proceso de Planificación Urbana bajo los alcances del Desarrollo Sustentable.

  1. General Aspects of Corrosion and Plant Inhibitors [Aspectos Gerais Sobre Corrosão e Inibidores Vegetais

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    Sílvia R. B. Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is a natural process that can easily be found in different types of surfaces and represents a major cause of economic losses in the industrial sector. Nowadays, the corrosion control involves different aspects such as economical, technical, and environmental.Generally, the chemical, electrochemical or electrolytic corrosion processes are spontaneous, leading to modifications in the physicochemical characteristics of materials. In this article, it isincluded the biocorrosion, which is influenced by microorganisms. In general, corrosion inhibitors are highly toxic limiting both handling and disposal. Recently, great scientific interest is focused in the natural inhibitors from plant sources due to the significant microbiological control as well as inhibitive property on electrochemical corrosion. In addition, vegetal inhibitors represent an important alternative in a biotechnological context.

  2. La Ley de Transparencia y la corrupción. Aspectos generales y percepciones de la ciudadanía española

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    Víctor Omar Dabbagh Rollán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la transparencia se ha definido como un arma para combatir dos males característicos de las sociedades actuales: en primer lugar la corrupción y, en segundo, la desafección ciudadana hacia las instituciones públicas. De ahí la continua promulgación de leyes que tratan de regularla en el panorama internacional. En este sentido, desde finales de 2013 España cuenta con la Ley 19/2013, de 9 de diciembre, de transparencia, acceso a la información pública y buen gobierno. Transcurridos casi dos años desde su aprobación y publicación, se ve necesario el análisis de las repercusiones que la misma ha tenido respecto a la opinión pública. Para ello, desde este artículo se abordarán tanto los aspectos generales que desde la literatura se han señalado de las leyes de transparencia como los apartados más destacados de la Ley española, para después analizar los efectos que la misma haya podido tener respecto de la sociedad.

  3. Cetamina: aspectos gerais e relação com a esquizofrenia Ketamine: general aspects and relationship with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia M. M. Vasconcelos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A cetamina é uma droga anestésica desenvolvida em 1965 pelos laboratórios norte-americanos Parke & Davis, tendo como objetivo principal sua utilização em anestesias humanas e veterinárias. Entretanto, seu uso tornou-se constante entre os jovens, sendo consumida em festas como um potente alucinógeno. Já quanto a pesquisas laboratoriais, essa droga tem sido utilizada como modelo para induzir esquizofrenia em animais. Com o objetivo de realizar-se um estudo de revisão da cetamina como anestésico e potencial modelo de esquizofrenia, foi feita uma pesquisa bibliográfica na internet, utilizando programas de pesquisa científica (Pubmed, Medline e Lilacs, além de pesquisa em trabalhos relacionados ao assunto. A administração da cetamina no homem promove o bloqueio dos receptores glutamatérgicos ionotrópicos do tipo N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA e antagoniza os receptores de acetilcolina nicotínicos e muscarínicos, bem como os receptores monoaminérgicos e opióides. O bloqueio dos receptores glutamatérgicos promoverá um quadro sintomático semelhante ao de um paciente esquizofrênico. Além disso, a administração da cetamina durante a sinaptogênese pode lesar neurônios corticais, límbicos, talâmicos e estriatais, promovendo uma disfunção na neurotransmissão glutamatérgica e propiciando a manifestação de sintomas psicóticos na vida adulta. Entre esses sintomas, podemos citar o surgimento da esquizofrenia. Somando-se a isso, a droga proporciona uma série de efeitos sistêmicos, desde uma simples anestesia, passando pela sedação, depressão respiratória e até a morte.Ketamine is an anesthetic agent developed in 1965 by Park & Davis laboratories to be used as a general anesthetic in humans and animals. However, its use became popular among young people and it's frequently available at parties to produce hallucination. In laboratorial researches, this drug has been used as a model of schizophrenia in animals. This work

  4. Conductas de ahorro en América Latina: panorámica general y aspectos de políticas

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Gavin; Ricardo Hausmann; Ernesto Talvi

    1997-01-01

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) Este trabajo es un aporte y una revista del debate de políticas en cuanto al aspecto del ahorro en América Latina, y se presenta una perspectiva nueva de la relación entre el ahorro y el crecimiento, entre el ahorro y la estabilización de la inflación y la reforma estructural, y entre el ahorro y los ingresos de capitales.

  5. Diagnóstico das neuropatias periféricas aspectos gerais da população em estudo: general characteristics of the population under study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Marques Júnior; Amilton Antunes Barreira

    1992-01-01

    O presente estudo tem por finalidade analisar aspectos gerais de população de 209 pacientes com neuropatias periféricas, atendidos no Hospital dias Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto no período de março-1985 a fevereiro-1987. Poucos são os trabalhos que avaliam pacientes com vista ao estudo dos fatores que contribuem ou não para o diagnóstico daquelas afecções. Os tipos de neuropatias encontrados, em ordem de frequência foram: polineuropatias, mono-neuropatias e multineuropatias. No primeiro grupo se...

  6. Diagnóstico das neuropatias periféricas aspectos gerais da população em estudo: general characteristics of the population under study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Marques Júnior

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por finalidade analisar aspectos gerais de população de 209 pacientes com neuropatias periféricas, atendidos no Hospital dias Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto no período de março-1985 a fevereiro-1987. Poucos são os trabalhos que avaliam pacientes com vista ao estudo dos fatores que contribuem ou não para o diagnóstico daquelas afecções. Os tipos de neuropatias encontrados, em ordem de frequência foram: polineuropatias, mono-neuropatias e multineuropatias. No primeiro grupo se destacaram as formas adquiridas e, no segundo, as lesões do plexo braquial. A média das idades foi 36,4 anos, com uma variação de 18 dias a 81 anos. O sexo masculino predominou, entre as polineuropatias, enquanto nas mo-noneuropatias o predomínio foi do feminino e nas multineuropatias a proporção entre os dois sexos foi semelhante. O tempo de seguimento dos pacientes foi menor que 6 meses para 52,6% dos casos e menor que 1 ano para 71,3%. Discutimos o significado e a importância de nossos achados.

  7. ASPECTOS LESIONALES MICROSCÓPICOS EN HÍGADOS DE SALMONÍDEOS, PROVENIENTES DE CENTROS DE CULTIVO DE LA Xª A XIIª REGIÓN DE CHILE (1988-1998. MICROSCOPIC LESIONS IN SALMONIDS' LIVERS COMING FROM FARM FISH IN THE TENTH TO TWELFTH REGION OF CHILE (1988-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. CUBILLOS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue determinar los tipos de lesiones microscópicas en hígados de salmonídeos provenientes de centros de cultivo de la Xª a XIIª Región de Chile en el período 1988-1998. Se seleccionaron cortes histológicos de muestras hepáticas correspondientes a 160 salmones coho (O. kisutch, 92 salmones del Atlántico (S. salar, 13 salmones chinook (O. tschawytscha y 90 truchas arcoiris (O. mykiss. Dichas muestras fueron obtenidas aleatoriamente a fin de determinar la localización de las lesiones en el parénquima, de acuerdo a la teoría de Rappaport (1973. \tAl relacionar los trastornos hepáticos (del crecimiento, circulatorios, degenerativos, inflamatorios y necróticos con su localización en el parénquima, llamó la atención que la mayoría de ellos presentaron localización difusa, acompañada en algunos casos de una segunda localización (periportal, mediozonal o centrolobulillar. En el caso de infiltrado linfoblástico, la localización de las células fue predominantemente periportalThe purpose of this report is to determine the kinds of microscopic lesions present in livers of salmonids grown in fish farms in the Tenth to Twelfth Region, from 1988 until 1998. Selected histological samples corresponding to 160 coho salmons (O. kisutch, 92 Atlantic salmons (S. salar, 13 chinook salmons (O. tschawytscha and 90 rainbow trouts (O. mykiss were observed in order to determine the localization of injuries in the liver parenchyma in the Animal Pathology Institute of the Veterinary Science Faculty. The kinds of pathologies found were classified in relation to their localisation in liver tissue according to the theory of Rappaport (1973 about the microcirculatory hepatic unit. The results of this research indicate that from the total amount of liver samples, the parenchyma localisation of the lesions, when connected to liver disorders (of growth, circulatory, infectious, degenerative, inflammatory and necrotic were

  8. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  9. Aspectos generales y académicos de los aspirantes y los admitidos a la Especialidad en Pediatría de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Echeverry-Raad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El presente artículo es un avance de investigación, de las pocas que existen alrededor de la admisión a especialidades médicas. En este se indagaron aspectos concernientes a la admisión a la Especialidad en Pediatría de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, entre los cuales se encuentran: tipo de aspirantes, características del proceso de admisión y resultados de las pruebas.Existe escasa investigación del proceso de admisión a las especialidades medico-quirúrgicas. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los aspirantes y admitidos a la Especialidad en Pediatría de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UN. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron aspirantes y admitidos al programa, cohortes 2009 a 2011, y se estimó la tasa de admisión y factores relacionados con ella. Resultados: Se identificaron 997 aspirantes, de predominio femenino (71%, mediana de 28 años, provenientes de Bogotá. La mitad de ellos eran egresados de universidades públicas. Se convocó a entrevista a 125 (12.5% y 42 fueron aceptados: 34% de los convocados a entrevista y 4.2% de los inscritos. La calificación promedio en la prueba cognitiva y en la prueba de inglés fue 2.72 y 2.63, respectivamente. En los preseleccionados no admitidos, la calificación final fue 3.19, y en los admitidos 3.54. Dentro de los admitidos predominaron mujeres (60%, de 28 años, egresadas de universidades públicas (88%. Significativamente, la admisión pudo ser predicha por: la calificación en la prueba cognitiva, la calificación de la hoja de vida, ser egresado de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, la calificación en la entrevista, el sexo masculino, tener menor edad, y la calificación en la prueba de inglés (LR ji²(7=307.93, R²=94.7%, p=0.0000. Después de controlar las demás variables, la admisión es explicada casi exclusivamente por la calificación en la prueba cognitiva, (LR ji²(1=300.53, R²=92.08%, p=0.0000. Conclusión: Este trabajo muestra la consistencia y

  10. Modelación y análisis probabilístico del balance hídrico superficial de un sistema de riego en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, José Manuel; Gurovich R., Luis A.; Varas, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta una propuesta de modelación de los elementos y procesos involucrados en la oferta superficial y demanda hídrica de un sistema de riego de la zona central de Chile, como metodología para el estudio del balance hídrico predial en la planificación de los recursos hídricos disponibles. El estudio contempló una descripción y evaluación general del sistema mediante visitas de terreno y recolección de información, teniendo en cuenta aspectos de suelos, cultivos, agua...

  11. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  12. The concession contracts assignment: general issues and controversies; A cessao de direitos e obrigacoes no contrado de concessao: aspectos gerais e questoes controversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Renata Gualberto Cordeiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Considering the activities of exploration and production of oil and natural gas and the concession regimen applicable to them in Brazil, the assignment of rights and obligations of the concession contract is analyzed from the points of view of the Petroleum Law and the contract itself. This paper intend to address the legal aspects that support the general legal authorization and the rules of the concession contract, as well as the role of ANP in the approval of the transfer and in the development of technical rules, regarding its function as a regulatory agency. Two controversial issues, the transfer with retroactive effects and the transfer of part of the concession area, are analyzed in light of the general features of the transfer of rights and obligations. Finally, the 'cessao de fato' and its consequences will be considered for the study of assignment of rights with retroactive effects and the operations of sole risk.. (author)

  13. Aspectos generales de la inmigración y la demografía china en el Perú (1849-1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Alonso Paroy Villafuerte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to presents the development of the Chinese community in Peru throughout quantitative data, form their immigration and the knowing data about it “mixture” in the Peruvian-lima society. We will show the immigration throughout its general characteristics, as well as the context of the immigration, the travel to China to Peru and the labor market at which it was introduced. The, it will be observe the “composition” of Peruvian-lima society, regarding the Chinese community, introducing different graphics and contrasting different sources.

  14. Aspectos generales de la metodología para el cálculo del Margen Bruto Estándar 2000

    OpenAIRE

    San Juan Mesonada, Carlos; Mora, Ricardo; Torre, J. E. de la; Pomares, Patricia; Ulloa, Camilo A.; Sánchez, María

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este documento de trabajo es presentar la metodología para el cálculo del Margen Bruto Estándar con periodo de referencia 1999, 2000 y 2001 (MBE 2000) y para el conjunto de categorías agrícolas definidas en el anexo de la Decisión de la Comisión 2003/369/CE. En este documento, dichas categorías vienen recogidas en el cuadro 2 del anexo. Este documento de trabajo se divide en tres secciones. En la sección 1 se presenta el marco metodológico general recogido en ...

  15. Morfología de los Adjetivos Demostrativos en el Rromané Jorajané de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonzalo Lizarralde Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, dividido en dos artículos, presenta una descripción en el plano morfológico para una lengua poco estudiada en el ámbito nacional: el rromané jorajané hablado por los gitanos de Chile. Este primer artículo contiene una introducción etnográfica -donde se presentan unas notas breves sobre los aspectos más prominentes de la lengua de los gitanos-, los antecedentes de la investigación, los objetivos generales y específicos planteados, el marco de referencia y metodología utilizados, y, como foco, un análisis morfológico de los demostrativos. Este último punto contiene una nota introductoria sobre el tratamiento de los demostrativos en la gramática castellana, un cuadro con las formas de los demostrativos en rromané de Chile, una propuesta de segmentación morfémica, y una propuesta de asignación de morfos a morfemas. A cada uno de los puntos recién mencionados, le siguen observaciones que abordan aspectos morfológicos, fonémicos y comparativos respecto del español.

  16. APOPTOSIS: MUERTE CELULAR PROGRAMADA. ASPECTOS ENERALES Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS ENFERMEDADES CARDIOVASCULARES / Apoptosis: programmed cellular death. General aspects and its relation with cardiovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Navas Contino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The apoptosis is a very important and definitive form of cellular death, and has a close relation with cardiovascular diseases. A review of this topic is made in this work taking into account not only the antecedents of this process but also the general aspects involved in it. One of the main challenges for cardiovascular medicine in the next decades is to prevent the development of cardiacinsufficiency. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to increase the knowledge on the mechanisms which signal the beginning and evolution of the functional deterioration of the myocardium. The overcoming of these difficulties could turn the apoptosis into a paradigmatic example of the cellular-molecular approach which nowadays is a must for the understanding of the heart and blood vessels diseases.

  17. Intelligent Organization in a Learning Environment: an Exploration of its General Aspects La organización inteligente en un ambiente de aprendizaje: una exploración de sus aspectos generales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Chávez Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the important aspects to be considered within learning organizations focused on continuous learning at the individual, group and organizational level, in order to develop the necessary competences and face their environment in a competitive way. This article aims to present several topics covered, from its introduction and identification of knowledge attributes and learning, until what is an intelligent organization, the structural design to be adopted as well as the skills of management to be implemented. The intention of this paper is to contribute to the stock of current theoretical information that serves as a reference for the practical research of the academics.Este artículo es un estudio de los aspectos que deben ser considerados dentro de las organizaciones inteligentes cuyo enfoque se centra en el aprendizaje constante (tanto individual como organizacional como una estrategia para desarrollar las competencias que les permitan enfrentar el entorno de una manera competitiva. Al exponer dichas temáticas, desde la presentación e identificación de las características del conocimiento y el aprendizaje dentro de una organización inteligente, hasta el diseño estructural a adoptar y las habilidades de gestión gerencial a ejecutar, nuestra intención es contribuir a la aplicación del conocimiento dentro del ámbito de la gestión empresarial.

  18. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  19. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  20. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  1. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  2. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  3. Unconfined Aquifer Permeability near hand-dug Wells in the Coastal and Interior dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, Chile Permeabilidad de Acuíferos No-Confinados cerca de Pozos Norias en el Secano Costero e Interior, Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Rupp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region in Chile, most farmers rely on wide and shallow hand-dug wells as their primary source of water during the dry summer. Few of these wells have sufficient yield for more than domestic use (human consumption, livestock, and irrigation of a subsistence garden. To more accurately assess available groundwater resources, saturated hydraulic conductivity (K of aquifers in the eight counties that comprise this region’s dryland was estimated using evacuation and recovery tests in 353 hand-dug wells. K followed a log-normal distribution and ranged over nearly five orders of magnitude. County median K varied by a factor of 5 and a slight increasing K trend in the southward direction. In one northern county, less than 4% of the sites had K > 4 m d-1. In the t two southernmost counties, approximately one-quarter of the K values exceeded 4 m d-1. This is approximately the minimum K required for a typical well (1 m diameter and 3 m depth below the water table to yield 1 L s-1 of water, which is roughly the yield required to irrigate 1 ha. Aquifers located where parent material was predominantly intrusive granite had slightly higher and statistically significant K than those formed predominantly of metamorphic and sedimentary rock. A semi-variogram of K provided weak evidence of a characteristic length scale of approximately 4 km.La mayoría de los agricultores del secano de la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins depende de pozos noria, constituyendo su principal fuente de agua durante el verano. Pocos pozos tienen rendimiento suficiente para un uso mayor que el doméstico (consumo humano, ganadería y riego. A fin de evaluar con mayor precisión los recursos hídricos subterráneos disponibles, mediante pruebas de bombeo-recuperación se estimó la conductividad hidráulica saturada (K de los acuíferos en 353 pozos distribuidos en ocho comunas del área. K siguió una

  4. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  5. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  6. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gentina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first commercial operation in the world exclusively via bioleaching copper sulfides. Nowadays, all bioleaching operations run in the country contribute to an estimated 10% of total copper production. This article presents antecedents that have contributed to the development of copper bioleaching in Chile.

  7. Las fábricas de la charla en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Areli Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo expone los resultados preliminares de la investigación doctoral en Antropología, orientada a conocer la materialidad y la subjetividad del trabajo de los call centers en Chile. Un salario definido por metas inalcanzables, el maltrato, el cansancio de nuevo tipo, la doble extracción del valor productivo y reproductivo de las mujeres trabajadoras y su entorno familiar, la explotación de las capacidades subjetivas, entre otros aspectos, dan cuenta de las nuevas formas que asume la ...

  8. Morfología de los Adjetivos Demostrativos en el Rromané Jorajané de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonzalo Lizarralde Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo, dividido en dos artículos, presenta una descripción en el plano morfológico para una lengua poco estudiada en el ámbito nacional: el rromané jorajané hablado por los gitanos de Chile. Este primer artículo contiene una introducción etnográfica -donde se presentan unas notas breves sobre los aspectos más prominentes de la lengua de los gitanos-, los antecedentes de la investigación, los objetivos generales y específicos planteados, el marco de referencia y metodología utilizados, y, como foco, un análisis morfológico de los demostrativos. Este último punto contiene una nota introductoria sobre el tratamiento de los demostrativos en la gramática castellana, un cuadro con las formas de los demostrativos en rromané de Chile, una propuesta de segmentación morfémica, y una propuesta de asignación de morfos a morfemas. A cada uno de los puntos recién mencionados, le siguen observaciones que abordan aspectos morfológicos, fonémicos y comparativos respecto del español.This study, divided into two anieles, is a description of the morphology of a language that has drawn little attention nationally: Rromané Jorajané, spoken by Gypsies in Chile. This first article contains an introduction to Gypsy ethnography -which includes some brief notes regarding the most prominent features of the language-; earlier research; proposed general and specific objectives; the theoretical framework and methodology employed; and, as a focal point, the morphological analysis of demonstrative adjectives. This final point includes an introductory note regarding the treatment of demonstrative adjectives in Spanish grammar, a chart of demonstrative adjective forms in Chilean Rromané, a proposal for morphemic segmentation, and a proposal for assigning morphs to morphemes. Observations regarding morphological, phonemic, and comparative aspeets with respect to Spanish follow each of the foregoing points.

  9. Aspectos computacionais do ambiente IMAGUS

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, André Luís Alice; Giraffa, Lúcia Maria Martins

    2000-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta a descrição do ambiente IMAGUS enfatizando aspectos da implementação do protótipo do ambiente. O IMAGUS permite a construção de materiais com fins pedagógicos que se utilizam de vídeos acessado via Internet. O protótipo foi desenvolvido para validar a arquitetura proposta para o ambiente. São apresentadas as soluções a nível de modelagem e a implementação do protótipo baseada na utilização da interface Java Media Framework

  10. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  11. The Geology of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Calafat, A.; Gimeno, D.; Liesa, M.; Proenza, J.; Sàbat, F.; Sáez, Alberto; Santanach, Pere

    2008-01-01

    6 páginas.-- Book review of "The Geology of Chile", by Teresa Moreno and Wes Gibbons (eds.) (2007). Geological Society. London (United Kingdom). 414 pages, 286 figures including maps, charts and pictures; 27, 5 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-1- 86239-219-9 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-86239-220-5 (softback).

  12. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  13. The geological perspective of Italy and Chile by Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina between the 18th and 19th centuries La perspectiva geolgica del Abate Juan Ignacio Molina sobre Italia y Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menichetti

    2011-09-01

    Tierra. En este trabajo Molina compara repetidamente los paisajes del norte y el sur, la actividad volcnica y la geologa de Italia y Chile. Su prxima obra, Memorie di storia naturale, fue publicada en 1821 y estuvo basada en sus clases dadas en la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia. Contena 14 Memoria -clases- referidas a diferentes aspectos de las ciencias naturales, incluyendo seis tpicos geolgicos. En 1815, en una de las clases de Molina -posteriormente Memoria XIV-, fue publicado bajo el ttulo Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la naturaleza. En esta clase Molina discuta las similitudes entre minerales, vegetales y animales dentro del marco de la entonces aceptada filosofa de la Gran Cadena del Ser. Debido a que sus ideas y enunciados, que aparentemente dotaban a plantas y animales caractersticas humanas, Molina fue denunciado y posteriormente apartado por heterodoxia. El Abate Molina hizo una importante contribucin para el estudio de la Historia Natural de Chile, y en general para las ciencias naturales de Amrica del Sur. Aunque Molina vivi la mayor parte de su vida fuera de Chile, aliment un profundo amor y orgullo por su pas. Este cuadro que emerge de sus escritos contribuy en un alto grado a que el mundo conociera su tierra nativa y su gente.

  14. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  15. Sensibilidad de la Demanda con Consumidores Desinformados: El Caso de las AFP en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Berstein; José Luis Ruiz V

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la sensibilidad de la demanda previsional con respecto a las variables relevantes, como uno de los elementos fundamentales que ha marcado el comportamiento de la industria de AFP en Chile. Es decir, se analizará el impacto que pueden tener las diferencias en comisiones cobradas y rentabilidades obtenidas por los Fondos de Pensiones en las decisiones de cambiarse o permanecer en una administradora. Cabe destacar que un aspecto distintivo del producto previsional es su obl...

  16. Toxicologia do praguicida aldicarb ("chumbinho": aspectos gerais, clínicos e terapêuticos em cães e gatos Aldicarb toxicology: general, clinic and therapeutic features in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Galtarossa Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O aldicarb (Temik®, um agente anticolinesterásico carbamato vulgarmente conhecido como "chumbinho", é considerado um dos praguicidas mais tóxicos disponíveis comercialmente. No Brasil, embora seja registrado para uso agrícola exclusivo, tem sido freqüentemente apontado como o responsável por diversos casos de intoxicação em seres humanos e em animais. Desta forma, o presente estudo faz uma abordagem da toxicologia deste agente, enfocando as propriedades químicas, a toxicocinética, a toxicodinâmica, o diagnóstico e os aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos da intoxicação em cães e gatos.Aldicarb (Temik®, an anticholinesterase inhibitor of the carbamate group known as ‘chumbinho’, is one of the most toxic of registered pesticides, and has its use restricted to agriculture in Brazil. In spite of it, aldicarb is being very often involved in severe intoxication in humans and animals. It is largely and illegally sold as rodenticide and often used in baits for intentional poisoning of companion animals. Because of this the aldicarb toxicology was reviewed empathizing its chemical properties, toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic, diagnostic and the clinical and therapeutics aspects in dogs and cats.

  17. Chile exploits LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Simultaneously with its exploitation of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs Chile is developing the production and selling of LNG. Chile produces a large quantity of associated gas from its reservoirs at Megallanes and processes it at the Manantiales, Cullen and Posesion plants recovering propane, butane and natural gas liguids. The stripped gas is reinjected for pressure maintenance operations. With the completion of the LNG program full use of the gas will be achieved. It will totally meet the needs of combustible liquids for the central and northern parts of the country, a volume of 2200 million cu m/yr. For its treatment natural gas is sent through gas pipelines to the LNG plant at Cabo Negro. By means of a cooling process, the gas is cooled to -160 C where it becomes a liquid and its volume is reduced by a factor of 600. It is then stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure.

  18. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  19. Estimación de la biomasa de langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johni, aplicando Modelo Lineal Generalizado a registros de captura por área barridaen la zona central de Chile Estimating yellow squat lobster (Cervimunida johni biomass by applying a generalized linear model to catch records per swept area in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Canales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La información obtenida en cruceros de evaluación directa de langostino amarillo (Cervimunida johní realizados en la zona central del Chile (32°-38°S entre 1997 y 2009, permitió modelar los cambios en la densidad anual de este recurso mediante Modelo Lineal Generalizado (MLG. El objetivo de este enfoque fue tanto minimizar el efecto de los distintos criterios y diseños de muestreo que han sido empleados en el tiempo, como también determinar los efectos que explican las variaciones en la densidad de este recurso. Lo anterior permitió estimar el valor esperado de la densidad anual para el cálculo de biomasa mediante el método de "área barrida". Los registros lance a lance de captura por unidad de área barrida (CPUA permitieron la identificación y medición de los focos de abundancia, además de caracterizar la distribución y área que ha ocupado el recurso en el tiempo. El MLG identificó como efectos significativos el año, la zona, la profundidad, y las interacciones anuales de primer orden, explicando con ello el 43% de la devianza residual del modelo. Los principales efectos que explican las variaciones de la CPUA son el año y la interacción año-zona. Se determinó que la zona con mayor abundancia promedio corresponde a la delimitada entre 32° y 34°S, de igual manera que en el rango de profundidad menor a 250 m. Dentro del período analizado, se determinó que la población de este recurso incrementó en biomasa de manera sostenida hasta el 2006, principalmente en la zona norte del área de estudio, seguida de una fuerte reducción que al 2009 equivale al 75% respecto del máximo, reflejada en una biomasa de 11.000 ton.Changes in the annual density of the yellow squat lobster (Cervimunida johni were modeled using a generalized linear model (GLM, using information obtained during direct stock assessment cruises carried out in central Chile (32°-38°S between 1997 and 2009. The purpose of this approach was to minimize the

  20. Máquina de Aspectos: un enfoque alternativo para la implementación de aspectos.

    OpenAIRE

    Gesto, Esteban; Hallar, Karim; Casas, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    La Programación Orientada a Aspectos (POA) es un nuevo paradigma de programación que propone mecanismos para soportar la separación de los aspectos no funcionales de los sistemas software. Una herramienta POA consiste en tres componentes principales: un lenguaje de programación base, un lenguaje de programación orientado a aspectos y un tejedor de aspectos (weaver). El presente trabajo propone un enfoque alternativo para la implementación de aspectos basado en la especificación de los mism...

  1. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  2. Chile: segundo tiempo Chile: Half-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT L FUNK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina el año político chileno, ofreciendo un análisis crítico del concepto de 'segundo tiempo' autoimpuesto por la presidenta Michelle Bachelet a comienzos del 2008. Resumiendo algunas de las políticas implementadas, el trabajo cuestiona si se logró marcar una linea y dejar atrás los dos primeros y difíciles años del cuarto gobierno de la Concertación. Analizando las medidas tomadas y las encuestas de opinión pública, se encuentra que el reenfoque de las prioridades del gobierno y una complicada coyuntura externa ayudó a levantar los niveles de apoyo de la presidenta y su gobierno.The article examines the political year in Chile, offering a critical analysis of the concept of 'Second Period' which President Michelle Bachelet defined at the beginning of 2008. Summarising some of the policies implemented, the piece asks whether the government was able to draw a line, leaving behind the first, difficult two years of the Concertación s fourth government. Analyzing the measures taken and public opinion polls, the paper finds that a re-focussing of the government's priorities together with a complicated external environment helped to raise support for the president as well as her government.

  3. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  4. Aspectos gerais da avaliação pré-operatória do paciente idoso cirúrgico General features of the preoperative assessment of surgical elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Vendites

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As intervenções cirúrgicas em pacientes idosos têm se tornado cada vez mais frequentes, uma vez que esta população vem apresentando crescimento em número significativo nas últimas décadas e consequentemente expondo-se por mais tempo às morbidades de resolução cirúrgica. Apesar de um número importante de idosos apresentarem envelhecimento saudável e tolerarem o ato cirúrgico sem muitas intercorrências, sabe-se também que a morbi-motalidade que envolve a operação é mais frequente no indivíduo idoso e requer muito mais cuidado naquele com comorbidades. O presente trabalho se propõe a rever alguns aspectos que merecem ser mais cuidadosamente observados, porque envolvem modificações morfológicas e funcionais do organismo senescente, que guardam relação com o aumento da morbidade e da mortalidade em todo o período peri-operatório. A avaliação pré-operatória, portanto, deve pautar-se em exame criterioso de toda história clínica do paciente com vistas a estabelecer medidas de prevenção de eventos mórbidos, evitar iatrogenias, estabelecer critérios que alertem para um maior risco e desenvolver enfoque multidisciplinar.The surgical interventions in elderly patients have become more frequent once this population have presented expressive increase in last decades, resulting a longer exposure to surgical resolution morbidities. Despite a large number of elder people presents a healthy aging and support the surgical act well, the morbidity and mortality that involves the surgery is more often in elderly and request more care to ones with comorbidities. The present work purpose to review some aspects that must be more carefully observed because involves morphological and functional changes from senescent organism that bring into relation with the increase of morbidity and mortality in preoperative period. Thus, the preoperative evaluation must be based on carefully clinical examination in order to prevent morbid events

  5. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  6. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  7. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  8. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  9. Cultura, lenguaje y cognición: algunos aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de Oliveira, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    El artículo trata de algunos aspectos generales sobre cultura y cognición, con especial interés en la cuestión del lenguaje, partiendo de estudios de antropología social y cultural, psicología, lingüística, neurociencia y paleoantropología. Se discute rápidamente el tema de la evolución, relacionándola al desarrollo cognitivo humano, y algunas implicaciones políticas sobre lenguaje, cultura y cognición en el mundo moderno. The article deals with some general aspects of culture ...

  10. [The evolution theory in the medical sciences in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-02-01

    The evolutionist ideas of Lamarck, Darwin and Haeckel entered the country through the arrival of their books. "On the origin of Species" arrived in Chile in 1869. The most outstanding immigrant european physicians that discussed these ideas were Rodulfo A Phillippi (1808-1904) and Juan José Brunner (1825-1899). Both discussed Darwin's ideas in their books and conferences as academics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. The first Chilean physicians that read and discussed the validity of evolution theory were Adolfo Valderrama (1834-1902) and Pedro Candia Salgado. Both wrote articles about this matter in Revista Médica de Chile in 1872 and 1874. The professor of general biology, Juan Noé Crevani, italian physician and zoologist that arrived in Chile in 1912, was the first to teach directly the concepts of the evolution theory until his death in 1947. Professor Noé founded the great biological school of the twentieth century in Chile and his disciples introduced the concepts of Mendelian theory and neodarwinism in the decade of fifties. The theory of evolution was taught as a chapter of general biology in the Faculty of Medicine between 1913 and 1947, but its practical applications to medicine were introduced with the birth of medical genetics in the decade of fifties and the foundation of Chilean Genetics society in 1964, under the direction of professors Danko Brncic and Gustavo Hoecker, both awarded with the National Sciences Prize.

  11. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  12. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Aspectos de seguridad social contenidos en la Ley No. 16.320 de Rendición de Cuentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pittamiglio Borges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contnido: El empleo.Organos creados: Dirección Nacional de Empleo. Junta Nacional de Empleo. Fondo de Reconversión Laboral. Consideraciones generales sobre el empleo. Aspectos relativos a la contingencia de enfermedad común. El decreto reglamentario. Consideraciones generales sobre los aspectos vinculados al segurosocial de enfermedad.Comentarios a la reforma del régimen jubilatorio

  14. Gender Effects of Social Security Reform in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Edwards, Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    In 1981 Chile replaced a mature government-run social security system that operated on a pay-as-you-go basis with a privately managed system based on individual retirement accounts. The new system is more fiscally sustainable because pension benefits are defined by contributions. The minimum pension guaranteed to beneficiaries with at least 20 years is funded from general taxes, preserving...

  15. Tres aspectos y una estrategia en el edifi cio SEIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ravetllat Mira, Pere Joan

    2015-01-01

    A principios de los 60, la empresa automovilística SEIDA encarga al arquitecto Francesc Mitjans la reordenación de una manzana de Barcelona situada en la confl uencia de General Mitre con Avenida de Sarrià. Dicha reordenación tenía que acoger sus talleres de reparación, el almacén de vehículos, una gasolinera y además un edifi cio residencial de considerables dimensiones. A partir de dicho edifi cio, me gustaría refl exionar en este texto sobre tres aspectos especialmente desta...

  16. Analýza předpokladů Chile pro rozvoj cestovního ruchu

    OpenAIRE

    Salačová, Kristýna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the presumptions of Chile for the development of tourism. The intention is to set off Chile from the general characteristic of a country of "Latin America" and present this exotic destination to a Czech tourist. Other task is to map the range of Czech travel agencies tour offers to this country and see whether they are able to cover the potential of the area of Chile. The thesis also includes a SWOT analysis of Chile as a tourist destination. Finally, th...

  17. Escondida Mine, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  19. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  20. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  1. It Pays to Invest in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chile is the first country to establish coopera-tive relations with China in South America, and also the first one to support China's ac-cession to the World Trade Organization.In 2005, Chile and China signed a free trade agreement.After that, China has become Chile's largest trad-ing partner, and Chile become China's second largest partner in South America.

  2. LA PRODUCCIÓN DE TEXTOS ESCOLARES EN CHILE Y EN BRASIL: relaciones entre currículum, contenidos geográficos y requerimientos técnicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Pérez Cisternas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo desea responder a la inquietud sobre cómo es el proceso de construcción de los textos escolares en Chile y en Brasil, considerando específicamente los contenidos geográficos para el último año de enseñanza media en ambos contextos. De esta forma, se establecen los aspectos generales sobre la producción de textos escolares y políticas educativas y, se señalan las relaciones entre lo que indica el currículum y lo que solicitan los criterios/requerimientos para la elaboración de los textos escolares. Además, de considerar el desarrollo de estos procesos, sus semejanzas y diferencias. RESUMO: Este artigo deseja responder à inquietude sobre como é o processo de construção dos livros didáticos no Chile e no Brasil, considerando especificamente os conteúdos geográficos para o último ano do ensino médio em ambos os contextos. Desta forma, estabelecem-se os aspectos gerais sobre a produção dos livros didáticos e políticas educativas e assinalam-se as relações entre o que indica o currículo e o que é solicitado nos critérios/requerimentos para a elaboração desse material. Além de considerar o desenvolvimento desses processos, suas semelhanças e diferenças.

  3. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  4. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  5. Sociedades Cooperativas. Aspectos Contables Singulares

    OpenAIRE

    Zubiaurre Artola, Miguel Ángel

    2004-01-01

    [ES] Las sociedades cooperativas han visto recientemente reforzada su normativa contable con la aprobación de la ORDEN ECO/3614/2003 que tiene por objeto la adaptación de las Normas de valoración y elaboración de cuentas anuales aprobada en el Plan General de Contabilidad a las características de estas entidades. En el artículo tras estudiar en la introducción las propiedades de las sociedades cooperativas se analizan las consecuencias económicas y contables que de las mismas derivan sobre...

  6. Urbanización e inmigración española en Chile a comienzos del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldomero Estrada Turra

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La colectividad española en Chile durante el siglo XX constituyó el grupo europeo más importante del país. A medida que transcurrió el siglo su preponderancia fue en aumento debido fundamentalmente a la disminución de los otros grupos foráneos. La sociedad receptora mostró una actitud receptiva que facilitó su inserción laboral que se fue consolidando en los sectores comercial e industrial. Si bien es cierto que, en general, se desarrollaron con estableimientos de escasa capitalización se advierte un palmario proceso de crecimiento que, al mismo tiempo, implicó una perceptible movilidad social vertical ascendente. Las limitadas posibilidades laborales que ofrecía el país frustraron las migraciones masivas. Por lo cual la inmigración se nutrió fundamentalmente de inmigración espontánea, a través de cadenas y redes parentales. Por otro lado, es interesante advertir el desarrollo de la colectividad en sus organizaciones étnicas, que estimuló el quehacer económico y la cohesión interna del grupo que evidenció un comportamiento matrimonial endogámico, lo cual constituyó un factor importante en la acción conjunta y el mantenimiento de aspectos identitarios y culturales del grupo.

  7. Estudo dos aspectos éticos dos transplantes na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Maria Coelho de Holanda

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Respeitando recomendações da OMS, foi feito estudo retrospectivo comparativo das Legislações de 16 Países da América Latina, a saber Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Chile, Cuba, Equador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, República Dominicana e Venezuela, do período de 1963 a 1992, enfatizando-se os aspectos éticos referentes a doação, determinação da morte, conflito de interesses, seleção do receptor, comercialização e intercâmbio internacional de órgãos.

  8. Identidad marginal entre personas sin hogar de la ciudad de Temuco, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Berho

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo constituye una breve síntesis antropológica teórica y sustantiva enque se establecen algunos aspectos del proceso de configuración de una identidad socialmentedesacreditada. A partir de una base de datos cuanti-cualitativos derivados de una serie deacercamientos etnográficos -realizados entre 1998 y 2005-, centrados en los mundos de la vida de unas sesenta personas sin hogar de una ciudad de Chile, se proporciona una visión condensada del proceso de configuración de su ide...

  9. Chile: ¿autosuficiencia o “autismo” energético?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizalde, Antonio; González Gutiérrez, Mario

    2014-01-01

    El escenario energético de escasez a nivel mundial se empieza a reflejar fuertemente en América Latina. Chile tiene una política energética diseñada en el período dictatorial, y administrada en la democracia, que hace muy vulnerable su economía, su medio ambiente y su seguridad. En este artículo se analizan críticamente los diversos aspectos que inciden fuertemente en el actual escenario energético chileno, sobre todo en lo que respecta a la política de integración con sus vecinos latinoameri...

  10. El contrato internacional de construcción: Aspectos generales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los Contratos Internacionales de Construcción y las relaciones jurídicas que se generan gracias a su ejecución son motivo de estudio y evaluación por parte de diferentes instituciones y académicos a lo largo y ancho del planeta, e interpretados desde el punto de vista jurisprudencial y arbitral por las diferentes cortes y tribunales de diferentes países. Ese desarrollo y estudio ha generado la creación de unos usos, prácticas y reglas propias aplicables a este tipo de contratos, que se reflejan particularmente en los contratos modelos creados por diferentes instituciones como FIDIC. Estas reglas usos y prácticas es lo que la doctrina ha denominado Ius Ingeniorum o la Lex Mercatoria de los contratos internacionales de construcción. A través del presente documento pretendo hacer una breve introducción al tema de la construcción internacional como actividad creadora de reglas autónomas e independientes en el ámbito internacional. Igualmente, haré mención a algunas de las cláusulas que considero más relevantes a este tipo de contratos, tomando como base de estudio la perspectiva que nos ofrecen los contratos modelo o tipo creados por FIDIC.

  11. Aspectos generales sobre colisión de actividades peligrosas

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles Montoya, Ana María; Henao Cadavid, María Mercedes

    2006-01-01

    El estudio realizado parte de una acercamiento teórico a la presunción establecida en el artículo 2356 de Código Civil Colombiano, en el que la doctrina y la jurisprudencia han afirmado que es posible identificar la responsabilidad civil por los daños causados en el ejercicio de actividades peligrosas.

  12. El contrato internacional de construcción: Aspectos generales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Contratos Internacionales de Construcción y las relaciones jurídicas que se generan gracias a su ejecución son motivo de estudio y evaluación por parte de diferentes instituciones y académicos a lo largo y ancho del planeta, e interpretados desde el punto de vista jurisprudencial y arbitral por las diferentes cortes y tribunales de diferentes países. Ese desarrollo y estudio ha generado la creación de unos usos, prácticas y reglas propias aplicables a este tipo de contratos, que se reflejan particularmente en los contratos modelos creados por diferentes instituciones como FIDIC. Estas reglas usos y prácticas es lo que la doctrina ha denominado Ius Ingeniorum o la Lex Mercatoria de los contratos internacionales de construcción. A través del presente documento pretendo hacer una breve introducción al tema de la construcción internacional como actividad creadora de reglas autónomas e independientes en el ámbito internacional. Igualmente, haré mención a algunas de las cláusulas que considero más relevantes a este tipo de contratos, tomando como base de estudio la perspectiva que nos ofrecen los contratos modelo o tipo creados por FIDIC.

  13. Aspectos generales de la reintegración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stack

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Hasta hace poco la ciencia había venido descalificando y subestimando aquellos saberes o creencias que escapaban de la evidencia experimental, lógica, y predecible; el sabio occidental rehuía del espíritu y se abrazaba a la tangible materia como a la verdad más cierta. Hoy comienza a comprender que atrás del telón de la fenomenología opera un vastísimo campo de energías y tras los últimos avances la física teórica ha tenido que corregir sistemáticamente sus nociones clásicas de tiempo y espacio así como renunciar a sus viejas pretensiones deterministas para resignarse a un cierto grado de incertidumbre infranqueable.

  14. Historias de vida y violencia de género en la pareja a mujeres mayores en Santiago de Chile (1940-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Investigación cualitativa y de carácter exploratorio sobre la violencia contra mujeres mayores en relaciones de pareja en Chile. Utilizando el modelo ecológico y las historia de vida de 21 mujeres mayores de 60 años de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, se analizan distintos aspectos de su vida en la infancia, juventud y madurez, puestas en el contexto histórico, social y cultural en que se desarrollaron, los que sirven de base para analizar la violencia basada en el género que vivieron de parte...

  15. El diseño de sistemas interactivos multimedia de aprendizaje : aspectos básicos

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado Morueta, Ramón

    1996-01-01

    Tomando como punto de partida el desarrollo del concepto de Sistemas Interactivos Multimedia para el Aprendizaje (SIMA) en base a su caracter interactivo y multimedia, este trabajo trata de ofrecer pistas relativas a su diseño. Se exponen diversas dimensiones que se encuentran en la literatura sobre Diseño de Sistemas Instruccionales (DSI) como aspectos básicos y generales en el desarrollo del proceso de diseño de SIMA. Estos aspectos básicos son herramientas que pueden utilizarse...

  16. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  17. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  18. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Chile's equity market is fairly large and successful. The market capitalization of the 249 listed firms represented 89 percent of GDP at year-end, 2001. Corporate ownership is concentrated and pyramid structures are common. Business groups/conglomerates are the predominant corporate form. Institutional investors, especially pension funds, are active equity investors. The Securities Market ...

  19. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.

  20. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal. Población y muestra: 30 adolescentes embarazadas asistentes al Programa, el muestreo por conveniencia. Se utilizó la encuesta y la observación directa, previa autorización del Director de la empresa. Resultados: Caracterización de la población: predominó la edad de 15 a 19 años (adolescencia tardía, uniones libres, baja escolaridad debido a la deserción escolar, ingreso económico menor al salario mínimo legal vigente. Aspectos Biológicos: la menarquía a temprana edad (9 a 14 años, y en ella la mitad de los embarazos. La mayoría de los segundos embarazos terminaron en parto, la minoría en cesárea y aborto. La captación para los controles prenatales fue tardía, algunas no cumplieron con las citas programadas. Aspectos Psicológicos: inestabilidad con la pareja al enterarse del embarazo, tuvieron soporte familiar moral y económico, abandonaron sus estudios y presentaron malestares como estrés, depresión y tristeza. Aspectos Sociales: predominó la convivencia con la familia extensa. Hubo aceptación en el colegio y en los amigos. Discusión y Conclusiones: Se plantean estrategias para disminuir estos aspectos: elaboración de una cartilla sobre “Cuidado de la adolescente embarazada”, creación de espacios de reflexión, jornadas lúdicas educativas, entre otros. (Rev Cuid 2012; 3(3:385-93.Palabras clave: Embarazo en Adolescencia, Bienestar Materno, Atención Prenatal. (Fuente: De

  1. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  2. TRANSPARENCIA Y LEYES SECRETAS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Contreras V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza el problema de constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas en Chile, en razón de las modificaciones introducidas a la Constitución en el 2005. Primero, describe brevemente el fundamento sobre la publicidad de la ley en el Estado Democrático. Luego, se analiza el nuevo principio constitucional de publicidad establecido en el artículo 8º de la Constitución. Adicionalmente, se examina la constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas desde dos puntos de vista: confrontando la compatibilidad con el principio general de transparencia -como base de la institucionalidad- y analizando la afectación en el contenido esencial del derecho fundamental de acceso a la información pública.

  3. ESTATISMO Y NEOLIBERALISMO: UN CONTRAPUNTO MILITAR CHILE 1973-1979

    OpenAIRE

    VERÓNICA VALDIVIA ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE

    2001-01-01

    This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between t...

  4. Employment Generation, Firm Size, and Innovation in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Alvarez; José Miguel Benavente; Rolando Campusano; Conrado Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    This paper compiles and analyzes several sources of information to shed light on the relationship between innovation and employment growth in the manufacturing industry in Chile in the last 15 years. Our overall conclusions are that process innovation is generally not found to be a relevant determinant of employment growth, and that product innovation is usually positively associated with an expansion in employment. These results seem to be similar regardless of firm size and hold for both lo...

  5. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  6. Integrated design for the development of energy efficient housing in Chile: Threading abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Underlea Miotto Bruscato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El diseño integrado es una estrategia para desarrollar proyectos de arquitectura sustentable, incorporando trabajo multidisciplinario y evaluaciones de desempeño, que ha demostrado ser un aporte relevante en la ejecución de edificios públicos de países desarrollados. Este artículo presenta la revisión de aspectos de diseño integrado para la elaboración de viviendas energéticamente eficientes en la zona sur de Chile, destinadas en particular a la reconstrucción post terremoto del 27 de Febrero del 2010. Realizando primeramente una síntesis de características de los procesos de diseño integrado, sus condiciones implícitas, participantes, etapas, recursos y resultados esperados según referencias internacionales. Luego se contrasta con la práctica regular de diseño de viviendas en Chile según la regulación vigente y entrevistas a profesionales. Posteriormente se analizan procesos de diseños de casas experimentales y conjuntos habitacionales particularmente enfocados al desempeño energético, realizando seguimientos y entrevistas para revisar aspectos significativos. Identificando algunas consideraciones y recursos relevantes aplicados en el diseño de las viviendas que permitieron el logro de mejoramientos ambientales.

  7. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Amado M. Padilla; Lillian Comas Díaz

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychologic...

  8. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  9. Aspectos fundamentales de los sistemas de riego

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Tobón, Julio César

    2002-01-01

    El impreso universitario ASPECTOS FUNDAMENTALES DE LOS SISTEMAS DE RIEGO sirve como documento base en el entendimiento técnico de la aplicación de agua a los cultivos, siendo igualmente un referente para que los técnicos de las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales lo utilicen para implementar políticas fijadas en la Ley 373/97, "POR LA CUAL SE ESTABLECE EL PROGRAMA PARA EL USO EFICIENTE Y AHORRO DEL AGUA", buscando con ello una mejora en la utilización de uso de los recursos de agua y suelo, te...

  10. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menanteau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  11. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters

  12. Novel Aspects in Clinical Discipline Implementation of the Training Program for General Community Doctors in Venezuela Aspectos novedosos en la implementación de la Clínica en el Programa de Formación del Médico Integral Comunitario en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío García Núñez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some considerations on the novelties of the implementation of Clinic discipline in the third year of the National Training Program for General Community Medicine in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Its implementation led to considering, in its design, the academic nuances added by the different setting where future graduates will perform their work, resulting in the need of including novel methodological aspects that make the learning process more efficient and allow achieving the instructional and educational objectives in each subject. The design of this curriculum responds to a particular historical context, where 24 000 students will be graduated as medicine doctors and will have the mission of working in places of severe social difficulties, where graduates of the traditional method would not want to work once they finish their studies.En este artículo se exponen algunas consideraciones sobre las novedades de la implementación de la disciplina Clínica en el tercer año del Programa Nacional de Formación en Medicina Integral Comunitaria, en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. La implementación de esta disciplina motivó a que en su diseño se tuvieran en cuenta los matices académicos que añaden los escenarios de la profesión donde se desempeñará el futuro egresado, lo que originó la necesidad de introducir aspectos metodológicos novedosos que hicieran más eficiente el proceso formativo y permitieran el logro de los objetivos instructivos y educativos de las asignaturas. El diseño de este programa de estudio responde a un contexto histórico concreto, donde se forman 24 000 estudiantes, que tendrán como tarea una vez graduados como médicos, desempeñarse en los lugares de mayores dificultades sociales, donde los graduados por el método tradicional, no desean trabajar una vez que terminan sus estudios.

  13. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  14. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  15. Chile : Household Risk Management and Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This report is part of the World Bank's advisory and analytical assistance to the Government of Chile. The report examines whether Chile has a social protection "system" - broadly defined to include policy interventions, public institutions, and the regulation of private institutions that lower the welfare costs of adverse shocks to income from job loss and extended unemployment, health ep...

  16. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  17. ASPECTOS MORFO-FISIOLÓGICOS DA CEBOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da cebola Allium cepa L. ocupa lugar de importância entre as hortaliças cultivadas no Brasil. Em termos de valor da produção, é superada apenas pelo tomate e a batata e, em algumas regiões de São Paulo, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina representa a principal atividade econômica. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar aspectos morfo-fisiológicos importantes em cebola que variam conforme as condições climáticas. Apesar de existir um conhecimento satisfatório, o aprimoramento e desenvolvimento tecnológicos são fundamentais para aumentar a produtividade e normalizar o abastecimento do produto.

  18. El destierro paraguayo: aspectos transnacionales y generacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una contribución al estudio del destierro paraguayo, en el marco del creciente interés académico por los estudios de exilio. Como tal, traza los parámetros históricos de uno de los casos menos estudiados de exilio masivo en el siglo xx en las Américas y analiza el caso de Rafael Barrett (1876-1910, una figura importante de las letras paraguayas, su hijo y nietos. Al examinar el caso de la familia Barrett -en la que se identifican tres generaciones forzadas a desplazarse del lugar natural donde pretendían residir y al cual deseaban retornar- el artículo sugiere la relevancia de investigar los aspectos generacionales y transnacionales de la experiencia exiliar en las Américas.

  19. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the

  20. Sistema de salud de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  1. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  2. Aspectos da pesquisa sobre tipologia textual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Travaglia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo chama a atenção dos pesquisadores sobre tipologiatextual, na área da Linguística Textual, sobre aspectos que sãoimportantes para que estas pesquisas gerem conclusões egeneralizações mais confiáveis. Os pontos comentados são: a anecessidade de uma teoria tipológica geral de textos que inclusivedetermine se as categorias de texto são todas da mesma natureza. Oautor propõe uma teoria geral; b a necessidade de estudos maishorizontalizados ou amplos que estabeleçam campos de pesquisa ede estudos mais verticalizados, que aprofundam o conhecimentode pontos específicos; c os aspectos metodológicos para superarproblemas no levantamento das categorias de texto existentes emuma sociedade e cultura, em suas diversas comunidades discursivase esferas de ação social; d a questão dos parâmetros e critérios paraconsiderar uma categoria de texto como sendo uma categoria e seela é de determinada natureza; e a questão dos critérios e parâmetrospara a caracterização das categorias de texto; f a necessidade deestudar as diversas relações de diferentes tipos que podem ocorrerentre as categorias de texto (de diferentes naturezas, tanto em suacomposição quanto em seu funcionamento sociodiscursivo; e g aatenção que merece a questão teminológica.

  3. Dimensiones geográficas territoriales, institucionales y sociales del terremoto de Chile del 27 de febrero del 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Aravena Hugo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los aspectos territoriales, sociales e institucionales deben ser comprendidos como componentes de los eventos desastrosos. Sin embargo, luego del terremoto y maremoto que afectó a Chile el 27 de febrero del 2010, persiste en este país la idea de que un sismo es un evento solamente natural. Por esto, no se aprecian avances significativos en los aspectos institucionales que dicen tener relación con la prevención y gestión de los riesgos y los desastres. Esto queda demostrado al evaluar los planes de ordenamiento territorial existentes para las ciudades afectadas, los procedimientos de discusión y aprobación de estos y, en particular, el funcionamiento de las instituciones encargadas del manejo de las emergencias.

  4. Analysis of the dynamic of underground water in Agua Verde, Quebrada de Taltal, region of Antofagasta, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extreme aridity and geological situation in northern. Chile requires an exhaustive investigation on water resources for supporting rational usage. The Direccion General de Aguas and Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear have performed studies in arid zones in northern Chile using isotopic and hydrochemical tools. In Quebrada de Taltal's basin, located in one of the must arid arid zones of Chile (Segunda Region de Antofagasta), was studies groundwater dynamics and recharge process from a geochemical approach in terms of water quality, temperature and isotopic composition (2H, 18O, 3H, 14C). The recharge generated above 3000 m a.s.t has a slow dynamics and involve little flow (author)

  5. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales boscosos de agua dulce son áreas naturalmente inundadas o saturadas, que sustentan vegetación boscosa hidrófila, están presentes en todo el mundo, y en Chile son conocidos como "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues". El presente estudio entrega el estado del conocimiento de estos humedales en Chile, mediante una descripción de sus características biológicas, fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicas, identificando las principales amenazas para su conservación y las principales necesidades de investigación. Estos ambientes pueden presentar inundación permanente o temporal, dependiendo de un conjunto de procesos microclimáticos, biológicos y edafológicos. Su vegetación, del tipo hidrófila boscosa, es dominada por especies de la familia Myrtaceae. Tanto el comportamiento hídrico como la estructura vegetacional destacan dentro de los aspectos que determinan directamente las características fisicoquímicas del agua y los patrones de distribución de las comunidades biológicas. Los humedales boscosos de Chile han sido ampliamente estudiados desde un punto de vista vegetacional y florístico, pero carecen de estudios limnológicos, hidrológicos o faunísticos básicos, de lo cual deriva un total desconocimiento en relación a su funcionamiento a nivel ecosistémico y los efectos que pueden tener las actividades humanas en sus cuencas (e.g., agrícola, ganadera, forestal sobre sus componentes hídricos y biológicos. A pesar de ser ecosistemas de gran relevancia cultural y ecológica, se identifican importantes falencias en cuanto a su estado de conservación, al no encontrarse protegidos por las actuales herramientas de conservación existentes en el país. Por lo tanto, emergen como ecosistemas únicos, de relevancia mundial, prácticamente desconocidos en Chile y de gran interés para el desarrollo de numerosas líneas de investigación, aunque su alta susceptibilidad ante perturbaciones de origen antrópico amenaza su permanencia

  6. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

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    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  7. Chile's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, a new emphasis has been placed on increasing solid fuel availability in Chile, to reach the northern mining operations where demand for power is soaring. The south of the country is well served by hydroelectric power plants (2.3 million kW). The coal industry has doubled its capacity to cope with increased copper production - the Tocopilla power plant at the Chuquicamata copper mine has been converted from oil to coal - and there has been a major investment programme in the steel industry. In 1986, 1.4 million tons of coal was mined, mostly from the Provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the remainder from Valdivia. Since then, 70 million US dollars has been invested by COCAR SA in the Pecket deposit near Punta Arenas. Coal from Pecket should cost around 26 dollars/t compared with 60 dollars/t for underground coal. It should support an expanded coal market in Chile and may also be able to compete in the Brazilian and Argentine markets. Reserves are estimated at over 200 Mt. Petroleum reserves in Tierra del Fuego are nearly exhausted; seismic surveys in the Atacama desert are promising.

  8. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  9. The debate in Chile on organ donation revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hugo Kottow Lang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Aumenta la escasez de órganos para trasplantes de cadáver a vivo, en tanto la lista de receptores crece por extensión de las indicaciones médicas para trasplantar y la longevidad de enfermos crónicos con disfunciones orgánicas. Chile tiene una tasa bajísima de 6,7 donantes por millón, pese a una ley de consentimiento presunto enmendada para acoger un “principio de reciprocidad”. Casi cuatro millones de personas documentan su rechazo a donar, y el 53% de familias niegan la donación en los presuntamente disponibles. Es urgente repensar y flexibilizar ciertos aspectos hasta ahora rechazados como algún incentivo no material, la donación parcial de órganos, la posibilidad de aceptar vínculos personales entre donantes y receptores, e incrementar la transparencia de los procedimientos para fomentar la confianza en ellos.

  10. Aspectos neurológicos da Pelagra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluízio Marques

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudadas as várias questões gerais da Pelagra, nomeadamente os aspectos clínicos e etiopatogênicos. As formas clássicas se traduzem por manifestações intensificadas na época de maior insolação e evidenciadas por desordens da pele, do aparelho digestivo e sistema nervoso. Lembra o autor que, não obstante se deva ter em primeira conta esses aspectos do mal, na prática não se podem descuidar os oligossintomáticos, frustos e larvados. Com referência a tais formas, acredita ser de grande importância salientar os exemplares em que se não encontram sintomas cutâneos e configuram a "Pelagra sine Pelagra". A seguir, procura mostrar a freqüência dos aspectos neurológicos e psiquiátricos da condição e afirma que, se não se descrevem mais amiúde, é porque os médicos que se ocupam da Pelagra, descuidam de esmiuçar a existência de sinais e sintomas nervosos e mentais muito sutis que com freqüência passam despercebidos. Também recorda que os aspectos neurológicos da Pelagra não se encontram mais vezes, porque, via de regra, só se diagnostica a doença quando as lesões cutâneas são evidentes; de hábito deixam-se de lado os exemplares de "Pelagra Sine Pelagra", os de tradução clínica destituída de eritema ou outros fenômenos dermatológicos. Baseado na sua experiência, diz que as manifestações nervosas e mentais da Pelagra são em muito maior número do que é de supor-se. Para documentar essa afirmação, recorda a observação que tem feito em mais de uma oportunidade e os casos publicados pelos autores brasileiros; nem só os registados especialmente do ponto de vista neurológico mas, também, aqueles em que se não deu particular apreço a esse aspecto e em que a simples leitura das observações evidencia fenômenos neuro-psiquiátricos muito caraterísticos. Os quatro exemplares relatados no trabalho, foram colhidos do Serviço de Clínica Neurológica do Hospital Getúlio Vargas. Dois deles

  11. Análisis de la correlación entre los programas de estudio para la enseñanza del inglés en educación general básica en Chile y la teoría del desarrollo intelectual de Piaget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya García, Marcela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo tiene por objetivo principal analizar la correlación existente entre los Programas de Estudio para la Enseñanza del inglés en Educación General Básica (E.G.B. y la Teoría del Desarrollo Intelectual de Piaget, así como determinar el modelo pedagógico inscrito. Para ello, se parte de una muestra constituida por cuatro Programas de Estudio -de Quinto a Octavo Básico- elaborados y distribuidos por la Unidad de Evaluación y Currículum del Ministerio de Educación de Chile y que se encuentran vigentes desde 2010. La técnica de investigación empleada en el estudio corresponde a la documental, pues parte del discurso docente se trabaja sobre documentos. Los resultados indican que los Programas de Estudio de Educación General para la Enseñanza del inglés tienen una correlación parcial o nula con los planteamientos de Piaget sobre el desarrollo intelectual, ya que se centran en el logro de objetivos ligados con operaciones por parte de los niños que requieren el procesamiento del pensamiento abstracto y no la realización de operaciones concretas que pueden, según Piaget, efectuar estudiantes entre 10 y 14 años. A su vez, los Programas de Estudio de Educación General para la Enseñanza del inglés corresponden al modelo por objetivos, mientras que los propósitos fundamentales planteados por el Ministerio de Educación apuntan hacia el logro de estos por parte de los niños sin contemplar las etapas del desarrollo intelectual sostenidas por Piaget.Abstract: This article intended primarily to analyze the correlation between the Curriculum for Teaching English in General Basic Education (EGB and the Piaget’s Theory of Intellectual Development, as well as to determine the pedagogical model present in their programs. This is part of a sample of four Curriculum, fifth to eighth grade, developed and distributed by the Curriculum and Assessment Unit of the Ministry of Education of Chile, which are in force

  12. Is Mining Still the Wage of Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valenzuela

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available – Historia de la minería del hierro en Chile, by Augusto Millán. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, 1999. – Capital transnacional y trabajo. El desarrollo minero en Chile, by Rafael Agacino, Cristián González and Jorge Rojas. Santiago: Lom Ediciones, 1998. – Dilemas y debates en torno al cobre, by Patricio Meller. Santiago: Dolmen, 2002. – Royalty. Regalía o renta minera. Lo que solo Chile no cobra, by Jorge Lavandero Illanes. Santiago: Ediciones Lafken, 2003.

  13. ANÁLISIS DE LA CORRELACIÓN ENTRE LOS PROGRAMAS DE ESTUDIO PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DEL INGLÉS EN EDUCACIÓN GENERAL BÁSICA EN CHILE Y LA TEORÍA DEL DESARROLLO INTELECTUAL DE PIAGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Amaya García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por objetivo principal analizar la correlación existente entre los Programas de Estudio para la Enseñanza del inglés en Educación General Básica (E.G.B. y la Teoría del Desarrollo Intelectual de Piaget, así como determinar el modelo pedagógico inscrito. Para ello, se parte de una muestra constituida por cuatro Programas de Estudio -de Quinto a Octavo Básico- elaborados y distribuidos por la Unidad de Evaluación y Currículum del Ministerio de Educación de Chile y que se encuentran vigentes desde 2010. La técnica de investigación empleada en el estudio corresponde a la documental, pues parte del discurso docente se trabaja sobre documentos. Los resultados indican que los Programas de Estudio de Educación General para la Enseñanza del inglés tienen una correlación parcial o nula con los planteamientos de Piaget sobre el desarrollo intelectual, ya que se centran en el logro de objetivos ligados con operaciones por parte de los niños que requieren el procesamiento del pensamiento abstracto y no la realización de operaciones concretas que pueden, según Piaget, efectuar estudiantes entre 10 y 14 años. A su vez, los Programas de Estudio de Educación General para la Enseñanza del inglés corresponden al modelo por objetivos, mientras que los propósitos fundamentales planteados por el Ministerio de Educación apuntan hacia el logro de estos por parte de los niños sin contemplar las etapas del desarrollo intelectual sostenidas por Piaget.

  14. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  15. Juegos educativos móviles: aspectos involucrados

    OpenAIRE

    Lliteras, Alejandra Beatriz; Challiol, Cecilia; Gordillo, Silvia Ethel

    2013-01-01

    Los Juegos Educativos Móviles son creados con objetivos educativos y se emplean como una herramienta en el proceso de aprendizaje por considerarse un elemento motivador para los alumnos. En este trabajo se presentan tres aspectos de este tipo de juegos: el contenido, la movilidad y la presentación (que se le brinda al alumno de los dos aspectos anteriores). El objetivo de este trabajo, es presentar estos aspectos de manera desacoplada entre sí, para poderlos combinar, al momento de la creació...

  16. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  17. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  18. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  19. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  20. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  1. General aspects of the cyclotrons and radiochemical separation of: {sup 11} C, {sup 15} O, {sup 18} F and {sup 14} N; Aspectos generales de los ciclotrones y separacion radioquimica de {sup 11} C, {sup 15} O, {sup 18} F y {sup 14} N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-07-15

    The particle accelerators, as the cyclotrons, are extraordinarily important as tools for the radioisotope production and its application in the area of the medicine. In this time, another method exists for the production of artificial radioisotopes, based on the irradiation of samples with alpha particles or with neutrons coming from a natural radioisotope being obtained a neutron source (Ra + Be, Rn + Be, Po + Be). However, its can be obtained a great quantity of radioisotopes by means of cyclotrons in very short time, compared with other methods. After the second world war, artificial radioisotopes took place by means of reactors and its had many applications, not only medical and in little time the accelerators were manufactured that were more indispensable that the reactors to produce radioisotopes with medical aims. For this reason, the accelerators, in few years became in machines very important for the production of artificial radioisotopes and consequently its were developed techniques of radioactive traces progressively more sophisticated, since it is evident that the production of radioactive nuclei through nuclear reactors its cannot satisfy all the demands. In general terms, only the neutrons can be used as nuclear projectiles in reactors and as a result, the production spectra of radioisotopes is limited and as alternative it is unavoidable that the cyclotrons are a good tool for this end. The use of a cyclotron to produce radioisotopes, it can be justified, only if the following conditions are completed. 1. If the radioisotopes of an element produced in a reactor don't favor with the nuclear properties for the purposes of the traced studies, for example: if the half life is very short or very big, if the decay system not to suit him. 2. If the wanted radioisotope cannot produce in the reactor with enough specific activity. (Author)

  2. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  3. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  4. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  5. ESTATISMO Y NEOLIBERALISMO: UN CONTRAPUNTO MILITAR CHILE 1973-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERÓNICA VALDIVIA ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between the State and development, and on the debate between neoliberalism and statism that was carried out within the armed forces

  6. Aspectos emocionales del paciente crítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio A. Martha

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper analyzes the emotional answer of the people we call "critical patient", the relationship between nurse-patient is the most significant point of view and the influence of this relationship in the mental state of both; a special reference is made to the connotation of the "patient" and "critical" term and the emotional expression of comfort or discomfort.

    El presente ensayo es un análisis sobre las respuestas emocionales y en general las actitudes de aquellas personas a quienes llamamos "pacientes críticos", el aspecto novedoso consiste en que su mirada se hace desde la relación paciente-cuidador y en como ésta influye en los comportamientos de los involucrados; igualmente busca reflexionar acerca de las connotaciones que los vocablos "paciente" y "crítico" imprimen al manejo de la relación y como consecuencia al bien-estar o mal-estar de la persona enferma.

  7. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  8. Ridge-trench collision in Archean and Post-Archean crustal growth: evidence from southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of continental crust at convergent plate margins involves both continuous and episodic processes. Ridge-trench collision is one episodic process that can cause significant magmatic and tectonic effects on convergent plate margins. Because the sites of ridge collision (ridge-trench triple junctions) generally migrate along convergent plate boundaries, the effects of ridge collision will be highly diachronous in Andean-type orogenic belts and may not be adequately recognized in the geologic record. The Chile margin triple junction (CMTJ, 46 deg S), where the actively spreading Chile rise is colliding with the sediment-filled Peru-Chile trench, is geometrically and kinematically the simplest modern example of ridge collision. The south Chile margin illustrates the importance of the ridge-collision tectonic setting in crustal evolution at convergent margins. Similarities between ridge-collision features in southern Chile and features of Archean greenstone belts raise the question of the importance of ridge collision in Archean crustal growth. Archean plate tectonic processes were probably different than today; these differences may have affected the nature and importance of ridge collision during Archean crustal growth. In conclusion, it is suggested that smaller plates, greater ridge length, and/or faster spreading all point to the likelihood that ridge collision played a greater role in crustal growth and development of the greenstone-granite terranes during the Archean. However, the effects of modern ridge collision, and the processes involved, are not well enough known to develop specific models for the Archean ridge collison

  9. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  10. LICENCIAS OBLIGATORIAS POR RAZONES DE SALUD PÚBLICA EN CHILE: UN ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO CON EL ACUERDO SOBRE LOS ADPIC Compulsory licenses for reasons of public health in Chile: a comparative analysis with the trips agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cerda Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la implementación de sus múltiples acuerdos internacionales en materia de propiedad intelectual, Chile ha modificado su Ley de Propiedad Industrial, la cual reglamenta el sistema de patentes, reconociendo la patentabilidad de productos farmacéuticos (1991 y estableciendo un mecanismo para el otorgamiento de licencias obligatorias fundadas en razones de salud pública (2005. Este artículo describe y analiza la normativa sobre licencias obligatorias sobre patentes farmacéuticas adoptadas en Chile en orden a establecer si ellas satisfacen el estándar adoptado por la Organización Mundial de Comercio (OMC en el Acuerdo sobre los Aspectos de los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual relacionados con el Comercio (ADPIC y saca partido de las flexibilidades provistas por los instrumentos nternacionales, en especial aquellos que resultaron de la Declaración de Doha.In implementing its various international agreements on intellectual property, Chile has amended its industrial property act, which regulates the patent system, by recognizing the patentability of pharmaceutical products (1991 and establishing a scheme for granting compulsory licenses based on reasons of public health (2005. This article describes and analyses the rules adopted about compulsory licenses on pharmaceutical patents in order to establish whether it meets the standard promoted by the World Trade Organization in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS and takes advantages of flexibilities provided by international agreements, especially those resulting of the Doha Declaration.

  11. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子

    1988-01-01

    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J

    1997-11-01

    This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.

  13. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  14. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  15. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  16. Mediación penal como mecanismo de justicia restaurativa en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gonzalez Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio aborda el tema de la incorporación de la mediación penal en Chile, como forma sustitutiva al actual proceso penal de corte acusatorio, que integra el principio de oportunidad procesal y algunas salidas alternativas al juicio oral, que por sí solas no responden íntegramente a las necesidades de justicia de las personas. Con el objeto de conocer cómo se aplica este mecanismo en Chile, se indagará sobre la aplicación cuantitativa y cualitativa que se da a la mediación penal ofrecida por el sector público en tres regiones significativas del país y sus consecuencias, mediante el uso de una metodología exploratoria con algunos aspectos descriptivos, a través del análisis de documentación consistente en doctrina, recomendaciones de organismos internacionales, experiencia comparada y un acotado trabajo de campo que recoge las percepciones sobre la calidad y utilidad de la aplicación de la mediación penal de los operadores y usuarios del sistema en esta muestra local pero representativa del país.

  17. Homogeneidade e heterogeneidade nos sistemas educacionais: Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México Homogeneity and heterogeneity on education systems in Argentine, Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rut Krawczyk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo focaliza a reconfiguração da gestão educacional a partir da nova lógica de regulação social e do novo papel do Estado, à luz da historicidade dos países estudados (Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México, examinando os fatores culturais que interferiram na dinâmica da reforma educacional da década de 90. Aspectos que evidenciam a homogeneidade e a heterogeneidade dessa reforma na região, bem como as especificidades nacionais que intervieram em sua concretização, são destacados. Afirma que a historicidade que caracteriza a realidade educacional tem sofrido, no México, o que poderíamos denominar "ruptura conservadora"; no Chile, "continuidade conservadora"; no Brasil, "renovação conservadora"; e, na Argentina, "ruptura interrompida". Recupera algumas conclusões alcançadas por meio da análise de 186 textos de caráter acadêmico sobre os impactos, nos países estudados, da reforma educacional da década.This study focus on the reconfiguration of educational management in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, which was promoted by the new logic of social regulation and the new role attributed to the State, considering each country's own historicity. So, the cultural factors that interfere on the dynamics of the 90' school reform are analyzed. Aspects that show the homogeneity or heterogeneity of these reforms in the region, as well as local specificities that block out the concretization of the reform are underlined. It is shown that the historicity that characterizes the educational reform has taken, in each country, a form that can be called, in Mexico, "conservative rupture"; in Chile, "conservative continuity"; in Brazil, "conservative renovation"; and, in Argentina, "interrupted rupture". Some conclusions about the impact of educational reform in the selected countries are recuperated through the analysis of 186 academic texts on the subject.

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  19. Bienestar Subjetivo y Calidad de Vida en la Infancia en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Oyanedel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los resultados de la Encuesta Internacional sobre Bienestar Subjetivo infantil (ISCWeB, aplicada en Chile en el año 2012. El cuestionario fue aplicado a una muestra de 2.734 niños y niñas, de 8, 10 y 12 años, residentes de las tres principales zonas urbanas del país. Los resultados dan cuenta de una alta satisfacción con la vida, existiendo diferencias al considerar las variables nivel socioeconómico y sexo, así como también distintos aspectos. Los ámbitos mejor evaluados corresponden a la familia, bienes materiales, y salud; en detrimento de aspectos como el barrio y el colegio. Asimismo, se observa que el conocimiento y percepción de que se respetan los derechos de los niños y niñas, disminuye con la edad. Las conclusiones enfatizan la necesidad de profundizar en el estudio de esta temática.

  20. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  1. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  2. Aspectos nutricionales del búfalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2011-11-01

    necesario para mantener al animal en un estado saludable donde puedan expresar su potencial reproductivo de acuerdo con el nivel de producción deseado en condiciones específicas de ambientales y de alimentación (Paul & Lal, 2010. El presente texto fue escrito con la intención de abordar algunos aspectos nutricionales del búfalo, exponiendo lo más actual sobre el tema y de esa forma aclarar las posibles dudas sobre las normas de alimentación para esta especie.

  3. Las fábricas de la charla en Chile: apuntes preliminares sobre la materialidad y la subjetividad del trabajo en los call centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areli Escobar Salazar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo expone los resultados preliminares de la investigación doctoral en Antropología, orientada a conocer la materialidad y la subjetividad del trabajo de los call centers en Chile. Un salario definido por metas inalcanzables, el maltrato, el cansancio de nuevo tipo, la doble extracción del valor productivo y reproductivo de las mujeres trabajadoras y su entorno familiar, la explotación de las capacidades subjetivas, entre otros aspectos, dan cuenta de las nuevas formas que asume la precarización del trabajo. Las fábricas de la charla en Chile son un claro ejemplo de las formas que asume la organización del trabajo en el escenario laboral contemporáneo.

  4. Income Inequality in Chile: 1990-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Hourton

    2012-01-01

    The entrance of Chile to the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, as the first South American country and second after Mexico in Latin America, sets a landmark in the development path that since the beginning of the 1990s decade has seemed to lead this country to a privileged position in the region. Given the reforms taken by the military regime in the 1980s, Chile is one of the most market-oriented countries in Latin America, with Free Trade Agreements and Economical Pa...

  5. Entrevista : Carlos Honorato Comandari (ProChile)

    OpenAIRE

    Comandari, Carlos Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Ingeniero Comercial de la Universidad Finis Terrae y MBA de Babson College (Estados Unidos). En 2010, asumió como Subdirector Internacional de ProChile, desde donde lideró la creación del programa de apoyo a la internacionalización de la innovación chilena, CONTACTChile. Fue nombrado Director de ProChile en mayo de 2013, con la responsabilidad de conducir las más de 50 oficinas comerciales de la institución en el mundo y las 15 oficinas regionales dentro del país. En este período ha intensifi...

  6. Aspectos de la religión en la novela erótica griega

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Rojas y Álvarez Gayou

    2014-01-01

    Luego de una breve aproximación a la novela griega en general y de una sucinta presentación sobre la religión griega y las interpretaciones de los filólogos relativo a si las novelas son o no textos religiosos, se ofrece un tratamiento de los diversos aspectos de la religión en las novelas de Caritón de Afrodisias y de Aquiles Tacio, cuyo análisis se divide en tres apartados: los dioses, manifestaciones de los dioses y prácticas religiosas.

  7. Direcciones futuras de la ecotoxicología en Chile: implicancias para la evaluación de riesgo ambiental de productos veterinarios utilizados en acuicultura Future directions of Chilean ecotoxicology: Implications for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary products used in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS H MEDINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación bidireccional de influencia que la acuicultura establece con el ambiente en el cual se desarrolla determina límites al crecimiento de esta actividad económica en Chile. Esto se ha traducido tanto en restricciones técnicas, como en conflictos ambientales y sociales. La creciente demanda de nuevos productos quimioterapéuticos y su consecuente vertido en ambientes acuáticos es considerado uno de los principales problemas ambientales que enfrenta la industria del salmón en Chile. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de los efectos que ejercen estas sustancias sobre especies no objetivo y, en general, sobre la estructura y función de los ecosistemas expuestos. Mediante la aplicación de teoría y métodos de ecología contemporánea, el trabajo aquí presentado busca contribuir oportunamente al desarrollo de una metodología que permita reducir el nivel de incertidumbre asociado a la evaluación de riesgo ambiental de productos veterinarios utilizados en acuicultura. Se revisa el estado actual de la evaluación de riesgo ambiental en Chile y se identifican aspectos críticos y factibles de corregir en el marco de los procedimientos utilizados. Finalmente, se entrega una propuesta metodológica general que contempla extender de un modo coherente las pruebas ecotoxicológicas estándar, combinando experimentación a niveles comunitario, poblacional e individual, junto a la modelización matemática de sistemas ecológicos.The bidirectional relationship that aquaculture has with the environment set limits to the growth this economic activity has in Chile. This condition has generated both technical constraints and environmental as well as social conflicts. The growing demand for new chemotherapeutic compounds and their reléase into aquatic environments is now considered one of the main problems being faced by the salmón industry in Chile. However, little is known about the effects these substances exert on non-target species and on the

  8. Contenidos de la actividad expresivo motriz en los programas de las carreras de pedagogía en Educación Física, en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alda Reyno Freundt

    2010-01-01

    La Reforma Educacional chilena obedece a la Ley Orgánica Constitucional (LOCE) de 1990 y busca mejorar los aspectos de calidad y equidad de la educación, abarcando la educación escolar y universitaria en Chile. El presente estudio forma parte de la Investigación Doctoral que tiene por objetivo extraer información acerca de los contenidos declarados en los programas relacionados con el Área de Expresión Motriz (AEM) de las Carreras de Pedagogía en Educación Física de las Universidades, c...

  9. Potencial osmótico en la absorción nutrimental y calidad de fruto en chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R. y P.).

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Cruz, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Con el objeto de estudiar la absorción nutrimental y determinar el potencial osmótico (PO) de la solución nutritiva, óptimo para incrementar la calidad de fruto de chile manzano se desarrolló un experimento factorial en condiciones de hidroponía. Se evaluaron 5 niveles de PO: -0.036, -0.054, -0.072, -0.09 y -0.108 MPa, y dos variedades: Puebla y Zongolica. Se evaluó la concentración de macro y micronutrimentos en la planta, además de algunos aspectos de calidad del fruto como: peso medio del...

  10. Aspectos fundamentales del método de Edith Stein

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Crespo

    2010-01-01

    este trabajo aborda tres aspectos fundamentales del método filosófico de Edith Stein. En primer lugar, se alude a las cosas mismas como el punto de partida del filosofar de esta autora. En segundo lugar, se considera el aspecto que constituye uno de los aportes fundamentales del método fenomenológico y que es claramente reconocible en nuestra autora, a saber, el haber puesto de manifiesto la imposibilidad de hacer filosofía primera sin tomar en cuenta la vida consciente ante la que todas las ...

  11. Diseño de una metodología para determinar la localización de infraestructuras portuarias : un caso de evaluación de la localización de una plataforma logística en la VIII región de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer Barrientos, Jorge Humberto

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo de tesis doctoral versa sobre determinados aspectos relacionados con el sector marítimo portuario, en particularidad para Chile. Se describe la situación del sistema portuario actual de Chile, referente a su situación geográfica, política y económica. También se realiza un esbozo de los actuales procesos de toma de decisión de la localización de infraestructuras portuarias. Se expone mediante modelos gráficos algunos conceptos que explican en parte los procesos evolutivos de la d...

  12. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  13. Aspectos del dengue investigados en Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Martínez

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre 1998 y 2003 se registraron en Colombia 256,831 casos de dengue (22,834 de dengue hemorrágico DH de los cuales 41,325 (36% fueron en Santander (3,265 DH (1,2. En este período ocurrieron brotes en 1998 y 2001 observándose incremento de casos severos en el segundo (2. Por otro lado, existen inconvenientes con el diagnóstico que dificultan el manejo clínico oportuno y la vigilancia epidemiológica. Como consecuencia, los siguientes aspectos han sido investigados:

    1 Contribución de la circulación de los serotipos/genotipos al incremento del dengue hemorrágico, considerando que la entrada o emergencia de éstos se han asociado con epidemias (3. Entre 1998 y 2004 se hicieron 1,180 intentos de aislamiento viral en células C6/36 (4, detectándose los 4 serotipos. El DEN-2 se aisló todos los años con mayor frecuencia durante los brotes (43% y 40% de los cepas; el DEN-1 se detectó entre 1998 y 2001, siendo el prevalente en el primer brote (57%, pero el menos en el segundo (4%; el DEN-3 se detectó en el brote del 2001 con similar frecuencia al DEN-2 (36%, por primera vez en Colombia luego de 23 años ausente, y fue el prevalerte entre 2002-2004 (92% de los aislados, aunque en estos años no se reportó incremento del DH (2; el DEN-4 se aisló solo en el 2000 (27% y en el brote del 2001 (20%. El genotipo de cada serotipo se identificó por análisis de RSS-PCR (5,6. Se encontraron el subtipo A (ó III, C (ó I y B (ó II de los serotipos 2, 1 y 4, similares a los que están circulando en países de América y oriundos del Asia. Los DEN-3 fueron del subtipo C (ó III iguales al virus que entró en América en 1994 oriundo de Sri-Lanka, India. Los genotipos del 2 y 3 encontrados en Santander producen con mayor frecuencia DH (3,7.

    Hallazgo de Ehrlichia canis en Chile, informe preliminar Ehrlichia canis in Chile; preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LÓPEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso de Ehrlichiosis canina detectado en Chile, causado por la rickettsia Ehrlichia canis y transmitida por el vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. El diagnóstico clínico fue confirmado en Alemania por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFATThe first case of canine ehrlichiosis detected in Chile is described. It is caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis and carried by the vektor Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in Germany using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFA

  14. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  15. Astronomy Outreach Activities in Chile: IYA 2009 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.

  16. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  17. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  18. Museos de Santiago de Chile. Directorio

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Andrea; Funes, Catherine; Heredia, Constanza; Herrera, Daniela; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Directory of the museums in Santiago of Chile categorized by subject, such as Art, Archaeology, Historic house, Science and technology, Natural science and Natural history, Specialized, Ethnography and Anthropology, History, Site museum and Other. It comprehends basic information about name, creation date, collections, services, contact info, social network accounts, website and entrance fee of the museums.

  19. A Decade of Environment Management in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthenberg, Ina-Marlene

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents an evaluation of the Environmental Institutions Development Project in Chile, selected by Bank management to be part of an intensive learning process in final project evaluation, given its contributing factor to the Bank's knowledge base on environmental institutional development projects. The first part of the publication focuses on the project as catalyst for cu...

  1. Aspectos funcionales de la psicoterapia analítico funcional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Virués Ortega

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se considera una nueva psicoterapia de orientación conductual: la Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional. Se describen brevemente sus fundamentos teóricos, metodológicos y aplicados. Se discuten sus aspectos funcionales desde un punto de vista contextual.

  2. Los miedos en el niño: Aspectos teóricos y un estudio directo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En general se admite, tanto por el científico que estudia el comportamiento humano como por el observador atento de la realidad, que los fenómenos afectivos y emocionales (entre los que se incluyen los miedos son uno de los aspectos más significativos de la experiencia humana, umversalmente presentes en todo individuo a lo largo de su vida.

  3. Los miedos en el niño: Aspectos teóricos y un estudio directo

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ

    1990-01-01

    En general se admite, tanto por el científico que estudia el comportamiento humano como por el observador atento de la realidad, que los fenómenos afectivos y emocionales (entre los que se incluyen los miedos) son uno de los aspectos más significativos de la experiencia humana, umversalmente presentes en todo individuo a lo largo de su vida.

  4. [The 140th anniversary of Revista Médica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, B Humberto; Andresen, H Max; Palma, H Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Revista Médica de Chile was founded in 1872 and thus is one of the oldest medical journals being published since the 19th Century. The sponsoring institution--"Sociedad Médica de Santiago", founded in 1869--initially was the only scientific society in Chile, gathering medical doctors from every existing specialty. With the splitting of independent organizations representing specific specialties, including subspecial-ties of internal medicine, Sociedad Médica de Santiago focused its scope of action to become the "Chilean Society of Internal Medicine". Its official journal -Revista Médica de Chile--is currently a general and internal medicine journal that also publishes articles on scientific and technological advances in many fields of medicine and health sciences. While initially all authors were Chilean, the journal is now open to submissions from abroad and since the year 2000 articles are published in English when the local language of authors is not Spanish. The number of articles received determines an increasing administrative and editorial burden and, together with the high cost of publishing, will require changes in publication policies. The journal will participate in continuing medical education programs as soon as reaccreditation of medical specialties becomes officially organized in Chile.

  5. Variabilidad de las comunidades de parásitos metazoos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae) en Chile Variability of metazoan parasite communities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae) off Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO; ALEX MELLADO; SANDRA SAAVEDRA; JUAN CARVAJAL

    2009-01-01

    La comparación de las variaciones en el tiempo cronológico y en el espacio es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la ecología de las comunidades de parásitos. Por eso, en este estudio se compara la abundancia total, riqueza y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) (Pisces: Eleginopidae), entre muestras tomadas en Chile centro-sur en tres localidades geográficas (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt y Punta Arenas), y en dos momen...

  6. Extensión y Aplicación de AspectZ a la Administración de un Sistema de Fichas de Salud Electrónicas en Chile Extension and Application of AspectZ to the Management of an Electronic Health Card System in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Vidal; Carolina Del Río; Rodrigo Saens

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una extensión de AspectZ con el objetivo de modelar los requerimientos del software que administra un sistema de fichas electrónicas de salud en Chile: SYSFIC 1.0. AspectZ es un lenguaje de especificación formal orientado a aspectos que preserva las características bases del lenguaje Z y que ayuda a encapsular incumbencias transversales del sistema en entidades separadas e independientes. La aplicación incluye el uso de diagramas con Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado (LUM)...

  7. Analysis of the Organizational Aspects of a Clinical Emergency Department: A Study in a General Hospital in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil Análisis de los aspectos de organización de un servicio de urgencias clínicas: estudio realizado en un hospital general del municipio de Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brasil Análise dos aspectos organizacionais de um serviço de urgências clínicas: estudo em um hospital geral do município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Franco Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for the Emergency Department (ED has increased, making the organization of work difficult. This quantitative, descriptive and documental study identifies and analyzes the characteristics of clinical care in the ED of a General Hospital in Ribeirão Preto, SP, in 2007, according to organizational variables. The study population included all clinical care consultations registered in the Hospital Management Information System. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and discussed considering the theoretical framework of the Single Health System (SUS. A total of 5,285 consultations were registered in the period, which were more frequent in patients from the city itself, in January (10%, on Mondays (16%, from 12pm to 12am (67.1%. The main reason for discharge from the unit was hospitalization (63.8% and the predominant length of stay in the unit was less than six hours (39.8%. The results support the management of human resources, materials and equipment, indicating the desirability of reorganizing emergency care in the hospital.La demanda por servicios de urgencia y emergencia ha aumentado, dificultado la organización del trabajo. Con el objetivo de identificar y analizar las características de las atenciones de clínica médica, en el Servicio de Urgencia del Hospital General en Ribeirao Preto, 2007, según las variables de organización fue realizado este estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo, utilizando datos documentales. La población de estudio fueron todas las atenciones clínicas, registrados en el Sistema de Información de Gestión Hospitalaria. Los datos fueron analizados según la estadística descriptiva y discutidos considerando el referencial teórico de reorganización del SUS. En el período ocurrieron 5.285 atenciones, que fueron más frecuentes en pacientes procedentes del propio municipio (63,8%, en el mes de enero (10%, los días lunes (16%, en el horario de la 12 a las 24h (67,1%, y el tiempo predominante de

  8. La nueva Ley Concursal: Aspectos procesales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Elizalde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El procedimiento. Generalidades.Expositora: Lucía ElizaldeMe voy a encargar de dar un pantallazo general en lo que tiene que ver con el procedimiento y las etapas del procedimiento, luego el Profesor Cardinal va a tratar en más profundidad algunos temas que plantean particularidades procesales, como por ejemplo el sistema recursivo,la moratoria, medidas cautelares y otros.El procedimiento. Particularidades.Expositor: Fernando CardinalCuando dividimos el tema con Lucía ella enfocaría el tema desde las posiciones jurídicas base de la legislación y el procedimiento, quedando para mí enfocar el tema desdeel Derecho Procesal para ver el primer gran problema que se genera con cualquier ley extra Código procedimental que establece un procedimiento, que es cómo se casa, cómo se articula, cómo funciona sobre la base procesal anterior.Esta Ley de Concursos, sabiamente, en uno de sus últimos artículos postula la remisión al Código General del Proceso, lo que significa en cierta forma que inserta este procedimiento concursal dentro de las estructuras de los procedimientos especiales. Quiere decir que el procedimiento concursal que emerge de esta Ley puede entenderse como un proceso concursal segundo, aparte del que ya está legislado en el CGP que va a quedar para los concursos excluidos de la aplicación de esta Ley.

  9. El abate Juan Ignacio Molina: una vida dedicada a la historia natural y civil del reino de Chile Abbot Juan Ignacio Molina: A life devoted to the natural and civil history of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 naci cerca de Talca, Chile, y falleci en Bolonia, Italia. Es el primer cientfico chileno. Desde pequeo se interes por la naturaleza. Se educ con la Compaa de Jess en diversos lugares de Chile central, lo que le permiti conocer su geografa, fauna, flora y poblacin. Con 15 aos ingres a la Compaa. En 1767, abandon el pas al ser expulsada esta orden de espaa y sus dominios. Se radic en los Estados Pontificios, donde se orden de sacerdote y permaneci hasta su muerte. All ense ciencias naturales y produjo su obra cientfica: Compendio de la historia geogrfica, natural y civil del reino de Chile de 1776, una versin aumentada, Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile de 1782 y una segunda en 1810. En ellas, abord aspectos climticos, botnicos, geolgicos, zoolgicos, mineralgicos y geogrficos del territorio. Describi el terremoto de Concepcin, las erupciones del Villarrica y Peteroa, e hizo referencia a recursos minerales. Diferenci cuatro unidades litoestratigrficas para Chile central. Clasific plantas y animales siguiendo los criterios de Linneo. En una de sus 14 memorias, Analogas menos observadas de los tres reinos de la Naturaleza, sin podrselo calificar de evolucionista, se destaca su intento de integracin entre los "seres" de los tres reinos, y en Sobre la propagacin del gnero humano en las diversas partes de la tierra, propuso tres vas diferentes para el poblamiento de Amrica. En 1802, ingres a la Academia de Ciencias de Bolonia.Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829, born next to Talca, Chile, and dead in Bologna, Italy, is the first Chilean scientist. His education in establishments of the Society of Jesus, in several localities of central Chile, allowed him to learn about its geography, flora, fauna, and population. At 15 years old he entered the Society. In 1767, he left Chile when the Jesuits were expelled from the spanish territories. In Bologna he produced his scientific contribution. Molina published in 1776 the first

  10. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A

  11. Estudio serológico preliminar de hepatitis E en cerdos en Chile Swine hepatitis E preliminary serological study in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. REINHARDT

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis E (VHE en el hombre puede provocar epidemias masivas de hepatitis aguda. Se transmite vía oro-fecal, especialmente por agua contaminada. Se ha demostrado que el cerdo puede ser infectado con el VHE humano. Se han detectado anticuerpos y ARN del VHE en cerdos y otras especies animales, lo que sugiere un reservorio animal. Por otro lado, se identificó un agente nuevo denominado VHE porcino, distinto del VHE humano. En Chile, en seres humanos se ha encontrado prevalencia de anti- HEV de hasta 7%, pero no se ha determinado su estudio por RT-PCR ni tampoco se ha investigado su significado en especies animales. Mediante ELISA se determinaron anti-VHE (IgG, en 200 sueros de cerdos de planteles de la zona central de Chile y en 175 de la provincia de Valdivia, de diferentes edades y ambos sexos. De estos se seleccionaron 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos para estudios de VHE por RT-PCR, usando secuencias de VHE humano. Por ELISA se detectaron 9.5% anti-VHE positivos (19/200 en planteles de la zona central y 0.6% (1/175 de la provincia de Valdivia, Chile. El estudio por RT-PCR de los 4 sueros anti-VHE positivos no visualizó las bandas de precipitación esperadas. Estos resultados preliminares indican, por primera vez en Chile, que el virus E está presente en poblaciones de cerdos. Sin embargo, se necesitan de estudios más acabados para evaluar la magnitud del problema, usando secuencias de VHE porcinos y lograr la determinación del genoma viralThe hepatitis E virus (HEV can cause acute epidemic hepatitis outbreak in humans. The path of transmission is oro-fecal, especially through contaminated water.It has been demonstrated that pigs can be infected with the human form of HEV. HEV antibodies and RNA from HEV have been found in pigs and other animals. Recently a new strain, called porcine HEV, was identified which differs from the human HEV. In Chile prevalence of anti-HEV in human general population reach 7%. However no studies

  12. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  13. Micro-foundations of Financialization: Status Anxiety and the Expansion of Consumer Credit in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González, F.

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates why people in Chile acquired so much consumer debt in contexts of material prosperity, and asks what the role of inequality and commodification is in this process. The case raises an important challenge to the literature. Insofar as existing accounts assume that the financialization of consumption occurs in contexts marked by wage stagnation and a general deterioration of the middle classes, they engender two contradictory explanations: while political economists arg...

  14. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Horacio Miranda; José Sepúlveda; Marianela Denegri

    2012-01-01

    Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM) foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand o...

  15. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications.

  16. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications. PMID:24448862

  17. Conditioning of radium sources in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process experimented in Chile to conditioning Ra-226 sources arising as waste from medical uses in Chile is described. The IAEA offered to participate in the Project for Conditioning Radium Sources in order to place all the radium sources in the country under an internationally accepted standard. These sources hare those that have been used in medical applications for many years. The CCHEN made its own modifications to the project's execution by using its own infrastructure and scientific and technical skill in this field. For this purpose, the CCHEN uses the human resources and facilities of the Radioactive Waste Management Unit (UGDR) and acquires materials that are commercially available in the country. IAEA assistance focused on quality assurance, so they supply all expensive items which the UGDR, cannot access, plus they certify the quality of the conditioned products. This assistance is achieved through the approval of procedures and methodologies based on those that are recommended

  18. Bibliothekswesen in Südamerika - Chile im Jahr 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheis, Alexander H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Librarianship in South America - Chile in 2014 (translation of the title). The historian and librarian Alexander H.T. Schultheis is living since nine years in Santiago de Chile and he is observing the Chilean librarianship. Although Chile is doing well economically, no improvement can be seen in the field of culture and education. On the contrary, the public libraries are still poorly equipped. Chance can be seen as small bright spots on the horizon, for example, the new opened cultural cente...

  19. Movilidad intrageneracional del ingreso en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio, Sapelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the different intra-generational mobility indicators for Chile on the basis of the Casen panel. Conclusions from the literature are evaluated in light of results that are based mainly on a discussion of the transition matrix. It is concluded that there is a mistaken interpretation of the data in part of the literature. A simulation is made that demonstrates that the Chilean transition matrix could be the consequence of random shocks to the effective distribution of income...

  20. Unmarried cohabitation among deprived families in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm Santelices, Alejandra Margarita

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that unmarried cohabitation is increasing in Chile. It is less clear what unmarried cohabitation is and why is it rising. In Latin America cohabitation is common among low income groups, and has been described as a surrogate marriage for the disadvantaged. Cohabitation in the region entails conventional gender roles and having children. It has been explained by colonial dominance, poverty, kinship, and machismo. The evidence amassed here indicates that although in practice cohabit...

  1. Aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & Relacionamento Humano & Sinergia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vieira Holtz Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As Tecnologias de Informação (TI estão entre os principais agentes de mudança sociais. Para gerir tais mudanças, uma miríade de áreas do conhecimento humano têm muito a contribuir para a abordagem dos aspectos sociotécnicos das TI e promover sinergia. Como uma organização empresarial atua no sentido de provocar mudanças no comportamento das pessoas, visando a melhoria contínua, esse processo de mudança provocada chama-se aprendizagem. Isto posto, neste artigo apresentaremos resultados observados em empresas em processo de reengenharia e submetidas a utilização de metodologias integradas (PDCA, Método Paulo Freire e Roteiro Integração de Equipes, abordando os aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & relacionamentos humanos pela praxe da pedagogia como elemento de sinergia.

  2. Aspectos claves para elaborar un estudio de clima laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Gómez, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo contiene los resultados de un estudio de medición de clima laboral, aplicando cinco dimensiones: Formación, Comunicación Interna, Situación Profesional y Perspectivas de Desarrollo e Imagen corporativa, realizado en una empresa de distribución alimentaria. Los distintos aspectos valorados en la elaboración de una encuesta se han aplicado en la investigación realizada.

  3. Aspectos fundamentales del método de Edith Stein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Crespo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available este trabajo aborda tres aspectos fundamentales del método filosófico de Edith Stein. En primer lugar, se alude a las cosas mismas como el punto de partida del filosofar de esta autora. En segundo lugar, se considera el aspecto que constituye uno de los aportes fundamentales del método fenomenológico y que es claramente reconocible en nuestra autora, a saber, el haber puesto de manifiesto la imposibilidad de hacer filosofía primera sin tomar en cuenta la vida consciente ante la que todas las cosas se abren. En tercer lugar, se remite a la individualidad de la persona como un aspecto de la antropología de Stein especialmente relevante. Al final del análisis de cada uno de estos tres aspectos metodológicos se intenta mostrar en qué sentido éstos pueden ser de relevancia para emprender el camino hacia la pregunta por la mujer.This paper addresses three fundamental aspects of Edith Stein's philosophical method. Firstly, it looks at issues such as the author's starting point of philosophizing. Secondly, it considers the aspect, which constitutes one of the fundamental contributions of the phenomenological method and is clearly recognizable in our author, such as having highlighted that it is impossible to carry out first philosophy without taking into account conscious life, before which all things are opened. Thirdly it looks at the individuality of the person as an especially relevant aspect of Stein's anthropology After analyzing each of these methodological aspects, this paper attempts to show how they may be relevant in laying out the path towards the question of the woman.

  4. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de los enfoques sobe Expansionismo-Revanchismo de Elizondo y las Imágenes en Espejo de Scott, se analizaron los contenidos de blogs referentes a imágenes mutuas entre Perú y Chile, comprendidos a partir de la fecha (16-01-2008 de presentación por parte del Perú de la Demanda ante el Tribunal de la Haya para la solución del Diferendo Limítrofe con Chile, hasta el 30-03-2011. Se han registrado intensas y variadas manifestaciones de hostilidad mutua, que respaldan la vigencia de la dinámica Expansionismo-Revanchismo en las imágenes mutuas entre Chile y Perú en los blogs analizados. Paralelamente, se detectaron contenidos correspondientes a actitudes integracionistas entre ambos países. Los resultados fundamentan la utilidad del enfoque de las Imágenes en Espejo como instrumento para el análisis de contenido de blogs portadores de mensajes de hostilidad e integración entre ambos países. Se propone una estrategia psicosocial binacional para desactivar la dinámica Expansionismo- revanchismo que contribuiría a producir catastróficas consecuencias para las generaciones actuales y futuras de ambos países; y, promover la integración fronteriza entre Tacna (Perú y Arica (Chile. ABSTRACT: The contents of blogs relating to mutual images between Peru and Chile were analyzed from the approaches about Expansionism – Revanchism of Elizondo, and The images on the mirror of Scott, included the date of the presentation (January 16th, 2008 by Peru of the demand before the International Court of Justice at the Hague for the solution of the border dispute with Chile until March 30th, 2011. There have been intense and varied manifestations of mutual hostility that support the validity of Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics in the mutual images between Chile and Peru in the analyzed blogs. At the same time, it was detected content corresponding to integrationist attitudes between the two countries. The results underlie the utility

  5. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y

  6. POR UNA LEGISLACIÓN SOCIAL EN CHILE: EL MOVIMIENTO DE LOS PANADEROS (1888-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Yáñez Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia la evolución del movimiento de panaderos en Chile, desde fines del siglo XIX hasta 1930. En especial se hace referencia a la etapa de movilizaciones para la eliminación del trabajo nocturno en las panaderías durante 1923 y 1924. Se plantea como tesis central que el movimiento de panaderos estaba en un proceso de transición organizativa desde la modalidad de sociedad de resistencia hacia una organización sindical proclive a institucionalizar sus demandas y aceptar la legislación, aspecto que explica la demanda en pro de la eliminación del trabajo nocturno. El mejoramiento en las condiciones de trabajo supuso modernizar el mercado laboral y generar nuevas modalidades de control de la mano de obra.This article studies the evolution of the bakers' movement in Chile, from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the 1930s. Special reference is made to the demonstrations organized to elimínate night work in the bakeries in 1923 and 1924. The main argument is that the bakers' movement was in a transitional period of organization from a resistance society to a labour-union organization. As a result there was an attempt to institutionalize their demands and accept legislation, which explains their demand in order to elimínate night work. The improvement of working conditions implied the modernization of the labour market and the generation of new forms of labour control.

  7. La isla de calor estival en Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Capelli de Steffens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Temuco es una ciudad localizada en el centro sur de Chile (38º 45’ S y 72º 40’ W. Morfológicamente, el sitio de la ciudad corresponde a las terrazas fluviales del río Cautín que se desarrollan en forma encajonada entre los cerros Ñielol (350 m y Conunhueno (360 m. Esta ciudad se ha desarrollado rápidamente en las últimas décadas, por lo tanto es necesario conocer el efecto antrópico en la misma. Para evaluar parte de ese efecto se analiza la isla de calor urbana estival en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. Se efectuaron mediciones de temperatura del aire y humedad a través de la ciudad para determinar la forma y la intensidad de la isla de calor urbano. Se utilizaron estaciones móviles e información de una estación meteorológica fija. La ciudad presenta un comportamiento térmico diferente a lo largo del día. Durante el día genera una isla de calor que responde en líneas generales al modelo ideal de calentamiento urbano. La intensidad de la isla calórica (∆Tu-r fue 6.3ºC y 1.2ºC durante el día y la noche, respectivamente. La influencia de los cerros que limitan la ciudad es importante. El estudio confirma la idea que el clima urbano de una ciudad es un mosaico de microclimas que interactuan continuamente.

  8. Thermal and lighting perception in four fully glazed office buildings in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vásquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Claudio Vásquez, School of Architecture, Catholic University of Chile. 1916 El Comendador str. Providencia, Santiago, ZIP: 7530091, Chile. Tel.: +56 9 92826305; E-mail: clvasque@uc.cl This paper is part of a general research project whose main objective is to establish a baseline for post-occupancy energy consumption and indoor environmental quality for office buildings in Santiago, Chile. This study aims at understanding how architectonical variables relate to, and can even determine, user comfort perception. Thus, one-year continuous monitoring in several floors at four office buildings was performed and seasonal surveys were completed. Survey participants were asked a series of questions regarding spatial orientation and comfort perception in their workspace. The data from the comfort survey and onsite measurements such as season of the year, case study, type of workspace and possibility of an outdoor view from the workstation were contrasted with the components obtained by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Three components were selected from the PCA, and three Maps of Perception (MP were produced. These maps were then analyzed and interpreted so as to obtain information on the general perception of thermal and lighting comfort at workspaces within several office buildings in Santiago.

  9. An enigmatic plant-eating theropod from the Late Jurassic period of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novas, Fernando E; Salgado, Leonardo; Suárez, Manuel; Agnolín, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Chimento, Nicolás R; de la Cruz, Rita; Isasi, Marcelo P; Vargas, Alexander O; Rubilar-Rogers, David

    2015-06-18

    Theropod dinosaurs were the dominant predators in most Mesozoic era terrestrial ecosystems. Early theropod evolution is currently interpreted as the diversification of various carnivorous and cursorial taxa, whereas the acquisition of herbivorism, together with the secondary loss of cursorial adaptations, occurred much later among advanced coelurosaurian theropods. A new, bizarre herbivorous basal tetanuran from the Upper Jurassic of Chile challenges this conception. The new dinosaur was discovered at Aysén, a fossil locality in the Upper Jurassic Toqui Formation of southern Chile (General Carrera Lake). The site yielded abundant and exquisitely preserved three-dimensional skeletons of small archosaurs. Several articulated individuals of Chilesaurus at different ontogenetic stages have been collected, as well as less abundant basal crocodyliforms, and fragmentary remains of sauropod dinosaurs (diplodocids and titanosaurians).

  10. Accelerated nucleation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aitaro; Fukuda, Jun'Ichi; Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2016-04-01

    The earthquake nucleation process has been vigorously investigated based on geophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical studies; however, a general consensus has yet to be achieved. Here, we studied nucleation process for the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 megathrust earthquake located within the current North Chile seismic gap, by analyzing a long-term earthquake catalog constructed from a cross-correlation detector using continuous seismic data. Accelerations in seismicity, the amount of aseismic slip inferred from repeating earthquakes, and the background seismicity, accompanied by an increasing frequency of earthquake migrations, started around 270 days before the mainshock at locations up-dip of the largest coseismic slip patch. These signals indicate that repetitive sequences of fast and slow slip took place on the plate interface at a transition zone between fully locked and creeping portions. We interpret that these different sliding modes interacted with each other and promoted accelerated unlocking of the plate interface during the nucleation phase.

  11. Accelerated nucleation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aitaro; Fukuda, Jun'ichi; Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    The earthquake nucleation process has been vigorously investigated based on geophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical studies; however, a general consensus has yet to be achieved. Here, we studied nucleation process for the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 megathrust earthquake located within the current North Chile seismic gap, by analyzing a long-term earthquake catalog constructed from a cross-correlation detector using continuous seismic data. Accelerations in seismicity, the amount of aseismic slip inferred from repeating earthquakes, and the background seismicity, accompanied by an increasing frequency of earthquake migrations, started around 270 days before the mainshock at locations up-dip of the largest coseismic slip patch. These signals indicate that repetitive sequences of fast and slow slip took place on the plate interface at a transition zone between fully locked and creeping portions. We interpret that these different sliding modes interacted with each other and promoted accelerated unlocking of the plate interface during the nucleation phase. PMID:27109362

  12. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  13. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  14. Chile, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wilhelmy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text of a presentation in the Colloquium Chile and the World, organized by the Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies, May 6, 2005, in honor of Professor Paul E.Sigmund. The views expressed have not been reviewed or endorsed by the Chile Pacific Foundation. Manfred Wilhelmy holds a Ph.D. in Politics (1973 from Princeton University

  15. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  16. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  17. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  18. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  19. Astaxanthin: structural and functional aspects Astaxantina: aspectos estruturais e funcionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mont'Alverne Jucá Seabra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a carotenoid belonging to the xanthophyll class, has stirred great interest due to its antioxidant capacity and its possible role in reducing the risk of some diseases. Astaxanthin occurs naturally in microalgae, such as Haematococcus pluvialis and the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, and has also been considered to be the major carotenoid in salmon and crustaceans. Shrimp processing waste, which is generally discarded, is also an important source of astaxanthin. The antioxidant activity of astaxanthin has been observed to modulate biological functions related to lipid peroxidation, having beneficial effects on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, macular degeneration and cancer. Researches have shown that both astaxanthin obtained from natural sources and its synthetic counterpart produce satisfactory effects, but studies in humans are limited to natural sources. There is no established nutritional recommendation regarding astaxanthin daily intake but most studies reported beneficial results from a daily intake of 4mg. Thus, this review discusses some aspects of the carotenoid astaxanthin, highlighting its chemical structure and antioxidant activity, and some studies that report its use in humans.A astaxantina, carotenóide pertencente à classe das xantofilas, tem despertado grande interesse devido à sua capacidade antioxidante e possível papel na redução de risco de algumas doenças. A astaxantina pode ser encontrada naturalmente em microalgas como Haematococcus pluvialis e na levedura Phaffia rhodozyma como também tem sido considerada principal carotenóide em salmão e crustáceos. Os resíduos do processamento de camarão, geralmente descartados, são também importante fonte de astaxantina. A atividade antioxidante da astaxantina tem demonstrado importante função na modulação de funções biológicas relacionadas à peroxidação lipídica, desempenhando efeitos benéficos em doenças crônicas como doen

  20. Aspectos psicológicos en el cáncer ginecológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Olivares Crespo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se abordan los aspectos psicológicos concomitantes a la patologíaoncológica ginecológica. De forma habitual estas pacientes están sometidas a diferentes modalidadesterapéuticas que provocan efectos acumulativos. En términos generales, el tratamiento deelección es quirúrgico, principalmente mastectomía e histerectomía. Estos tratamientos quirúrgicosprovocan efectos antes, durante y después de los mismos. Entre los que cabe citar: alteraciones sexuales, cambios en la imagen corporal, infertilidad y menopausia inducida. Para concluir, seespecifican los procedimientos terapéuticos psicológicos del proceso, tanto del diagnóstico como deltratamiento quirúrgico y de los efectos derivados del mismo.

  1. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  2. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  3. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  4. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  5. Algunos aspectos de la vida cotidiana en la comedia griega

    OpenAIRE

    García Soler, María José

    2011-01-01

    La comedia es uno de los géneros literarios que mejor refleja la vida diaria, donde encuentra numerosos elementos que le sirven de recurso para provocar la risa. El presente artículo se centra en cómo muestran los autores cómicos algunos aspectos de la vida pública (el funcionamiento de la asamblea popular y el sistema judicial) y de la vida privada (la alimentación y la gastronomía) de la Atenas de los siglos V y IV a.C.

  6. Aspectos financieros de las cesiones de carteras de siniestros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas López, María Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los aspectos financieros y económicos de las compañías de seguros a través de las cesiones de carteras de siniestros. Esta técnica da cobertura a ciertos riesgos financieros, permitiendo la optimización de riesgo soportado por la cedente, con el fin de diluir los efectos adversos del comportamiento de la variable aleatoria de la siniestralidad, para la mejora de la solvencia, el incremento de la capacidad de suscripción y salvaguardar el balance.

  7. Farmacologia da unidade motora: aspectos de interesse em neurologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Sannomiya

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Os AA fazem revisão sobre a unidade motora em seu aspecto morfológico, fisiológico e farmacológico como base para o estudo e tratamento da miastenia grave e da síndrome miastênica. Estudos eletromiográficos, farmacológicos e eletrofisiológicos, realizados por diversos autores, determinam características especiais que definem a miastenia grave e a síndrome miastênica. Certos sinais e sintomas, comumente observados em casos de envenenamento por elapídeos, são semelhantes aos causados por drogas bloqueadoras neuromusculares.

  8. Ensayos con animales: aspectos éticos y legales

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Álvarez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    El Objetivo principal del trabajo Ensayos con animales: Aspectos éticos y legales es proponer medidas que permitan disminuir el uso de animales de experimentación. Para ello se han desarrollado otros objetivos secundarios encaminados a facilitar la tarea de los investigadores: Recopilar la normativa ética y legal, facilitar el acceso a la terminología, esquematizar el protocolo de investigación establecido en la normativa, verificar la existencia de bases de datos de las investigaciones, estu...

  9. Comunidades de escorpiones (Arachnida: Scorpiones del desierto costero transicional de Chile Communities of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones of the transitional coastal desert of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO AGUSTO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el orden Scorpiones está representado por 35 especies, distribuidas en las familias Bothriuridae, Iuridae y Buthidae. La mayoría de ellas son elementos endémicos, adaptados a condiciones xéricas. Nosotros estudiamos la estructura taxonómica de la escorpiofauna asociada a las formaciones vegetacionales presentes en el desierto costero transicional de Chile (25-32º S. Las capturas se realizaron con trampas de intercepción y luz UV. La información de terreno se complementó con antecedentes señalados en la literatura y material de referencia. Identificamos la presencia de nueve especies en un total de 226 especímenes capturados, pertenecientes a las familias Bothriuridae y Iuridae. Los géneros más abundantes de Bothriuridae, representada por ocho especies, fueron Brachistosternus y Bothriurus, con el 55,4 % y el 11 % del total de especímenes capturados, respectivamente. En relación a Brachistosternus, Br. (Leptosternus roigalsinai fue la especie más abundante, con el 38,9 % del total de los especímenes capturados. Caraboctonus keyserlingi (Iuridae constituyó el 33,2 % del total. La mayor riqueza de especies de escorpiones, con seis y siete especies, fueron respectivamente, las formaciones vegetacionales del desierto costero de Huasco (27°52' S, 71°05' O; 29°24' S, 71°18' O y del matorral estepario costero (29°24' S, 71°18' O; 30°34' S, 71°42' O. Los desiertos costero de Tal-Tal (23°52' S, 70°30' O; 27°51' S, 71°05' O y costero de Huasco presentaron especies exclusivas. El análisis de correspondencia mostró que, para la escorpiofauna estudiada, el matorral estepario costero representaría una zona de transición distribucional. Finalmente, discutimos en función de preferencias de sustrato mostradas por algunas de las especies presentes, algunos aspectos relacionados a la ocupación del hábitatIn Chile, the order Scorpiones has 35 species, included in the families Bothriuridae, Iuridae, and Buthidae. Most of

  10. El Proyecto Patrimonial Turístico Sewell. / Sewell Heritage Tourism Project (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinet de la F., Felipe

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes generales para la postulación del campamento minero de Sewell, en Chile, como Patrimonio Cultural de la UNESCO, dando cuenta de la estrategia en desarrollo, las líneas de acción y lo desarrollado a la fecha./This article comments the general background information on the postulation of the mining settlement Sewell to be in the UNESCO’s World Heritage list. The development strategies, courses of action and what is already done in Sewell is also discussed in this article.

  11. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  12. Informe final INNOVA Chile. Desarrollo de tecnologías para la detección de toxinas marinas (mareas rojas) detoxificación de mariscos contaminados por estos compuestos.

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Méndez, F. L.; Córdova Masanes, J.G.; Pizarro Nova, G.M.; Núñez D.N.; Paredes C., M.A.; Frangopulos, M.; Alarcón Zapata, C.H.; Pacheco Valles, H.; Hinojosa Carrasco, Paola Y.; Zamora Amstein, C.V.

    2006-01-01

    Para Chile, la detoxoficación es una aspecto importante, por cuanto el negocio de los mariscos destinados a los mercados de exportación y para consumo interno representan un mercado del orden de los ciento cincuenta millones de dolares anuales. Además el volumen de choritos provenientes de la miticultura está incrementando sustancialmente cada año, justamente en las áreas que presentan este tipo de toxinas, y con una potencialidad reconocida en toda la gran macro zona sur austral. La aproxima...

  13. Evaluación técnica, financiera y comercial de los sistemas de producción de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescen RYP) en México

    OpenAIRE

    G. Barrios Puente; L. E. Espinosa Torres; E. Figueroa Hernández; O. Ramírez Abarca

    2014-01-01

    Los sistemas de producción de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens RyP) en México son de campo abierto bajo sombra de árboles de pino y frutales de temporada, e intensivo en hidroponía bajo condiciones de invernadero. Estos sistemas presentan diferencias significativas en los aspectos técnicos, financieros y comerciales como consecuencia de las innovaciones tecnológicas y por el grado de inversión de capital. Técnicamente el sistema intensivo bajo condiciones de invernadero es el más eficiente, ...

  14. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  15. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  16. [The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School: a regional commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, C

    1997-07-01

    The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School was created in 1966. Its general goal was to train a general physician with capacities to integrate biological, psychological and social issues, to deal with prevalent diseases as well as with the non referable casualties, to analyze health situations and to manage health teams. From its beginning, it incorporated anthropological and the public health contents to medical curriculum. Moreover, the formal teaching formation was reduced to 5 years, increasing the internship cycle to 2 years, with an important practice on primary health care in regional hospitals, that included a research project on health administration. A revision of the School curriculum showed the need of a better horizontal and vertical integration of medical education. Consequently, global courses were organized to gather knowledge that, until now, was delivered in a fragmented form. Our Medical School has a major impact in the southern region of the country and over 60% of its graduates have settled in this zone, improving its physician/inhabitant relationship and the number of specialists.

  17. Aspectos prosódicos da fala de sujeitos parkinsonianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Chacon

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Problemas de prosódia na fala de parkinsonianos têm sido apontados nos estudos sobre parkinsonismo. Contudo, nesses estudos a prosódia é freqüentemente desvinculada dos fatores comunicativos da fala. O propósito deste artigo foi investigar fatores comunicativos relacionados a aspectos prosódicos da fala de sujeitos com doença de Parkinson. As amostras 'de fala foram extraídas de conversas espontâneas de dois sujeitos parkinsonianos, do sexo masculino. A análise mostrou que os elementos prosódicos ocorreram em diversas combinações, possibilitando a identificação de: a atos de fala; b alguns aspectos da organização conversacional; e c diferentes vozes no discurso. Foram destacadas algumas implicações desses resultados para uma melhor compreensão da atividade verbal em condições patológicas, bem como para avaliação, diagnóstico e terapia de parkinsonianos.

  18. Hemangiomas cavernosos do cranio: aspectos clinicos, radiologicos e terapeuticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kirchhoff

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available São discutidos os aspectos relativos ao diagnóstico e tratamento dos hemangiomas cavernosos do crânio. Os dados obtidos em 26 casos, são apresentados, sendo salientado que a localização dos hemangiomas foi maior na região frontal, sendo mais atingido o sexo masculino. Os outros aspectos são coincidentes com os demais autores. A problemática desses tumores, principalmente a sua demonstração radiológica e o seu tratamento, são ressaltados, chegando-se à conclusão final de que o melhor meio de demonstração radiológica é a punção para contrastação direta do tumor. O tratamento de escolha é o cirúrgico, sendo a extirpação em bloco preferida nos casos de comprometimento ósseo importante, sendo a intervenção direta com dissecção e excisão reservada para as localizações nos tecidos moles ou com mínima participação óssea.

  19. La conducta adaptativa como criterio diagnóstico de discapacidad intelectual en estudiantes de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alarcón-Leiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas educativas en Chile han impulsado la evaluación de la conducta adaptativa como criterio de discapacidad intelectual, con el fin de establecer los apoyos requeridos por los estudiantes. Esta iniciativa es tan reciente como pionera y el artículo se propone evaluarla en relación con el marco normativo que regula y orienta las actividades profesionales vinculadas a ella. El trabajo realiza una revisión documental del contexto científico de la evaluación de la conducta adaptativa, analiza la coherencia entre dicho contexto y la política educativa chilena y elabora algunas sugerencias para el mejoramiento de la política y el desarrollo de capacidades profesionales. Este último aspecto resulta de la identificación de ciertas limitaciones en el marco normativo así como de la insuficiencia de recursos humanos capacitados para su implementación

  20. Práctica y significado del consentimiento informado en hospitales de Colombia y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ovalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparo el significado y la práctica del consentimiento informado (CI en doshospitales de Colombia y Chile, mediante el método cualitativo de estudio de casos. Los resultadosempíricos los contrasté inductivamente con las tensiones, diferencias y vínculos entre los presupuestosteóricos de la bioética con los jurídicos en el período 2005-2008, en el marco de sus respectivaspolíticas públicas. Confirmé el incumplimiento del CI y el no reconocimiento de la autonomía de lospacientes y de las pacientes en la práctica del CI. Propongo como una manera de dirimir el conflictoentre los aspectos legales y bioéticos del CI, la fundamentación de un enfoque de derechos con unaperspectiva bioética, y planteo pautas a seguir durante el proceso de CI.

  1. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts

  2. Aspectos podológicos en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martínez Sabater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS es el instrumento para detectar el nivel de salud de la población, por lo que se plantea como objetivo el análisis de las diferentes ediciones para valorar la presencia de los aspectos podológicos y de la figura del profesional de podología en la atención a las personas mayores. Metodología: se ha realizado un análisis de contenido de las diferentes ENS tras la recopilación de las diferentes ediciones (8. Después de la lectura en profundidad y análisis por parte de dos investigadores, se han cumplimentado las fichas de análisis y se han categorizado los diferentes transcriptores, y se ha realizado el análisis e interpretación de la información encontrada. Resultados: en las diferentes ediciones no aparece ninguna mención a la profesión de podología; sí que aparecen referencias a otras figuras como naturópatas, quiroprácticos, entre otros. En relación con los descriptores sobre las afecciones de los pies, solo aparece una referencia en la edición de 1987. No obstante, la referencia a aspectos podológicos es prácticamente inexistente. Conclusiones: la ENS es el instrumento básico para conocer el estado de salud de la población general, pero presenta limitaciones al omitir los aspectos podológicos que suponen una merma en el diagnóstico de las necesidades y, por consiguiente, en la calidad de vida de las personas, principalmente mayores. Al igual que ocurre con la cartera de servicios del SNS, obvia a los/as profesionales formados para la atención básica de los problemas podológicos en el equipo de salud.

  3. Aspectos preventivos y evaluación de riesgos de un comercio de venta de artículos deportivos

    OpenAIRE

    Rabanedo Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    El estudio trata de la realización de una evaluación de riesgos y aspectos preventivos en un gran establecimiento del sector comercio. Dadas las múltiples actividades llevadas a cabo así como las múltiples herramientas utilizadas en este tipo de establecimientos se describen las más representativas. El estudio se inicia con la descripción general de la empresa y los puestos de trabajo con sus respectivas tareas. Seguidamente se comenta el sistema de gestión basado en la normativa Oshas 18001:...

  4. Estudio comparativo de los planes de actuación frente al riesgo volcánico (Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, España, México y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Corominas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio hace una comparativa de actuación frente el riesgo volcánico entre varios países con la intención que sea una muestra de América Latina y España. El objetivo es comprobar si el nivel socioeconómico de un país se corresponde con la eficacia de los sistemas de prevención del riesgo volcánico que utilizan, analizar los motivos y los métodos en la medida de lo posible y aprender de los sistemas de trabajo para hacer frente a este riesgo, los cuales probablemente podrían ser aplicables a la prevención de otros riesgos. Se analizan 4 aspectos principales: 1 información general sobre el conocimiento del riesgo, 2 planes de prevención y vigilancia, 3 planes de emergencia y gestión y 4 planes educativos. El análisis comparativo final nos indica que el primer punto del estudio es directamente proporcional al nivel socioeconómico de los países, quedando España y México como los países con mayor conocimiento del riesgo, seguidos de Chile, Costa Rica y Ecuador. No obstante, en cuanto a los planes educativos, Nicaragua y el Salvador se sitúan en las primeras posiciones, siendo los países con menor índice de desarrollo humano, según ranking de las Naciones Unidas.

  5. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  6. CASO DE ESTUDIO: LA FUNDACION COCA-COLA CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE HERRERA

    2006-01-01

    This case gives an overview of the Coca-Cola System in Chile and focuses on the Coca-Cola Chile Foundation (CCFCH), a non-profit organization dedicated to education. Created in 1992 with donations from Coca-Cola de Chile S.A. (CCCH) and the bottling companies Embotelladora Andina S.A., Coca-Cola Embonor S.A. and Coca-Cola Polar S.A., the foundation now faces an expansion dilemma in its most important program, the TAVEC Laboratories. Under this program the CCFCH donated interactive scientific ...

  7. [Ecology and health in Chile: present and future development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M

    1997-09-01

    In response to the progressive environmental deterioration, the Ecological Society of America has made a proposal, called "Sustainable Biosphere Initiative", to do research, teaching and decision making processes on biodiversity, global change and the effects of human activities on environment. The goal of appropriate environmental protection and welfare for mankind includes health and quality of life. Presently, Chile faces a number of environmental problems such as pollution, excessive urban growth, loss of agricultural areas, disposal of solid waste and species extinction. The lack of education and information in Chile, on these problems, is worrisome. The role of universities to overcome this deficit should be crucial in the future sustainable development of Chile.

  8. Alleviating extreme poverty in Chile: The short term effects of Chile Solidario

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of an anti-poverty program, Chile Solidario, during its first two years of operation. We find that the program tends to increases significantly their take-up of cash assistance programs and of social programs for housing and employment, and to improve education and health outcomes for participating households. There is no evidence that the participation to employment program translates into improved employment or income outcomes in the short term. Finally, we p...

  9. Aspectos socioeconómicos y familiares asociados en niños y adolescentes obesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José González Cabriles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio es transversal y correlacional donde se analizaron las variables socioeconómicas y familiares de una muestra no probabilística, constituida por 528 familias de niños con obesidad exógena, de 2 a 18 años, provenientes de diversos sectores del país, atendidos en la consulta de primera del Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano. El objetivo fue determinar los aspectos socioeconómicos y familiares asociados en niños y adolescentes con obesidad que asistieron al Centro. Los datos se procesaron con el programa SPSS 9.0. Se analizaron las distribuciones de frecuencias y el estadístico Chi-cuadrado para probar asociación entre las variables. El nivel de significancia fue 95%. En las familias de niños obesos se encontró que la mayoría de los jefes de familia eran obesos; las familias con pobreza extrema y la población infantil mayor de 15 años presentaron mayor sedentarismo; por último, las madres en general no participaron en la toma de decisiones en la compra de alimentos y no poseían nociones de alimentación equilibrada que les permitieran planificar la compra de alimentos. Estos aspectos se erigen como claves para ser abordados y resueltos por el trabajador social durante la intervención con el fin de favorecer la recuperación nutricional del niño obeso y su familia.

  10. HACIA LA CONSTITUCIÓN DE UN CORPUS DIACRÓNICO DEL ESPAÑOL DE CHILE TOWARDS CHILEAN SPANISH LANGUAGE DIACHRONIC CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL CONTRERAS SEITZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y analiza la constitución de corpus diacrónicos hispánicos (españoles e hispanoamericanos con el objeto de situar el marco de referencia del CorDECh (Corpus Diacrónico del Español de Chile. El trabajo presenta una intersección entre disciplinas tradicionales, como la filología y la paleografía, con especialidades lingüísticas que se han revitalizado en los últimos años, como es el caso de la lingüística del corpus, en virtud de la conformación de un corpus diacrónico del español de Chile. Además, en este texto se da cuenta de los criterios de constitución de este corpus (cronológico, de selección y transcripción documental, diatópico y de variedad de registros; asimismo, se discuten aspectos de la automatización del corpus y las implicancias y proyecciones para el análisis del mismo. Finalmente, se repasan los criterios de etiquetación del corpus, de acuerdo con los aspectos de la Text Encoding Initiative (TEI, adoptados por la RAE en el Prontuario de Marcación SGML, utilizado para el CORDE (Corpus Diacrónico del Español, junto con presentar algunos ejemplos de estos aspectos, para lo cual se utilizó el editor XML/ XSLT Cooktop 2.5.The conformation of Hispanic diachronic corpora (Spanish and Hispano-American in order to place the framework of the CorDECh (Corpus Diacrónico del Español de Chile is described and analyzed in this paper. The work shows an intersection between traditional disciplines, such as the philolology and the paleography, with linguistic disciplines that have been revitalized in the last years, such as corpus linguistics, in order to shape a Chilean Spanish diachronic corpus. In addition, the criteria of corpus formation is presented in this text (chronological, documentary selection and transcription, diatopics and register varieties; in the same way, some aspects of corpora automatization and the implications and projections for its analysis is discussed here. Finally

  11. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación de mayor alcance acerca del problema del papel de la novela durante y después de la Dictadura.For many critics and scholars the great novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile still remains a pending matter. This article, on the contrary, hypothesizes on the existence of a significant number of novéis published in Chile between 1977 and 2006, which out of their fragmentary character and peculiarity give a proper account of the causes and consequences of the coup d'état held on September llth 1973. The article seeks to set a preliminary basis for an epistemological discussion and further major research about the role of the Chilean novel, in the historical context of post modernity, during and after the dictatorship's era.

  12. Independencia y su expresión léxica en la Aurora de Chile Independence and its lexical expression in the Aurora de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Franco Figueroa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base documental el semanario Aurora de Chile, se realiza un análisis lingüístico que describe las caracterizaciones léxicas acomodadas a los nuevos contextos sociolingüísticos en esta época histórica de la independencia colonial y los fenómenos gramaticales que permiten observar rasgos diferenciadores en la lengua que se asienta en esta sociedad chilena. Por una parte, resulta interesante constatar la variación léxica que este texto periodístico, portavoz de una ideología ilustrada, proporciona para alcanzar un mejor conocimiento del grado de penetración del nuevo léxico político-social, con voces en muchos casos recreadas con las acepciones dominantes en las comunidades insurgentes. Por otra, la descripción de los fenómenos gramaticales y del léxico general de este corpus aporta datos concretos acerca de la preferencia de estas variantes lingüísticas y del grado de estandarización que van adquiriendo, como usos emergentes de la lengua española en Chile, bien como asentamientos de estructuras sintácticas y de léxico tradicionales o bien como mecanismos innovadores en la gramática y en el vocabulario diferencial americano.Based on the weekly newspaper Aurora de Chile, a linguistic analysis is here introduced including both the description of lexical characterizations as they adapted to the new sociolinguistic contexts in the historical period of the colonial emancipation and the grammatical phenomena that allow for the observation of differentiating features of the language being established in the Chilean society of the time. On the one hand, it is of interest to observe the lexical variation displayed in this journalistic text, which represents an illustrated ideology, in order to better understand the degree of penetration of the new political and social vocabulary, with voices in many cases recreated with uses dominating the insurgent communities. On the other hand, the description of the grammatical

  13. Prestigio y estigmatización en variantes anteriorizadas y posteriorizadas de las vocales del español de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Felipe Salamanca Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con esta investigación, pretendemos demostrar la pertinencia de correlacionar el parámetro fonético "dirección de la lengua" con la variable sociolingüística "estrato sociocultural". Focalizamos nuestro trabajo en el segmento etario comprendido entre los 18 y 25 años de edad, ello porque este segmento es el que exhibe una mayor consciencia de la norma lingüística y, en consecuencia, mayor distinción entre lo que se considera prestigioso y estigmatizado. Estimamos que este trabajo constituye un aporte a los estudios sociofónicos del español (de Chile en dos sentidos: a. En el aspecto fonético, aporta información sobre la alofonía del inventario de vocales del español hablado en Chile y b. En el aspecto sociolingüístico, da cuenta de la pertinencia de utilizar las nociones de prestigio y estigmatización no sólo para el inventario de consonantes -como han sido los estudios hasta aquí- sino también para el inventario de vocales.With the following research, we intend to demónstrate the pertinence of correlat-ing the phonetic parameter "tongue position" with the sociolinguistic variable "sociocultural stratum". We focused our work on the age group between 18 and 25 years oíd because that segment shows a greater awareness of the linguistics norms and, consequently, they make a clearer distinction between what is considerad prestigious and stigmatized. We believe that this work is a contribution to the sociophonetic studies of the Spanish spoken in Chile in two ways: 1. In the phonetic aspect, it gives information about the allophones in the vowel inventory of the Spanish spoken in Chile 2. In the sociolinguistic aspect, it accounts for the relevance of using the notions of status and stigmatization for not only the consonant inventory -as the researches have done so far- but the vowel inventory also.

  14. Epidemiology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus outbreaks, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Erika; Matsuda, Luis; Hernández, Cristina; Rioseco, Maria L; Romero, Jaime; González-Escalona, Narjol; Martínez-Urtaza, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2009-02-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Puerto Montt, Chile, began in 2004 and reached a peak in 2005 at 3,600 clinical cases. Until 2006, every analyzed case was caused by the serovar O3:K6 pandemic strain. In the summer of 2007, only 475 cases were reported; 73% corresponded to the pandemic strain. This decrease was associated with a change in serotype of many pandemic isolates to O3:K59 and the emergence of new clinical strains. One of these strains, associated with 11% of the cases, was genotypically different from the pandemic strain but contained genes that were identical to those found on its pathogenicity island. These findings suggest that pathogenicity-related genes were laterally transferred from the pandemic strain to one of the different V. parahaemolyticus groups comprising the diverse and shifting bacterial population in shellfish in this region. PMID:19193258

  15. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  16. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  17. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  18. Aspectos da Responsabilidade Internacional do Estado: a responsabilidade criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Benz Marques

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : O Estado responsável pela prática de um ato ilícito, segundo o Direito Internacional, deve uma reparação ao Estado que sofreu o dano. Trata-se de um instituto em elaboração e de importância central para a sociedade internacional, pois uma sociedade que se supõe organizada necessita de um sistema de responsabilização adequado contra aqueles que descumprirem suas normas jurídicas. Entretanto, o direito da responsabilidade internacional permanece, sobretudo, com bases consuetudinárias e jurisprudenciais, apesar de ser um dos temas mais antigos na agenda da Comissão de Direito Internacional. O presente artigo visa destacar alguns aspectos do sistema atual de responsabilidade internacional do Estado, principalmente na esfera criminal.

  19. La Entomofagia en México. Algunos aspectos culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Carlos Viesca González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan aspectos culturales del consumo de insectos con fines alimenticios en México y el mundo; particularmente se analiza la entomofagia en la época prehispánica y nuestros días, así como las causas por las cuales ha disminuido el consumo de estos artrópodos. Se explica porqué se ha creado una aversión hacia los insectos en diversos países y algunas regiones de México. Se reflexiona acerca del valor nutritivo de los insectos y las distintas culturas que han hecho posible que sobreviva esta práctica culinaria en el centro y sur del territorio nacional, algunas formas de preparar platillos basados en insectos, así como los problemas que enfrenta actualmente esta costumbre alimenticia entre los mexicanos y sus perspectivas.

  20. Cefaleia em salvas: aspectos clinicos e terapeuticos em 26 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e seis casos de cefaléia-em-salvas são estudados do ponto de vista clínico e terapêutico. Nos aspectos clínicos são ressaltados a dramaticidade deste tipo de cefaléia, o nítido predomínio no sexo masculino, a média de idade dos pacientes, a presença de manifestações associadas e os fatores desencadeantes das crises nos períodos suscetíveis. Do ponto de vista terapêutico três esquemas medicamentosos foram utilizados: maleato de metisergida, prednisona e associação de ambas as drogas. Em 88,3% dos casos um resultado significativo foi alcançado, traduzido por melhora ou abolição das crises.

  1. Jeroky Mbaekua - aspectos da etnoarte indígena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseias de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A idéia de arte compartilhada na cultura ocidental tradicionalmente tem sido entendida a partir de elementos conceituais e categorizações que não podem ser aplicados na cultura indígena. Assim, considerar a arte indígena significa observar sua complexidade, de forma a perpassar todas as instâncias da vida desses sujeitos. Desta forma, o texto busca discutir aspectos da etnoarte indígena que não é focada em uma noção de arte centralizada e homogeneizadora mas, sim atenta à uma perspectiva que busca contemplar melhor o seu modo de construção de símbolos, significados e representações culturais.

  2. Aspectos físicos de la hadronterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga Fagua, Adriana Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    La radioterapia es una técnica que se emplea para eliminar células cancerígenas empleando radiación ionizante. El objetivo en la radioterapia, es minimizar la dosis en órganos a riesgo y concentrarla en el tumor. En este trabajo se reporta un estudio de la técnica hadronterapia abordado desde la perspectiva física. En primera instancia se hace una revisión de la física de los hadrones y de los aspectos biológicos y clínicos. Seguidamente se estudian las técnicas de producción, aceleración y m...

  3. El discurso escolar: aspectos de su formación

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda, Apolo

    2006-01-01

    En este escrito se analizan los aspectos que configuran el discurso matemático escolar a fin de conocer su naturaleza, eminentemente social, y contribuir a los propósitos específicos de la investigación socioepistemológica que se busca, entre otras acciones, las reconstrucción del discurso matemático escolar. Este análisis se apoya de los resultados de la investigación de Castañeda, (2004) relativo al análisis de obras de texto de antaño, a su tratamiento didáctico y al fenómeno de difusión d...

  4. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  5. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Moreno

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean...

  6. Beyond Income: A Study of Multidimensional Poverty in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bronfman, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared t...

  7. Water governance in Chile: Availability, management and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Roberto; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Olivares, Claudio; Vera, Mauricio; Balocchi, Francisco; Pérez, Felipe; Vallejos, Carlos; Fuentes, Roberto; Abarza, Alejandro; Helwig, Bridget

    2014-11-01

    Chile has a unique geography that provides an extraordinary variety of climatic conditions and availability of water resources. The objective of this manuscript was to describe and analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, as well as the management of water resources, along a country with a narrow distance from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This presents challenges to water governance from data collection and analysis perspectives, and for administration of the resource. The Water Resources Directorate (Dirección General de Aguas, DGA), is the federal government organization in charge of the water resources of the country. The DGA and other relevant public and private institutions are examined in terms of competition and conflict resolution across different scales and levels of interaction associated with water resources governance. Both monitoring stations (rainfall, streamflow, water quality, groundwater, sediment and snowfall), and the Chilean management and legislation of water resources are also analyzed. Finally, the success (or lack) of the national administration to upgrade its monitoring stations and equalize water resources distribution throughout the country is discussed including the influence of climate change on data collection, and decision making across different scales of water governance.

  8. El perfeccionamiento docente en Chile (1990-2007): ¿Estado versus mercado?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Donoso Díaz

    2008-01-01

    La formación continua de los docentes en Chile es un área desregulada del Estado, la cual pese a su importancia estratégica, reconocida por todos los actores sociales políticos e institucionales, ha carecido de una política que ordene y provea un marco regulatorio para su actuar. Este fenómeno es de relevancia por el deterioro general de la educación y porque la reforma de los años de 1990 parece no haber superado cuestiones claves en este sentido; y también porque en sus raíces se encuentran...

  9. Could Higher Taxes Increase the Long-Run Demand for Capital?: Theory and Evidences for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Bustos; Eduardo Engel; Alexander Galetovic

    2002-01-01

    Is a tax increase always detrimental for capital formation? This paper estimates a long-run demand for capital in Chile, and studies the responsiveness of firms’ desired capital stock to variations in tax rates. We combine the neoclassical model with a cointegration argument to obtain a long-run demand for capital that is valid for a general adjustment-cost structure. On theoretical grounds alone, there is no a priori reason why higher taxes should reduce the desired capital stock. Higher tax...

  10. First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile Primeiras observações sobre a biologia da nidificação de Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae no vale de Azapa, norte do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Méndez-Abarca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First remarks on the nesting biology of Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae in the Azapa valley, northern Chile. Some aspects about the nesting biology of the potter wasp Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 are reported for the first time. Observations were carried out at the Azapa valley, coastal desert of northern Chile. A total of sixty nests were collected and examined, each composed by 1-14 cells, most of them found attached to concrete lamp posts. The only preys recorded in the cells were Geometridae (Lepidoptera caterpillars and the presence of the parasitoid Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae was also recorded. A number of arthropods belonging to different groups, mainly spiders, were found occupying empty nests.Primeiras observações sobre a biologia da nidificação de Hypodynerus andeus (Packard (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae no vale de Azapa, norte do Chile. Alguns aspectos da biologia da nidificação da vespa Hypodynerus andeus (Packard, 1869 são registrados pela primeira vez. As observações foram conduzidas no vale de Azapa, deserto litoral do norte do Chile. Sessenta ninhos foram coletados e examinados, cada um composto por 1-14 células. A maioria dos ninhos estava aderida a postes de concreto. As únicas presas registradas nas células foram larvas de Geometridae (Lepidoptera. Um parasitóide, Anthrax sp. (Diptera, Bombyliidae, foi também registrado. Vários artrópodes, principalmente aranhas, foram encontrados utilizando ninhos vazios.

  11. Aspectos generales de la automatización industrial del sector farmacéutico

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Bibiana M; Vallejo, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    El presente artículo recopila la información sobre las tendencias mundiales en automatización de procesos industriales, aplicados al campo de los procesos de transformación de materiales en el sector farmacéutico. Se plantean los diferentes niveles de automatización que pueden ser de interés para la industria farmacéutica nacional y se hace una reflexión sobre el grado de avance para nuestra industria, seleccionando información sobre casos exitosos de automatización llevados a cabo desde la a...

  12. Verifique sus conocimientos sobre aspectos generales de fisiopatología

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Periz, Lola; Force Sanmartín, Enriqueta

    2011-01-01

    Para proporcionar cuidados de calidad a los pacientes es imprescindible tener unos conocimientos esenciales de fisiopatología, que es la ciencia que estudia los trastornos que se producen en las estructuras y en la función de los órganos y que comportan el proceso de enfermar. Ya que en ocasiones es difícil establecer una diferencia clara entre las causas y los procesos que ocasionan una enfermedad, la fisiopatología también estudia dichas causas. El término patogenia define más específicamen...

  13. Aspectos generales del contrato de transporte aéreo internacional de mercaderías.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Guzmán

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Claro y conciso son los adjetivos adecuados para calificar este artículo en el que se estudia de manera completa pero sencilla el régimen colombiano para los contratos de transporte aéreo de mercancías. Más allá de constituir un análisis jurídico de las controversias en torno a la celebración y la ejecución de dichos negocios, este documento, por su organización y redacción, permite fácilmente a abogados y estudiantes así como a comerciantes que con ocasión de su actividad acuden a la celebración de contratos de transporte aéreo, introducirse en el tema y entender el funcionamiento de un contrato sin duda esencial para el comercio internacional.

  14. Aspectos generales del contrato de transporte aéreo internacional de mercaderías.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bonilla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Claro y conciso son los adjetivos adecuados para calificar este artículo en el que se estudia de manera completa pero sencilla el régimen colombiano para los contratos de transporte aéreo de mercancías. Más allá de constituir un análisis jurídico de las controversias en torno a la celebración y la ejecución de dichos negocios, este documento, por su organización y redacción, permite fácilmente a abogados y estudiantes así como a comerciantes que con ocasión de su actividad acuden a la celebración de contratos de transporte aéreo, introducirse en el tema y entender el funcionamiento de un contrato sin duda esencial para el comercio internacional.

  15. Communication of 4 July 1995 received from the permanent mission of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 12 July 1995, the Director General received from the Permanent Missions of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru a Statement of 4 July 1995 by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Member States of the Permanent South Pacific Commission in response to the announcement by the President of the Republic of France regarding the resumption of nuclear testing by France in the South Pacific. As requested by the Permanent Missions of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, the text of the Statement is being circulated for the information of Member States of the Agency

  16. Prevalencia del abuso sexual masculino en el extremo norte de Chile : secuelas a largo plazo, factores de protección y de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Cortez, Christian G.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Chile is studied, specifically in the male population in the far north of the country. The reason for doing this arises from the need in Latin America in general and Chile in particular to develop this type of work, addressing the importance of incorporating the gender variable in the field of research on sexual abuse. In this context, the following objectives were also established: (1) To determine the long-term effects of child sexual...

  17. The Image of E-Learning: Perceptions about a Chilean University and the E-Learning System in the Context of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the image of a Chilean university, as perceived by those inside and outside of the institution, in contrast with the general image of the e-learning system in Chile. The internal perceptions are those of current students and graduates of this Chilean university, while the external perceptions are those…

  18. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE LA SITUACIÓN LABORAL DE LAS MUJERES RURALES: Vitivinicultura, Industria Vitivinícola y Turismo Enológico. El Caso del Valle de Colchagua, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dávila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La inserción de la mujer rural en espacios laborales fuera de su hogar, forma parte de un escenario de cambios, que se conoce como “nueva ruralidad”. Asimismo la llegada del turismo rural a diferentes zonas y la inclusión de las mujeres rurales en esta nueva actividad productiva, son aspectos que se hacen relevantes en zonas vitivinícolas como el valle de Colchagua, Chile. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo determinar los cambios socioeconómicos en la situación de las mujeres rurales producto de su participación en empresas y actividades de turismo enológico y establecer si estos cambios observados modifican la situación de las mujeres que trabajan en la agricultura y en la agroindustria.  A través de entrevistas realizadas a tres grupos de mujeres, pertenecientes al ámbito de la agricultura, la agroindustria y el turismo de las viñas, se realiza un análisis comparativo de los cambios generados, tanto en el contexto familiar, como en las condiciones de trabajo y en aspectos de formación y capacitación de la mujer rural. Palabras claves: Turismo Enológico. Mujeres Rurales. Empleo Rural. Vale Colchagua. Chile

  19. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  20. La esclavitud doméstica en sus prácticas: los esclavos y su constitución en personas. Chile 1750-1820

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mejías Navarrete

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende dar cuenta de los discursos y representaciones en torno a la esclavitud negra en el espacio doméstico en Chile durante el periodo 1750- 1820. Dentro de estas prácticas y representaciones encontramos que los esclavos, pese a haber sido un grupo cosificado por las relaciones de poder desenvueltas en una sociedad jerárquica y corporativa como lo fue la sociedad colonial, pudieron constituirse en personas a través de prácticas y aspectos relacionados con la corporalidad y afectividad que se desenvolvieron tanto en situaciones efectivas de dominación como en situaciones de trasgresión

  1. Control social y construcción de hegemonía en la ciudad de Concepción (Chile, 1860-1900

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    Mauricio F., Rojas Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies some cultural transformations of subaltern sectors of the city of Concepcion during XIX century. It is specially centered in aspects concerned with evolution and valoration of work and education ideas. Two central aspects go through this article: the social control dynamic occurred within an economical and political structure of liberal and the state hegemony building.Este trabajo estudia algunas transformaciones culturales de los sectores subalternos de la ciudad de Concepción (Chile durante el siglo XIX. En especial se centra en aspectos relativos a la evolución y valoración de las ideas de trabajo y educación. Los ejes del estudio son: la dinámica del control social, ocurrida dentro de una estructura económica y política de tinte liberal y la construcción de hegemonía estatal.

  2. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  3. Tillandsia recurvata L. (Bromeliaceae: aspectos farmacognósticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lucena de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura superior das florestas tropicais, formada pelas copas das árvores, constitui um ambiente de extrema diversidade vegetal. Contribuindo com a grande riqueza dessas florestas encontram-se as espécies botânicas epífitas, cuja importância pode ser observada do ponto de vista ecológico, faunístico, etnobotânico e até mesmo farmacológico. Dentre as espécies adaptadas à vida epifítica podemos citar as bromeliáceas, que compõem uma das famílias mais representativas dessa flora com elevada variabilidade genética. Tillandsia recurvata é uma espécie epífita cosmopolita, nativa, adaptada a habitats áridos, utilizada para o tratamento de diversas doenças, mas pouco se tem publicado a respeito das comprovações científicas de suas propriedades. O presente trabalho revisa os aspectos etnofarmacológicos, atividades biológicas e compostos químicos relacionados à espécie em questão, pertencente à Bromeliaceae. A partir do levantamento de dados realizado, observa-se que esta se trata de uma espécie de conhecido uso popular no tratamento de diferentes distúrbios, com alguns estudos farmacológicos que comprovam suas propriedades terapêuticas. Do ponto de vista químico observa-se a presença de terpenos, flavonoides e derivados cinâmicos em sua constituição, em que alguns compostos isolados ilustram a potencialidade desta espécie como fonte de biomoléculas de interesse. Todos estes aspectos considerados nesta revisão contribuem para o conhecimento a respeito da importância biológica e o potencial terapêutico acerca dos metabólitos desta promissora espécie.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE LA BANCA CHILENA EN INTERNET PARA LA GENERACIÓN DE ESTRATEGIAS DE NEGOCIOS BANCARIOS EN LA WEB EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNET BANKING IN CHILE FOR THE GENERATION OF WEB-BASED BANKING BUSINESSES STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Vergara

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo principal analizar la efectividad de los servicios bancarios a través de Internet en Chile provistos por trece bancos nacionales. Para ello se consideraron dos etapas, la primera correspondió a la evaluación de funcionalidades de los sitios Web bancarios, utilizando una adaptación del modelo de evaluación de sitios Web de Hersey, y la segunda a la evaluación de los servicios según las percepciones de los clientes. Para la determinación de las funcionalidades fue necesario detectar la presencia o ausencia de treinta y siete elementos evaluados, según lo cual fue posible clasificar al sector bancario chileno en términos de lo que ofrece o no cada institución. Por otra parte, la encuesta aplicada tanto a usuarios como no usuarios de la banca en línea permitió conocer variados factores referentes al uso y no uso de los servicios. A pesar de que existen algunos aspectos en los que la banca nacional se desempeña sólo de forma regular, en el contexto global lo hace con un alto grado de efectividad. Además, el buen desempeño en el contexto general se hace evidente al observar la gran equiparidad existente entre los resultados nacionales y los de la banca neocelandesaThe main objective of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the services of Internet banking provided by thirteen Chilean banking institutions. To achieve this objective, two stages were considered. The first stage corresponded to the evaluation of the functionalities offered by the banking Web sites, using an adaptation of the Hersey Web site evaluation model. The second stage corresponded to the evaluation of the services according to the clients' perceptions. In order to determine the functionalities offered by banking Web sites it was necessary to detect the presence or absence of thirty seven elements. This approach permitted to rank the Chilean banking sector based on the Internet offer of each institution. On the other hand

  5. Hábitos alimentarios y bienestar subjetivo en estudiantes universitarios del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de estudiantes universitarios en el sur de Chile, en base a su nivel de satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos alimentarios dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, aspectos asociados a la salud y características demográficas. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra no probabilística de 347 estudiantes de la Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco-Chile. El instrumento de recogida de información incluyó las escalas SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life y el ICVRS (Índice de calidad de vida relativo a la salud. Se consultaron los hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, el peso y estatura aproximada y, variables de clasificación demográfica. Resultados: Mediante análisis clúster se distinguieron tres tipologías de estudiantes con diferencias significativas en los puntajes de la SWLS y SWFL. Las tipologías difirieron en el número de días afectados por problemas de salud emocional, clasificación de su estado nutricional (IMC, auto percepción de su estado de salud, importancia de la alimentación para el bienestar personal, lugar de residencia durante el periodo de estudios, frecuencia de alimentación en el lugar donde vive y frecuencia de comidas a deshora. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de vivir con los padres durante el periodo de estudios universitarios se asocia con mejores hábitos de alimentación, mejor salud emocional y auto percepción de la salud, menor prevalencia de sobre peso y obesidad y, con una mayor satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación.

  6. [Eating habits and subjective well-being among university students in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Paiva, Galo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de estudiantes universitarios en el sur de Chile, en base a su nivel de satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos alimentarios dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, aspectos asociados a la salud y características demográficas. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra no probabilística de 347 estudiantes de la Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco-Chile. El instrumento de recogida de información incluyó las escalas SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) y el ICVRS (Índice de calidad de vida relativo a la salud). Se consultaron los hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, el peso y estatura aproximada y, variables de clasificación demográfica. Resultados: Mediante análisis clúster se distinguieron tres tipologías de estudiantes con diferencias significativas en los puntajes de la SWLS y SWFL. Las tipologías difirieron en el número de días afectados por problemas de salud emocional, clasificación de su estado nutricional (IMC), auto percepción de su estado de salud, importancia de la alimentación para el bienestar personal, lugar de residencia durante el periodo de estudios, frecuencia de alimentación en el lugar donde vive y frecuencia de comidas a deshora. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de vivir con los padres durante el periodo de estudios universitarios se asocia con mejores hábitos de alimentación, mejor salud emocional y auto percepción de la salud, menor prevalencia de sobre peso y obesidad y, con una mayor satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación.

  7. Presentaci??n de la Mesa de debate sobre "aspectos fundamentales de las redes

    OpenAIRE

    L??pez Rodr??guez, Marta Sof??a

    2012-01-01

    Redes sociales: de la indignaci??n al cambio. Aspectos Fundamentales de las Redes. Presentaci??n de la Mesa de debate sobre "aspectos fundamentales de las redes" por Marta Sof??a L??pez Rodr??guez (Universidad de Le??n, filolog??a) que modera la mesa. Curso de verano: "Redes sociales: de la indignaci??n al cambio (aspecto ??ticos, pol??ticos y est??ticos)", MUSAC, 21-23 septiembre de 2012, organizado en cooperaci??n con la Universidad Polit??cnica de Munich (HM), BITrum y MyUniversity.

  8. La influencia del Aspecto en la eficiencia del mensaje gráfico publicitario

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Bouza, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    La investigación se centra en cómo mejorar la eficiencia del mensaje gráfico publicitario desde la perspectiva formal del diseño y concreta la variación de la preferencia del receptor ante los cambios en los estímulos visuales provocados por los cambios de Aspecto del mensaje gráfico publicitario, así como la importancia del aspecto en el rendimiento comunicativo. El trabajo se orienta hacia el estudio de la influencia del Aspecto en la eficiencia del diseño gráfico aplicado a un sector en al...

  9. De la represión al patrimonio: vestigios de la violencia de estado en Madrid y Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchini, Maria Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores social practices related to two sites of repression both resulting from 20thcentury dictatorships: Villa Grimaldi in Santiago, Chile, and Carabanchel Prison in Madrid, Spain. The conservation and memorialization of «sites of memory» is a common practice in the contemporary world. The objective here is to analyse critically certain aspects of the memorial culture in which these practices are generated and developed, demonstrating the existence of transnational dialogues and mimetic processes between communities rooted in different contexts. Taking this transnational perspective as its starting point, the article explores the actors, languages, rituals and timing of the heritage valuation processes affecting these two sites in the 21st century, and compares and contrasts similarities and differences, demonstrating the development of a common memorial culture. This dialogue suggests a reflection on various critical aspects of the transnational culture in which these two processes are framed.Este artículo investiga las prácticas sociales que se desarrollan en torno a dos lugares de represión de dos dictaduras del siglo XX: Villa Grimaldi en Santiago de Chile y la Cárcel de Carabanchel en Madrid, España. La conservación y memorialización de «sitios de memoria» es una práctica difundida en el mundo actual. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar críticamente algunos aspectos de la cultura memorial en la que estas prácticas nacen y se despliegan, mostrando la existencia de intercambios y procesos de mímesis entre comunidades de distintos contextos. Adoptando esta perspectiva transnacional, se investigan los actores, los lenguajes, los rituales y los tiempos de los procesos de valorización patrimonial que han afectado a estos sitios en el siglo XXI, evidenciando algunas similitudes y diferencias que indican el desarrollo de una cultura memorial común. Este diálogo sugiere una reflexión sobre algunos aspectos cr

  10. Revisão: Aspectos gerais das bacteriocinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Baptistucci OGAKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Bacteriocinas são peptídeos antimicrobianos sintetizados nos ribossomos, tendo sido descrita uma grande diversidade de bacteriocinas, as quais diferem entre si quanto a composição de aminoácidos, biossíntese, transporte e modo de ação. Nos alimentos, as bacteriocinas podem ser encontradas naturalmente como produtos da microbiota normal ou introduzida (cultura starter ou probióticos. Devido às suas aplicabilidades frente a organismos patogênicos contaminantes em alimentos, vários estudos têm sido publicados, tornando o uso destes peptídeos uma alternativa aos conservantes químicos tradicionais. Considerando-se as propriedades das bacteriocinas e sua potencial aplicação como bioconservadores de alimentos e alternativa aos antibióticos, o presente estudo busca acercar-se de uma visão geral das bacteriocinas quanto aos aspectos históricos, sistemas de classificação, biossíntese e transporte, modo de ação, abordando também algumas de suas aplicações na indústria de alimentos.

  11. ASPECTOS DE LA VIDA Y SOCIEDAD NOVOHISPANA DEL SIGLO XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Quirós Vicente

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se habla acerca de diversos aspectos de la vida y sociedad en la Nueva España. Se tratan concretamente dos temas que sirven de reflejo de esta la sociedad colonial de principios del siglo XVIII; en primer lugar el de la relación las colonias españolas de ultramar con la corona española, en la época de la Guerra de la Sucesión, y en segundo el de la esclavitud que se desarrolla en este mismo periodo, con el negocio conocido como Paso Medio, con africanos mayormente provenientes de Angola y La Guinea. El ámbito geográfico se acota a la localidad de San Luís Potosí, en México. Y su desarrollo se basa en dos documentos encontrados en el Archivo Histórico Municipal del San Luís Potosí, en su sección de Alcaldía Mayor.

  12. Psicopatología descriptiva : aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán E. Berrios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se discuten algunos aspectos que afectan a la comprensión y al funcionamiento de la psicopatología descriptiva (PD, la cual proporciona un lenguaje descriptivo a la psiquiatría y las bases para sus constructos nosológicos. La PD formula postulados sobre la naturaleza de su objeto de estudio y sus causas subyacentes (haciendo uso del modelo médico. Se propone que la PD necesita una recalibración histórica, clínica y numérica. En relación a esto, se sugiere que en algunos casos, en contra de los principios psicométricos tradicionales, ciertos instrumentos deberán ser construidos de un modo flexible que permita que varíen de acuerdo a las necesidades descriptivas que presenten casos individuales. This paper deals with some of the issues that affect the understanding and functioning of descriptive psychopathology (DP. The latter remains the language of description in psychiatry and the basis for her nosological constructs. DP makes assumptions concerning the nature of its object and its underlying causes (i.e. makes use of the medical model. DP needs historical, clinical and numerical recalibration. It is suggested that in some cases, and against traditional psychometric principles, some instruments will have to be constructed that show flexibility and can be varied according to the descriptive needs presented by individual cases.

  13. LOS USOS DE LA TABERNA: RENTA FISCAL, COMBATE AL ALCOHOLISMO Y CACICAZGO POLÍTICO EN CHILE. 1870-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FERNÁNDEZ LABBÉ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo examina los debates y medidas establecidas en Chile a partir de las últimas décadas del siglo XIX para regular la producción, expendio y consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, concentrándose en los intereses políticos y productivos que este tipo de discusiones y medidas permiten interpretar. Junto con exponer las principales estrategias establecidas por el Estado para conseguir una renta permanente a partir del impuesto a las bebidas alcohólicas, se analizan las prácticas políticas que, en el nivel municipal, vinculaban a los expendedores de bebidas embriagantes con la actividad política electoral, concluyéndose que este tipo de relaciones entorpecieron la aplicación efectiva de aspectos centrales de la legislación antialcohólica implementada durante el periodo en estudioThe present article examines the debates and measures established in Chile since the last decades of the 19th century to regulate the production, expense and consumption of alcoholic beverages, being concentrating on the productive and political interests that this type of discussions and measures permit to interpret. Along with exposing the main strategies established by the State to obtain a permanent income from the tax to the alcoholic beverages, the political practices are analyzed that, in the municipal level, linked the dealers of beverages with the electoral political activity, being concluded that this type of relations they hindered the effective application of central aspects of the anti-alcoholic legislation implemented during the period in study

  14. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  15. Macroeconomic fluctuations and bank behavior in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Restrepo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze bank behavior in Chile over time, looking at how their balance sheets and performance move both in the short and long run, and how they react to macroeconomic shocks. The evolution of banking aggregates over an 18 year period (1989-2006, using quarterly data is examined. Techniques common in the real business cycle literature are applied to establish empirical patterns. Robustness tests using several filters are performed. The effects of macro shocks on banking variables are analyzed, both by means of an event study, and by estimating impulse responses with VARs. The results show that credit lags the cycle, demand deposits lead it, both being procyclical, while the capital adequacy ratio (CAR is countercyclical. In addition, a shock to interest rates reduces loans (total, commercial, consumption, and increases non performing loans (NPL and the capital adequacy ratio (CAR. A shock to GDP growth has a positive effect on loans, return over equity (ROE, and a negative impact on NPL and CAR.

  16. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  17. Corrupción pública y privada. Cuatro aspectos: Ética en el servicio, contratos, financiación electoral y control

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas Junior, Salamão Antonio

    2013-01-01

    [ES] La presente tesis tiene dos objetivos generales: a) la realización de investigaciones sobre aspectos lingüísticos, jurídicos, económicos y sociológicos de la corrupción; b) la divulgación al público de la investigación, el análisis y las conclusiones extraídas sobre el fenómeno de la corrupción. Cuatro aspectos concretos serán examinados más atentamente em el desarrollo del tema: Corrupción Pública y Privada. Los cuatro son: Ética de los Funcionarios Públicos; Contratación Pública, Fina...

  18. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies. PMID:27661557

  19. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  20. Primary and High School resources for teachers and students to improve the space physics education in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, P. V.; Pinto, V. A.; Stepanova, M. V.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Primary and High School educational programs in Chile include a wide geophysical section inside the natural sciences and physics courses. Unfortunately, teacher generally have a lack of preparation and knowledge in this field and there is small amount of available didactical material in the native languaje. This implies that in the reality the geophysical topics are ignored year after year in the school rooms. By the preparation of didactic material and web resources in magnetosphere, solar wind and solar topics, in accordance with the official programs of the Chilean Ministry of Education, we are collaborating to the outreach of the space physics in Chile. As the primary diffusion mechanism is the web, we hope that all the spanish talking community in Latin America can benefit from the public teaching resources that we are developing. There are a growing number of space scientist and graduate students volunteering for this endeavour.

  1. Factores de riesgo psicosocial y estrés percibido en trabajadores de una empresa eléctrica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjory Güilgüiruca Retamal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la correlación entre riesgos psicosociales laborales y estrés percibido en trabajadores de una empresa del rubro eléctrico en Chile Material y Métodos: Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo, de alcance asociativo y de corte transversal, en el cual participaron 292 trabajadores. Se aplicó el instrumento SUSESO ISTAS-21, versión corta de la Superintendencia de Seguridad Social (SUSESO del Gobierno de Chile y la Escala de Estrés Percibido validada para población chilena. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS versión 17.0. Resultados: Los resultados indican que todos los factores de riesgos psicosociales estudiados presentan asociaciones estadísticamente significativas con estrés percibido. Destacan las relaciones de apoyo social y exigencias psicológicas con estrés percibido, así como la relación entre género y doble presencia, antigüedad laboral y trabajo activo, sistema de turno y compensaciones. Conclusiones: Los trabajadores evaluados manifiestan que en la medida que aumenta la percepción de riesgo de los factores psicosociales del trabajo, también aumentan sus niveles de estrés percibido con aspectos del contenido y organización del trabajo.

  2. La Iglesia Católica de Chile y el proyecto de la Buena Prensa: La experiencia en la Arquidiócesis de Santiago, 1906-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Loyola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inserto en el campo de historia comunicacional, el presente artículo se interroga por las condiciones y características que asumió en Chile la iniciativa internacional de la Buena Prensa (BP, impulsada por el Vaticano desde finales del siglo XIX hasta mediados del XX. En el mismo se sostienen las hipótesis de que la BP constituyó una acción de modernización de la comunicación católica mundial, así como una adecuada estrategia de participación en el naciente campo comunicacional donde comenzaron a tener lugar las disputas por la influencia y control de la opinión pública letrada y no letrada a inicios del siglo XX en Chile. Finalmente, este es la parte inicial de una serie de tres trabajos sobre la BP chilena, donde desarrollaremos diversos aspectos empíricos de su puesta en marcha.

  3. Escalas de producción en economías mineras: El caso de Chile en su dimensión regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaly Rivera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Una proporción importante de la producción de cobre en Chile está geográficamente concentrada en dos regiones: Antofagasta y Atacama. A pesar de la evolución positiva del precio del cobre, el ingreso promedio de estas localidades ha presentado variaciones. Así, durante periodos de incrementos en el precio del cobre el ingreso promedio de Atacama ha aumentado, mientras que lo mismo no ha ocurrido en Antofagasta· Este trabajo analiza esta diferencia a partir del rol de las escalas de producción en el sector minero. Utilizando un análisis de sensibilidad para un modelo insumo-producto desagregado, se calculan encadenamientos y multiplicadores por escalas de producción a nivel regional. Esta estrategia permite identificar y cuantificar el impacto de cada escala de producción, confirmando efectos heterogéneos de la minería sobre la producción e ingreso local, aspectos que adquieren especial relevancia al analizarse la política minera actual en Chile.

  4. Hábitos tróficos de la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae durante el periodo estival frente a Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santa Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La reineta Brama australis es un importante recurso pesquero artesanal en la zona central chilena, incorporado en los programas de seguimiento biológico, pero con escasas evaluaciones de sus aspectos tróficos. Para actualizar el estado del conocimiento, se analizó su dieta durante el verano austral época de mayor disponibilidad de este recurso en la zona central de Chile, mediante el análisis del contenido gástrico de 300 ejemplares capturados entre noviembre 2011 y marzo 2012. Se identificó una dieta dominada por Euphausia mucronata (IIR = 92,33, aunque a escala mensual se identificó una dieta mixta de E. mucronata durante noviembre, diciembre 2011 y marzo 2012, además de Pterygosquilla armata y anfípodos hipéridos durante enero y marzo 2012. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre ambos sexos (P > 0,01. Estos resultados demuestran y corroboran que B. australis es un depredador pelágico con un reducido espectro trófico en el litoral de Chile central.

  5. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... continental United States of pomegranates from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems... plant protection organization of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence of Brevipalpus...

  6. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  8. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  9. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile AGENCY... (RE&EE) Trade Policy Mission to Santiago, Chile from April 15-16, 2013. The mission is designed to be... conducive to growth in Chile's RE&EE market; and (2) introducing U.S. RE&EE exporters to key...

  10. ESTUDIO DE ASPECTOS RELEVANTES DE LOS HABITANTES DE CAZUCÁ (SECTOR 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Clavijo Parrado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación de tipo descriptivo tuvo como objetivo general el acercamiento a la realidad social, económi - ca y demográfica de un sector de la comunidad de Cazucá, en aspectos considerados relevantes, tales como: vivienda, educación, ocupación, ingresos, gastos, edad y otros. Aunque la observación de campo se realizó en el sector cuatro de Cazucá (Soacha/Cundinamarca, se podría considerar como una muestra representativa de lo que podría estar sucediendo con el total de la comunidad. Dadas las características socioeconómicas de las familias, como unidades de observación, los resultados de - tectaron su vulnerabilidad a través de dimensiones tangibles y no tangibles relacionadas con la pobreza que, posteriormente, podrían ser objeto de indagación más profunda. Los resultados se socializarán con la comunidad y con las entidades y organismos que en Cazucá están o estén adelantando programas culturales, educativos, microempresariales y otros.

  11. La digestión anaerobia. Aspectos teóricos. Parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniris Lorenzo Acosta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La digestión anaerobia es un proceso ampliamente conocido y en la actualidad posee una amplia aplicabilidad en el mundo. En esta primera parte, introductoria a las partes que le siguen, se hace una descripción general de los procesos microbiológicos que ocurren, plasmando las etapas metabólicas de la digestión y los grupos de especies particulares que intervienen en cada una, así como también de los parámetros físico químicos que influyen en la eficiencia del proceso. Resaltan en este análisis el efecto del pH, la temperatura, la composición del sustrato y el balance de nutrientes, los inhibidores y estimuladores del proceso, entre otros aspectos de importancia. Se plantean además las ventajas y desventajas del proceso, así como los subproductos del tratamiento y las características más importantes de los mismos.

  12. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  13. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  14. Aspectos psicosociales asociados al comportamiento sexual en jóvenes

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez, Mayra; Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila; Álvarez, Javier; Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio exploratorio, transversal, con muestreo por conglomerados, consistió en detectar las opiniones de jóvenes sobre aspectos del contexto que influyen en su comportamiento sexual. El instrumento utilizado registra las opiniones acerca de la familia, escuela, pares, lugares, aspectos sexuales y otros. Las respuestas muestran diferencias significativas por sexo en cuanto a la percepción de la influencia de la información del padre sobre las mujeres y la recibida en ...

  15. Cuatro aspectos del sector construcción, en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Julián

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the common title of «Four Aspects of the Construction Sector in Cuba», we gather some other works, to a certain extent different in theme and focus, but which globally may help to outline both the present level of the technical development of the construction sector and its potential installed. There is described in the «Technical Center of Construction and Materials», which is a basic institution and one which promotes the technological development of the sector. In another work are reviewed the construction systems employed in Cuba, both autochthonous and foreign, as these systems are the basis and support of Cuban construction. In the third place there is reproduced a punctual aspect of the research work being carried out in ICIDCA (Research Center of the élite of Cuba; it deals with the employment of megasse in the production of agglomerates for use in construction. The panorama finalizes with a brief, schematical resume of the construction of industrial buildings of one storey, by means of prefabricated elements or of industrial origin, which respond to some strict conditions and which are carried out following rigorous rules of the project. We understand that the ensemble of these four facets constitutes a significant sample of that plural prism and ensemble which Is the construction sector of any country.Bajo el título común de «Cuatro Aspectos del Sector Construcción, en Cuba», recogemos otros tantos trabajos, en cierto modo dispares de temática y enfoque, pero que globalmente pueden ayudar a perfilar tanto el nivel actual del desarrollo técnico del sector construcción, como su potencial instalado. Se describe el «Centro Técnico de la Construcción y los Materiales» a modo de institución básica e impulsora del desarrollo tecnológico sectorial. Se pasa revista, en otro trabajo, a los sistemas constructivos empleados en Cuba, tanto autóctonos como foráneos, por ser estos sistemas la base y soporte real del

  16. Refractarios: un aspecto clave en la industria del cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Neira, Percy

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available To sit in judgement values of the technic level reached in a cement plant, it is surprisingly objetive to analyse work, planning and control development about Refractories subject. Considering and recognizing the validity of this pragmatic axiom it will offer unexpected improvement perspectives of the productivity rates and production records. This work pretends to be a contribution for this purpose, bringing some theoretic and practical accounts about de conditions offered by the Kiln-Exchanger-Cooler most diffused system, analyzing the characteristics that refractory material must have, in accordance with each zone, and finally, including some appraisals and recommendations regarding some of the manifold aspects which belongs to one of the most interesting ad complex fields of cement industry.

    Para establecer un juicio de valor respecto al nivel técnico alcanzado en una planta cementera resulta sorprendentemente objetivo analizar el trabajo, planificación y control que se desarrolla alrededor del tema de Refractarios. Considerarlo y reconocer la validez de este axioma pragmático ofrecerá inusitadas perspectivas de superación de índices de productividad y récords de producción. En este trabajo se pretende un aporte a tal objetivo proporcionando algunas consideraciones teórico-prácticas sobre las condiciones que se presentan en el sistema Horno Intercambiador-Enfriador, más difundido, analizando las características que debe reunir el material refractario para cada zona y, finalmente, incluyendo algunas apreciaciones y recomendaciones principalmente de criterio, respecto a algunos de los múltiples aspectos que forman parte de uno de los campos más interesantes y complejos de la industria del cemento.

  17. Aspectos anatomopatológicos del linfosarcoma en el cerdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RUIZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen tres casos de linfosarcoma en cerdos de planteles de crianza industrial, dos de los cuales tenían un peso vivo de 60 kg y el tercer caso correspondió a una hembra reproductora de 280 kg de peso vivo. Los animales no presentaban signos ni síntomas clínicos específicos atribuibles a la enfermedad. A la necropsia se observó: aumento de tamaño de los ganglios linfáticos, bazo, hígado y placas de Peyer; presencia de un puntillado o nodulaciones blancas de tamaño variable en hígado y riñón. Histopatológicamente estos tejidos tenían infiltraciones de células de origen linfoide, y de aspecto de linfosarcoma.Three cases of lymphosarcoma in industrially-bred pigs are described, in which two of the pigs had a live weight of 60 kg, and the third, a reproductive female, had a live weight of 280 kg. The animals did not present any signs, nor specific clinical symptoms attributable to the disease. During the necropsy, an enlargement in the size of the lymphatic nodes, spleen, liver, and Peyer’s Plate was observed, as was the presence of white spots or nodules of various sizes on the liver and kidney. The histopathology carried out on the tissue revealed the presence of cells of lymphoid origin, and of a histological aspect of lymphosarcoma.

  18. Competitividad de las exportaciones de chile seco mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Flores Sánchez; Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de la competitividad que ha mostrado México, en cuanto a sus exportaciones de chile seco, durante el periodo de 1993 a 2009, mediante la obtención del índice de ventaja relativa de exportaciones y aplicando el método de análisis de participación constante de mercado, los resultados que se obtuvieron muestran que las exportaciones de chile seco de México han crecido fuertemente, con una tendencia de crecimiento muy variable, por otro lado los...

  19. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Hearne, Robert R.; Easter, K. William

    1997-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limari, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limari valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993, were analyzed to determine the gains-from-trade from market transfers. In the economic and financial analysis of water markets, crop budgets wer...

  20. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    OpenAIRE

    Mancilla, Claudio; de Lima, Philomena

    2014-01-01

    En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual....

  1. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem. PMID:26436786

  2. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  3. El derecho de prenda y la realización de la prenda en los códigos civiles de la república de chile y de la república de argentina que recogen los proyectos bello y velez sarsfield, respectivamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Viale Salazar

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por finalidad efectuar un estudio comparativo de dos grandes proyectos de Código Civil en Latinoamérica del siglo XIX, cuales son los Proyectos Bello y Vélez Sarsfield, que se van a plasmar en los Códigos Civiles de la República de Chile y de la República Argentina, respectivamente, encuanto a algunos aspectos de su normatividad acerca del derecho de prenda y la realización de la misma.

  4. Add-on conservation benefits of marine territorial user rights fishery policies in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Godoy, Natalio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To combine the rational use of marine benthic resources and economic development of small-scale fishers, Chile passed legislation in 1991 establishing a comanagement policy that grants exclusive territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs) to artisanal fisher organizations in well-defined inshore coastal areas, known as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). In general the policy has been proclaimed a management and economic success because benthic resource abundances have increased inside MEABRs in comparison with open-access areas. However, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of this management policy on nontargeted subtidal species and community assemblages and the policy's implications for biodiversity and conservation. This study starts to fill this gap and links the allocation of TURFs for benthic resources with add-on conservation benefits for species that are not directly linked with the fishery policy. Comparative subtidal surveys inside vs. outside MEABRs were used to assess the effects of three MEABRs on managed targeted benthic species, biodiversity (species richness), and community assemblages in central Chile. Surveys focused exclusively on subtidal kelp forest habitats dominated by Lessonia trabeculata, spanning 4-12 m in depth and with similar levels of habitat complexity. The study comprised: (1) quantification of kelp forest complexity, (2) understory survey of sessile species, (3) quantification of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, including those under management, and (4) quantification of reef-fish species inside the kelp habitat. Results showed population enhancement of target-managed invertebrates inside MEABRs. Moreover, reef-fish species were significantly more diverse and abundant inside MEABRs, and community assemblages of nontarget benthic invertebrates and reef fish were significantly different inside vs. outside MEABRs. The comanagement of inshore benthic resources in Chile, through MEABRs

  5. [General aspects of homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avello L, Marcia; Avendaño O, Cristian; Mennickent C, Sigrid

    2009-01-01

    Homeopathic medicine is a type of therapy that appeared in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century. At the present time, it is widely accepted in developed countries as a form of alternative medicine. In Chile, health regulation includes homeopathy as pharmaceutical products and homeopathy is also considered a form of complementary medicine, that is well accepted by the public. The scientific rationale of homeopathy is based on an empiric type of thought that goes from the general to the particular. The symptoms that are valued are those that are particular to each sick individual. It uses diluted solutions of plants, minerals, animals and even venoms. There are basically two hypotheses to explain its mechanisms of action: The "immunological memory" and the "memory of water" or the transmission of electromagnetic information of the water. There still is needed to perform new studies to scientifically assess homeopathy and its usefulness, as an accepted alternative therapy. PMID:19399332

  6. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  7. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  8. CHILE'S RUSH TO FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS El frenesí de Chile por los Tratados de Libre Comercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LESLIE WEHNER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the reasons for Chile's aggressive Free Trade Agreement (FTA policy. Assessing both how the Chilean government has converged with the export sector and how the government has been able to co-opt, soften and divide those on the losing side of any FTA policy, are key to understanding Chile's vast number of FTAs. However, FTAs are also a constitutive part of a country's foreign policy, which converts these accords into a vehicle for the achievement of state goals dealing with economic issues and power configurations and expectations. It is the interplay between domestic groups' interests and the state's foreign policy goals that explain Chile's rush to FTAs.Este artículo analiza las razones que llevan a Chile a implementar una política agresiva de Tratados de Libre Comercio (TLC. Para comprender el porqué del frenesí y del número de acuerdos se evalúa cómo el gobierno de Chile logra converger con el sector exportador, y cómo coopta, divide y disminuye a los grupos perdedores de esta política. Sin embargo, los TLC son además parte de la política exterior de un país; lo que hace de estos acuerdos un vehículo para alcanzar objetivos estratégicos para el Estado. Es la interrelación entre los intereses de grupos domésticos y los objetivos de política exterior del Estado los que explican el porqué del frenesí de Chile por alcanzar un alto número de TLC.

  9. Detailed Axial Morphology of the Chile Rise as it Approaches the Chile Triple Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, D. K.; Henig, A. S.; Barroso, E.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thurber, A. R.; German, C. R.; Inspire Cruise Participants, T.

    2010-12-01

    New bathymetric mapping along the two southernmost Chile Rise spreading segments shows axial volcanic structure that had not been evident in prior data. On the first segment extending north from the triple junction, where the basement is not obscured by sediment, a narrow line of volcanic structures appears to track the center of the rift valley. However, the next segment north, which is offset almost 50 km along a transform fault, has axial volcanic features that vary in position within the rift valley. In the northern ~half of this segment, lineated small volcanic structures hug the eastern scarp of the rift whereas in the south they are apparent only along the western part of the valley floor. A classic ridge-transform intersection (RTI) nodal deep occurs at this southern end of the segment. The position of the basin is asymmetric relative to the axis, toward the ‘inside corner’ on the eastern side of the rift valley. It is intriguing that the nodal deep, which is often modeled as the result of viscous mantle upwelling and plate stresses at an RTI, is centered on the opposite side of the rift valley from where the most recent volcanic activity occurred. Presumably this reflects interplay between local magma plumbing and tectonic stresses. In addition to the local ridge-transform forces, regional factors associated with subduction along the edge of the Cocos plate may affect mantle flow, melting, and detailed plate kinematics. We will present maps that combine the new Simrad EM122 swath sonar data, obtained during cruise MV1003 aboard R/V Melville, with pre-existing German and Chilean bathymetric grids. We will also discuss some of the tectonic and magmatic implications of the observed detailed morphologic patterns. As one of the few areas on the globe where active subduction and spreading occur in close proximity, the southernmost Chile rise presents a natural laboratory for studying the manifestations of interaction between these processes.

  10. Aspectos epidemiológicos sobre mordeduras caninas durante el año 2011 en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldo Armstrong,; Gloria Ulloa

    2016-01-01

    Los accidentes causados por mordeduras de perros y gatos son un problema de salud pública y concretamente las mordeduras de perro constituyen el riesgo más grave que estos animales suponen para la salud de las personas. A los costes económicos derivados del tratamiento de las lesiones físicas debemos añadir las secuelas psicológicas que muchas veces aparecen tras las agresiones. La prevención es el único camino para resolver este problema y puede efectuarse mejor cuando se conocen los divers...

  11. Aspectos epidemiológicos sobre mordeduras caninas durante el año 2011 en la ciudad de Temuco, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Armstrong,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes causados por mordeduras de perros y gatos son un problema de salud pública y concretamente las mordeduras de perro constituyen el riesgo más grave que estos animales suponen para la salud de las personas. A los costes económicos derivados del tratamiento de las lesiones físicas debemos añadir las secuelas psicológicas que muchas veces aparecen tras las agresiones. La prevención es el único camino para resolver este problema y puede efectuarse mejor cuando se conocen los diversos factores involucrados en la génesis de este tipo de accidentedebido a lo anterior el objetivo del estudio fue describir las características epidemiológicas asociadas a las personas mordidas por perros. La metodología utilizada para la recolección de datos fue la aplicación de una encuesta a 9 centros asistenciales de la ciudad de Temuco. Se solicitó información sobre pacientes atendidos por mordeduras caninas durante el año 2011 y los datos recolectados se ingresaron en una planilla de cálculos. Los resultados indican que niños y adultos presentan 52% de las mordeduras durante el año. Los hombres presentan una mayor incidencia con un 47% a diferencia de las mujeres con un 44%. Con respecto a la región corporal afectada los miembros superiores alcanzan un 25% de frecuencia ante el ataque y los miembros inferiores un 31.3%. Por otra parte, las mordeduras por perros presentaron una marcada estacionalidad en los meses de verano con un 30% de casos. Se concluye que las mordeduras caninas son un problema frecuente y de real importancia en el ámbito de salud pública, generando en la población secuelas físicas y psicológicas por las lesiones generadas durante el ataque.

  12. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  13. Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1986 and 1987 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39º30' - 40º00', 73º30' - 71º45'W, were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S, gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally throught the consuption of autochthonous fishes.

  14. Religion and intimate partner violence in Chile: macro- and micro-level influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Evelyn L; Lehrer, Vivian L; Krauss, Ramona C

    2009-09-01

    The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present study explores the puzzle posed by these seemingly opposing macro- and micro-level forces. Results based on data from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a questionnaire on gender-based violence administered to students at a large public university in Chile, show that moderate or low levels of religiosity are associated with reduced vulnerability to violence, but high levels are not. This non-linearity sheds light on the puzzle, because at the macro level the religious views shaping Chile's legal and social environment have been extreme. PMID:19856701

  15. Antecedentes y resultados de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile: cinco casos de éxito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Cancino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Distintas economías buscan potenciar el desarrollo de emprendimientos dinámicos por su mayor efecto en empleo, crecimiento económico y bienestar. En Latinoamérica, en tanto, poco se ha estudiado sobre la existencia de este tipo de empresas. El presente trabajo reporta la existencia de cinco casos de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile, y describe los factores que podrían explicar su estrategia de rápido crecimiento. Todas las empresas analizadas presentaron tasas de crecimiento superiores al 20% en los primeros cinco años desde la fundación, y se caracterizan por vincular su éxito y desempeño con la experiencia previa y el conocimiento de sus fundadores, las redes de contacto que han generado y el apoyo de los programas públicos de fomento productivo. En este último aspecto, los autores recomiendan que los programas públicos deban entregar un capital inteligente, es decir, un capital que mezcla recursos económicos con asesoramiento técnico, capacitación y seguimiento permanentes. La entrega de un capital inteligente es clave para potenciar emprendimientos dinámicos en economías en desarrollo

  16. Visit of His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office in Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Secretary-General; Mrs Juan Martabit. 0502017_07.jpg His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit, Ambassador,Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office in Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland visiting the ATLAS building site. From left to right: Prof. Giora Mikenberg, ATLAS Collaboration; Mr Maximilian Metzger, Secretary-General and His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit. 0502017_08.jpg His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit, Ambassador,Permanent Representative of Chile to the United Nations Office in Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland visiting the ATLAS cavern. From left to right: From left to right: Prof. Giora Mikenberg, ATLAS Collaboration; Mr Maximilian Metzger, Secretary-General; His Excellency Mr Juan Martabit and Mrs Juan Martabit.

  17. Hipertermia maligna: aspectos moleculares e clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Carvalho Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEÚDO: A hipertermia maligna (HM é uma doença farmacogenética potencialmente letal que acomete indivíduos geneticamente predispostos. Manifesta-se em indivíduos susceptíveis em resposta à exposição a anestésicos inalatórios, relaxantes musculares despolarizantes ou atividade física extrema em ambientes quentes. Durante a exposição a esses agentes desencadeadores, há um aumento rápido e sustentado da concentração de cálcio mioplasmático (Ca2+ induzido pela hiperativação dos receptores de rianodina (RYR1 do músculo esquelético, causando uma alteração profunda na homeostase de Ca2+, caracterizando um estado hipermetabólico. RYR1, canais de libertação de Ca2+ do retículo sarcoplasmático, é o principal local de susceptibilidade à HM. Várias mutações no gene que codifica a proteína RYR1 foram identificadas, mas outros genes podem estar envolvidos. Atualmente, o método padrão para o diagnóstico de sensibilidade à HM é o teste de contratura muscular para exposição ao halotano-cafeína (CHCT e o único tratamento é o uso de dantroleno. No entanto, com os avanços no campo da genética molecular, um pleno entendimento da etiologia da doença pode ser fornecido, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de um diagnóstico preciso, menos invasivo, com o teste de ADN, e também proporcionar o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias terapêuticas para o tratamento da HM. Logo, esta breve revisão tem como objetivo integrar os aspectos clínicos e moleculares da HM, reunindo informações para uma melhor compreensão desta canalopatia.

  18. Aspectos relevantes sobre tuberculose para profissionais de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Daronco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Tuberculose (TB é uma patologia infectocontagiosa com clínica ampla cujo agentecausador é o Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacilo de Koch, uma micobactéria aeróbia estrita. Apesar de tratar-se dedoença antiga, que acomete seres humanos há séculos, sendo uma importante causa de morte no mundo inteiro,diferentes pesquisas do Ministério da Saúde apontam números preocupantes no tocante a novos casos. Materiais eMétodos: O presente artigo de revisão procura, de forma objetiva e clara, explicitar os principais aspectos de interessepara profissionais de saúde no tocante a Tuberculose doença. O artigo divide-se em tópicos: Defi nição, Sintomatologia,Diagnóstico, Tratamento, Multirresistência, Profi laxia, Formas de Contágio e Formas de Prevenção. Foram utilizadasreferências atuais sobre o tema, incluindo Manuais, Guidelines e Artigos científicos diversos de bases de dados comoUp to Date e Science Direct. Discussão: Sinais e sintomas da doença aumentam o grau de suspeição da mesma, oque torna o pedido de exames para confirmação da infecção dentro de tempo hábil para instituição da terapêuticaadequada. Assim como diagnóstico e tratamento, medidas para evitar o contágio, em serviços de saúde, locaiscom aglomerações humanas e em residências, são de fundamental importância no combate a tuberculose. Osprofissionais de saúde devem atentar para possíveis casos de resistência aos fármacos e as indicações de profilaxia,pois tais variáveis são de extrema relevância no controle da disseminação da doença. Conclusão: Por tratar-se dedoença infecciosa que pode acometer todas as classes sociais, além de possuir formas diferentes de acometimento,o conhecimento básico acerca da Tuberculose é deveras imprescindível em serviços de saúde, desde a atençãoprimária até os centros de saúde com alta tecnologia.

  19. Aspectos fisiológicos do mountain biking competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dantas de Lucas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A prática do ciclismo off-road (mountain biking - MTB, cresceu muito nas últimas duas décadas, sendo incluído como esporte olímpico, nos Jogos de Atlanta em 1996, na modalidade Cross Country. Na última década, houve um aumento no número de publicações científicas que verificaram a demanda fisiológica durante competições, assim como o estudo de possíveis preditores da performance nesta modalidade. O objetivo deste estudo de revisão foi descrever alguns aspectos fisiológicos específicos do MTB Cross Country (MTB CC competitivo (intensidade de provas, perfil fisiológico de atletas de elite, uso de suspensões e determinantes da performance em subidas. Observa-se na literatura analisada que as provas de MTB CC parecem impor uma sobrecarga fisiológica maior, quando analisada através da frequência cardíaca, do que provas de ciclismo de estrada com duração semelhante. Entretanto, quando analisada pela potência de pedalada, observa-se claramente a característica intermitente da modalidade, com variações de potência durante a prova entre zero e 500W, e potência média relativamente baixa em comparação aos valores de FC encontrados. Outro fator importante levantado neste estudo são as alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do uso de suspensões nas bicicletas de MTB CC. O uso deste equipamento reduz o estresse muscular provocado pelo terreno acidentado, embora pareça não afetar o gasto energético total, tanto em percurso plano como em subidas. Entretanto, é fato que o desempenho em circuitos acidentados é melhorado com o uso das suspensões. Com base nos estudos abordados nessa revisão, conclui-se que o MTB CC enquanto modalidade competitiva apresenta uma grande variação de intensidade (avaliada através da potência, sendo esta atribuída principalmente ao tipo de terreno (irregular e com muitas aclives e declives acentuados em que as provas de MTB CC acontecem.

  20. Sialometria: aspectos de interesse clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pinheiro Falcão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A saliva total é um complexo de secreções multiglandulares composto de fluido gengival, células epiteliais descamadas, microrganismos, produtos do metabolismo bacteriano, resíduos alimentares, leucócitos, muco da cavidade nasal e da faringe. A saliva possui diversas funções, incluindo reparação tecidual, tamponamento, proteção, digestão, gustação, ação antimicrobiana, manutenção da integridade do dente e sistema de defesa antioxidante. A redução do fluxo salivar (hipossalivação é um distúrbio comum, e estima-se que cerca de 20% da população geral tenham esta alteração. A hipossalivação pode ser decorrente de diabetes mellitus, hipotireoidismo, desidratação, comprometimento do parênquima glandular por processos infecciosos, doenças granulomatosas ou condições autoimunes e inflamatórias (como a síndrome de Sjögren e a artrite reumatoide, radioterapia da região cefálica e/ou cervical, bem como pode estar associada a distúrbios do humor, efeitos adversos ocasionados pelo uso de algumas medicações ou, ainda, ser de causa idiopática. As terapias convencionais para o tratamento da redução do fluxo salivar, com o uso de sialogogos gustatórios e químicos, ainda apresentam restrições. Contudo, novas alternativas têm mostrado grande perspectiva no tratamento deste problema. Diagnosticar um paciente como hipossalivador crônico é um desafio na prática clínica, e os métodos de avaliação do fluxo salivar são pouco conhecidos pelos reumatologistas. A avaliação seriada do fluxo salivar é importante para o correto diagnóstico e prognóstico de determinadas condições bucais e sistêmicas. Esta revisão aborda alguns aspectos relacionados à função da saliva, às consequências da hipossalivação e aos métodos de medição da taxa de fluxo salivar, conceitos úteis na prática diária do reumatologista.

  1. Source processes at the Chilean subduction region: a comparative analysis of recent large earthquakes seismic sequences in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesca, Simone; Tolga Sen, Ali; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate megathrust events are common at the western margin of the Southamerican plate, and repeatedly affected the slab segment along Chile, driven by the subduction of the oceanic Nazca plate, with a convergence of almost 7 cm/y. The size and rate of seismicity, including the 1960 Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake, pose Chile among the most highly seismogenic regions worldwide. At the same time, thanks to the significant national and international effort in recent years, Chile is nowadays seismologically well equipped and monitored; the dense seismological network provides a valuable dataset to analyse details of the rupture processes not only for the main events, but also for weaker seismicity preceding, accompanying and following the largest earthquakes. The seismic sequences accompanying recent large earthquakes showed several differences. In some cases, as for the 2014 Iquique earthquake, an important precursor activity took place in the months preceding the main shock, with an accelerating pattern in the last days before the main shock. In other cases, as for the recent Illapel earthquake, the main shock occurred with few precursors. The 2010 Maule earthquake showed an even different patterns, with the activation of secondary faults after the main shock. Recent studies were able to resolve significant changes in specific source parameters, such as changes in the distribution of focal mechanisms, potentially revealing a rotation of the stress tensor, or a spatial variation of rupture velocity, supporting a depth dependence of the rupture speed. An advanced inversion of seismic source parameters and their combined interpretation for multiple sequences can help to understand the diversity of rupture processes along the Chilean slab, and in general for subduction environments. We combine here results of different recent studies to investigate similarity and anomalies of rupture parameters for different seismic sequences, and foreshocks-aftershocks activities

  2. Loxoscelismo en Chile: estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales Loxoscelism in Chile: epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Schenone

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un enfoque panorámico de estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales referentes a Loxosceles laeta y loxoscelismo efectuados en 1955-1988 en Santiago, Chile. Se estudiaron 216 casos de loxoscelismo. Los hechos más relevantes fueron: 52,8% correspondió a mujeres; edad entre 7 meses y 78 años; 84,3% fué loxoscelismo cutáneo (LO y 15,7% loxoscelismo cutáneo-visceral (LCV; 73,6% sucedió en época calurosa; en 86,6% el accidente ocurrió en la vivienda, especialmente en dormitorios, mientras la persona dormía o se vestía. La araña fué vista en 60,2% de los casos e identificada en laboratorio como L. laeta en 17,7% (10,6% de los 216 casos. Los sitios más frecuen temente afectados fueron las extremidades con 67,6%, lancetazo urente fué el síntoma inicial más frecuente. Dolor, edema y placa livedoide, la cual posteriormente se transformaría en escara necrótica, fueron las manifestaciones locales predominantes. En LCV hematuria y hemoglobinuria fueron constantes, ictericia, fiebre y compromiso de conciencia se presentaron en la mayoría de los casos. Tratamiento: LC con antihistamínicos o corticoides inyectables, LCV con corti-coides inyectables. La condición de los pacientes en el último control fué: curación completa en 75,5%, curación con secuela cicatrizal en 8,3%, muerte en 3,7% (todos con LCV y abandono en 12,5%. Adicionalmente, se ha efectuado una serie de estudios experimentales, tanto in vivo como in vitro para esclarecer aspectos básicos sobre el veneno de L. laeta y el tratamiento del loxoscelismo.A panoramic sight of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies, referring to Loxosceles laeta and loxoscelism, carried out in 1955-1988, in Santiago, Chile is presented. Two-hundred and sixteen cases of loxosce lism were studied. The most relevant features were: 84.3% corresponded to cutaneous loxosce lism (CD and 15.7% to viscerocutaneous loxos celism (VCD; 73.6% ocurred in hot season; in 86

  3. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (wave arrivals. Full waveform finite difference modelling is used to test the low velocity slab structure that cause this P-wave dispersion. The synthetic waveforms produced by these models are compared to the recorded waveforms. Spectrograms are used to compare the relative arrival times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by

  4. Situación socioeconómica de las áreas de manejo en la región de Coquimbo, Chile The socioeconomic situation in managed areas of the Coquimbo region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zúñiga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio define y desarrolla un conjunto de indicadores que permite medir la situación socioeconómica de las comunidades de pescadores artesanales que operan el régimen de Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB en la región de Coquimbo (Chile. Los resultados del estudio señalan que el desempeño socioeconómico de estas AMERB medido mediante indicador sintético global es regular. También, que las AMERB en una escala de 0 a 1 muestran un resultado más favorable en el aspecto institucional (0,54, seguido por el aspecto social (0,49 y finalmente por el aspecto económico (0,30. Así, el desarrollo institucional y la situación social son actualmente "buenos" a diferencia de la situación económica que es actualmente "regular o mala". A nivel global, la situación socioeconómica de las organizaciones de Peñuelas-A, Río Limarí, Apolillado, Ñagué y Totoral es "buena", mientras que para las demás organizaciones es regular o mala. Respecto a las causas del desempeño socioeconómico de las AMERB, el estudio señala que el componente más relevante es económico. En efecto, el ingreso per capita aparece altamente correlacionado con el éxito, seguido por la antigüedad de la AMERB, y el que ésta pertenezca a una zona de influencia urbana. Finalmente, las especies objetivo no son determinantes en el éxito socioeconómico, y contrario a lo que se podría suponer, las AMERB que disponen del recurso loco (Concholepas concholepas obtienen en promedio un peor resultado comparado con las organizaciones que explotan otras especies.The present study defines and develops a set of indicators able to measure the socioeconomic situation of artisanal fishing communities operating under a regime of Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (AMERB, in Spanish in the Coquimbo region (Chile. The results of the study indicate that the socioeconomic performance of the AMERBs, as measured with a global

  5. Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960 (19:11 UTC), a Mw 9.5 earthquake occurred in southern Chile (39.5 S, 74.5 W). This was the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded. (It was...

  6. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  7. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  8. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2014-01-01

    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

  9. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  10. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  11. Reshaping Power Markets-Lessons from Chile and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, R. Peter; García, Hernán

    1996-01-01

    Power sector reforms in Chile and Argentina are now roughly fourteen and four years old. In both countries, restructuring and deregulation have increased efficiency, led to active entry by new generators, improved the quality of supply, and reduced prices in real terms. The authors' review of experience in both systems confirms that policymakers must apply effective measures to introduce a...

  12. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  13. Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

  14. The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…

  15. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  16. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  17. 75 FR 11583 - The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...

  18. The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

  19. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  20. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep

  1. Adaptation and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes in South Central Chile Adaptación e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Lino (Linum usitatissimum L. en la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Berti

    2010-09-01

    ón y la interacción genotipo x ambiente de 16 genotipos de lino (incluyendo 10 procedentes de Norte América y 6 de Argentina los que se sembraron en 11 ambientes (localidad-año en Chile entre el 2003 y el 2007. El rendimiento de semillas observado fue de más de 5700 kg ha-1 en algunos ambientes lo que indicaría un alto potencial. De acuerdo a los modelos AMMI y SREG los 11 ambientes fueron clasificados en cuatro grupos por el modelo AMMI y en tres grupos por el modelo SREG. Los genotipos fueron clasificados en cinco grupos por el modelo SREG, donde cuatro de los grupos incluían un sólo genotipo. El promedio general de rendimiento de semillas fue similar para todos los genotipos, sin embargo, el genotipo Nekoma fue considerado el más estable y de mayor rendimiento de semillas en todos los ambientes evaluados. El ambiente con mayor rendimiento fue Chillán 2003-2004, pero esta localidad tuvo baja estabilidad en el tiempo. Los ambientes con más alto rendimiento fueron Chillán 2003-2004 y Los Ángeles 2004-2005, hay que considerar que ambos ambientes fueron regados durante floración y llenado de granos. El contenido de aceite fluctuó entre 420 y 530 g kg-1. Las diferencias climáticas entre ambientes no influenciaron la composición del aceite como se esperaba. El lino se adapta a la zona centro sur de Chile observándose diferencias entre genotipos para rendimiento de biomasa y semillas, índice de cosecha, peso del hectolitro, contenido y composición del aceite.

  2. New records of biting midges from Argentina and Chile (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Nuevos registros de Ceratopogonidae (Diptera para Argentina y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New records are provided for 22 species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Argentina and Chile, 12 belonging to Forcipomyia Meigen, two to Atrichopogon Kieffer and Culicoides Latreille, and one to Leptoconops Skuse, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Paradasyhelea Macfie, Alluaudomyia Kieffer, Macrurohelea Ingram & Macfie and Palpomyia Meigen. Forcipomyia (F. harpegonata Wirth & Soria, F. (F. pictoni Macfie, F. (F. sexvittata Wirth, F. (Lepidohelea annulatipes Macfie, F. (L. kuanoskeles Macfie, F. (Phytohelea jocosa Saunders and F. (Thyridomyia nana (Macfie are firstly recorded from Argentina, and Leptoconops ricardoi Ronderos & Spinelli, Atrichopogon endemicus Spinelli & Marino, Culicoides chacoensis Spinelli & Wirth, Paradasyhelea brevipalpis (Ingram & Macfie and Alluaudomyia schnacki Spinelli are firstly recorded from Chile. Forcipomyia calchaqui Spinelli & Marino is removed from the subgenus Thyridomyia Saunders and assigned to the subgenus Synthyridomyia Saunders.Se brindan nuevas citas de 22 especies de Ceratopogonidae para Argentina y Chile, de las cuales 12 pertenecen a Forcipomyia Meigen, dos a Atrichopogon Kieffer y Culicoides Latreille, y una a Leptoconops Skuse, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Paradasyhelea Macfie, Alluaudomyia Kieffer, Macrurohelea Ingram & Macfie y Palpomyia Meigen. Forcipomyia (F. harpegonata Wirth & Soria, F. (F. pictoni Macfie, F. (F. sexvittata Wirth, F. (Lepidohelea annulatipes Macfie, F. (L. kuanoskeles Macfie, F. (Phytohelea jocosa Saunders y F. (Thyridomyia nana (Macfie son registradas por primera vez para Argentina, mientras que Leptoconops ricardoi Ronderos & Spinelli, Atrichopogon endemicus Spinelli & Marino, Culicoides chacoensis Spinelli & Wirth, Paradasyhelea brevipalpis (Ingram & Macfie y Alluaudomyia schnacki Spinelli lo son para Chile. Se excluye Forcipomyia calchaqui Spinelli & Marino del subgénero Thyridomyia Saunders y se la asigna a Synthyridomyia Saunders.

  3. "Voces usadas en Chile" (1900: las cartas de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes a Rodolfo Lenz ("Voces usadas en Chile" (1900: the letters written by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes to Rodolfo Lenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo presentamos el contenido de cartas inéditas escritas por Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes a Rodolfo Lenz durante el proceso de elaboración de "Voces usadas en Chile", obra lingüística de tipo normativo publicada en 1900. Estas cartas sugieren que, aunque la influencia de Lenz como modelo científico de Echeverría es indudable, su participación efectiva en "Voces usadas en Chile", especialmente en su sección lexicológica, no fue tan importante. Lenz colaboró con Echeverría principalmente dando indicaciones generales y revisó (junto con otras personas los apartados fonético y gramatical durante los últimos años de preparación del manuscrito. (The following work shows the content of non published letters written by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes to Rodolfo Lenz during the making of "Voces usadas en Chile", a normative linguistic work published in 1900. These letters suggest that, although the influence of Lenz as scientific model for Echeverría is out of question, his direct involvement in "Voces usadas en Chile" was not so important. Lenz took part on the making of this work mainly by giving general observations and revising (in collaboration with other persons the phonetic and grammatical chapters, during the last years of revision of the manuscript.

  4. ASPECTOS CIENTÍFICOS Y BENEFICIOSOS DEL CULTO TANTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Lal Basu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone identificar y aislar lo científico y beneficioso de la falsedad, superstición y misticismo que envuelve al tantrismo. De todas las prácticas religiosas y semireligiosas antiguas de la India, el culto tántrico es el que ha conseguido el mayor reconocimiento y la mayor popularidad en todo el mundo. La razón de esta popularidad no ha sido el interés académico, espiritual o filosófico. Por el contrario, se lo ha asociado con promesas de obtener poderes mágicos y sobrenaturales, como también promesas de mejorar la potencia sexual y la intensidad del disfrute sexual y restablecer la potencia sexual perdida en las personas mayores. En la India, la gente común le confirió una mala reputación al culto tántrico. El misterio, la psicosis de culpa y temor también se asocian a este culto esotérico. El tantra en sí no es una religión pero ha penetrado en la mayoría de las comunidades religiosas y subreligiosas no solo de la India sino también de Tíbet, China, Japón y muchos otros países (especialmente asiáticos. En la India, son innumerables las asociaciones de tantra y los tántricos individuales en calidad de gurús (maestros con sus círculos de discípulos. Sin embargo, son muchos los aspectos del tantra que son científicamente demostrables y sus efectos son beneficiosos tanto para los individuos como la sociedad en su conjunto. En esta línea, al final del artículo se destacan algunos estudios que demuestran la reducción de los niveles de estrés como resultado de las prácticas tántricas. Este trabajo también apunta a inspirar a más investigadores competentes y eruditos a continuar con la tarea aquí iniciada. Abstract This article endeavors to identify and isolate the scientific and beneficial from falsehood, superstition and mysticism surrounding tantrism. Among the various ancient Indian religious and semi-religious practices, tantra cult has got the most widespread recognition and popularity

  5. Eletroconvulsoterapia na depressão maior: aspectos atuais Electroconvulsive therapy in major depression: current aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barros Antunes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A eficácia da eletroconvulsoterapia em tratar sintomas depressivos está estabelecida por meio de inúmeros estudos desenvolvidos durante as últimas décadas. A eletroconvulsoterapia é o tratamento biológico mais efetivo para depressão atualmente disponível. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar o papel da eletroconvulsoterapia no tratamento da depressão e destacar aspectos atuais relativos à sua prática. MÉTODO: Foram revisados na literatura estudos de eficácia, remissão de sintomas, fatores preditores de resposta, assim como aspectos atuais acerca da qualidade de vida, percepção dos pacientes, mecanismo de ação, técnica e prejuízo cognitivos. RESULTADOS: Os principais achados desta revisão foram: 1 a eletroconvulsoterapia é mais efetiva do que qualquer medicação antidepressiva; 2 a remissão da depressão com a eletroconvulsoterapia varia, em geral, de 50 a 80%; 3 Ainda é controverso o efeito da eletroconvulsoterapia nos níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (acho que aqui pode colocar entre parenteses o "BNDF"; 4 a eletroconvulsoterapia tem efeito positivo na melhora da qualidade de vida; 5 os pacientes submetidos à eletroconvulsoterapia, em geral, têm uma percepção positiva do tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: A eletroconvulsoterapia permanece sendo um tratamento altamente eficaz em pacientes com depressão resistente. Com o avanço da sua técnica, a eletroconvulsoterapia tornou-se um procedimento ainda mais seguro e útil tanto para a fase aguda, quanto para a prevenção de novos episódios depressivos.OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in treating depressive symptoms has been established by means of innumerable studies developed along the last decades. Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective biological treatment for depression currently available. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the role of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression and

  6. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

    1997-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

  7. Extensión y Aplicación de AspectZ a la Administración de un Sistema de Fichas de Salud Electrónicas en Chile Extension and Application of AspectZ to the Management of an Electronic Health Card System in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una extensión de AspectZ con el objetivo de modelar los requerimientos del software que administra un sistema de fichas electrónicas de salud en Chile: SYSFIC 1.0. AspectZ es un lenguaje de especificación formal orientado a aspectos que preserva las características bases del lenguaje Z y que ayuda a encapsular incumbencias transversales del sistema en entidades separadas e independientes. La aplicación incluye el uso de diagramas con Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado (LUM y un modelado formal del sistema con AspectZ. Se discuten, además, las principales características del paradigma de modelado orientado a aspectos, como la separación incumbencias y la solución de los problemas del código disperso y enmarañado. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que la unión del modelado orientado a aspectos y de un método formal de desarrollo de software permite obtener soluciones más confiables para sistemas de información críticos como SYSFIC.This paper presents an extension of AspectZ to model the requirements of software that manages a system of electronic health records in Chile: SYSFIC 1.0 . AspectZ is an aspect-oriented language that preserves the basic characteristics of language Z and that aims to encapsulate cross-cutting concerns of a system into separate and independent entities. The application includes the use of Unified Modeling Language (UML diagrams and a formal modeling of the system using AspectZ. The main features of the aspect-oriented modeling paradigm, such as the separation of concerns and the reduction and elimination of scattered and tangled code, are discussed. The results of this study show that the combination of aspect-oriented modeling and a formal method of software development allow obtaining more reliable solutions for critical information systems such as SYSFIC.

  8. Cistos congênitos do mediastino: aspectos de imagem Congenital mediastinal cysts: imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Tavares Vilela

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cistos congênitos mediastinais são lesões benignas incomuns, geralmente causadas por falhas no desenvolvimento embriológico do intestino anterior e/ou da cavidade celômica. São formações expansivas, comumente assintomáticas, mas que podem se manifestar principalmente pela compressão de estruturas adjacentes. Entre as principais entidades deste grupo temos: cistos broncogênico, pericárdico, entérico e tímico, linfangioma e cisto de duplicação esofágica. A morfologia dos cistos congênitos mediastinais é típica, sendo os exames de imagem suficientes, em grande parte dos casos, para a confirmação diagnóstica. O tratamento cirúrgico está indicado apenas nos casos sintomáticos, pois estas lesões não apresentam potencial de degeneração maligna. O objetivo deste trabalho é comentar e ilustrar os aspectos de imagem mais relevantes destas lesões, a partir do estudo retrospectivo de dez casos de arquivo das instituições envolvidas.Congenital mediastinal cysts are uncommon benign lesions generally caused by an abnormal embryological development of the foregut or coelomic cavity. They are expansive lesions, frequently asymptomatic that may manifest as a result from compression of adjacent structures. Bronchogenic, pericardial, enteric, thymic, esophageal duplication cysts and lymphangiomas are the main entities in this group of lesions. Congenital mediastinal cysts morphology is typical and imaging methods allow a correct diagnosis in a great number of cases. Surgical treatment is indicated only in cases of symptomatic lesions, considering that these lesions present no potential for malignant degeneration. The present study was aimed at commenting and illustrating the most relevant imaging findings of these lesions based on a retrospective review of ten cases collected in the records of the involved institutions.

  9. Formando una nueva generación de investigadores capaces de integrar los aspectos socioecológicos en conservación biológica Creating a new cadre of academics capable of integrating socio-ecological approach to conservation biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO A ESTÉVEZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Así como la educación moldea los pensamientos de la siguiente generación de investigadores, sus marcos conceptuales, herramientas analíticas y la manera en que estos interactúan con su entorno natural, impactará significativamente los estudios científicos, las políticas y la toma de decisiones. El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar cómo los programas de postgrado en Chile, relacionados con ecología y manejo de recursos naturales, integran los aspectos socioecológicos en sus cursos de Biología de la Conservación. Adicionalmente, presentamos nuestras perspectivas acerca de los procesos, beneficios, y desafíos que se presentan con la participación en programas con enfoques interdisciplinarios. En Chile, revisamos 22 programas de postgrado (nueve doctorales y trece de magíster relacionados con temas de ecología y/o manejo de recursos naturales, acreditados por la Comisión Nacional de Acreditación a octubre del año 2008. De ellos, el 64 % tienen un curso de Biología de la Conservación. A pesar de cierta integración de aspectos socioeconómicos en los contenidos de estos cursos, la perspectiva educativa de estos sigue mayoritariamente el paradigma utilitarista, lo cual contrasta con las aproximaciones más amplias en la filosofía ambiental. Proponemos que es necesario un cambio de paradigma en la enseñanza de la Biología de la Conservación en Chile, de tal manera que abarque aspectos sociales y ecológicos, más allá de su valor utilitario o instrumental, incorporando al ser humano dentro de los ecosistemas y el modelo ecosistémico del no equilibrio. Para integrar la perspectiva socioecológica en los cursos de Biología de la Conservación proponemos incluir 4 componentes en la enseñanza: (a perspectiva biocultural, (b interdisciplinariedad, (c comunicación multidireccional y participación y, (d experiencia de campo y encuentros directos con la naturaleza y las comunidades locales.As education shapes the

  10. Aspectos subjetivos relacionados con la violencia intrafamiliar. Caso municipio de Sabaneta Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidalis Yadira Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo identifica las interacciones en aspectos familiares y subjetivos. En el artículo se desarrollan los aspectos subjetivos de las dinámicas familiares que justifican el uso y la implementación de la violencia intrafamiliar, se da cuenta de la naturalización de la violencia intrafamiliar en la interacción de los grupos familiares, convirtiéndola en un elemento de la relación que se establece entre los miembros de la familia. En el análisis realizado se identifican aspectos coyunturales asociados a situaciones que se vivieron en la dinámica de la familia de origen, pero que al momento han sido pocas las condiciones que permiten la modi- ficación de estas conductas ya que las familias han asumido estas expresiones de violencia intrafamiliar como parte de sus vidas.

  11. The 2015 Illapel Earthquake in Chile: Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    On September 16, 2015 at 19:54 hrs (local time) a magnitude 8.3 earthquake took place off the coast of the Coquimbo Region in central Chile. The National Seismological Centre (CSN) reported epicentral coordinates 71.864°W and 31.553°S and a W-phase magnitude of 8.4 This earthquake is the largest in the country since the February 27, 2010 event and the third largest since May 22, 1960, surpassing in size the one that took place off the coast of Iquique- Pisagua on April 1, 2014. Unlike the later, the 2015 earthquake showed no recognizable immediate precursor activity in the epicentral area. Focal mechanisms of the mainshock and larger aftershocks are consistent with the displacement of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. The previous large earthquakes of similar size took place in this region on April 6, 1943, with a magnitude of 7.9 (Beck et al., 1998); Abe (1979) lists this earthquake with tsunami magnitude equivalent to 8.2 Preliminary estimates of the slip distribution, based on GNSS data, indicate that the rupture length reaches about 200-250 km with a maximum displacement of the order of 6 m. Coastal uplift of 40 cm close to the epicentral area is evidenced by biological markers. The epicenter is not located either at the region of maximum or minimum slip, but where there is a strong fault displacement gradient. Number of daily aftershocks within the first four weeks is decaying with a p-value of the order of 0.8 to 1. An anomalous maximum acceleration of the order of 80% g was recorded on the E-W horizontal component of the station located at a station in Montepatria, more than 80 km away from the region of maximum slip. Because the general area recorded values of 30%g, it is very likely that this high acceleration is due to ground effects. Historical seismicity in the region is examined to understand the possible future scenarios of large earthquakes. To the north, the 1922 (Mw=8.4, Mt=8.7) has been the last to rupture this zone; to the south

  12. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaxo, Paulo E-mail: artaxo@if.usp.br; Oyola, Pedro; Martinez, Roberto

    1999-04-02

    Santiago de Chile, Sao Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las Condes during July and August 1996. The study employed stacked filter units (SFU) for aerosol sampling, collecting fine mode aerosol (dp<2 {mu}m) and coarse mode aerosol (2generally mixed with resuspended soil dust. It is difficult to separate the two components, because the soil dust in downtown Santiago is contaminated with Pb, Br, Cl, and other heavy metals that are also tracers for traffic emissions. Residual oil combustion is observed

  13. Trastornos generalizados del desarrollo: Aspectos clínicos y genéticos Pervasive developmental disorders: Clinical and genetics aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Ruggieri; Claudia Arberas

    2007-01-01

    Los Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo se expresan con compromiso en la socialización, trastorno en el desarrollo del lenguaje (verbal y no verbal) e intereses restringidos con conductas repetitivas. La frecuencia estimada en la población general es de 27.5/10.000. En nuestro trabajo analizamos los aspectos clínicos y genéticos de los TGD: Autismo, Síndrome de Asperger, TGD no Especificado, Síndrome de Rett y Trastorno desintegrativo de la niñez. Desde el punto de vista clínico jerarquiz...

  14. Características de manejo y conducta en caballos estabulados en el sur de Chile: Estudio preliminar Husbandry and behaviour characteristics in stabled horses in the south of Chile: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Márquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La estabulación de los equinos es una forma de manejo cotidiana, principalmente en aquellos destinados a deporte, provocando modificaciones conductuales debido al cambio desde un ambiente natural a uno artificial, pudiendo afectar su bienestar. En Chile, las condiciones en que se mantienen los equinos estabulados en relación a su bienestar no han sido descritas. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir algunas de las condiciones de estabulación de equinos y determinar si éstas son las requeridas para mantener un estado de bienestar adecuado. Se evaluaron 283 equinos, de distintas razas, pertenecientes a 14 criaderos del sur de Chile (Provincias de Valdivia, Ranco, Osorno y Chiloé. Se utilizaron métodos directos e indirectos; éstos consideraron aspectos de salud, comportamiento, prácticas de manejo y capacitación del personal. El 88% de los equinos presentó buena condición corporal, mientras que pocos presentaron heridas (2,5% y claudicaciones (0,7%. Todos los criaderos se preocupaban de realizar manejo antiparasitario y la mayoría de vacunar contra enfermedades infecciosas. Las principales falencias fueron la presencia de problemas conductuales (18,4%; la baja frecuencia de la alimentación de los equinos, tamaño de las pesebreras y la capacitación del personal en el manejo equino, particularmente la capacitación en relación al bienestar animal. En todos los criaderos existe preocupación por el cuidado de sus animales, sin embargo, la falta de conocimiento en relación a los problemas presentados es una situación que debería ser solucionada. La capacitación del personal encargado del manejo equino, en cuanto a comportamiento normal, sería un aporte para mejorar el bienestar de estos animales.The use of stables for horses has become a routine practice, especially for those used in equestrian sports, affecting some behaviours due to the changes in their natural environment which can have a detrimental effect on their welfare

  15. Economic effect of bovine abortion syndrome in commercial dairy herds in Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädicke, P; Vidal, R; Monti, G

    2010-10-01

    Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of bovine abortion syndrome (BAS) in dairy cows from Chile. A stochastic model was proposed to evaluate the cost of an abortion on a yearly basis to include variability in cost and income by dairy and by year. The marginal total net revenue (ΔTNR) for a typical, lactation was obtained by the calculating the difference between total revenues (retail milk and calf sales) and total expenses (production cost (cows, feeding, labor, health) plus administrative and, general costs) for lactation with and without abortion. Production data were obtained from a retrospective study of 127 dairy herds located in southern Chile between 2000 and 2006. Milk production from cows with and without abortion was estimated by a mixed model using milk test day data. Production cost and prices paid to farmers were obtained from service company records (TODOAGRO S.A.). Cost and income value was corrected for inflation and expressed in the values from 2006. In addition, a separate analysis for different parities (1, 2, 3 or more) was performed. Distributions for the stochastic variables were obtained by fitting distributions from our database using @Risk. The stochastic variables included in the analysis were all related to income, feeding, depreciation, health, Artificial Insemination and general costs like fuel, salaries, taxes, etc. There was a high probability (89.20%) of a negative ΔTNR in lactations with abortion for overall, parities, with a mean loss of $ -143.32. Stratifying by parity, the predicted mean of the distribution for ΔTNR in each

  16. Mid-Holocene Climate and Culture Change in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Martin; Núñez, Lautaro; Cartajena, Isabel; Messerli, Bruno

    1997-09-01

    Twenty archaeological campsites intercalated between more than 30 debris flows caused by heavy rainfall events between 6200 and 3100 14C yr B.P. have recently been discovered at Quebrada Puripica in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. This record provides detailed information about extreme, short-lived climatic events during the hyperarid mid-Holocene period. For the first time, we found evidence of continuous human occupation in this area, filling the regional hiatus in the Atacama basin ("Silencio Arqueologico") between 8000 and 4800 14C yr B.P. The transformation of Early Archaic hunters into the complex Late Archaic cultural tradition was an adaptive process. During this time, the site was a local ecological refuge with abundant resources in a generally hostile environment.

  17. La gestión por procesos, su surgimiento y aspectos teóricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Ruiz - Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordó aspectos históricos y teóricos relacionados con la gestión por procesos, se precisa las potencialidades de su aplicación para el perfeccionamiento de la dirección de las empresas. Presentó un análisis de diferentes definiciones de este término a partir del c ual se determinan las regularidades que lo caracterizan. Se puntualizan algunos aspectos teóricos vinculados con esta forma de gestión empresarial.

  18. Brucelosis bovina, aspectos históricos y epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rodríguez Valera,

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo puntualiza algunos aspectos sobre la historia de la enfermedad, animales susceptibles, distribución, transmisión, reservorios naturales, fuente de infección, transmisión, factores de riesgo asociados y eliminación del agente al medio; aspectos epidemiológicos de suma importancia. The present work remarks some aspects of history of the disease, susceptible animals, distribution, transmission, natural reservorios, source infection, transmission, associate factors of risk and elimination of the agent to the environment; epidemiologigic aspects of supreme importance.

  19. Métricas aplicadas a la programación orientada a aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Baigorria, Lorena; Montejano, Germán Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Encontramos muchos problemas de programación para los cuales las técnicas de programación procedural o orientadas a objetos (OO) no son suficientes para capturar algunas de las decisiones importantes de diseño, que el sistema debe implementar. La Programación Orientada a Aspectos (POA) es una técnica que ha surgido para mejorar la separación de las competencias en la programación de software. La Orientación a Aspectos (OA) se basa en tecnologías existentes, como la orientación a objetos...

  20. Aspectos ambientales a considerar en vertederos: Emplazamiento y emisiones de biogás

    OpenAIRE

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco José; García Darás, Ferran; Vives Peris, Vicente; Herrera Prats, María Lidón; Robles Martínez, Fabián

    2013-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo ha sido identificar los aspectos ambientales que más se tienen en cuenta a la hora de otorgar la autorización ambiental a los proyectos de vertederos controlados. Cuando un proyecto de vertedero y su correspondiente estudio de impacto ambiental son sometidos al procedimiento administrativo de la evaluación de impacto ambiental, el órgano ambiental concede la autorización mediante la declaración de impacto ambiental. En ésta, además se detallan los aspecto...

  1. ASPECTOS CRÍTICOS DE LA TRIBUTACIÓN INTERNACIONAL: LOS PRECIOS DE TRANSFERENCIA SITUACION COLOMBO-VENEZOLANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Isabel Díaz Ortega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general del presente estudio consistió en analizar la tributación internacional y los precios de transferencia: una actualización de los cambios en la forma actual de reglamentar cada país su sistema tributario debido a los efectos de la globalización económica. Atendiendo a una época inmersa en la cual las organizaciones se ven afectadas por la complejidad del entorno al momento de realizar negocios internacionales, surge una manera global de realizar intercambio comercial, lo que conlleva efectos en la tributación internacional, en donde surgen aspectos críticos. Bajo esta óptica, surgen nuevos fenómenos como la doble tributación, los precios de transferencia, los paraísos fiscales en la plataforma de la tributación internacional. Allí, hay un nuevo reto para los sistemas tributarios y las pequeñas y medianas empresas, por cuanto deben adquirir sus insumos a los mejores precios obteniendo una mayor rentabilidad. Surge de tal situación, la presente ponencia, la cual desarrolla dos variables, tales como tributación internacional y precios de transferencia, sustentada doctrinariamente en Daniels, J, Radebaugh, L y Sullivan, D. (2004,Hill (2007, Moreno (2011, Rugman, A y Hodgettss, R. (2001, Cosulich, (2012 entre otros. Asimismo, la investigación es de tipo documental, la revisión bibliográfica permitió establecer que dentro de la tributación internacional los precios de transferencia constituyen uno de los aspectos críticos en donde se deben concentrar esfuerzos que permitan unas mejores relaciones comerciales.

  2. CHILES 2: a finite element computer program that calculates the intensities of linear elastic singularities in isotropic and orthotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHILES 2 is a finite-element computer program that calculates the strength of singularities in linear elastic bodies. A generalized quadrilateral finite element that includes a singular point at a corner node is incorporated in the code. The displacement formulation is used and interelement compatibility is maintained so that monotone convergence is preserved. Plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric conditions are treated. Isotropic and orthotropic crack tip singularity problems are solved by this version of the code, but any type of singularity may be properly modeled by modifying selected subroutines in the program

  3. CHILES 2: a finite element computer program that calculates the intensities of linear elastic singularities in isotropic and orthotropic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzley, S.E.; Beisinger, Z.E.

    1978-02-01

    CHILES 2 is a finite-element computer program that calculates the strength of singularities in linear elastic bodies. A generalized quadrilateral finite element that includes a singular point at a corner node is incorporated in the code. The displacement formulation is used and interelement compatibility is maintained so that monotone convergence is preserved. Plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric conditions are treated. Isotropic and orthotropic crack tip singularity problems are solved by this version of the code, but any type of singularity may be properly modeled by modifying selected subroutines in the program.

  4. Some Generalities About Generality

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2015-01-01

    We survey a variety of cosmological problems where the issue of generality has arisen. This is aimed at providing a wider context for many claims and deductions made when philosophers of science choose cosmological problems for investigation. We show how simple counting arguments can be used to characterise parts of the general solution of Einstein's equations when various matter fields are present and with different spatial topologies. Applications are described to the problem of singularities, static cosmological models, cosmic no hair theorems, the late-time isotropisation of cosmological models, and the number of parameters needed to describe a general astronomical universe.

  5. Patrones de distribución espacial y temporal de floraciones de Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid Balech 1985, en aguas interiores de la Patagonia noroccidental de Chile Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of blooms of Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid Balech 1985, on inland seas of northwest Patagonia, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MOLINET

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella en las aguas interiores de la Patagonia noroccidental, fue registrada en la década de los 90. A partir de 1995 se iniciaron programas de monitoreo de fitoplancton orientados al seguimiento de este dinoflagelado y sus efectos sobre los mariscos en la Décima y Undécima Región de Chile, financiados por distintas instituciones. Esto permitió recolectar una importante base de datos, aunque incompleta en muchos aspectos debido a la independencia de objetivos de los diferentes estudios. En esta revisión se agruparon todos los datos disponibles para buscar patrones que ayuden a la formulación de hipótesis sobre la dispersión e incidencia espacial y temporal de A. catenella en esta amplia zona y mucho más habitada que la Duodécima Región. Inicialmente se recolectaron muestras mensuales y desde fines de 2000 semanales tanto de fitoplancton como de mariscos en un número de estaciones que varió cada año. Desde fines de 1995 al 2002 se registraron cuatro floraciones de A. catenella, con intensidad y distribución variable, observándose una expansión de la distribución geográfica de esta especie hacia el norte (desde aproximadamente 45° 47' S en 1996 a 42° S, Chiloé en 2002. Las cuatro floraciones registradas fueron marcadamente estacionales, concentradas entre los meses de enero a marzo y coincidieron con los máximos registros del veneno paralizante de los mariscos. Los datos analizados sugieren que el origen de las floraciones de A. catenella en las aguas interiores de la región estaría asociada a la presencia de bancos de quistes, cuyo ciclo de vida se expresa con una variación bianual debido a la variación en condiciones ambientales que favorecen la germinación de estos organismos. La influencia de oscilaciones en el océano adyacente que estarían afectando las características de circulación general de las aguas interiores y las características de la columna de

  6. First steps for mitigating bycatch of Pink-footed Shearwaters Ardenna creatopus: Identifying overlap of foraging areas and fisheries in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan; Felis, Jonathan J.; López, Verónica; Adams, Josh; Hodum, Peter; Beck, Jessie; Colodro, Valentina; Vega, Rodrigo; González, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater, Ardenna creatopus, is listed as in danger of extinction by Chile and under Annex 1 of ACAP, with an estimated global population of approximately 56,000 individuals. Incidental bycatch of this species in fisheries is thought to be an important cause in population decline (i.e. annual estimated mortality of >1000 adults). This species is an endemic breeder in Chile, nesting only on the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (JFI; 30% of global population), and Isla Mocha (70% of global population). Using miniature GPS and satellite transmitters, we determined foraging areas of Pink-footed Shearwaters during the chick-rearing period in 2002 (JFI) and 2015-2016 (Isla Mocha). We overlaid shearwater tracking data with data from the Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (IFOP) on fishing effort in Chile (type of fishery, number sets per day, location of sets, and target species) to identify fisheries and fishing zones with the greatest potential for Pink-footed Shearwater bycatch. During the 2002-2006 (N = 28 birds total) and 2015 (N = 18 birds) breeding periods, foraging areas were associated with the continental shelf and shelf-break, generally less than 30 km offshore. All foraging trips occurred between 31.5 and 40.0 degrees south, and birds remained in Chile territorial waters 100% of the time. We identified two primary foraging hotspots, one offshore near Talcahuano, Chile (approximately 36-37.5° south), and one offshore north of Valdivia, Chile (approximately 39-39.5° south). Birds tracked from the Juan Fernández Archipelago foraged in the Talcahuano hotspot but did not visit the southerly hotspot near Valdivia. Birds tracked from Isla Mocha used both areas, with a greater proportion of birds using the Valdivia hotspot than the Talcahuano hotspot. Other major areas of use were around the respective breeding colonies from which the birds were tracked. Overlay of these data with fisheries data is currently in progress. Preliminary results indicate

  7. El estado de la seguridad ciudadana en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    de Rementería, Ibán

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo desarrolla, desde una perspectiva crítica, un detallado “estado del arte” de la temática de “seguridad ciudadana” en Chile, delineando cómo esta problemática obedece más bien a una percepción de inseguridad instalada en la ciudadanía desde los medios de comunicación, y legitimada por los expertos interesados en asegurar la sostenibilidad de sus servicios en el emergente “mercado de la seguridad.” Se sostiene en el ensayo que en Chile la situación de seguridad ciudadana es la mej...

  8. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile.

  9. Reforma educativa y política en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two important educational reforms introduced since the return to democracy in Chile. The first one was targeted at the poorest 10% of schools in Chile. The second was a fundamental reform of the primary educational sector. Both have been successful in meeting their objectives, and mark a fundamental shift from the educational reforms of the Pinochet government. The reasons for the success of the reforms are broken down into political, institutional and operational factors. In essence, a small team of trained educational reformers, with widespread support and strong backing from the Minister of Education and the President were able to overcome the resistance of the bureaucrats of the Ministry of Education and that of the school teachers union.

  10. [Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelart, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America. PMID:12261387

  11. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio MANCILLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  12. [Adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile, 1968-1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E; Albala, C; Icaza, G

    1994-12-01

    "The paper starts with a brief analysis of the sources and the quality of the data and the mortality indices [for trends in adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile]....A comparison is made of mortality among the 13 regions of the country and an attempt is made to relate the observed differences to some environmental and life-style factors. Rural-urban and educational differences of mortality by cause of death are also analyzed. The paper ends by comparing mortality by chronic disease in Chile with that of other countries of the Latin American region, noting some difficulties [in] such a comparison and proposing hypotheses for future studies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12290226

  13. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile. PMID:27187810

  14. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  15. Lexicografía chilena finisecular. "Voces usadas en Chile" de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes (1900 (Chilean fin-de-siècle lexicography. "Voces usadas en Chile" by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes (1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alfero Wolff

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio corresponde al análisis metalexicográfico del diccionario "Voces usadas en Chile", publicado en 1900 por Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes. La investigación tiene por objetivo conocer y establecer el estado de la lexicografía practicada en Chile a fines del siglo XIX. La metodología básica de este estudio se centra en la aplicación sistemática de la plantilla de análisis metalexicográfico de Matus (1995a, que pretende describir, analizar y valorar críticamente los repertorios lexicográficos del español de Chile. El análisis, que inserta el inventario léxico bajo estudio de forma transversal en el desarrollo de la lexicografía en Chile, muestra la avanzada técnica científica incorporada en el procesamiento y sistematización del material léxico. Por otro lado, evidencia las estrategias por medio de las cuales el autor comienza a abandonar las ideas puristas y normativas imperantes en su época. En efecto, se reconoce más de un punto de referencialidad idiomática, propiciándose así una estandarización policéntrica (De Granda, 1994: 48. La polarización entre léxico oficial y léxico marginal se desdibuja, siendo este un aspecto que puede verse reflejado en la incorporación de términos «malsonantes» y tabuizados. Finalmente, se bosqueja la importancia de la obra de Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes como un diccionario de transición entre lo precientífico y lo propiamente científico. (This paper is a metalexicographical analysis of the dictionary "Voces usadas en Chile", by Aníbal Echeverría y Reyes published in Chile in 1900. It reviews the state of lexicography practiced in late 19th Century Chile. The analysis follows Matus’ metalexicographical analysis chart (1995, which allows description, analysis and critical evaluation of lexicographical works on Chilean Spanish. This work aims at reavealing (revealing the advanced scientific techniques used by Echeverría y Reyes in processing and systematizing

  16. Aspectos más significativos en la revisión de proyectos de cimientos y estructuras de edificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Hermoso, Jesús

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This document show all important aspects on the foundation and structure building project check. No speaking about calculation problems, it enumerate the qualities aspects that could be checked and all that have major effect in a good project and construction quality. It considerers at first, the relation between the structure and the architecture and the equipment building, and with the urbanistic aspects and the soil characteristics. Later, it talks about the typical aspects of structure, like materials, actions, general calculation and the checking of different elements (fancing pile, supports , beams and slabs. It speaks about concrete, metallic and wood structures.En el presente artículo se muestran todos aquellos aspectos que se consideran importantes en la revisión del proyecto de la cimentación y la estructura de un edificio. Sin entrar en problemas concretos de cálculo, se enumeran los aspectos cualitativos que han de comprobarse y se subrayan todos aquéllos que pueden tener una mayor repercusión en la buena calidad del proyecto y de la obra. Se tiene en cuenta, en primer lugar, la interrelación de la estructura con la arquitectura y las instalaciones del edificio, así como la que tiene (junto a la cimentación con el entorno urbanístico y las características del terreno. Posteriormente se tratan los aspectos más propios del proyecto de estructura, como son los materiales, las acciones, el cálculo general y la comprobación de los distintos elementos (zapatas, pilotes, encepados. pilas. vigas y forjados. Junto a las estructuras de hormigón armado se analizan las metálicas y las de madera laminada encolada.

  17. Growth, Poverty and Employment in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zepeda; Diana Alarcón; Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Guerreiro Osório

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient labour income and limited access to employment are critical problems that policy makers must address when designing development strategies in Latin American countries. The persistence of the high incidence of poverty and inequality can be explained largely by the poor performance of labour markets. This Working Paper uses household survey data for Chile, Brazil and Mexico, from the early 1990s to the early 2000s, to examine the link between the growth of labour income, employment...

  18. Physical dating violence among college students in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2007-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health concern both per se and because victimization in the young adult years can be a precursor to more severe incidents of domestic violence later, in the context of cohabitation or marriage. To date, no quantitative studies have examined dating violence among college students in Chile. To address this gap, a survey on this topic was administered to students at a major public university. The present analyses focused on the female sample (n=441). Generaliz...

  19. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global markets. Despite this support, a declining number of farmers and an aging population are observed in rural areas. Most rural development programs focus on increasing competitiveness, whereas the stay...

  20. Nota técnica: Seguridad vial: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2011-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial ha servido de apoyo para el dialogo con el Gobierno Chileno en la preparación de la estrategia país del BID con Chile 2011-2014. En este se describe el estado de la situación de la seguridad vial en el país, se realiza un diagnostico del sector, se exponen los desafíos de desarrollo y se realizan recomendaciones de política.

  1. Residential Segregation Effects on Poor’s Opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Larrañaga Jiménez; Claudia Sanhueza Riveros

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify whether or not the spatial concentration of poverty –also called economic residential segregation- affects the opportunities of the poor in Chile. Residential segregation is understood as the concentration particular population groups in determined geographical areas within cities. To identify the effects of segregation we use a panel of cross sections of the Casen household surveys, although the measures of segregation are computed from the Census data. The result...

  2. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Robles Farías

    2015-01-01

    Chile has a long history of implementing social policies. It was one of the first countries in Latin America to expand free health care coverage and education, incorporating cash and in-kind transfers to promote access to social services and offer diverse protection mechanisms for its most vulnerable population groups. That said, its current social protection model is the result of a series of efforts, institutions and policies that have been consolidated over time.(?)

  3. Managing Natural Resources Revenue: The case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    J. Rodrigo Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Countries abundant in natural resources face the dilemma of how to manage this source of revenues. The recent boom in commodity prices put this issue at the top of the agenda in natural resource rich economies. Chile, for instance, is the largest copper producer in the world, supplying 43% of world copper exports. In 2007, the state-owned corporation, CODELCO, produced one third of total Chilean copper output and the revenues from its copper exports accounted for 16% of total fiscal revenues....

  4. Talcahuano, Chile, in the wake of the 2010 disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Because of Chile’s geographical position, earthquakes and tsunamis are recurrent phenomena and reducing vulnerability to these events is imperative. To do this, one needs to understand the geophysical features of the hazards involved and the vulnerability that exposed communities live with. This article presents some unexpected findings of a research regarding the latter and devised to investigate the vulnerability realities that the devastating 2010 earthquake/tsunami event in Chile exposed....

  5. DEVELANDO UN MITO: EMISARIOS DE LA INTERNACIONAL COMUNISTA EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ulianova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconociendo al comunismo como un actor nacional e internacional clave en la evolución política de Chile durante el siglo XX, que tempranamente vincula el país con la política mundial, el artículo pretende reconstruir, contrastando la documentación de los archivos kominternianos con las fuentes memorialísticas y periodísticas locales, una de las primeras y más enigmáticas formas de la vinculación del movimiento comunista mundial con su partido chileno: la presencia intermitente en el país, entre las décadas de 1920 y 1930, de "delegados" o "emisarios" del Komintern. El análisis de las formas de la interacción de los emisarios kominternianos no solo con la militancia criolla, sino con importantes sectores de la sociedad nacional, contribuye a la reflexión acerca de la dimensión internacional en la construcción de la cultura política chilena del siglo XX.The article analyzes the interaction between Soviet Komintern emissaries and local communist followers as well as important sectors of Chilean society. It recognizes that communism was a key national and international factor in Chile's political evolution during the twentieth century, when the country was closely linked with world politics. This contributes to the discussion regarding the international dimensión of the construction of Chile's political culture during the twentieth century. The article reconstructs one of the first and enigmatic forms of linking the world communist movement and Chile's Communist Party. Documents from Komintern archives, memories and local press sources, were used to explore this topic.

  6. REASONS FOR CONGLOMERATION: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT RESPONSES IN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE TARZIJÁN M; JOSÉ RIVERA

    2000-01-01

    This paper is intended to contribute to the understanding of the motivations behind the diversification decisions of the Chilean “economic groups”. With this objective we surveyed the largest such groups in Chile. Our results show that the most important reasons for diversification for the top management of the Chilean business groups are managerial synergies (board of directors), financial synergies, information synergies and some specific operational synergies such as economies of scope in ...

  7. Price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Saens; Germán Lobos

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of a road pricing scheme to optimize the use of transport infrastructure depends on the available information regarding the price elasticity of demand for bridges, tunnels and highways. The aim of this paper is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile using the seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) method and a panel of 48 monthly data drawn from 21 toll plazas (48 x 21). Our results show that, even when controlling for gasoline prices and economic act...

  8. Business Incubator Financing and Financial Services in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Chandra; Magda Narczewska

    2009-01-01

    Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 20-25 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to organize risk...

  9. Variables perceptuales y emprendimiento naciente en Chile: oportunidad versus necesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon Sabatini, Joaquin; Franetovic Parker, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    In this work we seek to assess how perception variables affect on the timely decision to undertake in Chile, measured by the nascent entrepreneurship, ie, those entrepreneurs who are starting a new business, including any form of self-employment or commersialisation of all types of goods or services. This, controlling for other relevant variables of demographic and economic nature . It seems particularly interesting to quantify how affect self-confidence, perception of opportunity, fear of fa...

  10. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Rodríguez; Luz Angélica-Muñoz; Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study´s theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.METHOD: Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses.RESULTS: among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, B...

  11. Reviews of National Policies for Education : Tertiary Education in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón, Maria Paulina; Crawford, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tertiary education in Chile has been transformed radically over the past 20 years. As recently as 1990, tertiary education was an elite system centered on a handful of traditional universities which served a small number of well-prepared students. Today the system is diverse and dynamic, with over 6,000 programs of study offered by more than 200 institutions. More than 800,000 students are...

  12. Partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral aisladas de achira (canna edulis ker.) afectada por clorosis en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Observaciones al microscopio electrónico de extractos de hojas de achira (Canna edulis) afectada por una clorosis, precedente del departamento del Huila (Colombia) revelaron la presencia de partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral de aproximadamente 600 nm x 10 nm. Este es el primer reporte de partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral infectando a achira en Colombia.

  13. Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.

  14. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  15. Development of management system for fruit export from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of agencies in the control of fruit quality and of phytosanitary aspects have considerably increased in the last four years, resulting in an improvement in the quality of fresh fruits exported from Chile to the USA and Europe. Most of the produce, requiring shipping times of 2 to 3 weeks, is being shipped in refrigerated vessels. The Fundacion Chile has helped this export industry not only by training field inspectors, capable of checking quality of fruit before it has been packed, but also by certifying this quality when required by the exporter or his overseas customer. Strict quarantine requirements in importing countries have imposed a number of restrictions and produce is fumigated either in Chile or in the port of import. It is suggested that before irradiation is applied to Chilean fruits for export one should: (a) evaluate its effect on quality, with special reference on maturity at harvest, (b) demonstrate quarantine efficacy to a standard accepted by importing countries, (c) solve logistical aspects, (d) evaluate application technique in dependence of different packagings, (e) make cost assessments and (f) work towards bilateral agreement regarding acceptance of treatment and of facilities. (author)

  16. Aspectos epidemiológicos y de análisis del síndrome de aborto bovino Epidemiological and analytical aspects of bovine abortion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gädicke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El aborto bovino es un factor limitante en las lecherías, por su impacto en la disminución de los reemplazos y producción del rebaño, por lo que constituye un desafío para la Medicina Veterinaria. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los principales aspectos relacionados con la epidemiología y formas de análisis del Síndrome de Aborto Bovino (SAB. El trabajo se organiza en dos partes, la primera incluye aspectos epidemiológicos, impacto y factores de riesgo; en la segunda se presentan algunas metodologías para su cuantificación, análisis y sistemas de vigilancia. En los estudios que tratan el tema de aborto bovino existe mucha disparidad en la presentación y formas de cálculo de indicadores epidemiológicos, así como en las definiciones empleadas para definir los eventos de importancia que se utilizan para el análisis de la presentación y factores de riesgo. Es necesario hacer una diferenciación clara entre los factores de riesgo del animal y del rebaño, los que pueden estar asociados a prácticas de manejo específicas que dependen del tipo de sistema productivo adoptado. En Chile se necesitan estudios que consideren el problema del SAB en forma integral. Además, los factores de riesgo establecidos en otros países no son totalmente extrapolables a las condiciones nacionales, por lo que se hace necesaria una mayor investigación en esta área para realizar un estudio ajustado a la realidad nacional que permita diseñar sistemas de intervención y control eficientes y efectivos.Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for the dairy sector, because it causes a decrease in milk production and the potential number of replacements of the herd, and also it constitutes a challenge for the veterinary profession. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology and different ways of analyzing the Bovine Abortion Syndrome (BAS. This review is divided in two parts; the first one presents an overview of the epidemiology, impact

  17. Coro de cisnes, cantos de sirenas: una aproximación a la música en los monasterios del Chile colonial Swan Choirs, Siren Songs: An Approach to the Music in the Monasteries of Colonial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo explora por vez primera la práctica musical en los monasterios de monjas del Chile colonial. Partiendo de la información inédita recopilada en el archivo del Monasterio de La Victoria de Santiago, se analizan aspectos históricos y musicales tales como la imagen de la monja música en la historiografía tradicional y postmoderna; su estatus social en el período colonial; la evolución de las plantillas musicales (instrumentistas y cantoras, con sus correspondientes cambios estilísticos y la injerencia que tenían los músicos ajenos al monasterio. Por último, se cuestiona la supuesta independencia de género de las monjas y se plantea la hipótesis de que las repetidas censuras a sus prácticas artístico-musicales estuvieron motivadas no sólo por propósitos moralizantes, sino también por la necesidad del clero secular y la autoridad civil de limitar el crecimiento de las instituciones monásticas.This is the first study about the musical practice in convents of Colonial Chile on the basis of new data collected in the archive of the convent of La Victoria in Santiago. It considers historical and musical aspects such as the image of the nun musician in traditional and postmodern historiography, her social status during the colonial period, the evolution of music groups (instrumentalists and singers, the stylistic changes associated with them, and the role played by foreign mule musicians in the monastery. Finally, it questions the assumption that nun musicians enjoyed an independence from masculine gender. Furthermore, it puts forward as a hypothesis that the frequent prohibitions of their musical and artistic practices originated not only in moralistic purposes, but also in the need of the secular clergy and civic authorities of limiting the growth of monastic institutions.

  18. Seroepidemiology of human toxoplasmosis in Chile Seroepidemiología de la toxoplasmosis en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del C. Contreras

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of already published and unpublished seroepidemiological surveys for toxoplasmosis, carried out in Chile in 1982-1994, is reviewed, expanded and analyzed. The surveys included 76,317 apparently healthy individuals of different ages (0.57% of the country's total population, from 309 urban and rural-periurban localities. Urban groups were integrated by blood donors, delivering mothers and middle grade schoolchildren, while rural-periurban individuals corresponded to unselected family groups. Blood samples were collected in filter paper. The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, titers > 16 were considered positive. The test resulted positive in 28,124 (36.9% of the surveyed people. Two hundred and six (0.3% individuals presented IHAT titers > 1000, probably corresponding to acute or reactivated infections. A progressive increase of positive IHAT from northern to southern regions of the country was noted, phenomenom probably related to geographical conditions and to a higher production and consumption of different types of meat in the latter regions. It is postulated that ingestion of T. gondii cysts by humans is epidemiologically as important as ingestion of oocysts. The results presented stress the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in humans, and warn about eventual implications in immunocompromised patients and in transplacental transmission, organ transplants and transfusions.En este trabajo se revisa, se amplía y se analiza en conjunto una serie de encuestas seroepidemiológicas sobre toxoplasmosis efectuadas en Chile entre 1982 y 1994, utilizando la reacción de hemaglutinación indirecta (RHAI. El estudio incluyó 76.317 personas aparentemente sanas de diferentes edades (0,57% de la problación total del país, procedentes de 309 localidades urbanas y rural-periurbanas. Los grupos urbanos estuvieron constituídos por donantes de sangre, parturientas y

  19. Los lagartos de malpelo (colombia): aspectos sobre su ecología y amenazas

    OpenAIRE

    López-Victoria, Mateo

    2012-01-01

    Se aportan nuevos aspectos sobre la historia natural de los saurios de la Isla deMalpelo y, como complemento al Libro Rojo de reptiles de Colombia, se plantea sunivel de amenaza y clasificación según los criterios de la UICN.

  20. Impacto de Parámetros de QoS en Aspectos de QoE: Análisis desde el Punto de Vista de la Sincronización Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagud Climent, M.A.; Boronat, F.; Martinez, M.; Belda, J.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    La sincronización multimedia ha sido un área de investigación clave desde los inicios de los sistemas multimedia. En este artículo se ofrecen una visión general y un análisis sobre el impacto de varios parámetros de QoS en diferentes aspectos de la QoE, desde el punto de vista de la sincronización m

  1. Análisis de la correlación entre los programas de estudio para la enseñanza del inglés en educación general básica en Chile y la teoría del desarrollo intelectual de Piaget

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya García, Marcela; Mardones Corrales, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: El presente artículo tiene por objetivo principal analizar la correlación existente entre los Programas de Estudio para la Enseñanza del inglés en Educación General Básica (E.G.B.) y la Teoría del Desarrollo Intelectual de Piaget, así como determinar el modelo pedagógico inscrito. Para ello, se parte de una muestra constituida por cuatro Programas de Estudio -de Quinto a Octavo Básico- elaborados y distribuidos por la Unidad de Evaluación y Currículum del Ministerio de Educación de ...

  2. META-ESTEREOTIPOS SOBRE LOS INDÍGENAS MAPUCHES DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Saiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron los meta-estereotipos sobre los mapuches chilenos, esto es, la percepción que miembros de este pueblo originario tienen sobre los estereotipos que los chilenos no indígenas les asignan. Se analizaron cinco aspectos de los meta-estereotipos: contenido (atributos, rótulos (etiquetas grupales, pre cisión (congruencia con estereotipos, uniformidad (consenso y estructura (configuración de atributos y rótulos. Una muestra de 39 adultos mapuches de la Ciudad de Temuco (Chile respondió una entrevista semi-estructurada destinada a indagar experiencias de interacción con chilenos no indígenas. Un análisis de contenido de las entrevistas reveló que los mapuches perciben 10 atributos meta-estereotípicos, todos negativos, relativamente precisos y uniformes: inferior, ignorante, flojo, incapaz, primitivo, conflictivo, sucio, pobre, tonto y borracho. Además, los entrevistados señalaron ser denominados con dos rótulos agraviantes: indio y mapuchito. Un análisis de espacio menor (Guttman, 1968 reveló una estructura compuesta por dos regio-nes de atributos: una, en torno a mapuchito, con atributos de naturaleza modificable, congruentes con una visión paternalista yotra en torno a indio, con atributos difícilmente modificables, compatibles con una posición extremadamente ofensiva y deshumanizadora. Como se esperaba desde el modelo de contenido de los estereotipos (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick & Xu, 2002, es ta estructura parece reflejar imágenes de personas que difieren a lo largo de las dimensiones de calidez y habilidad. Mientras que los atributos en torno a mapuchito describirían a personas potencialmente cálidas pero incompetentes, los atributos cercanos a indio describirían a personas definitivamente frías e inhábiles. Se discuten las limitaciones del presente estudio y las implicaciones de sus hallazgos.

  3. Sinopsis de la justicia electoral en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Marshall Barberán

    2007-01-01

    En primer término, el artículo realiza un catastro de la legislación chilena que contiene alguna normativa electoral, para luego hacer una descripción general de la regulación y organización de los órganos de la justicia electoral de ese país. En segundo plano, el ensayo revisa las competencias resolutivas que se anidan en los órganos de la justicia electoral chilena.

  4. [Mortality in Chile 1955-1975: trends and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E

    1978-12-01

    Sources for data on mortality in Chile are available from the Instituto National de Estadistica, and from the Servicio National de Salud. For the purpose of this study every possible effort was made to get valid data, relying on the national death register, and on medical certificates of death. Between 1953 and 1963 the mortality rate was 12-13/1000; it abruptly descended in 1973, and rose again, to reach the level of 7.2/1000 in 1975. Male mortality is higher than female mortality. In the years 1974-1975 the mortality rate descended considerably for infants and for children 1-4. If one compares mortality rates in Chile and Sweden for 1975, it is obvious that modern medical technology and different sanitary conditions are responsible for the low mortality rate in Sweden. As to the causes of mortality, 9 diseases are responsible for more than 90% of deaths. During the past 15 years death from cancer was about 110/1000, while violent deaths and deaths by accidents augmented. The death rate for respiratory diseases decreased significantly in 1974-1975. In comparing causes of death in Chile and in the U.S. one notices that respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, and circulatory diseases account for a great number of deaths in Chile, while in the U.S. accidents account for 73.4% of deaths in the 15-24 year old group. Tuberculosis, which has almost disappeared in the U.S., accounts for 5% of deaths in Chile in the 15-44 year old group. Such differences are due to cultural, social and economic diversity in the structure of the 2 countries. Pneumonia still accounts for 50% of infant mortality, and malnutrition for about 39% of mortality of children under 5. Still, most causes of death, like diarrhea in children, could be avoided with proper diagnosis and treatment. Nutrition, sanitary conditions, medical attention, and socioeconomic conditions are finally responsible if Chilean mortality rates still are much higher than those of developed countries.

  5. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  6. Conservation biology in Chile: Are we fulfilling our social contract? Conservación biológica en Chile: ¿Estamos cumpliendo nuestro contrato social?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A SIMONETTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation needs to be informed by science. On this regard, scientific efforts ought to be allocated to tackle research priorities; offer sound and explicit advice, and results ought to be translated into conservation plans and programs. If such conditions are met, scientists would be fulfilling their social contract, sensu Lubchenco. In this brief essay I analyze the fulfillment of such a contract in Chile. In general, the scarce priorities set for addressing conservation issues are not considered, only a third of scientific publications in conservation-related issues offer explicit advice and a minor fraction of relevant scientific information is considered in the preparation of conservation plans. Current mismatch between conservation science and practice weakens longstanding efforts to achieve an effective conservation of the Chilean biota. Suggestions are advanced to close the gap.La conservación de la biodiversidad requiere apoyo científico. En este sentido, desde el ámbito científico se deberían destinar esfuerzos para abordar las prioridades de investigación, ofrecer recomendaciones explícitas, y los resultados de la investigación científica deberían ser incorporados a los planes y programas de investigación. De cumplirse estos pasos, los científicos estarían satisfaciendo su contrato social, sensu Lubchenco. En este breve ensayo analizo el cumplimiento de tal contrato en Chile. En general, el escaso conjunto de prioridades existente no ha sido abordado, solamente un tercio de las publicaciones científicas en temas de conservación biológica ofrecen consejo explícito y una fracción menor de la información relevante y pertinente es considerada en la elaboración de planes y programas de conservación. El desacople entre la ciencia y la práctica de la conservación debilita esfuerzos de larga data tendientes a lograr una efectiva conservación de la biota chilena. Para intentar cerrar esta brecha, ofrezco

  7. Aspectos ambientales de la gesti??n empresarial del suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Guti??rrez Arag??n, ??scar, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    349 p. Esta tesis doctoral pretende abordar la necesidad de internalizar las variables medioambientales en los procesos habituales vinculados a la gesti??n empresarial en un entorno en el que, en la actualidad, se estima indispensable y esencial la consecuci??n de un desarrollo econ??mico sostenible, con el fin de que, cuando las empresas llevan a la pr??ctica sus actividades, el tratamiento y la consideraci??n del medio ambiente y los recursos naturales en general y del suelo ...

  8. History of dental caries and need for dental treatment of children with visual disabilities, Chile, 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guidotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la historia de caries y la necesidad de tratamiento odontológico de niños con discapacidad visual entre 6-12 años, pertenecientes a Escuelas Especiales de Chile, el año 2014. Material y método: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal. Se examinaron niños con discapacidad visual de escuelas especiales en Chile, según los criterios de la OMS, para obtener el ceod, COPD y la necesidad de tratamiento. Se registraron las lesiones de esmalte clínicamente detectables en superficies cavitadas y no cavitadas. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: 94 niños fueron examinados, pertenecientes a 7 escuelas especiales. El ceod promedio fue 2,05 (SD ± 2,6 y el COPD fue de 0,96 (SD ± 1,3. A los 6 años el ceod/COPD fue de 3/0 respectivamente. A los 12 años el ceod fue 0,17 y COPD fue 1,42. La prevalencia de caries fue de 56,3%. El 95% necesita sellantes, el 50% necesita a lo menos una restauración de una cara, y el 29% una restauración de 2 o más superficies. En cuanto a las lesiones de esmalte, el 34% de los niños presentaban al menos una lesión no cavitada y un 48% de ellos tenían una lesión cavitada.Conclusión: La historia de caries es similar a lo descrito en la población general, sin embargo, existe una alta necesidad de tratamiento preventivo. Es necesario realizar más investigaciones que permitan esclarecer si poseen un mayor riesgo cariogénico debido a su alteración visual, para así establecer estrategias promocionales/preventivas efectivas. Abstract: Objective: To determine the history of dental caries and the need for dental treatment of children with visual disabilities 6-12 years, belonging to Chile Special Schools, 2014.Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The target population was children with visual disabilities in special schools in Chile. A clinical examination was performed to obtain a deft, DMFT and

  9. Dentists’ training in Chile and some iberoamerican countries. Considerations for education, health and job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggelo Carrizo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, several studies focused on the training of dentists in Chile and other Ibero-American countries and its implications have been published. However, there is no analysis of all the evidence at a regional level. The aim of this article is to review the changes in training for dentists in Ibero-America, the educational and/or sanitary policies associated to these changes and the impact that they have for dentists in the future in Chile and the region. In general terms, a strong increase in the amount of available places for studying dentistry, without a clear sanitary or educational planning to justify it, has been observed in several countries of the region this rise does not show a positive impact in the access to dental treatment, especially for the poorest populations. Although the levels of satisfaction are high among dentists, an unemployment rise and a salary decrease have been observed over the last few years, which could impact professional satisfaction. In Ibero-America, an exponential increase of dental schools, without a positive impact on the oral health of the population, but negatively affecting workforce, is observed. RESUMEN En los últimos años se han publicado varias investigaciones centradas en el aumento de la formación de dentistas en Chile y otros países de Iberoamérica. Sin embargo, no existen análisis de toda la evidencia a nivel regional. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los cambios en la formación de dentistas en Iberoamérica, las políticas educativas y/o sanitarias asociadas a dichos cambios y el impacto que han tenido en el futuro para los odontólogos de Chile y la región. En términos generales se observa un fuerte incremento en la cantidad de plazas disponibles para estudiar odontología en varios países del área, sin una clara planificación sanitaria o educativa que lo justifique. Este crecimiento no ha mostrado un impacto positivo en el acceso a atención odontol

  10. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than

  11. Postgrado en Enfermería en Chile Nursing Postgrade in Chile, it’s historical evolution and present situation: Su evolución histórica y situación actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Jofré-Aravena

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra la situación de los programas de postgrado en Enfermería en Chile en strictus sensus (magíster y doctorado, incluyendo, una panorámica general de los postgrados en el país. Se hace una revisión de los principales hechos que han motivado la creación de los postgrados en enfermería en el país y las dificultades que se presentan en los distintos niveles en la creación y desarrollo de estos programas. La evolución histórica de estos programas se asemeja al de los demás programas de postgrado de enfermería en América Latina.This article shows the situation of the nursing postgrade in Chile in strictus sensus (magíster and doctorate, including, a general panoramic of the graduate degrees in the country. A revision of the main facts that have motivated the creation of the graduate degrees in infirmary in the country and the difficulties that are presented in the different levels in the creation and development of these programs is made. This programs resembles the historical evolution of the other programs of graduate degree of nursing in Latin America.

  12. Southern Hemisphere circulation signals in connection with winter rainfall forecasting in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of detecting easterly propagating low frequency signals in the Southern Hemispheric circulation is explored in connection with the assessment of a possible seasonal rainfall forecast in central Chile. The analysis has focused on the seasonal variability associated with the biennial component of the Southern Oscillation (SO) and on the one resulting from superimposed intraseasonal oscillations, in relation with winter precipitation and individual rainfall events, respectively. Based on a previous work, relating wet winters to frequent blocks to the SW of South America during warm events of the SO, time-longitude cross sections of a 5-day average blocking index (BI) calculated from ECMWF 200 hPa daily hemispheric analyses for the period 1980-1987 are presented. A general eastward displacement of western and central Pacific positive BI areas seems to characterize the developing phase of warm SO events and vice versa, while intraseasonal variability patterns appear to be related to single rainstorms, either when the positive BI phase of the wave amplifies while crossing the western Pacific or when it reaches the far southeastern Pacific, frequently with a double block structure. It is concluded that the behaviour of both sources of variability is consistent with previously described teleconnection patterns for ENSO events in the southern winter, and that a primary prospect for winter precipitation and for the occurrence of relatively large individual rainstorms in central Chile could be obtained following the filtered BI and 500 hPa height anomalies in both time scales during the fall season. (author). 28 refs, 12 figs

  13. Utility to Consumers and Consumer Acceptance of Information on Beef Labels in Southern Chile Utilidad y Aceptación de Información en el Etiquetado de la Carne Bovina en Consumidores del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Credence attributes (production system, animal welfare, traceability, among others have acquired importance for meat products in developed countries, representing information that must be included on label. A personal survey was administered to 770 consumers in the Bío-Bío and La Araucanía Regions, Chile, to determine the utility of information contained on the label and acceptance of information referred to as credence attributes, as well as to distinguish different consumer segments. The packaging and expiry dates were the most useful aspects of the current information. The greatest degree of agreement with respect to information that should be included was a quality seal, type of animal, handling regarding animal welfare, production system and feeding. Using cluster analysis, three segments were distinguished. The largest (49.2% agreed most strongly with including information about feeding, transport conditions, slaughtering, traceability, and production system. The second group (34.4% was indifferent to information about transport, slaughter and traceability. The smallest segment (16.4% disagreed with including information on slaughtering. Therefore, the information currently present on meat labels was useful for consumers, who would also value having information on the credence attributes associated with cattle production, such as production system, feeding and animal welfare.Considerando la importancia que han adquirido los atributos de credibilidad (sistema de producción, bienestar animal, trazabilidad, entre otros en el consumo de carne de los países desarrollados, aspectos que deben ser informados mediante el etiquetado, se realizó una encuesta personal a 770 consumidores de las Regiones del Bío-Bío y La Araucanía de Chile, para determinar la utilidad de la información contenida en el etiquetado, la aceptación de información referida a atributos de credibilidad, y distinguir diferentes segmentos de consumidores. La fecha de

  14. Sinopsis de la justicia electoral en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Marshall Barberán

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En primer término, el artículo realiza un catastro de la legislación chilena que contiene alguna normativa electoral, para luego hacer una descripción general de la regulación y organización de los órganos de la justicia electoral de ese país. En segundo plano, el ensayo revisa las competencias resolutivas que se anidan en los órganos de la justicia electoral chilena.

  15. Densidades de carga utilizadas para el transporte de bovinos destinados a matadero en Chile Stocking densities used to transport cattle to slaughter in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gallo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las densidades de carga empleadas en el transporte de 413 cargas (camionadas de bovinos, que comprendieron un total de 12.931 animales, recibidos en dos plantas faenadoras en Chile durante el año 2002, una en la X Región y la otra en la Región Metropolitana. Para las cargas recibidas en la planta de la X Región, las densidades de carga registradas fluctuaron entre 106 y 693 kg/m² (promedio 457 ± 6,6 kg/m² y en la Región Metropolitana fluctuaron entre 268 y 632 kg/m² (promedio 453 ± 9,7 kg/m². En ambas regiones se observó una tendencia a que las densidades de carga usadas en los vehículos de mayor tamaño (camiones simples y con carro fueran mayores; la mayoría de las cargas animales eran transportadas en este tipo de vehículo. Las densidades de carga encontradas para los viajes más largos no difirieron de aquellas usadas para los viajes cortos en el caso de la Región Metropolitana; sin embargo, en el caso de las cargas recibidas en la X Región se observó que en general los animales transportados por distancias más largas viajaron a densidades de carga mayores. En general, 32,4% de las 413 cargas revisadas, que correspondieron a 35,6% de todos los bovinos, sobrepasaron el límite de densidad de carga permitido por la legislación vigente (500 kg/m². Considerando que la literatura indica que el ganado bovino transportado a muy altas densidades, particularmente sobre 500 kg/m², sufre mayor estrés y produce inferior calidad de carne, especialmente en términos de mayor incidencia de contusiones, y que, además, en Chile las canales con contusiones que afectan el tejido muscular sufren una degradación en cuanto a la categoría de tipificación, reduciendo su valor económico, se recomienda, tanto desde el punto de vista de bienestar animal como de calidad de carne, al menos respetar el límite máximo de densidad de carga establecido para el transporte de ganado bovino en ChileThe stocking densities employed in

  16. Rasgos de simplificación en el habla rural de dos localidades de Chile: descripción fonotáctica y discursiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Elizabeth Cid Uribe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El habla rural de Chile, variedad dialectal recurrente en alrededor del 14% de la población del país, según el último censo nacional, manifiesta rasgos particulares a nivel fonotáctico y discursivo que la caracterizan y la diferencian de otras variedades dialectales recurrentes en el país. Dentro de los aspectos fonotácticos se encuentran simplificaciones segméntales -elisiones, asimilaciones, sinalefas, sinéresis, sustituciones, entre otros- a las que se recurre con mayor o menor frecuencia; en el aspecto discursivo, la presencia y recurrencia de pausas llenas o vacías, las partidas falsas, las repeticiones, el alargamiento segmental se manifiestan en forma constante en esta variedad. En este artículo damos cuenta del comportamiento de los rasgos de simplificación en el habla rural de dos localidades de la Región Metropolitana desde el punto de vista de la manifestación fonotáctica de cada uno de estos rasgos en la elaboración de su discurso semiespontáneo.Chilean rural speech, variety spoken by nearly 14% of the population of the country according to the latest national census, shows specfñcphonotactic and discourse fea-tures which characterise and differentiate itfrom other dialectal varieties found in the country. Segmental simplfñcations like elisión, assimilation, gradation, compression, substitution,amongstothers,are tobe found as recurrentfeaturesat the phonotactic level; at the discourse level, phenomena like pauses -filled or empty-, false starts, repetitions, segmental lengthening are recurrent in this variety. In this article we give an account of the behaviour of such fea tures as they are manifested -phonotactically and discoursally- in two rural communities of the Metropolitan Región at the moment of producing semi spontaneous speech.

  17. Manejo de la neumonía comunitaria del adulto en el Servicio de Salud Viña del Mar-Quillota. Abril - Septiembre de 2003 Management of community-acquired pneumonia by general practitioners in Viña del Mar and Quillota Health Service, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Pavié G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC constituye una causa frecuente de consulta ambulatoria y hospitalización en la población adulta. Objetivos: describir el manejo de la NAC del adulto en el Servicio de Salud de Viña del Mar y Quillota durante la Campaña de Invierno de 2003. Resultados: Entre Abril y Septiembre, se atendieron 3.701 consultas por neumonía comunitaria del adulto, 73% en los servicios de urgencia y 27% en los consultorios de atención primaria. El 14% de los episodios de NAC requirieron hospitalización en el área de Viña del Mar y 21% en el área de Quillota. Se examinó una cohorte prospectiva de 229 adultos inmunocompetentes con NAC (± DE = 56 ± 21 años de edad de bajo riesgo y manejo ambulatorio según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias, quienes fueron atendidos en los hospitales de Quillota, Viña del Mar y Limache durante el período de otoño-invierno. El 40% de los episodios correspondieron a NAC tipo I y 60% a NAC tipo II. Los pacientes con NAC tipo I fueron manejados con Claritromicina (67,4% o Amoxicilina (32,6% y los pacientes con NAC tipo II fueron manejados con Amoxicilina-Acido clavulánico (74,5% o Levofloxacina (24,8% durante 10 días. El 98,7% de los casos evolucionaron favorablemente sin requerir hospitalización, y sólo tres pacientes fueron admitidos al hospital debido a fracaso del tratamiento ambulatorio. Los tres pacientes fallecieron debido a la infección pulmonar y/o descompensación de una comorbilidad (1,3%. Conclusión: La mayoría de los enfermos con NAC, sin criterios de gravedad, pueden ser manejados en el medio ambulatorio con bajos índices de hospitalización, riesgo de complicaciones y muerteCommunity-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a potentially serious infection that results in numerous general practitioner visits and hospital admissions each year. Objective: to evaluate the clinical management of CAP by general practitioners in the emergency

  18. Semiosis of Humor in Oral Texts. Instances from a Coastal Area in Regions 8 and 9 of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras Oyarzún, Constantino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes a set of short texts from the oral tradition collected in a peripheral area of Chile inhabited by Spanish-speaking people who live in contact with the Mapuche-speaking community. In general, it is a study of the internal relations of signs (co-text and of their connection with the socio-cultural environment (context. In particular, the author focuses the analysis on the linguistic resources employed for the expression of humor.

    Este artículo comprende el análisis de un conjunto de textos breves de tradición oral recogidos en una zona lateral de habla castellana y de contacto con el mapuche o araucano de Chile. En lo general, aborda el estudio de las relaciones internas de los signos (co-texto y sus vínculos con el entorno sociocultural (contexto. En lo particular, el análisis se detiene en los recursos lingüsticos utilizados para la expresión del humor.

  19. Aspectos epidemiológicos de las mordeduras caninas Epidemiological aspects of dog bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palacio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Las mordeduras de animales a personas suponen un importante problema de salud pública. Dentro de éstas, las más frecuentes son las producidas por perros. Un primer paso necesario en la prevención de este tipo de accidentes es conocer los factores de riesgo implicados. El presente trabajo revisa la bibliografía más relevante en cuanto a la incidencia, los factores de riesgo y la prevención de las mordeduras de perros en personas. Así, según las características de las víctimas, se revisan determinados aspectos, como la edad, el sexo, la localización y la gravedad de las lesiones. En relación con los perros agresores, se describen las razas implicadas y el historial previo del animal. Igualmente, se describen los contextos en que se producen las mordeduras, en relación con la fecha, el número de perros, los lugares más frecuentes, la relación e interacción víctima-perro y la participación de las distintas categorías de agresividad del etograma canino. En el último apartado se recogen las recomendaciones más habituales halladas en la bibliografía para prevenir y reducir la incidencia de mordeduras sobre la población general.Animal bites in humans are an important public health problem. Most of these bites are dog bites. The first step in preventing this kind of accident is to identify the associated risk factors. The present article reviews the most important published articles on the incidence of dog bites, their risk factors, and preventive measures. Concerning victim profiles, features such as age, sex, location, and the severity of the wounds are reviewed. Regarding dogs, the most frequent breeds involved and the dog's previous history of aggression are described. In addition, the different contexts in which bites occur are reported. Thus, factors such as dates, number of dogs, places, victim-dog relationship and interaction, and the distinct involved categories of aggression of the canine ethogram are reviewed. The most

  20. 77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA Joint Commission... State. ACTION: Notice of the next meeting of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Environmental Affairs... States Trade Representative (``USTR'') are providing notice that the United States and Chile intend...

  1. 75 FR 5034 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile... are advising the public that we have received a request from the government of the Republic of Chile... the Republic of Chile. After reviewing the documentation submitted in support of this request,...

  2. El estudio de la segregación residencial en Santiago de Chile: revisión crítica de algunos problemas metodológicos y conceptuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-Tagle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un cuestionamiento a influyentes trabajos, se pretende introducir perspectivas alternativas en variados aspectos del estudio de la segregación residencial en Chile, desde esquemas metodológicos a interpretaciones conceptuales. La discusión critica cuatro aspectos de dichos estudios: i su método de estratificación, que define grupos sociales por medio de categorías altamente variables en el tiempo; ii su medida de la segregación, que no considera áreas suburbanas ni tampoco soluciona el problema de la escala; iii su conexión con problemas sociales, que presenta ciertos sesgos de reificación del espacio; y iv sus propuestas de política pública, que plantean líneas de acción fundadas en premisas discutibles. Dada la considerable influencia de estos estudios en la discusión de políticas públicas pro mixtura social, consideramos importante establecer nexos con la especificidad de nuestros contextos sociales, históricos y culturales, elaborando una racionalidad crítica que se extienda más allá de un excesivo empirismo.

  3. El distrés psicológico y abuso de drogas en pacientes en centros de tratamiento del gran Valparaíso - Chile: implicaciones para las políticas y los programas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Basso Musso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de comorbilidad entre distrés psicológico y abuso/dependencia de drogas en pacientes en centros de tratamiento. Este estudio epidemiológico, multicéntrico, de corte transversal, realizado en 107 pacientes mayor es de 18 años, en tratamiento por abuso/dependencia de drogas, en centros de tratamiento de Valparaíso, Chile, mostró además otros factores involucrados como: aspectos sociodemográficos, funcionalidad familiar, características del consumo de drogas y aspectos de la atención otorgada. Para recolección de datos se usó el EULAC (Instrumento para diagnostico rápido de situación de tratamiento para problemas por consumo de drogas en el ámbito local el K 10 y Apgar familiar. Resultados: 48.6% presentaron distrés psicológico; 88.8% refirieron satisfacción por el tratamiento actual. 66.4% pertenece a una familia normo funcional. Los resultados obtenidos permitirán mejorar las intervenciones en pacientes que están en tratamiento y rehabilitación en los centros de tratamiento.

  4. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with:

  5. A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Male and female adults of a new species of Eupithecia Curtis from the Arica Province, Chile are described and illustrated. The species is compared with E. yubitzae Vargas & Parra, 2004, from the same locality, and E. galapagosata Landry & Rindge 1995, from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

  6. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United... Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written submissions. December 13, 2010: Transmittal of...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  7. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, 63 FR 66529 (December 2, 1998); Notice of Amendment of Final... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999); Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms... foreseeable time. See Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations, 75 FR...

  8. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  9. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 50818) and determined on January 4, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR... COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  10. Ontological disorders: nightmares, psychotropic drugs and evil spirits in southern Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Bonelli

    2013-01-01

    This article explores several equivocations in the relationship between state healthcare workers and the Pehuenche population in southern Chile. In particular, it focuses on radical differences in understanding the body, personhood, sleeping and dreaming. In Alto Bío Bío, Chile, while healthcare wor

  11. Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matear, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in…

  12. Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matear, Ann

    2007-01-01

    The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

  13. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  14. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  15. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... February 1, 2010 (75 FR 5034-5035, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0082), in which we announced the availability, for... Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we are recognizing an additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area...

  16. Distonias: aspectos terapêuticos Dystonias: therapeutic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Papaterra Limongi

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversas abordagens terapêuticas são utilizadas em pacientes com distonias. Sempre que possível, causas específicas devem ser identificadas e tratadas. As modalidades de tratamento sintomático podem ser agrupadas em três categorias: tratamento farmacológico, cirúrgico e injeções locais de toxina botulínica. Cada uma dessas modalidades apresenta algumas vantagens e limitações. Formas generalizadas, particularmente as de ocorrência na infância, podem se beneficiar com drogas anticolinérgicas ou, em alguns casos, com a levodopa ou outros agentes tais como antagonistas da dopamina, baclofeno e benzodiazepínicos. As formas focais não respondem adequadamente ao tratamento farmacológico sistêmico mas beneficiam-se significativamente com injeções de toxina botulínica nos grupos musculares acometidos. Cerca de 90% dos pacientes com blefarospasmo e 70% daqueles com distonia cervical apresentam resposta satisfatória a esse tipo de terapia. O tratamento cirúrgico tem sido utilizado em algumas formas de distonias generalizadas (lesões estereotáxicas, axiais (rizotomias ou focais (miectomias e neurectomias com resultados variáveis.Several approaches have been employed for the treatment of dystonias. Possible specific causes should be searched for and specific treatment should be instituted. Different types of symptomatic treatment are grouped according to the following categories: pharmacological systemic therapy, surgical therapy and botulinum toxin injections in the affected muscles. Each of these approaches has its advantages and limitations. Generalized dystonias should be treated with anticholinergic agents. In some cases, levodopa or other drugs such as dopamine antagonists, baclofen and benzodiazepines should be preferred. Focal dystonias respond dramatically to local injections of botulinum toxin. Over 90% of patients with blepharospasm and 70% of patients with cervical dystonia present a satisfactory response to this

  17. Latitudinal variations (18°-23°S) in denudation rates of western Andean Syntaxis, Chile, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Jessica; Ehlers, Todd A.; Schaller, Mirjam

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Cosmogenic nuclides, denudation rates, channel steepness, Chi, syntax, North Chile, South Peru Syntaxial regions of orogens (e.g. the western and eastern Himalayan Syntaxes, St. Elias Mountains Alaska) are regions where curved segments of subducting plates meet and the subducting plate is bent forms a rigid indentor. Previous studies of syntaxial regions in the Himalaya and Alaska document localized and rapid deformation and denudation due to vigorous fluvial or glacial erosional processes. In this study we investigate denudation around an arid end-member syntaxial orogen in South America to understand the interactions between climate and tectonic processes in localizing denudation. We present 35 new cosmogenic 10Be analyses of river sediments to quantify spatial variations in erosion along the Andean Coastal Cordillera and Western Cordillera. The sizes of the drainage basin vary from 5 - 5000 square kilometers. These measurements are linked to analysis of digital topography, variations in fluvial steepness indices and Chi- plots. Cosmogenic derived denudation rates range from 2.5 - 130 mm/kyr. Denudation rates decrease generally from the syntaxis (near Arica, Chile) towards the south (near Antofagasta, Chile) and from the Western Cordillera to the Coastal Cordillera. Topographic analysis of channel steepness variations and Chi-plots also document spatial variations in fluvial erosion and are consistent with spatial pattern in cosmogenic derived denudation rates. In summary the results document both a north to south and east to west variation in denudation around the western Andean margin. The spatial pattern of denudation is consistent with recently proposed patterns of syntaxial deformation driven by the geometry of the bent subducting plate. Denudation rates are also likely influenced to a lesser degree by a latitudinal variation in climate along the Andean margin.

  18. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera en cánidos y caprinos en Chile New records of Phthiraptera in domestic mammals in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita para las especies domésticas Canis familiaris los Phthiraptera Linognathus setosus (von Olfers 1816 y Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein 1909, y para Capra hircus a Linognathus africanus Kellogg & Paine (Kellog and Paine 1911 provenientes de la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región. Se discute la descripción de Heterodoxus longitarsus (Piaget 1880 hecha anteriormente en Chile y también la presencia de L. africanus en Chile.The presence of the Phthiraptera species Linognathus setosus (von Olfers 1816 and‘Heterodoxus spiniger (Enderlein 1909 on the domestic dog Canis familiaris, and Linognathus africanus (Kellog and Paine 1911 on Capra hircus are described in the province of Ñuble, 8th Region of Chile. The description of Heterodoxus longitarsus (Paiget 1880, and the presence of L. africanus in Chile is discussed.

  19. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M Baeza; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; M Negritto

    2008-01-01

    Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A ...

  20. MITOS, PREJUICIOS Y DISCRIMINACION: LA SUPREMACÍA DE LO BIOLOGICO. Estado de la Adopción en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Böttger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se abordarán algunos aspecto s de la adopción de menores, un tema que podría catalogarse como delicado y complejo, por su s implicancias personales, familiares, legales, sociales y éticas, y porque aún hasta hoy es un tem a tabú, que encierra mitos, inquietudes, dudas y temores. Incluye la historia de la adopción y el es tado en que se encuentra hoy en Chile. Se dará énfasis principalmente a los mitos y prejuicios más comunes que existen respecto a esta temática, a algunas cualidades psicosociales y procesos particu lares de los hijos adoptivos y a la construcción de identidad de familia adoptiva y su validación so cial como tal. El objetivo, en definitiva, será abrir el diálogo e n torno a la adopción y especialmente al rol que estamos llamados a desempeñar los psicólogos al res pecto, en tanto entes educadores, líderes de cambios sociales, respetuosos hacia la diversidad. Y desde aquí, buscar las herramientas que requerimos para desarrollar esta tarea. Tal vez deb amos abocarnos al desarrollo de una nueva especialidad: “Psicología de la adopción”. Por lo p ronto, creo pertinente incluir y/o enfatizar la temática de adopción en los currículums de pregrado de nuestra carrera.

  1. Regiones-commodities: Crisis y contagio en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Daher

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis de un nuevo dualismo entre una capital subglobal y sus "regiones-commodities" subyace en el estudio del impacto diferencial de las tres últimas crisis internacionales en las regiones de Chile, cuantificado a través de cuatro indicadores: el producto, el empleo, la inversión externa y las exportaciones, cuya variación permite verificar la disímil vulnerabilidad de cada región y su desigual exposición al riesgo de contagio de crisis. Fundamentado en un marco conceptual que sostiene que las crisis siguen siendo más regionales que globales, y que existe una verdadera geografía del contagio, el estudio muestra evidencia empírica que permite constatar: 1 la reproducción de un desbalance norte-sur al interior de Chile; 2 la doble paradoja de Santiago, cuya economía es la más diversificada y la más vulnerable, la más recesiva y la de mayor crecimiento; 3 la emergencia de Antofagasta como segunda economía regional de Chile, desplazando a Valparaíso y Concepción; 4 el paralelismo de Santiago y Antofagasta como regiones con el mayor producto, la mayor inversión extranjera y mayores exportaciones; y 5 la "mercosurización" de Santiago, capital subglobal, y la globalización de sus "regiones-commodities".The hypothesis of a new dualism between a sub-global capital city and its "commodities regions" underlies the study of the differential impact of the three last international crises on the regions of Chile. This impact is quantified through four indicators: product, employment, foreign investment and exports, and their variability allow the verification of the dissimilar vulnerability of each region and its dissimilar exposure to the risk of crisis contamination. The study is based on a conceptual frame that states that crisis continue to be more regional-like than global, and that there is a real geography of contamination. On the other hand, this study shows empirical evidence which makes it possible to verify: 1 the

  2. Valoración de Aspectos Cualitativos del Cuidado de Enfermería en Pacientes Hospitalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Consuelo Torres Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: Se presenta la valoración de aspectos cualitativos del cuidado de enfermería desde la percepción de los pacientes hospitalizados en una Institución prestadora de salud, de IV nivel. Objetivo: Describir aspectos cualitativos importantes del cuidado de enfermería a través de un análisis comparativo de los comentarios realizados por pacientes hospitalizados. Materiales y Métodos: El presente es un estudio descriptivo que reporta aspectos cualitativos manifestados por los pacientes ...

  3. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  4. General Dentist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is a General Dentist? Article Chapters What Is a General Dentist? General ... Reviewed: January 2012 ?xml:namespace> Related Articles: General Dentists FAGD and MAGD: What Do These Awards Mean? ...

  5. Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida) una especie silvestre promisoria de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín Acebedo, José; Doll, Ursula

    1998-01-01

    Se organiza y sintetiza la información relacionada con la botánica, ecología y el contenido químico de extraíbles de hojas, corteza y madera de Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae, Magnoliopsida), árbol siempreverde, autóctono, endémico y termófilo de los bosques y matorrales esclerófilos naturales del área mediterránea de Chile. La popularidad y conocimiento de la especie tiene arraigo en la medicina popular empírica, dado el efecto farmacológico atribuible fundamentalmente, al alcaloide boldina, pre...

  6. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  7. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  8. Lejos de NYC: El hip-hop en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Quitzow

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se abordan las manifestaciones concretas de una forma cultural urbana exportada desde Occidente a los países en desarrollo. A través de una reconstrucción de la historia de la cultura hip hop en Chile, se han intendado esbozar algunas conclusiones sobre su influencia en la formación de una identidad cultural urbana, tratando además de relacionar el desarrollo histórico del movimiento y de las prácticas actuales de la juventud en Santiago con tendencias más amplias en la socie...

  9. Economic Residential Segregation and Educational Achievements: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Román, Miguel Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Using a database from Chile, we have tested empirically the effects of economic residential segregation on educational achievements. Our hypothesis is based on literature’s findings about segregation’s negative impact on individuals’ well being. We found that segregation has negative impacts. This result would have interesting policy implications and goes in the opposite directions of those investigations’ findings, which indicate that segregation has just negligible effects. Keywords...

  10. Health system reform in chile and colombia: results and balance

    OpenAIRE

    Granados Toraño, Ramón; Gómez Montoya, María C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the health system reforms, factors inherent to the health sector as well as external factors that gave origin to them must be considered. The policy of the World Bank acted as a determining factor and was taken into practice in the middle of processes that increased the inequalities in Latin America. The models of Chile and Colombia are examined from this background and some of the lessons that can be drawn from these experiences for other countries are pointed out.

  11. FÍSICA: SU TRAYECTORIA EN CHILE (1800-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO GUTIÉRREZ GALLARDO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la Física en Chile desde los comienzos de la República hasta 1960, poniendo énfasis en el desarrollo interno de la disciplina, la evolución de su concepción y la transmisión de su saber. El trabajo enfrenta el mito de la inexistente tradición científica en Chile, mostrando que en el caso de la Física ha habido un largo y sostenido desarrollo. En este desarrollo de la Física se distinguen cuatro etapas: (1 como capítulo de la Filosofía Escolástica; (2 como ciencia útil o indistinguible de la ingeniería; (3 como ciencia cultural y centro de una concepción científica del mundo; y (4 como disciplina con problemas propios, donde la investigación deviene parte central de su desarrollo. Para el historiador de la ciencia la novedad es que su desarrollo sigue una lógica donde los parámetros locales tienen una influencia muy significativa en comparación con aquellos determinados por el desarrollo mundial de la disciplinaThis paper presents the development of Physics in Chile from the beginnings of the Republic until the year 1960, emphasizing the internal development of the discipline, the evolution of its conception and the transmission of its body of knowledge. This work faces the myth of the non-existent scientific tradition in Chile by showing in the case of Physics a long and sustained development. In this development we distinguish four stages of Physics: (1 As a chapter of Scholastic Philosophy; (2 As a discipline closely related to engineering and real-life problems; (3 As cultural science and base of a scientific view of the world; (4 As a discipline with its own problems, where research becomes a central part of its development. For the science historian the novelty is that this development follows a logic where the local parameters have strong influence as compared to those determined by the universal development of the discipline

  12. The Intertemporal Approach to the Current Account: Evidence for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Salas Landeau

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the existence of "excess" current-account imbalances in Chile in the 1960-1999 period. This phenomenon is modelled using present value tests that allow for variable interest rates and exchange rate fluctuations. Despite its simplicity, most of the observed imbalances in the current account are accounted for by the model. Results suggest that using models where agents behave as forward-looking rational agents, is a valid framework. Moreover, the analysis highlights the rel-evance of variable interest rates and exchange rates. Results also imply that capital controls, that were widely used in the period under study, were not effective.

  13. Status of Implementation of the Code of Conduct in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to present the status of implementation in Chile of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (hereinafter referred to as the Code) and its supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (hereinafter referred to as the Guidance). It is presented as a contribution to the International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Maintaining the Continuous Global Con-trol of Sources throughout their Life Cycle, to be held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, from 27 to 31 October 2013. (author)

  14. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  15. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

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    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  16. LA ACCIÓN CONSTITUCIONAL DE PROTECCIÓN EN CHILE Y LA ACCIÓN CONSTITUCIONAL DE AMPARO EN MÉXICO The Constitutional Action of Protection in Chile and the Constitutional Action of Amparo in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Nogueira Alcalá

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo constituye un análisis de derecho procesal constitucional comparado de las acciones constitucionales de amparo en México y de la acción constitucional de protección en Chile, constatando las similitudes y diferencias existentes entre ambas instituciones de los dos países latinoamericanos, como asimismo, la necesidad de regular por ley la acción constitucional de protección, como es la regla general en el derecho comparado.This article is an analysis of comparative procedural constitutional law of the mexican constitutional "amparo" action, and the Chilean constitutional protection action, noting the similarities and differences existing between these institutions in both Latin-American countries, and the necessity of the regulation by law of the constitutional protection action, as is the general rule in comparative law.

  17. Aspectos ultra-estruturais da forma epimastigota do Trypanosoma cruzi em meio LIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available E feito um estudo da ultra-estrutura da forma epismastigota do Trypanosoma cruzi mantida em meio de cultivo acelular. O núcleo das formas em divisão apresenta um aspecto homogêneo. Microtúbulos intranucleares são observados durante a divisão. No entanto, a membrana nuclear permanece íntegra. O citoplasma apresenta-se com vacúolos de dimensões e aspectos variados. Com o método do ácido periódico-tiosemicarbazida-proteinato de prata, polissacaríáeos e/ou glicoproteínas foram localizados na membrana celular e na membrana que delimita certos vacúolos citoplasmáticos.

  18. ASPECTOS NORTEADORES NA ORIENTAÇÃO DE MONOGRAFIA A DISTÂNCIA

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    monica seixas mello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar os aspectos norteadores na orientação de monografia na modalidade a distância a partir de relato de experiência em curso de pó-graduação Lato Sensu em Gestão Pública., constatando-se que na orientação a distância em ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem as interações entre professor e aluno observam os seguintes aspectos: pedagógico, gerencial, social e técnico Palavras-chaves: educação, distância, orientação, monografia, pos-graduação.

  19. Aspectos Psicológicos y Emocionales durante la gestación y el puerperio

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre Miras, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Decidí tratar el tema de los aspectos psicológicos y emocionales durante la gestación y el puerperio porque durante mi rotación por la Unidad de Hospitalización de Obstetricia del HURH realicé una valoración basada en la observación, mediante la que percibí que la forma en que las mujeres experimentaban la maternidad, no era siempre positiva y no recibían una atención especial, puesto que la prioridad de actuación está referida a los aspectos físicos. Para llevar a cabo mi TFG realicé una ...

  20. Aspectos da tomografia computadorizada craniana na neurocisticercose na infância

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    Marilisa M. Guerreiro

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam aspectos tomográficos da neurocisticercose na infância a propósito da análise de 27 exames em 18 pacientes, que foram distribuídos em três grupos segundo o quadru clínico e os achados tomográficos. O grupo 1 foi caracterizado basicamente por epilepsias e calcificações. O grupo 2 caracterizou-se por hipertensão intracraniana e diversos aspectos tomográficos: edema, cistos e nódulos em três pacientes; hidrocefalia e calcificações em dois pacientes e normal em um paciente. O grupo 3 consistiu clinicamente de epilepsia e cefaléia, com vários padrões tomográficos. Os resultados são discutidos à luz da literatura disponível.

  1. Free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile Invertebrados bentónicos marinos de vida libre en Chile

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    MATTHEW R LEE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the species richness of all the possible taxa of free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile. In addition, the extent of endemism to the Pacific Islands and deep-sea, the number of non-indigenous species, and the contribution that the Chilean benthic marine invertebrate fauna makes to the world benthic marine invertebrate fauna was examined. A total of 4,553 species were found. The most speciose taxa were the Crustacea, Mollusca and Polychaeta. Species richness data was not available for a number of taxa, despite evidence that these taxa are present in the Chilean benthos. The Chilean marine invertebrate benthic fauna constitutes 2.47 % of the world marine invertebrate benthic fauna. There are 599 species endemic to the Pacific Islands and 205 in the deep-sea. There are 25 invasive or non-indigenous species so far identified in Chile. Though the Chilean fauna is speciose there is still a considerable amount of diversity yet to be described, particularly amongst the small bodied invertebrates and from the less well explored habitats, such as the deep-seaSe realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura para determinar la riqueza de especies de todos los taxa de invertebrados bentónicos de vida libre en Chile. Además, se analizó el endemismo de invertebrados marinos bentónicos para las islas chilenas del Pacífico y el mar profundo y el número de especies no indígenas; del mismo modo que la contribución de estos invertebrados a la riqueza mundial de invertebrados bentónicos marinos. Para Chile se acumuló un total de 4.553 especies de invertebrados bentónicos. Los taxa con más especies fueron Crustacea, Mollusca y Polychaeta. En algunos taxa de invertebrados no se encontró información sobre la diversidad de especies presentes en Chile, a pesar de existir evidencia de que éstos están presentes en el bentos marino chileno. Los invertebrados bentónicos marinos

  2. Tratamiento de residuales anaeróbico. Aspectos constructivos y de diseño

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    Yaniris Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los aspectos constructivos y de diseño a tener en cuenta para la puesta en marcha de un reactor anaerobio. Para ello existen dos métodos, uno empírico y otro que se basa en criterios cinéticos. Los dos se describen en el trabajo, en conjunción con las ecuaciones necesarias a aplicar para cada caso.

  3. Tratamiento de residuales anaeróbico. Aspectos constructivos y de diseño

    OpenAIRE

    Yaniris Lorenzo; Lixis Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Se analizan los aspectos constructivos y de diseño a tener en cuenta para la puesta en marcha de un reactor anaerobio. Para ello existen dos métodos, uno empírico y otro que se basa en criterios cinéticos. Los dos se describen en el trabajo, en conjunción con las ecuaciones necesarias a aplicar para cada caso.

  4. Atracción del picudo del chile a compuestos volátiles de sus hospederos.

    OpenAIRE

    Múñiz Merino, Manolo

    2014-01-01

    El picudo del chile (Anthonomus eugenii Cano), principal plaga del chile (Capsicum spp.) en América, responde a los aromas de sus plantas hospederas, por lo que estos podrían ser de utilidad como fuentes de atrayentes. En la presente investigación se analizaron los compuestos volátiles de las yemas florales y frutos de cinco hospederos de A. eugenii: chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L.), pimiento morrón (C. annuum), chile manzano (C. pubescens Ruiz y Pav), chile chiltepe (C. frutescens L) y hi...

  5. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

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    Sergio Letelier V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  6. EL ÑAME (DIOSCOREA SPP.. CARACTERÍSTICAS, USOS Y VALOR MEDICINAL. ASPECTOS DE IMPORTANCIA EN EL DESARROLLO DE SU CULTIVO

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    María E. González Vega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha alcanzado un incremento considerable en el cultivo del ñame; se observa que ocupa una nueva dimensión en la cadena alimentaria y está presente en el desarrollo de la agricultura familiar. En el presente trabajo se hace una amplia revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de dar a conocer las potencialidades de este cultivo, así como recopilar información que pueda resultar de interés a especialistas que se inicien en el cultivo, y a productores motivados en el mismo. Dentro de los aspectos relacionados con el cultivo del ñame (Dioscorea spp., se destacan sus características generales, aspectos etnobotánicos, distribución geográfica, usos más frecuentes, propagación; así como la importancia socioeconómica para países en vías de desarrollo, tanto desde el punto de vista alimentario como medicinal e industrial.

  7. Diversos aspectos atinentes a la esclavitud en Buenos Aires derivados del análisis de las fuentes notariales, 1821-1830

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    Miguel A. Rosal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo constituye un avance de la investigación sobre el negro porteño a partir de la segunda década post-revolucionaria, a través de la consulta de los distintos registros de los Protocolos Notariales, conservados en el Archivo General de la Nación. En síntesis, el artículo pretende ilustrar aspectos que quizá no hayan merecido la necesaria atención por parte de los investigadores de la problemática afroporteña durante el período independiente; nos referimos al análisis del fenómeno de la manumisión, preciada o graciosa, de la libertad futura condicional, de la figura del negro propietario de bienes inmuebles y de esclavos, como así también de los testamentos de las personas "de color". Parece útil, entonces, intentar estos estudios que nos podrán iluminar sobre aspectos poco o nada conocidos de los morenos y pardos de Buenos Aires durante el siglo XIX.

  8. Aspectos valorizados por porfissionais de enfermagem na higiene pessoal e na higiene corporal do paciente

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    Elóide André Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Survey descritivo, com o qual se objetivou identificar que aspectos da higiene corporal são valorizados pelos componentes da equipe de enfermagem, na higiene corporal pessoal e na higiene corporal do paciente. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em oito instituições públicas de saúde e a amostra foi composta por 126 profissionais de enfermagem, correspondendo a 12,8% do total de 986 componentes das equipes de enfermagem destas instituições. Na higiene corporal pessoal, chamou a atenção o fato de que os cuidados com as unhas e com os cabelos tenham suplantado, no número de citações dos profissionais de enfermagem, aspectos básicos como o cuidado com as mãos. Na higiene corporal do paciente, o banho foi o aspecto considerado mais importante pelas três categorias profissionais; a higiene oral, pelas(os enfermeiras(os e auxiliares de enfermagem; e as unhas, pelas(os enfermeiras(os e técnicas(os de enfermagem.

  9. Chile2015: Lévy Flight and Long-Range Correlation Analysis of Earthquake Magnitudes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccar-Varela, Maria P.; Gonzalez-Huizar, Hector; Mariani, Maria C.; Serpa, Laura F.; Tweneboah, Osei K.

    2016-06-01

    The stochastic Truncated Lévy Flight model and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) are used to investigate the temporal distribution of earthquake magnitudes in Chile. We show that Lévy Flight is appropriated for modeling the time series of the magnitudes of the earthquakes. Furthermore, DFA shows that these events present memory effects, suggesting that the magnitude of impeding earthquakes depends on the magnitude of previous earthquakes. Based on this dependency, we use a non-linear regression to estimate the magnitude of the 2015, M8.3 Illapel earthquake based on the magnitudes of the previous events.

  10. Chile y la globalización: una dependencia potencialmente peligrosa Chile and globalization: a potentially dangerous dependence

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    Fernando Duque

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo tiene varios propósitos. Primero, discutir el concepto de globalización en sus diferentes acepciones, particularmente, la económica, la política y la cultural. En segundo lugar, intenta tratar de describir y demostrar el enorme grado de dependencia que Chile tiene del actual proceso globalizador. En tercer término, se trata de señalar que la actual globalización, es un proceso similar al que ha ocurrido en otras épocas de la historia. Especialmente se comenta en detalle el análisis del profesor Ferguson quien compara la actual globalización con la que ocurrió a fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX. Se concluye que el actual proceso de globalización es tan volátil, inestable y peligroso como fue la globalización decimonónica. Se concluye también indicando que es altamente probable que el actual proceso globalizador, termine en forma similar a como terminó la globalización 1870-1914. Finalmente se argumenta que debido a que Chile está geográficamente ubicado en la parte más austral del hemisferio sur, es probable que el país salga relativamente intacto de la conflagración que se avecina.This article begins by discussing the different meanings of globalization, especially the economic, political and social ones. It then describes how Chile is greatly dependent on the current globalization process, as well as points out that this process is similar to others that have taken place in other times in history. It discusses in detail professor Ferguson's analysis comparing the current globalization with the one that occurred at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The article concludes that the current process is as volatile, unstable and dangerous as that of the 19th century, and that it is highly probable that it will end as that of 1870-1914. It also argues that since Chile is on the southernmost part of the southern hemisphere, it will be relatively preserved from the oncoming conflagration.

  11. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

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    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  12. Aspectos epidemiológicos da peste no Brasil

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    João de Barros Barreto

    1946-09-01

    levantados em 8 cidades e que, na maioria delas, parecem mais elevados na época das chuvas. A X. cheopis é a pulga que predomina no Brasil na região tropical, decrescendo a sua frequência com o aumento de latitude, ao inverso do que sucede com a X. brasiliensis que, em S. Paulo, cidade de clima temperado, é a espécie preponderante. Chuvas e temperatura parecem afetar diferentemente as duas espécies. Estudam, finalmente, a influência dos elementos climáticos sôbre a peste humana, mostrando que, no Brasil, a influência no período 1941-45 foi maior na época da primavera e do verão austrais; e que, em 4 distritos, para os quais há normais climatológicas disponiveis, a doença ocorreu mais intensamente em períodos posteriores aos de maior precipitação, e em que a temperatura média mensal variou entre 19] e 26º e a humildade relativa entre 66 e 83%.The A. A. show that the available data on the incidence of human plague in Brazil over a long period are not soundly comparable, since only in the recent years it was possible to secure accurate information on the real incidence of the disease. Tabulating in three-year periods the 2610 cases occurred from 1934 to 1945, it may be observed the contrast between the first quarter which includes 47% of the whole incidence, and the remaining periods. A general decrease coincides with the activities of the Federal Government, that in 1936 started a systematic anti-plague program, intensified some years later, with the development of the S. N. P., legally established in 1941. The disease is now limited to the so-called "Brazilian north-east". The state of Pernambuco is the major focus where, since 1934 occured 40 to 50% of the total cases. Studying the cases recorded during the 1941-1945 period, on which better information is available, the A. A. show that out of the 1610 confirmed cases, more than 50% were persons older than 50, 60% were colored people and 51% were male individuals. Excepted 9 cases of pneumonic and 13

  13. EL ACTO DE NOMBRARSE MISTRAL EN POEMA DE CHILE

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    Magda Sepúlveda Eriz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La viajera espectral de Poema de Chile reflexiona sobre la adopción del nombre Mistral. Los fundamentos de esta elección van desde retornar a una intimidad anterior, la escena primigenia del campo, hasta el rechazo a la sociedad urbana. Este acto moderno de autonominarse constituye una atribución consciente frente al menoscabo y a los insultos recibidos en una posición representativa anterior. En vista de lo cual, la fantasma reclama los lugares, las palabras, los bienes y exige la recomposición de los cuerpos despedazados por el discurso blanco y etnocéntrico.The travelling spectrum of Poema de Chile reflects on the adoption of the name Mistral. The causes of this choice gofrom coming back to a previous intimacy -the original scene of the country- to the rejection of the urban society. The name she gives herself is a conscious act and therefore, a modern one, which is used as a response to the damage she received when she was in a previous situation. As a result, the ghost calls for the places, the language and the goods that were stolen, and she demands to recover the bodies that were torn by the white and ethnocentric discourse.

  14. Desarrollo metropolitano integrado: El caso de Santiago de Chile

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    Paulina Schiappacasse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Área Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo existen debilidades importantes en el establecimiento de mecanismos adecuados que permitan definir su orientación estratégica en un marco global competitivo; esta situación se intensifica en la medida que las áreas metropolitanas en Chile, no poseen una institucionalidad definida y un marco legal que las sustente. El AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. En este artículo se analiza la situación del AMS, en el marco de la discusión internacional, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. La intención es contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, aquellas orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que están experimentando las ciudades.

  15. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravena, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Suzuki, O. [Exploracion y Desarrollo de Recursos Hidricos, Santiago (Chile); Pena, H. [Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago (Chile); Pollastri, A. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, H. [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Grilli, A. [Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-06-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with {delta}{sup 18}O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to {delta}{sup 18}O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The {sup 18}O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the {sup 18}O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Chile. Actores Populares en la Protesta Nacional, 1983-1984

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    Marisa REVILLA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los acontecimientos y los actores implicados en las movilizaciones producidas en Santiago de Chile en 1983-84, son el objeto de andlisis de este artículo. Tras una breve exposición del contexto económico y político, se describen los rasgos fundamentales y la evolución de las protestas. Del análisis de los hechos se deducen tres objetivos implícitos en las movilizaciones: recuperación de la identidad política y social, integración polltica de los excluidos y democracia. Los resultados son dispares; mientras en el plano político se produce una derrota, en lo referente a la expresividad de las acciones y al problema de la integración, las movilizaciones fueron exitosas.ABSTRACT: ThLs article focuses on the events and actors involved in the mobilizations tha took place in Santiago de Chile between 1983-1984. After a short exposition of the political and economic context, it describes the main characteristics and the protest's evolution. Three implicit objetives can be identified from the demostrations: the recovering of social and political identity, the political integration of the excluded people and democracy. The results are inequal; while on the political level a defeat ocurs, with regard to the expressiveness of the actions and the integration's problem, the mobilizations were successful.

  17. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  18. Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

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    J. A. Díaz-Ochoa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper we analyze 10–166 year old sediments in two cores collected in Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for preservation of proxies. Based on a 166 year chronology we used indicators of bottom water oxygenation proxies (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane+n-C35/n-C31 ratio and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon and chlorins to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. We find that at decadal scales, and during the last two centuries, a shift in the coastal marine ecosystem off Northern Chile took place which was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity and large fluctuations in biological export productivity, in bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolic activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al. On top of this short-term variability, a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions has occurred being even more intensified since the early 1960s.

  19. FERROCARRILES EN LA ZONA AUSTRAL DE CHILE, 1869-1973

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    Mateo Martinic B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se entrega una visión completa acerca de los ferrocarriles construidos y explotados en la región austral de Chile y se ofrece asimismo una explicación sobre su modesta expresión hist��rica, cosa notable en un territorio como la Patagonia chilena en cuya colonización y desarrollo ulterior fue importante la utilización de la tecnología industrial moderna. Se dan a conocer también algunas interesantes iniciativas ferrocarrileras que no llegaron a materializarseIn spite of the important development in Chilean Patagonia between circa 1870 an 1973, particulary in the old Magellan Territory, an almost surprising fact was that in between many incorporated industrial technology the railroad, a paradigm of modernity, had a scarce representation. In this paper, a complete review about railroads settled and exploted in southernmost Chile is done and a explanation of its modest expression and some interesting projects that necer became materialized which explains the emptiness in the historical information on the subject

  20. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile. PMID:26530201