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Sample records for chile 5000-3000 ap

  1. La diferenciación geográfica de la población humana arcaica de la costa norte de Chile (5000-3000 AP) a partir del análisis estadístico de rasgos métricos y no métricos del cráneo The spatial structure of the archaic human population of the north coast of Chile (5000-3000 BP) deduced by the statistical analysis of skull metric and not metric traits

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ A. COCILOVO; HÉCTOR H. VARELA; SILVIA QUEVEDO; VIVIAN STANDEN; MARÍA A. COSTA-JUNQUEIRA

    2004-01-01

    La determinación de la unidad o diversidad de los grupos humanos arcaicos constituye un paso importante para comprender el poblamiento antiguo de la costa norte de Chile e inferir los factores microevolutivos que operaron en el pasado. En el presente trabajo se evalúan las diferencias morfológicas entre distintas muestras del Período Arcaico Tardío de la costa de Arica y Norte Semiárido. Para ello, se empleó la información derivada del relevamiento de rasgos métricos (177 individuos no deform...

  2. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  3. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  4. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  5. AP1000 status overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP1000 is a two-loop, 1000 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications to enhance the construction, operation, and maintenance. The AP1000 design is derived directly from the AP600, a two-loop, 600 MWe PWR. The AP600 uses proven technology, which builds on the over 30 years of operating PWR experience. The AP600 design received Final Design Approval from the U.S. NRC in September 1998 and Design Certification in December 1999. The AP600 meets all of the U.S. electric utility requirements including their cost goals. Although the AP600 is the most cost-effective plant ready for deployment, it is still more expensive than the $1000/kw needed to compete in the United States today In order to develop a cost competitive nuclear power plant Westinghouse has completed design studies which demonstrate that it is feasible to increase the power output of the AP600 to at least 1000 MWe, maintaining its current design configuration, use of proven components and licensing basis. In order to achieve these objectives the AP1000 has been designed within the space constraints of the AP600, while retaining the credibility of proven components and substantial safety margins. This paper describes the changes made to up-rate the AP600 and gives an overview of the plant design. It also summarizes the basis for the AP600 testing program and computer codes being sufficient for the AP1000. (authors)

  6. Evidence of magma-water interaction during the 13,800 years BP explosive cycle of the Licán Ignimbrite, Villarrica volcano (southern Chile Evidencias de interacción magma-agua durante el ciclo eruptivo explosivo de la Ignimbrita Licán (13.800 años AP, volcán Villarrica (sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lohmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Villarrica is an active stratovolcano located in the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone. About 13,800 years BP (conventional radiocarbon ages, this volcano experienced major explosive eruptions which resulted in the emission of a sequence of pyroclastic flows, known as the 'Licán Ignimbrite', the bulk volume of which is estimated in -10 km³ (non-DRE, Dense Rock Equivalent. The deposits mainly consist of massive pyroclastic flows and stratified pyroclastic surges. Typical flow fades showscoriaceous bombs, dense juvenile blocks, lithics and scoria lapilli immersed in a dark-grey to brownish matrix, whereas surges expose lapilli-sized scoria in a fine, light-brown or yellow-green matrix. Juvenile clasts range from 55 to 58 wt% Si0(2 in composition. This paper describes the general architecture of the Licán Ignimbrite deposits and, based on SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope observations and lithologic data, emphasizes the role of fragmentation due to magma-water interaction during the eruption. The results indicate that gas expansion was an important process. However, field characteristics, surface textures of ashes, enrichment of lithics towards the top of the sequence and variable palagonitization of matrix glass show the intervention of water since the initial stages of the eruption and its increasing influence during the later phasesEl Villarrica es un estratovolcán activo, situado en la Zona Volcánica de los Andes del Sur. Hace aproximadamente 13.800 años AP (edades 14C no calibradas, este volcán sufrió un evento explosivo importante que dio lugar a la emisión de una secuencia de flujos piroclásticos, conocida como la 'Ignimbrita Licán', cuyo volumen ha sido estimado en -10 km³ (no-ERD, Equivalente de Roca Densa. Los depósitos consisten, principalmente, en flujos piroclásticos macizos y oleadas piroclásticas estratificadas. Las facies típicas que resultan de los flujos presentan bombas escoriáceas, bloques juveniles densos

  7. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Héctor Hugo; Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2005-01-01

    La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a ...

  8. The AP1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the AP1000 reactor began 20 years ago when Westinghouse launched the AP600 reactor project. In fact by re-assessing AP600's safety margins Westinghouse realized that the its power output could be raised without putting at risk its safety standard. The AP1000 was born, it yields 1100 MWe. The main AP1000's design features is its passive safety (particularly after the Fukushima accident) and its modularity. The passive safety of the AP1000 implies: -) no humane intervention needed for 72 hours at least after the incident; -) no necessity for redundant complex safety systems. The modularity means that the plant, the reactor and other buildings are constructed from a choice of 300 modular units. These units can be built off-site and fit together on site. The modularity allows more construction activities to be led simultaneously and more chances to cope with the construction schedule. The NRC has approved the operation license for 30 years of the first AP1000 being built in the Usa (Vogtle plant in Georgia). 4 AP1000 are being built in China (Sanmen and Haiyang sites) and 6 others are planned in the Usa. Westinghouse is convinced that the AP1000's passive safety makes it more attractive. Let us not forget that Westinghouse was at the origin of the concept of pressurized water reactors, an idea adopted for half the nuclear power stations in the world and for all the plants now active in France. (A.C.)

  9. Fundacion Chile Incubator : Chile Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Foundation Chile was created in 1976 as a nonprofit governed jointly by the Chilean government and a large American conglomerate. It proactively introduces technology innovations and develops companies in target industries including agribusiness, marine resources, forestry, environment and chemical metrology, human capital, and information and communication technologies. Among its successe...

  10. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  11. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  12. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  13. APS Science 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from

  14. APS Science 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge

  15. APS Science 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report

  16. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  17. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gentina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first commercial operation in the world exclusively via bioleaching copper sulfides. Nowadays, all bioleaching operations run in the country contribute to an estimated 10% of total copper production. This article presents antecedents that have contributed to the development of copper bioleaching in Chile.

  18. Infrastructure Concessions in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Hinojosa, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    To increase investment in infrastructure, in the early 1990s Chiles government introduced private capital into the transport infrastructure sector, covering roads and highways, bridges, tunnels, and airports. The chosen mechanism: a concession scheme through which private firms would finance and build a given project and then operate the infrastructure for a set of number of years, recover...

  19. The Geology of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Calafat, A.; Gimeno, D.; Liesa, M.; Proenza, J.; Sàbat, F.; Sáez, Alberto; Santanach, Pere

    2008-01-01

    6 páginas.-- Book review of "The Geology of Chile", by Teresa Moreno and Wes Gibbons (eds.) (2007). Geological Society. London (United Kingdom). 414 pages, 286 figures including maps, charts and pictures; 27, 5 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-1- 86239-219-9 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-86239-220-5 (softback).

  20. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  1. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  2. Waste management in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main radioactive waste management issues to be faced by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) are discussed herein. Research reactor spent fuel management is the most outstanding challenge at the beginning of the 21st century. Interim storage appears to be the most promising alternative, allowing fuel safekeeping until a definitive step is taken. The situation regarding radioactive waste resulting from radioisotope applications in Chile will not undergo considerable change in the near future. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste management is being safely performed followed by interim storage of conditioned wastes. The strategy in the radioactive waste management plan, to be described as well, is meant to ensure the safe storage of radioactive wastes produced in Chile. (author)

  3. APS Science 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  4. APS Science 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience

  5. Learning about Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and links from the National Institutes of Health. Learning About Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) What is antiphospholipid syndrome ( ... with APS include : Systemic Vascular Thrombosis While the deep veins of the legs are the most frequent ...

  6. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  7. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  8. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  9. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  10. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  11. CGM ApS Årsberetning til DANAK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    Denne årsberetning omfatter CGM ApS' akkrediterede virksomhed i kalenderåret 2003. Årsberetningen er udarbejdet til DANAK (Dansk Akkreditering, ErhvervsfremmeStyrelsen), som led i opfyldelsen af laboratoriets informationspligt i henhold til gældende regler.......Denne årsberetning omfatter CGM ApS' akkrediterede virksomhed i kalenderåret 2003. Årsberetningen er udarbejdet til DANAK (Dansk Akkreditering, ErhvervsfremmeStyrelsen), som led i opfyldelsen af laboratoriets informationspligt i henhold til gældende regler....

  12. Westinghouse AP1000 containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse AP1000 Program is aimed at making available a nuclear power plant that is economical in the U.S deregulated electrical power industry in the near-term. The AP1000 is two-loop 1000 MWe pressurizer water reactor (PWR). It is an up rated version of the AP600. The AP1000 uses passive safety systems to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on 50 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 received Final Design Approval by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in September 2004. The AP1000 is provided with a high integrity containment using a substantial steel pressure vessel. The steel surface is used to remove decay heat during design basis accidents. One of the other advantages of the AP1000 containment design over evolutionary PWRs, is improved containment isolation. This has been accomplished by reducing the number of penetrations by ∼50% and improving the isolation valves. As a result, the AP1000 will have fewer difficulties during containment leak testing. The AP1000 containment design meets the Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document (URD) requirements and has been reviewed and approved by the NRC, as was the AP600 containment design. Furthermore, the containment design has also been recognized as meeting the EUR containment requirements by the European utilities. This paper reviews the AP1000 containment vessel design, construction, post accident behavior, and severe accident performance. In addition, the radiation release models, assumptions and both short and long-term performance are also discussed. (authors)

  13. AP physics B crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    AP Physics B Crash Course - Get a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. Our AP Physics B Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know The Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Physics B course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: mechanics, kinetic theory, t

  14. Center for Geometrisk Metrologi, CGM ApS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    Denne årsberetning omfatter CGM ApS' akkrediterede virksomhed i kalenderåret 2002. Årsberetningen er udarbejdet til DANAK (Dansk Akkreditering, Erhvervsfremme Styrelsen), som led i opfyldelsen af laboratoriets informationspligt i henhold til gældende regler (Teknisk Forskrift Nr. TF4 af 2000...

  15. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  16. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  17. AP1000. The PWR revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distinguishing features of Westinghouse's AP1000 advanced passive pressurized water reactor are highlighted. In particular, the AP1000's passive safety features are described as well as their implications for simplifying the design, construction, and operation of this design compared to currently operating plants, and significantly increasing safety margins over current plants as well. The AP1000 design specifically incorporates the knowledge acquired from the substantial accumulation of power reactor operating experience and benefits from the application of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the design process itself. The AP1000 design has been certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission under its new rules for licensing new nuclear plants, 10 CFR Part 52, and is the subject of six combined Construction and Operating License applications now being developed. Currently the AP1000 design is being assessed against the EUR Rev C requirements for new nuclear power plants in Europe. (author)

  18. AP600 Shield building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to minimize capital costs and save time in the global construction time schedule for the AP600 Nuclear Power Plant, planned in 36 months from excavation up to the fuel charging, ANSALDO has developed an innovative Shield Building Conical Roof design having the following basic characteristics: i) can be erected approximately in less than two months; ii) allows the functionality of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCSS) located in the PCCS tank and in the Valve Room anchored directly to the conical roof itself; iii) satisfies the structural loads design as Safe Shutdown Earthquake, or the Aircraft Crash and both integrated with the sloshing analysis for the tank located at the top of the conical roof. The most important aspects of this new roof are: a) use of prefabricated precast panels; b) address the erection of the formworks using temporary structures having the capability of becoming final elements; c) develop a modular rebars sizing and design in order to perform the most important portion of the job in the workshop; d) second pouring construction sequence assuring full integration with the formwork function; e) modular construction of the PCSS tank at the top of the conical roof. An interesting evaluation has been also performed in calculating sloshing phenomenon in the PCSS tank by comparing detailed 3D Finite Element Model approach and simplified qualified formulas dedicated to this phenomenon. (author). 2 figs

  19. Final report for tank 241-AP-101, grab samples 1AP-95-1, 1AP-95-2, 1AP-95-3, 1AP-95-4, 1AP-95-5, and 1AP-95-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six supernate grab samples (1AP-95-1 through 6) and one field blank (1AP-95-7) were taken from tank 241-AP-101, on Nov. 10 and 13, 1995. Analyses were performed in support of the Safety Screening and the Waste Compatibility Safety programs. All analytical results were within the action limits stated in the TSAP

  20. Final report for tank 241-AP-101, grab samples 1AP-95-1, 1AP-95-2, 1AP-95-3, 1AP-95-4, 1AP-95-5, and 1AP-95-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-03-04

    Six supernate grab samples (1AP-95-1 through 6) and one field blank (1AP-95-7) were taken from tank 241-AP-101, on Nov. 10 and 13, 1995. Analyses were performed in support of the Safety Screening and the Waste Compatibility Safety programs. All analytical results were within the action limits stated in the TSAP.

  1. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  2. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    HECTOR ALCAINO; TEXIA GORMAN

    1999-01-01

    PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  3. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  4. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  5. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ALCAINO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  6. Westinghouse AP 1000 program status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 1000 is presented and features are discussed in the paper. Design maturity is characterized by 1300 man-year / $400 million design and testing effort, more than 12 000 design documents completed; 3D computer model developed. It includes structures, equipment, small / large pipe, cable trays, ducts etc. Licensing Maturity is determined by a very thorough and complete NRC review of AP600; 110 man-year effort (NRC) over 6 years, $30 million; independent, confirmatory plant analysis; independent, confirmatory plant testing (ROSA, OSU); over 7400 questions answered, no open items; over 380 meeting with NRC, 43 meetings with ACRS. NRC Design Certification is issued in December 1999. Reasons for developing AP 1000 and design changes are presented. Economic analysis shows an expectation for payback within 20 years. AP1000 provides 75% power uprate for 15% increment in capital cost. AP1000 meets new plant economic targets in the near term

  7. Meet the APS Journal Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Editors of the APS journals invite you to join them for conversation. The Editors will be available to answer questions, hear your ideas, and discuss any comments about the journals. All are welcome. Light refreshments will be served.

  8. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  9. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  10. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Chile's equity market is fairly large and successful. The market capitalization of the 249 listed firms represented 89 percent of GDP at year-end, 2001. Corporate ownership is concentrated and pyramid structures are common. Business groups/conglomerates are the predominant corporate form. Institutional investors, especially pension funds, are active equity investors. The Securities Market ...

  11. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De social...

  12. Pirt/scaling assessment for AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP1000 is an up-rated version of the AP600 passive plant design that recently received final design certification from the US NRC. Like AP600, the AP1000 is a two-loop, pressurized water reactor featuring passive core cooling and passive containment safety systems. As the AP1000 design is essentially a scaled-up version of the AP600, it is expected that the AP600 Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) and much of the AP600 test database should be applicable in applying for design certification for the AP1000. In an effort to confirm this for pursuit of a license, the PIRTs and test facility scaling are re-assessed in view of AP1000. (author)

  13. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  14. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  15. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using 60Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity

  16. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  17. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  18. The AP-2 family of transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Dawid; Buhl, Sandra; Weber, Susanne; Jäger, Richard; Schorle, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The AP-2 family of transcription factors consists of five different proteins in humans and mice: AP-2α, AP-2β, AP-2γ, AP-2δ and AP-2ε. Frogs and fish have known orthologs of some but not all of these proteins, and homologs of the family are also found in protochordates, insects and nematodes. The proteins have a characteristic helix-span-helix motif at the carboxyl terminus, which, together with a central basic region, mediates dimerization and DNA binding. The amino terminus contains the tra...

  19. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Amado M. Padilla; Lillian Comas Díaz

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychologic...

  20. Conservación de la biodiversidad en Chile: Nuevos desafíos y oportunidades en ecosistemas terrestres y marinos costeros Biodiversity conservation in Chile: New challenges and opportunities in terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    CARMEN JORQUERA-JARAMILLO; Alonso Vega, J. M.; JAIME ABURTO; KARINA MARTÍNEZ-TILLERÍA; MARIO F. LEON; Pérez, Miguel A.; CARLOS F. GAYMER; Francisco A. Squeo

    2012-01-01

    La pérdida de la biodiversidad producida por el crecimiento demográfico, la demanda por recursos y la actividad productiva es contradictoria con el reconocimiento de su importancia. En ecosistemas terrestres, el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas del Estado (SNASPE) contiene cerca del 19 % del territorio de Chile continental; aunque no representa todos los ecosistemas con especies amenazadas, puede ser complementado implementando nuevas áreas protegidas públicas (AP) y privadas (APP). El de...

  1. Doppler Imaging of Ap Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kuschnig, R.

    1998-01-01

    Doppler imaging, a technique which inverts spectral line profile variations of an Ap star into a two-dimensional abundance maps, provides new observational constraints on diffusion mechanism in the presence of a global magnetic field. A programme is presented here with the aim to obtain abundance distributions of at least five elements on each star, in order to study how different diffusion processes act under influence of a stellar magnetic field. The importance of this multi-element approac...

  2. The APS control system network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the open-quotes Standard Model.close quotes The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions

  3. Preparing Students for the AP Psychology Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Placement Psychology exam is one of the fastest growing exams offered by the College Board. The average percent of change in the number of students taking this exam over the past five years is 12.4%. With 238,962 students taking the exam in 2013, the AP Psychology exam is the sixth largest exam, surpassing AP Biology and AP World…

  4. An AP Calculus Classroom Amusement Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the school year, AP Calculus teachers strive to teach course content comprehensively and swiftly in an effort to finish all required material before the AP Calculus exam. As early May approaches and the AP Calculus test looms, students and teachers nervously complete lessons, assignments, and assessments to ensure student preparation.…

  5. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  6. Chile : Household Risk Management and Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This report is part of the World Bank's advisory and analytical assistance to the Government of Chile. The report examines whether Chile has a social protection "system" - broadly defined to include policy interventions, public institutions, and the regulation of private institutions that lower the welfare costs of adverse shocks to income from job loss and extended unemployment, health ep...

  7. Earthquake engineering research program in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoni, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquake engineering research in Chile has been carried out for more than 30 years. Systematic research is done at the university of Chile in Santiago. Other universities such as the Catholic University, university of Concepcion, and the Federico Santa Maria Technical University have begun to teach and conduct research in earthquake engineering in recent years. 

  8. Testing of Solar Heated Domestic Hot Water System for Solahart Scandinavia ApS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1997-01-01

    The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report.......The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report....

  9. Sistema de salud de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  10. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  11. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  12. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  13. Chile's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, a new emphasis has been placed on increasing solid fuel availability in Chile, to reach the northern mining operations where demand for power is soaring. The south of the country is well served by hydroelectric power plants (2.3 million kW). The coal industry has doubled its capacity to cope with increased copper production - the Tocopilla power plant at the Chuquicamata copper mine has been converted from oil to coal - and there has been a major investment programme in the steel industry. In 1986, 1.4 million tons of coal was mined, mostly from the Provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the remainder from Valdivia. Since then, 70 million US dollars has been invested by COCAR SA in the Pecket deposit near Punta Arenas. Coal from Pecket should cost around 26 dollars/t compared with 60 dollars/t for underground coal. It should support an expanded coal market in Chile and may also be able to compete in the Brazilian and Argentine markets. Reserves are estimated at over 200 Mt. Petroleum reserves in Tierra del Fuego are nearly exhausted; seismic surveys in the Atacama desert are promising.

  14. APS high heat load monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  15. APS high heat load monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach

  16. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  17. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document

  18. APS: Lighting up the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) involves the construction and supporting research and development for a national user facility for synchrotron radiation research in the x-ray region. The facility, when operational in 1997, will provide super-intense x-ray beams for many areas of basic research and will serve the entire US x-ray research community of several thousand users. This paper describes the pertinent features of the design, construction and planned operation of the facility; and the impact quality has had in these areas. In addition, the introduction of several quality management techniques such as total quality management, reliability/availability planning, and user interface are discussed concerning their status and success

  19. On AP-property of Function Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Rong-xin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,it is discussed the AP-property of function spaces.We prove that for any compact network α for a space X which is closed under finite unions,(1) if Cα(X) is an AP-space and X is paracompact,then X is a Hurewicz space; (2) if Cα (X) is an AP-space which has countable tightness,then Cα(X) is discretely generated.

  20. AP calculus AB & BC crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Rosebush, J

    2012-01-01

    AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our

  1. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  2. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  3. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  4. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  5. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  6. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Donoso Scroppo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to d...

  7. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  8. Chile ushers in new hydro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned construction of two hydroelectric power plants at Peuchen and Mampil, will help to meet Chile's growing electricity demand. Securing finance for the project has been straight forward thanks to the optimal hydrological conditions, rivers with a very strong flow providing a large head of water over short distance. Hydropower plays a central role in Chile's generating capacity providing 70% of total energy consumption. Thus, the future of these projects will be highly successful, it is argued. (UK)

  9. Desigualdad geográfica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Brown, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measu...

  10. Trade and Integration Sector Note: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Mesquita Moreira

    2006-01-01

    This Trade and Integration Sector Note addresses a few different factors for trade in Chile: export diversification, trade and regional disparities, preferential agreements, trade and transport costs. The final section looks beyond the conventional tariff and non tariff-barriers to trade, and focuses on the role of transport costs. Given Chile's low tariff and non-tariff barriers and its network of trade agreements, the reduction of non-conventional trade costs are bound to offer the best ret...

  11. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION TESTING OF TANKS 241-AN-102 & 241-AP-107 & 241-AP-108 IN SUPPORT OF ULTRASONIC TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2008-11-20

    This report presents the results of the corrosion rates that were measured using electrochemical methods for tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102), 241-AP-107 (AP 107), and 241-AP-108 (AP-108) performed under test plant RPP-PLAN-38215. The steel used as materials of construction for AN and AP tank farms was A537 Class 1. Test coupons of A537 Class 1 carbon steel were used for corrosion testing in the AN-107, AP-107, and AP-108 tank waste. Supernate will be tested from AN-102, AP-107, and Ap-108. Saltcake testing was performed on AP-108 only.

  12. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  13. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's…

  14. The status of APS, BESSRC, and NEET.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Dunford, R. W.; Esbensen, H.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Rutt, U.; Southworth, S. H.

    1999-03-10

    We present a brief summary of the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and of the facilities at two of the APS sectors operated by the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (BESSRC). This is followed by a report on recent measurements at BESSRC on the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET).

  15. The status of APS, BESSRC, and NEET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a brief summary of the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and of the facilities at two of the APS sectors operated by the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (BESSRC). This is followed by a report on recent measurements at BESSRC on the phenomenon of Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition (NEET)

  16. AP Courses Get Audited for Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    As the college admissions process has gotten much more competitive, the number of high school students taking Advanced Placement (AP) courses has soared. At the same time, policymakers and education leaders seek to get more minorities and students not on the college track to sign up for AP and other rigorous classes. But as high schools have…

  17. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - WILDLAND FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project is aimed at consolidating, selecting, and disseminating the most appropriate data and methods for estimating air emissions from wildfires and prescribed burns. The product will replace a current section of AP-42, but may not take the precise form of an AP-42 secti...

  18. APS undulator radiation: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first undulator radiation has been extracted from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The results from the characterization of this radiation are very satisfactory. With the undulator set at a gap of 15.8 mm (K=1.61), harmonics as high as the 17th were observed using a crystal spectrometer. The angular distribution of the third-harmonic radiation was measured, and the source was imaged using a zone plate to determine the particle beam emittance. The horizontal beam emittance was found to be 6.9 ± 1.0 nm-rad, and the vertical emittance coupling was found to be less than 3%. The absolute spectral flux was measured over a wide range of photon energies, and it agrees remarkably well with the theoretical calculations based on the measured undulator magnetic field profile and the measured beam emittance. These results indicate that both the emittance of the electron beam and the undulator magnetic field quality exceed the original specifications

  19. The use of thioglycolate to distinguish between 3' AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) endonucleases and AP lyases.

    OpenAIRE

    Bricteux-Grégoire, S; Verly, W G

    1989-01-01

    Addition of thioglycolate and DEAE-Sephadex chromatography were used to analyze the cleavage of the C(3')-O-P bond 3' to AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites in DNA and to distinguish between a mechanism of hydrolysis (which would allow the nicking enzyme to be called 3' AP endonuclease) or beta-elimination (so that the nicking enzyme should be called AP lyase). For this purpose, DNA labelled in the AP sites was first cleaved by rat-liver AP endonuclease, then with the 3' nicking catalyst in the ...

  20. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子

    1988-01-01

    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  1. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  2. Isotope hydrology in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotope analyses were done on samples from aquifers in the Pampa del Tamarugal and the Salar de Atacama drainage basin in northern Chile. In the Pampa it is possible to delineate individual groundwater bodies on the basis of their 18O and deuterium contents and, in some cases, to relate these to specific recharge areas. A marked displacement from the meteoric water line indicates that river recharge is an important mechanism for groundwater renewal. Groundwater ages appear high at distance from the Andes and much of the water found in the Pampa may have to be treated as a non-renewable resource. The groundwaters, springs and rivers of the Salar de Atacama drainage basin vary between -6.09 and -8.06%. No difference between the different waters can be recognized and an evaporative isotope enrichment indicates that also here river recharge is an important process. Some groundwaters adjacent to the Salar are very salty but 18O and deuterium data show that these waters are not refluxed brines but simply salty freshwater. The 14C contents in groundwaters and springs are very low but their delta13C values are high. It is concluded that this is probably due to the uptake of volcanic CO2. 14C age dating is thus not possible unless the delta13C values of all possible carbon sources can be defined and the geochemical evolution of the groundwaters is better understood. (author)

  3. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  4. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  5. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-08-12

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded.

  6. AP English language & composition crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Hogue, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    AP English Language & Composition Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP English Language & Composition Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP English Language & Composition course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valua

  7. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples, 7AP-99-1, 7AP-99-3 and 7AP-99-4 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107) grab samples taken in May 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-107 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999. Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. Interim data were provided earlier to River Protection Project (RPP) personnel, however, the data presented here represent the official results. No notification limits were exceeded

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  9. Income Inequality in Chile: 1990-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Hourton

    2012-01-01

    The entrance of Chile to the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, as the first South American country and second after Mexico in Latin America, sets a landmark in the development path that since the beginning of the 1990s decade has seemed to lead this country to a privileged position in the region. Given the reforms taken by the military regime in the 1980s, Chile is one of the most market-oriented countries in Latin America, with Free Trade Agreements and Economical Pa...

  10. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  11. Hallazgo de Ehrlichia canis en Chile, informe preliminar Ehrlichia canis in Chile; preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LÓPEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso de Ehrlichiosis canina detectado en Chile, causado por la rickettsia Ehrlichia canis y transmitida por el vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. El diagnóstico clínico fue confirmado en Alemania por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFATThe first case of canine ehrlichiosis detected in Chile is described. It is caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis and carried by the vektor Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in Germany using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFA

  12. Museos de Santiago de Chile. Directorio

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Andrea; Funes, Catherine; Heredia, Constanza; Herrera, Daniela; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Directory of the museums in Santiago of Chile categorized by subject, such as Art, Archaeology, Historic house, Science and technology, Natural science and Natural history, Specialized, Ethnography and Anthropology, History, Site museum and Other. It comprehends basic information about name, creation date, collections, services, contact info, social network accounts, website and entrance fee of the museums.

  13. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...

  14. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  15. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  16. A Decade of Environment Management in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthenberg, Ina-Marlene

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents an evaluation of the Environmental Institutions Development Project in Chile, selected by Bank management to be part of an intensive learning process in final project evaluation, given its contributing factor to the Bank's knowledge base on environmental institutional development projects. The first part of the publication focuses on the project as catalyst for cu...

  17. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  18. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  19. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed

  20. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-12-22

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed.

  1. AP1000's advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AP1000 is a passive Advanced Light Water Reactor designed by Westinghouse Electric Company to comply with the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Utility Requirements Document (URD). AP600, the predecessor to AP1000, received Design Certification by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in 1999. The AP1000 received its Final Design Approval in the Fall of 2004 and Design Certification is expected in the fall of 2005. During both of these licensing efforts a control room and Human Machine Interface (HMI) design process was submitted and approved. Realizing that Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and HMI technology changes rapidly, Westinghouse chose to delay the detailed design of the control room and operator interfaces. This allows the latest technology to be used when a plant is actually going to be built. That time has now come. This paper describes the preliminary designs of the AP1000 main control room (MCR) and HMI planned for use in new plants both in the United States and abroad. The paper also addresses how the certified design process is being conducted to complete the detailed HMI designs. (authors)

  2. Building an AP Social Studies Program with Non-Traditional AP Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Amanda; Blanchette, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Equal access to education, that is to a high quality education, has increasingly come to mean access to an Advanced Placement program. In recent years, there has been steady attention paid to opening access to AP programs. The 9th annual College Board report (2013) stated "students who succeed on an AP Exam during high school typically…

  3. A note on weighted Ap(G)-modules

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTOP, Serap

    2011-01-01

    Let G be a locally compact abelian group and w be a weight function on G. In this paper, we show that the space Ap,w(G) is a Banach module over the Figà-Talamanca Herz algebra Ap(G) and study the multiplier space from Ap(G) to Ap,w(G).

  4. Slotted Aloha with multi-AP diversity and APS transmit beamforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Di

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Slotted Aloha is an effective random access protocol and can also be an important element of more advanced media access protocols. This paper investigates slotted Aloha in a radio environment with multiple access points. Specifically, we examine the impact of multi-access-point (multi-AP diversity on the performance of slotted Aloha. The paper considers both omni-directional (OM and beamforming (BF antennas at transmission nodes. This leads to the investigation and comparison of four different network scenarios, i.e., OM with multi-AP diversity, OM without multi-AP diversity, BF with multi-AP diversity and BF without multi-AP diversity. Performance evaluations and comparisons are presented in terms of throughput and average packet delay.

  5. AP1000, a nuclear central of advanced design; AP1000, una central nuclear de diseno avanzado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, N.; Viais J, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: nhm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The AP1000 is a design of a nuclear reactor of pressurized water (PWR) of 1000 M We with characteristic of safety in a passive way; besides presenting simplifications in the systems of the plant, the construction, the maintenance and the safety, the AP1000 is a design that uses technology endorsed by those but of 30 years of operational experience of the PWR reactors. The program AP1000 of Westinghouse is focused to the implementation of the plant to provide improvements in the economy of the same one and it is a design that is derived directly of the AP600 designs. On September 13, 2004 the US-NRC (for their initials in United States- Nuclear Regulatory Commission) approved the final design of the AP1000, now Westinghouse and the US-NRC are working on the whole in a complete program for the certification. (Author)

  6. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  7. Plyler Prize and APS Fellow Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Physics is delighted to announce the 2013 APS Fellows sponsored by DCP and to honor the 2014 Earl K. Plyler Prize Award winner. The new APS Fellows are: Ilan Benjamin, Hua Guo, Manos Mavrikakis, Josef Paldus, Joern Siepmann, Hans-Peter Steinrueck, Douglas Tobias, Angela Wilson, and Yijing Yan. The citations for each awardee will be read out loud. I will also introduce Prof. Lai-Sheng Wang of the Department of Chemistry at Brown University, who was awarded the 2014 Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Please come learn about these extraordinary scientists during this prize session. Prof. Wang's Plyler Prize talk will follow immediately after this introduction. For more information, see http://www.aps.org/units/dcp/.

  8. AP600 - an ALWR conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute is spearheading an effort to develop utility requirements for the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) plants which will become the next generation nuclear power plants for the U.S. This EPRI ALWR Program involves utilities, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and various industry suppliers. The ALWR Program is aimed at ALWR plants which incorporate step improvements in safety, reliability, operability and power generation costs. As part of the ALWR efforts, a Westinghouse team is conducting conceptual design development of a PWR plant design called the AP600, reflecting advanced passive safety features and the chosen 600 MWe plant output. The AP600 conceptual design provides significant improvements while employing proven component technology. This paper describes the basic reactor and primary coolant system features, the passive safety system features, and plant arrangement/construction features of AP600

  9. Mechanical equipment classification research of AP1000 nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the design features of AP1000, the AP1000 classification definition and seismic classification is described and analyzed. The characteristics of AP1000 mechanical equipment classification list is concluded for safety, seismic and manufacture classification. Through comparing the AP1000 classification and M310 classification, the questions perhaps met are found during the mechanical equipment classification of AP1000 nuclear power plants design and construction in China at future. Finally solution plans are given aiming at the above questions. (authors)

  10. An analysis of AP600 design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyoon; Jang, Moon Heui; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    In the aspect of engineering, passive safety system concept has improved the safety degree of nuclear power plant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to check on the possibility of the capacity upgrade of nuclear power plant in the case of adopting the passive safety system concept of AP 600. The characteristics of AP 600 are the advanced functions in ECCS, heat removal of containment building and residual heat removal under the passive safety system concept. The result of this study will become the basic data of capacity upgrade of nuclear power plant and will be widely used in second year project. (Author).

  11. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  12. 2000 Johnston Site 3A-P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 3A-P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 3, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  13. 2000 Johnston Site 2A-P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 2A-P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on June 30, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  14. 2000 Johnston Site 1A-P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 1A-P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on June 29, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  15. 2006 Johnston Site 1A-P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 1A-P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on June 29, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  16. The Demographic Wave: Rethinking Hispanic AP Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Las Vegas, NV in July 2013. This presentation reviews new research examining the AP® experience of Hispanic graduates over the past decade. Topics include an in-depth look at the AP Spanish Language and Culture gateway hypothesis and trends in family characteristics such as parent…

  17. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  18. Conditioning of radium sources in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process experimented in Chile to conditioning Ra-226 sources arising as waste from medical uses in Chile is described. The IAEA offered to participate in the Project for Conditioning Radium Sources in order to place all the radium sources in the country under an internationally accepted standard. These sources hare those that have been used in medical applications for many years. The CCHEN made its own modifications to the project's execution by using its own infrastructure and scientific and technical skill in this field. For this purpose, the CCHEN uses the human resources and facilities of the Radioactive Waste Management Unit (UGDR) and acquires materials that are commercially available in the country. IAEA assistance focused on quality assurance, so they supply all expensive items which the UGDR, cannot access, plus they certify the quality of the conditioned products. This assistance is achieved through the approval of procedures and methodologies based on those that are recommended

  19. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Donoso Scroppo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to describe in general terms the main aspects of Operation Access and the National Hemostasis and Thrombosis Program, the results of which will be described in a subsequent article of this series.

  20. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi3O8) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi3O8) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1Gy-10kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain-single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 deg.. C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika

  1. Evolution of Housing Prices in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Parrado H. /; Paulo Cox P.; Marcelo Fuenzalida C.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of real estate data is clearly limited in Chile, which makes more complex the discussion of the possible vulnerabilities of households and the financial sector to risks arising from real estate markets. This paper proposes a set of housing price indicators for measuring the potential pressures that could be developing in the credit market. Using these price measures, we find that the recent sustained rise in home prices coincides with the sustained increase in disposable inco...

  2. Unmarried cohabitation among deprived families in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm Santelices, Alejandra Margarita

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that unmarried cohabitation is increasing in Chile. It is less clear what unmarried cohabitation is and why is it rising. In Latin America cohabitation is common among low income groups, and has been described as a surrogate marriage for the disadvantaged. Cohabitation in the region entails conventional gender roles and having children. It has been explained by colonial dominance, poverty, kinship, and machismo. The evidence amassed here indicates that although in practice cohabit...

  3. Movilidad intrageneracional del ingreso en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio, Sapelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the different intra-generational mobility indicators for Chile on the basis of the Casen panel. Conclusions from the literature are evaluated in light of results that are based mainly on a discussion of the transition matrix. It is concluded that there is a mistaken interpretation of the data in part of the literature. A simulation is made that demonstrates that the Chilean transition matrix could be the consequence of random shocks to the effective distribution of income...

  4. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 an...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum annuum Capsicum_annuum_L.png Capsicum_annuum_NL.png Capsicum_annuum_S.png Capsicum..._annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum...+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  6. Structural Volatility in Chile: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Caballero

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies Chile's economic weaknesses and offers policy recommendations for increasing stability. Current problems include weak international financial links, a Central Bank mandate that is ill-designed to deal with terms of trade shocks, a propensity to waste scarce liquidity in the banking system; and limited development of financial markets. The paper's policy recommendations include improving external financial links, molding terms of trade contingencies into anti-cyclical pol...

  7. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  8. Tank 241-AP-106, grab samples, 6AP-96-1 through 6AP-96-3 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-11

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. This document presents the analytical results for three samples (6AP-96-1, 6AP-96-2 and 6AP-96-3) taken from riser 1 @ 150{degrees} of tank 241-AP-1 06 on September 12, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1996) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler, 1995).

  9. The Clathrin Adaptor AP-1A Mediates Basolateral Polarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gravotta, Diego; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mattera, Rafael; Deborde, Sylvie; Banfelder, Jason R.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia. However, several epithelia lack AP-1B and mice knocked-out for AP-1B are viable, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms that control basolateral polarity. Here, we demonstrate a distinct role of the ubiquitous clathrin adaptor AP-1A in basolateral protein sorting. Knock-down of AP-1A causes missorting of basolateral proteins in MDCK cells but only after knock-down of AP-1B, sug...

  10. Presence of Arctotherium (Carnivora, Ursidae, Tremarctinae in a pre-cultural level of Baño Nuevo-1 cave (Central Patagonia, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Mendoza, P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of an I3 assigned to Arctotherium sp. obtained from the Baño Nuevo-1 site (Central Patagonia, Chile is presented. The finding was recovered from Layer 5 and it is associated to Macrauchenia sp., Lama guanicoe, Felidae, Camelidae, Equidae and Mylodontidae, within a sterile deposit of cultural material, dated between ca. 13.500 and 11.200 BP. Despite the fact that it is only a single specimen, such finding extends the known distribution for the genus in Chile.Se presenta la descripción de un I3 asignado a Arctotherium sp. proveniente del sitio Baño Nuevo-1 (Patagonia Central, Chile. El hallazgo fue realizado en la Capa 5 y está asociado a restos de Macrauchenia sp., Lama guanicoe, Felidae, Camelidae, Equidae y Mylodontidae dentro de un depósito estéril de material cultural, datado entre los ca. 13.500 y 11.200 años AP. Aunque se trata de un único espécimen, amplía el rango de distribución conocido para este género en Chile.

  11. Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 containing carriers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Clathrin/AP1 and clathrin/AP3 coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the TGN. We report here the real-time visualization of these structures in living cells reliably tracked by using rapid, three-dimensional imaging with a spinning-disk confocal microscope. We imaged relatively sparse, diffraction-limited, fluorescent objects containing chimeric fluorescent protein (clathrin light chain, σ adaptor subunits or dynamin2) with a spatial precision of up to ~ 30 nm and a temporal r...

  12. Comparative analysis between radiographic views for knee osteoarthrosis (bipedal AP versus monopedal AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A comparative analysis by applying the criteria of the original classification Ahlbäck in the anteroposterior (AP bipedal knee in extension and anteroposterior (AP monopodal knee in symptomatic knee arthrosis. With this analysis we intend to observe the agreement, any advantage or difference between the incidence and degree of joint involvement between the orthopedic surgeons and radiologists with the referring physician. METHODS: From January 2012 to March 2012, was a prospective study of 60 symptomatic arthrosis knees (60 patients, clinically selected group of outpatient knee and radiographic proposals submitted to the search. Of the 60 patients, 39 were female and 21 male, mean age 64 years (ranging from 50 to 84 years. Of the 60 knees studied, 37 corresponded to the right side and 23 on the left side. Statistical analysis was performed by Kappa statistics, which evaluates the interobserver agreement for qualitative data. RESULTS: According to the scale of Ahlbäck, there was a significant agreement (p < 0.0001 intra-observer in the classification of knee osteoarthritis among the five evaluators. There was a significant agreement (p < 0.0001 with inter-observer referring physician in the incidence of AP monopodal and AP bipedal for the four raters. CONCLUSION: The study found no difference between the incidence in the AP monopodal versus AP bipedal in osteoarthritis of the knee.

  13. ¿Es Chile un país católico? Polémica en torno a un libro del padre Hurtado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pedro Espinosa Santander

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando a fines de 1941 el Padre Alberto Hurtado publicó su libro "¿Es Chile un País Católico?", invitaba especialmente a los jóvenes de la Acción Católica a conocer el país real: ¿cómo era de verdad Chile y su Iglesia? Alberto Hurtado con su mirada de apóstol miró a Chile desde la mirada de Jesús y remeció conciencias e incomodó a muchos con su denuncia de los males que corroían el alma nacional: miseria, injusticias, vicios, salarios miserables, falta de educación del pueblo, viviendas indignas, y junto con esto, la lejanía de los pobres de la Iglesia y la escasez de sacerdotes. Para él había una tarea pendiente que muchos esquivaban: conquistar Chile para Cristo. El libro y la invitación fueron acogidos con gran entusiasmo, por los jóvenes especialmente; pero las cr��ticas arreciaron de parte del clero y laicado conservadores. Para ellos, la visión de Hurtado era peligrosamente amarga y desconocía la labor que la Iglesia, desde la Colonia, hacía en el país formando el "alma de Chile". La polémica de fondo era una sorda crítica a Hurtado, asesor nacional de los jóvenes de la Acción Católica. El artículo muestra la polémica en torno al libro y a su autor, los diferentes actores que intervinieron y la significación eclesial de todo el proceso: ¿Era Chile un país católico?When at the end of 1941 Father Alberto Hurtado Publisher his book, "¿Es Chile un País Católico?" ("Is Chile a Catholic Country?", he especially invited the youth of Catholic Action (Acción Católica to become acquainted with the real country: What was Chile and its Church really like? Alberto Hurtado, with his characteristic view of an apostle, looked upon Chile with the gaze of Jesus and shook consciences, making many people uncomfortable with his condemnation of the evils corroding the national soul: the misery, injustices, vices, paltry salaries, lack of education, undignified living conditions and, together with all this, the

  14. The AP-1A and AP-1B clathrin adaptor complexes define biochemically and functionally distinct membrane domains

    OpenAIRE

    Fölsch, Heike; Pypaert, Marc; Maday, Sandra; Pelletier, Laurence; Mellman, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Most epithelial cells contain two AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes. AP-1A is ubiquitously expressed and involved in transport between the TGN and endosomes. AP-1B is expressed only in epithelia and mediates the polarized targeting of membrane proteins to the basolateral surface. Both AP-1 complexes are heterotetramers and differ only in their 50-kD μ1A or μ1B subunits. Here, we show that AP-1A and AP-1B, together with their respective cargoes, define physically and functionally distinct membra...

  15. Modeliranje nove jedrske elektrarne tipa AP1000

    OpenAIRE

    GERJEVIČ, GREGA

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo zajema primerjavo rezultatov simulacije male izlivne nezgode s programskim orodjem Advanced PWR simulator z rezultati, ki jih je opravilo podjetje Westinghouse v testnem objektu APEX-1000. V prvem delu diplomskega dela sta opisana primarni in sekundarni sistem, ki se bistveno ne razlikujeta od sistemov ostalih jedrskih elektrarn. Nato sledi opis pasivnih varnostnih sistemov, po katerih je AP1000 znana. Sledi splošen opis izlivne nezgode, simulacijskega orodja in potek simul...

  16. Magnetic Doppler Imaging of Ap stars

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester, J.; Wade, G. A.; Kochukhov, O.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, the magnetic field geometries of the chemically peculiar Ap stars were modelled in the context of a simple dipole field. However, with the acquisition of increasingly sophisticated diagnostic data, it has become clear that the large-scale field topologies exhibit important departures from this simple model. Recently, new high-resolution circular and linear polarisation spectroscopy has even hinted at the presence of strong, small-scale field structures, which were completely une...

  17. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report

  18. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented

  19. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for residential fireplaces and woodstoves which are incorporated into AP-42. AP42 is a massive collection of material which describes processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and control effectiveness infor...

  20. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP07 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP07 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15932-1 FC-AP07P (Li...nk to Original site) FC-AP07F 546 FC-AP07Z 446 FC-AP07P 992 - - Show FC-AP07 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP...al site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP07Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...07P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP07 (FC-AP07Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP...ificant alignments: (bits) Value FC-AP07 (FC-AP07Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP07Q.Seq.d/ 1148 0.0 SSM404 (SSM404Q)

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP08 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP08 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16116-1 FC-AP08P (Li...nk to Original site) FC-AP08F 125 FC-AP08Z 352 FC-AP08P 477 - - Show FC-AP08 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP...al site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP08Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...08P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP08 (FC-AP08Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP... (VSA612Q) /CSM/VS/VSA6-A/VSA612Q.Seq.d/ 624 e-178 FC-AP08 (FC-AP08Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP

  2. AP Deployment Research Based on Physical Distance and Channel Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Dangui Yan; Chengchang Zhang; Honghua Liao; Lisheng Yang; Ping Li; Guogang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of inefficiency of wireless local area networks (WLAN) access point (AP) deployment in urban environment, a new algorithm for AP deployment based on physical distance and channel isolation (DPDCI) is proposed. First, it detects the position information of deployed APs and then calculates the interference penalty factor combined with physical distance and channel isolation, and finally gets the optimal location and channel of the new AP through the genetic algorithm. Comp...

  3. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  4. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  5. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  6. AIRE variations in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøe Wolff, A S; Oftedal, B; Johansson, S; Bruland, O; Løvås, K; Meager, A; Pedersen, Carsten; Husebye, E S; Knappskog, P M

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is often associated with other components in autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS). Whereas APS I is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene, the susceptibility genes for AAD and APS II are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether polymorphisms or...

  7. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  8. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP01 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP01 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15092-1 FC-AP01Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AP01Z 591 - - - - Show FC-AP01 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP01 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP01Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...01Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP01 (FC-AP01Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP01Q.Seq....EELNISGPLSRNKLKWADFLNLTMNTNHARG HRHGRSPSKIFWRAVRGMLPHKTPRGQAALDNMKVFEGVPAPYDKVKRVVVPSALRVVKL NTTRKYTVLSRLSQE

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP10 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP10 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15819-1 FC-AP10Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AP10Z 497 - - - - Show FC-AP10 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP10 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP10Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...10Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP10 (FC-AP10Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP10Q.Seq....SGDWWDAELKGRRGKVPSNYLQLIKNAAPPRAGGPPVPTGNRA PTTTTTSGGSTRGGFNNGPSTAPSGRGAAPPSSRGGMAPRGGSVAPPSSRGGIAPRGGIA PRGGMAPRGGMAP

  10. Pharmakologische Charakterisierung der vasoaktiven Eigenschaften von Ap7A und Ap8A an der isolierten perfundierten Rattenniere

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschke, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Recently, diadenosine heptaphosphate and diadenosine octaphosphate have been isolated in human platelets. With thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, Ap7A and Ap8A are released from the platelets into the extracellular space. Like other dinucleoside polyphosphates, maybe they play an important role in the control of vascular tone and platelet aggregation. Here we describe the effects on regulation of vascular tone of Ap7A and Ap8A in isolated perfused rat kidney. Our experiments demonstrate t...

  11. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  12. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  13. Los Maestros en Chile: Carreras e Incentivos

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Mizala; Pablo González; Pilar Romaguera; Andrea Guzmán

    2000-01-01

    La reforma educacional que Chile está implementando requiere para su éxito que los maestros se pongan a la cabeza de la reforma, y para ello es necesario fortalecer la profesión docente y la carrera de pedagogía. Diseñar políticas efectivas hacia los maestros supone estudiar las características socioeconómicas y motivacionales de éstos, así como los incentivos y factores institucionales que determinan la composición del cuerpo docente y que influencian su desempeño profesional. Esto es lo que...

  14. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  15. 77 FR 24480 - Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program-Reopening the AP Test Fee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    .... ACTION: Notice reopening the AP Test Fee fiscal year 2012 competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.330B. SUMMARY: On February 15, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR... Application for New Awards; Advanced Placement (AP) Test Fee Program--Reopening the AP Test Fee Fiscal...

  16. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  17. AP600 containment purge radiological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, M.; Schulz, J.; Tan, C. [Bechtel Power Corporation (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The AP600 Project is a passive pressurized water reactor power plant which is part of the Design Certification and First-of-a-Kind Engineering effort under the Advanced Light Water Reactor program. Included in this process is the design of the containment air filtration system which will be the subject of this paper. We will compare the practice used by previous plants with the AP600 approach to meet the goals of industry standards in sizing the containment air filtration system. The radiological aspects of design are of primary significance and will be the focus of this paper. The AP600 Project optimized the design to combine the functions of the high volumetric flow rate, low volumetric flow rate, and containment cleanup and other filtration systems into one multi-functional system. This achieves a more simplified, standardized, and lower cost design. Studies were performed to determine the possible concentrations of radioactive material in the containment atmosphere and the effectiveness of the purge system to keep concentrations within 10CFR20 limits and within offsite dose objectives. The concentrations were determined for various reactor coolant system leakage rates and containment purge modes of operation. The resultant concentrations were used to determine the containment accessibility during various stages of normal plant operation including refueling. The results of the parametric studies indicate that a dual train purge system with a capacity of 4,000 cfm per train is more than adequate to control the airborne radioactivity levels inside containment during normal plant operation and refueling, and satisfies the goals of ANSI/ANS-56.6-1986 and limits the amount of radioactive material released to the environment per ANSI/ANS 59.2-1985 to provide a safe environment for plant personnel and offsite residents.

  18. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented

  19. Wiley AP english language and composition

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Two full-length practice tests to help you score your highest Review questions with complete answers and explanations for the most popular themes on the test Study strategies and expert test-taking tips to keep you calm and focused on test day Review key exam topics and themes to maximize your score Preparing for the AP English Language and Composition test? This test-prep guide helps you perfect the skills you need to achieve your best possible score. You'll find winning test-taking tips, multiple-choice strategies, and essay guidelines, as well as great advice on getting the

  20. Forest mapping with satellite in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, A. [SSC Satellitbild (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Chile has about 9.1 million ha of forest land, among which 7.6 million ha are native forest and 1.5 million ha are plantations of exotic species. The number of plantations is constantly growing due to the important role these areas play in the national economy. Pino Radiata (Pinus radiata) is found in most of the plantations while the remaining parts are dominated by Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) The governmental Instituto Forestal (INFOR) in Santiago de Chile, is monitoring the rapid changes in these areas through frequent inventories. As an inventory of this type takes about six years to complete in all areas (one region per year), it is of great importance to find quicker ways to cover these areas. The native forest has in recent years been the subject of debate, not only for economic reasons, but also as a result of ecological pressure for conservation. Where to conserve, where to put restrictions and where to allow forestry are the big issues. Against this background it is necessary to evaluate different data sources that can give information about the present forest situation and provide the means to monitor the changes. The aim of the project was to evaluate whether satellite imagery could fulfill INFOR`s demand for forestry information, and to investigate the kind of data source and methodology to apply when using satellite data

  1. The ecology of Chagas disease in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, C J; Apt, W; Miles, M A

    1982-01-01

    Chagas disease probably affects over half a million people in Chile, principally in rural communities in the fertile valleys of the arid 'norte chico' region, north of Santiago. The main domestic vector is Triatoma infestans, but Triatoma spinolai, although mainly in rocky sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes, also invades houses. Since the Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century, and particularly during the last 100 years, the endemic region has suffered an ecological breakdown, largely due to excessive timbering and over-grazing, which has led to a denuded landscape with severe loss of agricultural productivity. This breakdown, combined with uneconomically sized farms and poor marketing, exacerbates the poverty of the rural communities. As in other similar areas of Latin America, the combination of poverty and poor education discourages improvements in housing which would reduce the risk of vector-transmitted Chagas disease. This paper reviews the historical and ecological background of the endemic region of Chile, both as a basis for further work, and as a point of comparison with other endemic areas. The review attempts to show how the current status of Chagas disease is likely to be maintained through its association with poor quality housing, poverty and ecological degradation, drawing parallels with other endemic++ areas and suggesting ways by which the ecological damage might be reversed. PMID:6821391

  2. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  3. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  4. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. PMID:26340665

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP24 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP24 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16528-1 FC-AP24F (Li...nk to Original site) FC-AP24F 525 - - - - - - Show FC-AP24 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP24 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP24Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...24F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP24 (FC-AP24Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP24Q.Seq....C-BE24Q.Seq.d/ 1041 0.0 FC-AP24 (FC-AP24Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP24Q.Seq.d/ 1041 0.0

  6. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP21 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP21 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15099-1 FC-AP21Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AP21Z 511 - - - - Show FC-AP21 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP21 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP21Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...21Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP21 (FC-AP21Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP21Q.Seq....14Q.Seq.d/ 1013 0.0 SLE553 (SLE553Q) /CSM/SL/SLE5-C/SLE553Q.Seq.d/ 1013 0.0 FC-AP21 (FC-AP21Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP

  7. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP22 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP22 (Link to dictyBase) - G24045 DDB0232387 Contig-U15141-1 FC-AP...22F (Link to Original site) FC-AP22F 317 - - - - - - Show FC-AP22 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP...1-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP22Q.Se...q.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP22F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP22 (FC-AP22Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP...KKKKKKK Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-AP22 (FC-AP22Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP

  8. Correction magnet power supplies for APS machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of correction magnets are required for the advanced photon source (APS) machine to correct the beam. There are five kinds of correction magnets for the storage ring, two for the injector synchrotron, and two for the positron accumulator ring (PAR). Table I shoes a summary of the correction magnet power supplies for the APS machine. For the storage ring, the displacement of the quadrupole magnets due to the low frequency vibration below 25 Hz has the most significant effect on the stability of the positron closed orbit. The primary external source of the low frequency vibration is the ground motion of approximately 20 μm amplitude, with frequency components concentrated below 10 Hz. These low frequency vibrations can be corrected by using the correction magnets, whose field strengths are controlled individually through the feedback loop comprising the beam position monitoring system. The correction field require could be either positive or negative. Thus for all the correction magnets, bipolar power supplies (BPSs) are required to produce both polarities of correction fields. Three different types of BPS are used for all the correction magnets. Type I BPSs cover all the correction magnets for the storage ring, except for the trim dipoles. The maximum output current of the Type I BPS is 140 Adc. A Type II BPS powers a trim dipole, and its maximum output current is 60 Adc. The injector synchrotron and PAR correction magnets are powered form Type III BPSs, whose maximum output current is 25 Adc

  9. APS insertion devices: Recent developments and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) now has a total of 23 insertion devices (IDs). Over two-thirds of them are installed on the storage ring. The installed devices include 18, 27 and 55 mm-period undulators; an 85 mm-period wiggler; a 16 cm-period elliptical multipole wiggler; and many 33 mm-period undulators. Most of the IDs occupy storage-ring straight sections equipped with 8 mm vertical-aperture vacuum chambers. All of the IDs were measured magnetically at the APS and, in most cases, underwent a final magnetic tuning in order to minimize variation in the various integrals of the field through the ID over the full gap range. Special shimming techniques to correct magnetic field parameters in appropriate gap-dependent ways were developed and applied. Measurements of the closed-orbit distortion as a function of the ID gap variation have been completed, and results are in a good agreement with magnetic measurements. Spectral diagnostics of the ID radiation, including measurements of the absolute spectral flux, brilliance and polarization, show excellent agreement between calculated and measured results. Studies of the sensitivity of IDs to radiation exposure and measurements of the dose rate received by the IDs are in progress

  10. The APS control system network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network

  11. Chile; Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    Chile's economic performance was very strong during most of the 1990s, but the country suffered a recession in 1998–99. In early 1998, Chile faced a widening external current account deficit—resulting from surging domestic demand and a large drop in copper export prices—which together with turbulence in world financial markets weakened investor confidence and put downward pressure on the currency. Chile has maintained a very open trade regime and has continued with the unilateral phased...

  12. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G

    1989-12-01

    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342735

  13. CASO DE ESTUDIO: LA FUNDACION COCA-COLA CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE HERRERA

    2006-01-01

    This case gives an overview of the Coca-Cola System in Chile and focuses on the Coca-Cola Chile Foundation (CCFCH), a non-profit organization dedicated to education. Created in 1992 with donations from Coca-Cola de Chile S.A. (CCCH) and the bottling companies Embotelladora Andina S.A., Coca-Cola Embonor S.A. and Coca-Cola Polar S.A., the foundation now faces an expansion dilemma in its most important program, the TAVEC Laboratories. Under this program the CCFCH donated interactive scientific ...

  14. Evaluating EPA’s AP-42 development methodology to convert or rerate current AP-42 datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) published their new methodology for updating the Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42). The “Recommended Procedures for Development of Emissions Factors and Use of the WebFIRE Database” instructs that the ratings of the...

  15. Evaluating the Chile Solidario program: results using the Chile Solidario panel and the administrative databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hoces de la Guardia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una evaluación de tres años realizada en las primeras cohortes del Programa Chile Solidario, el programa de reducción de la pobreza más importante de Chile. El artículo presenta una descripción del programa, haciendo hincapié en el mecanismo por el cual las personas fueron admitidas en el programa. A continuación, propone estrategias de evaluación y discute su validez. 8a evaluación final se realiza mediante un estimador de "Matching" (pareo, y se discuten los principios en base a los cuales se trataría de un método de evaluación válida. Los resultados iniciales usando el Panel de Chile Solidario sugieren que el programa ha tenido efectos positivos sobre el bienestar psicosocial y en la adopción de subsidios y programas sociales. Sin embargo, no es posible obtener resultados fiables debido a las deficiencias de datos, en particular la falta de una línea de base. Con el fin de resolver el problema, hemos generado una base de datos utilizando seis años de datos administrativos, incluyendo alrededor de 1.000.000 de registros de familias por año. Un método para superar el problema de sustitución de tratamiento es discutido y aplicado. Los resultados son mucho más robustos que los del Panel de Chile Solidario y muestran pequeños, pero evidentes efectos positivos de varias variables, especialmente relativos al número de trabajadores en el hogar, el porcentaje de trabajadores en el hogar y el empleo del jefe de hogar.

  16. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación de mayor alcance acerca del problema del papel de la novela durante y después de la Dictadura.For many critics and scholars the great novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile still remains a pending matter. This article, on the contrary, hypothesizes on the existence of a significant number of novéis published in Chile between 1977 and 2006, which out of their fragmentary character and peculiarity give a proper account of the causes and consequences of the coup d'état held on September llth 1973. The article seeks to set a preliminary basis for an epistemological discussion and further major research about the role of the Chilean novel, in the historical context of post modernity, during and after the dictatorship's era.

  17. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

  18. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP13 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP13 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15374-1 FC-AP13P (Li...nk to Original site) FC-AP13F 550 FC-AP13Z 184 FC-AP13P 734 - - Show FC-AP13 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP...al site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP13Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...13P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP13 (FC-AP13Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP...KKRKLNILIIII*fnnhqvmekkikkkiknkkn f*k Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value FC-AP

  20. Genetic differentiation between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Bravo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity studies in domestic animals allow evaluating genetic variation within and among breeds mainly for conservation purposes. In Chile exist isolated recovery programs, conservation and characterization of animal genetic resources, a consequence of which the vast majority of them have not been characterized, poorly used, and some of them have become extinct. The aim of this research was to determine genetic diversity and relationship between 'Araucana' creole and 'Hampshire Down' sheeps based on microsatellite markers; sheep breeds with similar phenotypic characteristics, raised in the south of Chile. A total of 64 'Araucana' sheep ('Araucana' from Freire, AF: 27, 'Araucana' from Padre Las Casas, AP: 10, 'Araucana' from Chol Chol, AC: 15, 'Araucana' from Villarrica, AV: 12 and 43 'Hampshire Down' sheep ('Hampshire' from Marchigue, HM: 18, 'Hampshire' from Valdivia, HV: 11, 'Hampshire' from San José, HS: 14 were analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers for determine the genetic diversity and relationship between breeds. A total of 284 alleles were observed with average polymorphic information content equal to 0.76, showing that the microsatellites panel used was highly informative. Estimated heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 in 'Hampshire Down' to 0.85 in 'Araucana'. The low inbreeding or endogamy coefficient (F IS, 0.022 and total inbreeding estimate (F IT, 0.070 indicated low level of inbreeding within and among breeds. The phylogenetic tree showed a separation between HS and HV, and the other sheep populations. The results indicated high genetic variability, low inbreeding, and low genetic differentiation, except for HV and HS, and were in according with geographical location and breeding practices.

  1. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  2. Network Cooperation for Client-AP Association Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Baid, Akash; Schapira, Michael; Seskar, Ivan; Rexford, Jennifer; Raychaudhuri, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    In a WiFi deployment with multiple access points, optimizing the way each client selects an AP from amongst the available choices, has a significant impact on the realized performance. When two or more such multi-AP networks are deployed in the same region, APs from different networks can cause severe interference to one another. In this paper, we study how inter-network interference effects the intra-network association optimization and propose a cooperative optimization scheme to mitigate t...

  3. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Moreno

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean...

  4. Beyond Income: A Study of Multidimensional Poverty in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bronfman, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared t...

  5. Transportation in Developing Countries: Greenhouse Gas Scenarios for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl O'Ryan; Daniel Sperling; Tom Turrentine; Mark Delucchii

    2001-01-01

    Chile is a lightly populated country of 15 million that has undergone large economic transformations. Over the past 25 years, the economy has evolved from a slow-growing state-directed economy into a fast growing, market-oriented economy. Its South American neighbors are imitating this transformation. The changes have been especially great in the transport sector, with the private sector taking over many traditional public sector activities. This report addresses the implications of Chile's e...

  6. Decades lost and found: Mexico and Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, yet Chile recovered much faster than Mexico. This study analyzes four possible explanations for this difference and rules out three, explanations based on money supply expansion, real wage and real exchange rate declines, and foreign debt overhangs. The fourth explanation is based on government policy reforms in the two countries. Using growth accounting and a calibrated growth model, the study determines that the on...

  7. Market analysis of APS/SCM applications and technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Prášil, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis aims to describe a current worldwide market of APS/SCM technologies and applications , i.e. advanced planned scheduling /supply chain management. In the first part, the APS/SCM is described in theory. The APS/SCM is defined and its benefits and impacts on company are discussed. The next part of the work is focused on the market with APS/SCM and the distribution of forces in the market. The demand and supply of this market segment is analyzed. In the last part, solutions of...

  8. Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla en el Pleistoceno tardío de Calama, norte de Chile Late Pleistocene Hippidion saldiasi Roth, 1899 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla from Calama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA TERESA ALBERDI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen restos del género Hippidion procedentes de la zona del desierto de Atacama (Calama, Segunda Región de Chile. El conjunto analizado corresponde a un esqueleto bastante completo proveniente del yacimiento Betecsa 1, así como escasas unidades del yacimiento Kamac Mayu. En ambos sitios se identifica H. saldiasi. A partir de dos dataciones radiométricas por AMS del ejemplar estudiado, los restos se sitúan estratigráficamente en el Pleistoceno Superior (21.070 ± 100 AP y 21.380 ± 100 14C AP. Se infieren datos ambientales y de dieta a partir de análisis de isótopos estables en los restos de Hippidion saldiasi del sitio Betecsa 1 cuyo valor de δ13C en hueso fue de -15,45 y el valor en esmalte de dientes fue de -16,68, sugiriendo una alimentación con pastos C3. El cráneo recuperado es el primero conocido de esta especieThis paper describes the Hippidion bones recovered from the Atacama Desert (Calama, Second Region of Chile. The analyzed assemblage corresponds to a nearly complete skeleton from Betecsa 1 site and more poorly preserved remains from Kamac Mayu site. In both H. saldiasi is identified. Two 14C radiometric determinations indicate late Pleistocene age for these remains (21,070 ± 100 BP and 21,380 ± 100 BP. Environmental and diet inferences from stable isotope analysis are also presented. The δ13C value from Betecsa 1 horses (-15.45 from bone sample and -16.68 from enamel sample suggest a dietary adaptation exclusively C3 feeders. This is the first skull and associated skeleton recovered of this species

  9. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability

  10. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, description of operations for 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-25

    The primary purpose of the Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is to provide systems for retrieval of radioactive wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks (DSTS) for transfer to alternate storage, evaporation, pretreatment or treatment, while concurrently reducing risks associated with safety watch list and other DSTs. This Description of Operations (DOO) defines the control philosophy for the waste retrieval system for tanks 241-AP-102 (AP-102) and 241-AP-104 (AP-104). This DOO will provide a basis for the detailed design of the Retrieval Control System (RCS) for AP-102 and AP-104 and establishes test criteria for the RCS. The test criteria will be used during qualification testing and acceptance testing to verify operability.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Izumi; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kato, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Issei; Yuda, Masao

    2015-05-01

    Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors. PMID:26018192

  12. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  13. Residual radiation studies at AP0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander J Elwyn et al.

    2002-06-19

    The radiation environment at the NuMI experiment has received a lot of attention in the last few years in preparation for project construction. One important issue is the induced radioactivation of the components in the beam line and the shielding materials. This arises from irradiation by hadrons that are generated in the target. Since the level of the residual activity has to be considered when determining access procedures for maintenance during NuMI operation, an understanding of the properties of the remnant radiation is important. To this end, experimental studies were performed in the target vault at AP0 which is similar in design to the NuMI target area. Here 120 GeV protons bombard a target, generating the hadrons that produce the induced radioactivity. Two sets of samples each consisting of three small cylindrical or rectangular solids of iron and steel, one sample of aluminum, and one of concrete were irradiated. One set was hung just below the bottom of a module near the lithium lens (in-vault), and the other was placed on top of the modules downstream of this location (above-vault), just beneath the movable concrete roof of the vault at AP0. Further, four thin activation foils of Au, Au+Cd, In, and Al (along with small disks of the same iron, aluminum, and concrete samples discussed above) were mounted on four 10.2 cm diameter Al disks, one placed on the in-vault module and three at above-vault downstream locations as well. The radioactivity of all these materials on the 10.2 cm Al disks was determined at the Radioisotope Analysis Facility in an attempt to characterize the radionuclides produced during irradiation. The activities of the thin foils were employed in an effort to unfold a spectrum of the neutrons produced during the hadronic cascades in the target. The MARS Monte Carlo code (MO95, MO00) was used to predict and analyze the residual radiation produced during the beam irradiation. New subroutines have been developed for the MARS14 version

  14. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2856-MHz S-band, 450-MeV electron/positron linear accelerator is the first part of the injector for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring. Construction of the APS linac is currently nearing completion, and commissioning will begin in July 1993. The linac and its current status are discussed in this paper

  15. AP1000 passive safety system design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Electric Company has designed an advanced 600 MW nuclear power plant called the AP600. The AP600 uses passive safety systems to enhance plant safety and to satisfy US licensing requirements. The use of passive safety systems has provided significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The overnight capital cost for the first AP600 plant is calculated to be between 1300- 1500 $/kw depending on the site selection. Although the AP600 is the most cost effective plant ready for deployment, it is still more expensive than the $1000/kw needed to compete in the United States today. In order to develop a cost competitive nuclear power plant Westinghouse has completed design studies which demonstrate that it is feasible to increase the power output of the AP600 to at least 1000 MW, maintaining its current design configuration, use of proven components and licensing basis. The AP1000 reactor and passive safety features retain the same configuration as the AP600. The approach to designing the passive core cooling features is to evaluate each feature to determine if changes are necessary to provide proper safety margins at the higher power rating. Both design basis and PRA based accidents sequences are considered in this evaluation. Insights from the extensive AP600 test and analysis program are used to assist in this process. The results of preliminary accident analysis for DBA and PRA sequences are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. (author)

  16. A Closer Examination of the Academic Benefits of AP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Rawls, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to better understand the relationship between students participating in the Advanced Placement (AP) program and subsequent performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Focusing on students graduating from U.S. public high schools in 2010, the authors used propensity scores to match junior year AP examinees in 3 subjects to…

  17. AP-42 ADDITIONS AND REVISIONS - LANDFILLS (COMBUSTION CONTROLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project develops emission factors, etc., for landfills, in particular for combustion devices fed by landfill gas, for incorporation into AP-42. AP-42 is a massive collection of information concerning processes which generate air emissions and presents emission factors and co...

  18. Data-Based Decision Making: The Road to AP Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelcey; Duggan, Odette

    2012-01-01

    Presented at the Advanced Placement Annual Conference (APAC) in Lake Buena Vista, FL in July 2012. This presentation reviews concepts central to achieving equitable AP access and success for all willing and academically prepared students. We analyze trends in participation and performance by race/ethnicity from the AP Report to the Nation and…

  19. APS extends open access to all its journals

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2006-01-01

    "Physics research promoter and publisher the American Physical Society (APS) is to extend open access to all its journals. Th APS previously made its five print journals available through subscriptions, and its two e-journals (Physical Review Special Topics and Physics Educatoin Research) on an open access basis." (1/2 page)

  20. Training and development of the Assistant Practitioners (APs) in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed methods study conducted over three phases (Phase I – scoping exercise, Phase II – questionnaire and Phase III – semi-structured interviews) aimed to explore the role and integration of the assistant practitioner (AP) practitioner in radiography from the AP perspective. Findings of the overall study are presented across a range of articles where this publication only presents the findings in relation to the training and education of APs from all three phases. Results showed the educational routes undertaken by APs in radiography during training. Training whilst working in the clinical department has highlighted a number of key issues relating to educational pathways and delivery methods. Findings showed that APs felt that more could be done to prepare the individual for clinical practice thereby increasing their confidence and facilitating role development. Results also identified a number of challenges in the training and education of APs in radiography. Clear routes of progression and career pathways are not available to APs in radiography. In conclusion the findings suggest the need for a review of existing educational programmes and future standardisation. The need exists to clarify the justifiable methods of training and differentiate between recognised educational qualifications to enable informed career development decisions by APs and their employers

  1. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  2. TRICOMONOSIS EN ADOLESCENTES EMBARAZADAS DE ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNAN SAGUA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los problemas de salud de la adolescencia se caracterizan por una carga psicosocial elevada y un nivel de daño relativamente bajo en términos de morbilidad y mortalidad, sin embargo, la disminución de la edad promedio de la menarquia y el inicio precoz de actividad sexual coital son factores de riesgo para el embarazo y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS entre los adolescentes. En este trabajo se investigó la infección por Trichomonas vaginalis y los factores epidemiológicos y obstétricos relacionados entre 300 adolescentes embarazadas de la ciudad de Antofagasta, cuyas edades variaron entre 12 y 18 años, de las cuales el 87,7 % se concentró en el rango 15 y 17 años, en tanto que el 76,0 % tuvo su menarquia entre los 12 - 14 años y el 27,3 % inició su actividad sexual antes de los 15 años. Se determinó una tasa de infección por T. vaginalis de un 5,7 % .TRICHOMONOSIS IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENT FROM ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE A large psychosocial load and a relatively lower impact in terms of morbidity and mortality characterize adolescence’s health problems. For adolescents, however, a decrease in the average for the first menstruation and an early start in sexual activity, are two risk factors for both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In this work, we have investigated Trichomonas vaginalis’ infection and its related epidemiological and obstetric factors, among 300 pregnant adolescents from Antofagasta in northern Chile, between the ages of 12 to 18. Most adolescents studied (87.7% were in the range of 15-17 years old; 76.0% had the first menstruation at the range of 12-14 years old and 27.3 % started sexual activity before the age 15. A T. vaginalis’ infection rate of 5.7 % was obtained

  3. The development of beam current monitors in the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation 7-GeV synchrotron radiation source. The precision measurement of beam current is a challenging task in high energy accelerators, such as the APS, with a wide range of beam parameters and complicated noise, radiation, and thermal environments. The beam pulses in the APS injector and storage ring have charge ranging from 50pC to 25nC with pulse durations varying from 30ps to 30ns. A total of nine non- intercepting beam current monitors have been installed in the APS facility (excluding those in the linac) for general current measurement. In addition, several independent current monitors with specially designed redundant interlock electronics are installed for personnel safety and machine protection. This paper documents the design and development of current monitors in the APS,. discusses the commissioning experience in the past year, and presents the results of recent operations

  4. Properties of LuAP: CE scintillator containing intentional impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Petrosyan, A G; Ovanesyan, K; Lecoq, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette; Trummer, Julia; Kronberger, Matthias; Pédrini, C; Dujardin, C; Anfre, P

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of LuAP:Ce and LuYAP(Lu*70%):Ce co-doped with tetravalent (Hf and Zr) and pentavalent (Ta) ions were grown from melts by the Bridgman process. Underlying absorption, slope of the optical edge and transmission in the range of emission were compared to those of LuAP:Ce crystals. Absorption coefficients at 260 nm less than 2 cm−1 have been recorded in LuAP:Ce crystals containing tetravalent ions that are lower than the corresponding figures (5–6 cm−1) measured in undoped LuAP. At high concentrations of added impurities, despite of suppression of the parasitic underlying absorption below 300 nm, the slope of the optical edge and transmission in the range of emission are seriously damaged. Scintillation parameters of crystals with added impurities are compared to those of LuAP:Ce.

  5. AP1000, a nuclear central of advanced design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP1000 is a design of a nuclear reactor of pressurized water (PWR) of 1000 M We with characteristic of safety in a passive way; besides presenting simplifications in the systems of the plant, the construction, the maintenance and the safety, the AP1000 is a design that uses technology endorsed by those but of 30 years of operational experience of the PWR reactors. The program AP1000 of Westinghouse is focused to the implementation of the plant to provide improvements in the economy of the same one and it is a design that is derived directly of the AP600 designs. On September 13, 2004 the US-NRC (for their initials in United States- Nuclear Regulatory Commission) approved the final design of the AP1000, now Westinghouse and the US-NRC are working on the whole in a complete program for the certification. (Author)

  6. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  7. Using metallic filters in APS undulator beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic filters are needed by APS users in their beamlines. Two general areas of use for the white-beam metallic filters are: (1) to attenuate the x-ray beam to reduce the thermal load during routine operations and (2) to attenuate the x-ray beam during alignment and for special testing of optics at low power. Metallic filters are important for users who will be working primarily in the high energy x-ray range because unwanted lower energy photons are absorbed through the metallic filters. Notwithstanding their high thermal conductivity, the metals, in general, absorb x-rays significantly near surface layers and hence can attain very large temperatures causing structural deformations and/or damage. Thermomechanical behavior and failure prediction need to be done carefully. In this paper, particulars of metallic filters are discussed and generalized analytical solutions are offered to help users of metallic filters determine their applicability for x-ray beamlines copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Top-up operation experience at APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-OeV, third-generation synchrotrons radiation source. To provide more stable beam for users, in September 1998 we began commissioning a new operating mode called ''top-up.'' In this mode, the beam current does not decay but is maintained at a high level using frequent injection, while photon shutters are open and photon beams are delivered to users. The hardware, software, and safety requirements for top-up will be reported. Safety issues related to injection with open photon shutters are covered in companion papers in this conference. Recent operational experience includes testing aspects of top-up injection and delivering beam to X-ray users for a few hours with fractional current stability of 10-3. We expect to run several top-up operation shifts in Spring 1999. Issues of importance are orbit and emittance transients during the injection and scheduling of injection pulses for the convenience of users

  9. Beam instability studies at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne Advanced Photon Source, APS (Fig. 1), is a 7-GeV positron storage ring with a circumference of 1104 m. It has a ''third generation, DBA or Chasman-Green'' lattice composed of 40 sectors each having a ∼6 m long zero-dispersion straight-section for accommodating insertion devices. Neighboring straight-sections are connected by a 360 degrees/40 = 9 degrees double-bend-achromatic bending section designed to produce the smallest emittance attainable with reasonable component parameter values and dynamic apertures. Thus, it is a very strongly focusing lattice with vx = 35.22 and vy = 14.30. The beam chamber of the storage ring including all rf, vacuum and photon beam components is designed to ensure that a beam current > 100 mA can be stably stored. We expect that the maximum stable beam current could be as high as 300 mA. This paper will give some details of the studies and computations to ensure the stability of such a beam. The discussions will be organized in the following three parts: Coupled-bunch instability caused by the higher-order modes (HOMs) of the rf cavities; Single-bunch instability due to the resistive wall impedance; and Single-bunch instability due to broadband impedances arising from beam chamber irregularities

  10. AMONIO Y FOSFATO EN EL CRECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE CHILE JALAPEÑO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Preciado Rangel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para evaluar el efecto de las concentraciones de NH4 + y H2PO4 - en la solución nutritiva sobre el crecimiento y la extracción de nutrimentos en plántulas de chile (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Jalapeño M. En un arreglo factorial 32 y diseño completamente al azar, se evaluaron tres dosis de NH4 + y tres de H2PO4 - ; adicionalmente se incluyó un tratamiento regional. Las variables evaluadas fueron: peso seco de vástago (PSV, peso seco de raíz (PSR, número de hojas (NH, área foliar (AF, lecturas SPAD, altura de plántula (AP, diámetro de tallo (DT y la extracción de N, P, K, Ca y Mg en el vástago de las plántulas. El factor con mayor influencia fue el NH4 +, con 1.5 mmol L-1, donde el PSR, AF, lecturas SPAD, AP, DT y la extracción de N, Ca y Mg mostraron los valores más altos. El H2PO4- con 1 mmol L-1 influyó en el PSV y en la mayor extracción de N, K y Ca. Se presentó interacción entre los factores evaluados en el PSV y CCL. Los tratamientos integrantes del factorial tuvieron mayor DT y NH que los del testigo.

  11. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP05 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP05 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16521-1 FC-AP05Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AP05Z 532 - - - - Show FC-AP05 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP05 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP05Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...05Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP05 (FC-AP05Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP05Q.Seq....GAGA TCCGTCAAAGTTTCAAGCAAAAAAGTTGTTGCCAAGTAAATAAATAATACTTTTTTCCCT AT sequence update 1997. 3.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---AP

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP23 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP23 (Link to dictyBase) - G03230 DDB0190153 Contig-U16094-1 FC-AP...23P (Link to Original site) FC-AP23F 515 FC-AP23Z 472 FC-AP23P 987 - - Show FC-AP23 Library FC (Link ...ontig Contig-U16094-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP...23Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP23P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP23 (FC-AP...23Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP23Q.Seq.d/ CAAATACATAATCTCTTTTTTGAAAATGTCCGAAAATAACGAAATTGAAATGGAACTCC

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP12 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP12 (Link to dictyBase) - G01739 DDB0232214 Contig-U15924-1 FC-AP...12P (Link to Original site) FC-AP12F 323 FC-AP12Z 613 FC-AP12P 936 - - Show FC-AP12 Library FC (Link ...ontig Contig-U15924-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP...12Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP12P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP12 (FC-AP...12Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP12Q.Seq.d/ CATATTATTTTAAATTTCAGATGTTCCCAAAATAACACATTAATTTGCTTTTTTTGTTG

  14. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  15. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  16. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  17. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  18. AP1000R licensing and deployment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, both domestic and foreign utilities have turned to the standardized Westinghouse AP1000 plant design in satisfying their near - and long-term - sustainable energy needs. As direct support to these actions, licensing the AP1000 design has played a significant role by providing one of the fundamental bases in clearing regulatory hurdles leading to the start of new plant construction. Within the U.S. alone, Westinghouse AP1000 licensing activities have reached unprecedented milestones with the approvals of both AP1000 Design Certification and Southern Company's combined construction permit and operating license (COL) application directly supporting the construction of two new nuclear plants in Georgia. Further COL application approvals are immediately pending for an additional two AP1000 plants in South Carolina. And, across the U.S. nuclear industry spectrum, there are 10 other COL applications under regulatory review representing some 16 new plants at 10 sites. In total, these actions represent the first wave of new plant licensing under the regulatory approval process since 1978. Fundamental to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's AP1000 Design Certification is the formal recognition of the AP1000 passive safety design through regulatory acceptance rulemaking. Through recognition and deployment of the AP1000 Design Certification, the utility licensee / operator of this reactor design are now offered an opportunity to use a simplified 'one-step' combined license process, thereby managing substantial back-end construction schedule risk from regulatory and intervention delays. Application of this regulatory philosophy represents both acceptance and encouragement of standardized reactor designs like the AP1000. With the recent AP1000 Design Certification and utility COL acceptances, the fundamental licensing processes of this philosophy have successfully proven the attainment of significant milestones with the next stage licensing actions directed

  19. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  20. Policy-Driven Productivity in Chile and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Soto; Raphael Bergoeing; Timothy Kehoe; Patrick Kehoe

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, but Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Using growth accounting and a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model, we conclude that the crucial determinant of this difference between the two countries was the faster productivity growth in Chile, rather than higher investment or employment. Our hypothesis is that this difference in productivity was driven by earlier policy reforms in Chile, the most crucial ...

  1. Desarrollo de la educación parvularia en Chile - Preschool education development in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Caiceo, Chile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available DESENVOLVIMENTO DA EDUCAÇÃO PRÉ-ESCOLAR NO CHILEResumoA educação pré-escolar no Chile tem início na segunda metade do século 19, especialmente por influência alemã, trazida ao país por José Abelardo Núñez. No começo se deu de forma particular, formando-se os primeiros jardins de infância. Somente em 1906 foi fundado o primeiro jardim da infância mantido pelo Estado, anexo à Escola Normal n. 1. Para isso foi contratada a educadora austríaca Leopoldina Maluschka, que usou metodologias inspiradas em Fröebel. Na Universidad de Chile, a partir da década de 1930, teve início um movimento de renovação pedagógica orientado por Irma Salas, que havia se doutorado nos Estados Unidos com Dewey e trouxe o pensamento da Escola Nova para o país. Ela conduziu a criação da Escola de Educadoras de Pré-Escolares em 1944. A primeira diretora dessa escola foi a destacada professora Amanda Labarca. Isto facilitou a criação de berçários e creches no país. Neste texto, de caráter histórico, em que se recorrerá a documentos primários e secundários, se pretende descrever o desenvolvimento que o Estado do Chile tem mostrado pela educação pré-escolar no país, reconhecendo os direitos das crianças.Palavras-chave: jardins de infância, educação pré-escolar, Escola Nova, Junji/Integra. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN CHILEAbstractPreschool education in Chile has its beginnings in the second half of the nineteenth century due to the German influence brought to Chile by José Abelardo Núñez. The first kindergarten was formed in a particular way. After that, the first public kindergarten, attached to the Normal School No. 1, was founded in 1906. At the same time, the austrian educator Maluschka Leopoldina was hired and the Froebelian method was used. At the University of Chile, in the 30s of the twentieth century, an improved movement was carried out by Irma Salas who studied for her doctorate in The United States with Dewey

  2. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regulations to allow the importation into the continental United States of figs and pomegranates from Chile... production that is registered with the Government of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence...

  3. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... continental United States of pomegranates from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems... plant protection organization of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence of Brevipalpus...

  4. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  5. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a... United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems approach, the fruit must be grown in a place of production that is registered with the Government of Chile...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  7. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we are recognizing an additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for... the documentation submitted by the Republic of Chile, which we made available to the public review...

  8. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  9. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  10. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  11. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power

  12. AP600 design certification thermal hydraulics testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Piplica, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, have been developing an advanced light water reactor design; the AP600. The AP600 is a 1940 Mwt, 600Mwe unit which is similar to a Westinghouse two-loop Pressurized Water Reactor. The accumulated knowledge on reactor design to reduce the capital costs, construction time, and the operational and maintenance cost of the unit once it begins to generate electrical power. The AP600 design goal is to maintain an overall cost advantage over fossil generated electrical power.

  13. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby

  14. The National Immunization Plan for Chile: is it a priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Crocco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978, Chile has an expanded immunization program. Target population is all infants and children in the country, along with the elderly at age 65. If we review available World Health Organization data on the immunization monitoring system, in 2011 all vaccines had below 95% coverage. With the exception of BCG, vaccines are primarily applied in the primary care setting. One way to understand organizational priorities is to identify how present they are in the management systems. Thus, it is possible to determine the priority of the National Immunization Plan in Chile by looking into sectoral planning. A review of the most recent policy documents of the Ministry of Health of Chile, one titled “National Health Strategy to Achieve the Health Objectives of the 2011-2020 Decade" stands out. Upon reviewing this policy paper, the National Immunization Plan is not considered as an outcome as a whole, but only some of the vaccines it includes.

  15. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  16. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  17. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  18. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  19. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  20. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by dipping low velocity normal faults. Additionally, we show that the low velocity oceanic crust persists to depths of up to 200 km, well beyond the depth range where the eclogite transition is expected to have occurred. Our results suggest that young subducting lithosphere also has

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP17 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4.1 SJMBIB09 SJM Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 80 8e-20 2 BE859184 |BE859184.1 SsS0499 Suaeda salsa ZAP...FC (Link to library) FC-AP17 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16254-1 FC-AP17Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AP17Z 546 - - - - Show FC-AP17 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP17 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP17Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...17Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP17 (FC-AP17Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP17Q.Seq.

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP11 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A clone IMAGE:4920557 5', mRNA sequence. 56 1e-04 2 BF345929 |BF345929.1 602017931F1 NCI_CGAP_Brn67 Homo sap...FC (Link to library) FC-AP11 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16101-1 FC-AP11F (Li...nk to Original site) FC-AP11F 394 - - - - - - Show FC-AP11 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP11 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP11Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...11F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP11 (FC-AP11Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP11Q.Seq.

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP18 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP18 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16455-1 FC-AP18Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AP18Z 367 - - - - Show FC-AP18 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP18 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP18Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...18Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP18 (FC-AP18Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP18Q.Seq....XELTPSRPMCVESFNEYPP LGRFAVRDMGQTVAVGVIKSTVKKAPGKAGDKKGAXAPSKKK*innis**iafynnfkkk kkkkk Translated Amino Acid

  4. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP16 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP16 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16269-1 FC-AP16Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AP16Z 552 - - - - Show FC-AP16 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP16 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP16Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...16Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP16 (FC-AP16Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP16Q.Seq....7. 3.28 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---RNRRYKVRKGPLVVVSGKTTVSQALRNIPGVEVANVSRLNLLKLAPGGHLGRFIIWT KSAFEQLD

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP15 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AP15 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15444-1 FC-AP15Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AP15Z 594 - - - - Show FC-AP15 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AP15 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP15Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-AP...15Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-AP15 (FC-AP15Q) /CSM/FC/FC-AP/FC-AP15Q.Seq....AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAA sequence update 1997. 3.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence ---RLLKIAEARAATPKGQAAPKAEK

  6. Holocene and deglacial paleoenvironmental history of the Peru-Chile current system and adjacent continental Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Kim, J.; Mohtadi, M.; Ruehlemann, C.

    2002-12-01

    A combined analysis of terrigenous and biogenic compounds in marine sediments from the Chilean continental slope allows detailed reconstructions of both the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history of this region during the last glacial and Holocene. Based on sediment cores recovered during two cruises with the German R/V Sonne, we found evidence for changes both in continental rainfall, most likely induced by latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies, and marine productivity as well as sea surface temperature (SST) changes within the Peru-Chile Current system on time scales ranging from Milankovitch to centennial-scale. On Milankovitch time-scales, we found strong evidence for precession-controlled shifts of the Southern Westerlies implying e.g. more humid conditions during the LGM in the Chilean Norte Chico and a trend towards more arid climates during the deglaciation culminating in the early Holocene. These shifts are paralleled by paleoceanographic changes indicating generally higher productivity during the LGM mainly caused by increased advection of nutrients from the south through an enhanced Peru-Chile current. SSTs off central Chile were about 3.5 C lower than present during the LGM. On shorter time-scales, extremely high resolution sediment cores from the southern Chilean margin provide evidence of significant short-term Holocene climate changes with bands of variability centred at ca. 900 and 1500 years, periodicities also well known from Northern Hemisphere records. Our data point to strong interhemispheric connections of climate change both on multi-centennial to millennial and Milankovitch time-scales with a major role of the tropics for the interhemispheric transfer of climate signals involving changes within the Hadley circulation and/or probably long-term modifications of the El Ni¤o-Southern Oscillation system. The recently drilled ODP Sites 1233 (ca. 41S) and 1234/1235 (ca. 36S) at the southern Chilean margin have the potential to extent

  7. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    OpenAIRE

    Mancilla, Claudio; de Lima, Philomena

    2014-01-01

    En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual....

  8. Competitividad de las exportaciones de chile seco mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Flores Sánchez; Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de la competitividad que ha mostrado México, en cuanto a sus exportaciones de chile seco, durante el periodo de 1993 a 2009, mediante la obtención del índice de ventaja relativa de exportaciones y aplicando el método de análisis de participación constante de mercado, los resultados que se obtuvieron muestran que las exportaciones de chile seco de México han crecido fuertemente, con una tendencia de crecimiento muy variable, por otro lado los...

  9. Migración y Mercado Laboral en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Contreras; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle; Paulina Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Los últimos procesos migratorios que ha vivido Chile han despertado el interés respecto a los efectos de la inmigración sobre la economía del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y analizar los efectos de la inmigración sobre el mercado laboral en Chile y la situación de los migrantes en el mercado laboral local. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta CASEN 2006 y 2009, y los datos de Extranjería del Ministerio del Interior y del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, encontramos que ...

  10. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Hearne, Robert R.; Easter, K. William

    1997-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limari, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limari valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993, were analyzed to determine the gains-from-trade from market transfers. In the economic and financial analysis of water markets, crop budgets wer...

  11. Entendiendo las brechas salariales por genero en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Perticara; Ivonne Bueno

    2008-01-01

    El propósito de este paper es estudiar las brechas salariales por género en Chile usando una nueva base de datos, la Encuesta de Protección Social 2002-2006, la que permite controlar por la experiencia laboral efectiva y el timming de dicha experiencia. Las variables de experiencia laboral potencial no reflejan el patrón de participación laboral intermitente y poco continuo que tienen las mujeres en Chile. Se introducen también correcciones por selección ocupacional y se instrumentan dos vari...

  12. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  13. Lumbar pedicle screw placement: Using only AP plane imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Placement of pedicle screws under fluoroscopic guidance using AP plane imaging alone with tactile guidance is safe, fast, and reliable. However, a good understanding of the radiographic landmarks is a prerequisite.

  14. Testing of the AP600 automatic depressurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) of the Westinghouse AP600 reactor will be used to provide controlled depressurization of the reactor coolant system (RCS). This will, in turn allow the initiation and long term operation of gravity driven cooling flow in the RCS. ADS tests were conducted at the VAPORE test facility in Casaccia, Italy through a Technical Cooperation Agreement between Westinghouse, ENEA, SOPREN/ANSALDO, and ENEL to produce data for the development and verification of computer codes to simulate the system. The test program also provided insights about the operation of valves supplied from various vendors that could be used in the AP600 ADS. The data gathered from the tests showed the ability of the ADS design to fulfill its function over the range of conditions expected in the AP600. The tests also demonstrated the abilities of gate and globe valves from several vendors to initiate and terminate an ADS blowdown as could be required in the AP600

  15. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades

  16. Scaling of the AP600 containment large scale test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Scale Test (LST) Facility is an integral effects test facility which provides experimental data for validation of heat and mass transfer correlations used in WGOTHIC, the analysis code for the AP600 containment atmosphere. The LST tests consist of a series of pressurization transients in a 1/8th scale containment vessel with simulated internal heat sinks and passive containment cooling system (PCCS). These pressurization transients provide a range of transient as well as steady state data. To establish the applicability of the LST data as an integral effects facility to the AP600 containment; top-down, system-level scaling and bottom-up scaling similar to that described by Zuber (Hierarchical, Two-Tiered Scaling Methodology, 1991) were used to license the AP600 containment. Top-down, system-level scaling applied to the AP600 containment and the LST facility is the focus of this paper. Since pressure is the parameter of primary importance for the AP600 containment, the top-down, system-level scaling effort focuses on physical phenomena or processes such as heat and mass transfer. A detailed order of magnitude analysis by Spencer et al. (1997) has shown break mass-energy release, convection heat transfer, and mass transfer (condensation and evaporation) to be the dominant phenomena associated with the AP600 passive containment. To capture the aggregate influence (on pressure) of these dominant phenomena inside the AP600 containment, a simplified Rate of Pressure Change (RPC) equation is used. Variables in this equation are normalized using reference values associated with containment. The resulting coefficients in the non-dimensional RPC equation represent scaling groups which are numerically evaluated for AP600 and the LST. By comparing the magnitude of the ratios of the scaling groups for AP600 and LST, the applicability of LST data to AP600 is quantitatively assessed to judge whether the test facility is adequately scaled. Scaling ratios within the

  17. Analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the first part of a three-part report describing the analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108 which is located at the Hanford Reservation.This document is the analytical laboratory data package entitled 'Analysis and Characterization of Double Shell Tank 241-AP-108' which contains a case sampling history, the sampling protocols, the analytical procedures, sampling and analysis quality assurance and quality control measures, and chemical analysis results for samples obtained from the tank

  18. AP1000 design adaptation to European Markets and EUR compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP1000 plant is an 1100-MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. One of the key approaches in the AP1000 design is to use passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. In addition to redundancy, these features incorporate diversity based on PRA insights. The AP1000 design has incorporated a standardization approach, which together with the level of safety achieved by the passive safety features, results in a plant design that can be applied to different geographical regions with varying regulatory standards and utility expectations without major changes. Westinghouse has cooperated for almost 2 decades with European utilities to ensure adaptation of the AP1000 design to European market. The AP1000 50 Hz standard design (also referred to as European Passive Standard) is the resulting adaptation of the AP1000 design to European market needs and requirements, addressing both customer input from the EPP program and regulatory needs identified in the UK GDA process. This standard 50 Hz design retains the overall AP1000 design (safe, simple, standard), the use of proven components and its cost, safety and operability advantages, while it incorporates some changes to adapt to the European environment. In this paper, the key changes incorporated into the AP1000 50 Hz design are discussed, including: -) Adaptation of the electrical systems and Turbine adaptation from 60 Hz to 50 Hz, including approach to IEC vs IEEE compliance; -) Modifications to defense in depth (US class D, European Class 2) and other systems to simplify European licensing and address customer requirements; -) Option for adoption of KSB RUV type Main Reactor Coolant Pumps; -) Limited design adaptations in the areas of instrumentation-control and ventilation and filtration to adapt to European requirements and simplify the licensing process

  19. AP1000 radiation monitoring system design and engineering solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It presents the design concept and solution, including system integration architecture, communication network design and monitoring software of Radiation Monitoring System in Sanmen and Haiyang AP1000 nuclear power plant. The design of AP1000 radiation monitoring system has been simplified comparing to general Pressurized Water Reactor. Radiation monitoring network is composed of the radiation monitoring computer system (CRPS-1000) and four kinds of radiation monitors through standard interface. The data of radiation monitoring system are monitored and managed by CRPS-1000. (authors)

  20. AP-102/104 Retrieval control system qualification test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-05-18

    This Qualification Test Procedure documents the results of the qualification testing that was performed on the Project W-211, ''Initial Tank Retrieval Systems,'' retrieval control system (RCS) for tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. The results confirm that the RCS has been programmed correctly and that the two related hardware enclosures have been assembled in accordance with the design documents.

  1. The Dushak–Erekdag Survey of roAp Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tatyana Dorokhova; Nikolay Dorokhov

    2005-06-01

    The search of roAp stars at Mt. Dushak–Erekdag Observatory was started in 1992 using the 0.8m Odessa telescope equipped with a two-star high-speed photometer. We have observed more than a dozen stars so far and discovered HD 99563 as roAp star while BD+8087 is suspected to have rapid oscillations. Negative results of our observations for the search of rapid oscillations in four stars in NGC 752 are also discussed.

  2. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  3. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  4. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D. González-Acuña; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L.; Castro, D.

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  5. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel González-Acuña; Carolina Silva; Marta Soto; Sergei Mironov; Lucila Moreno; González-Gómez, Paulina L.; Hasan Badrul; Mike Kinsella

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile). Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp.) and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis). The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites r...

  6. 45-Day safety screening report for grab samples from Tank 241-AP-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples; 107-AP-1C, 107-AP-2c and 107-AP-3C; were received at 222-S Laboratory for analysis of DSC, TGA and visual appearance. Four additional samples; 107-AP-1D, 107-AP-2D, 107-AP-3D and 107-AP-6; were received for visual appearance only. No results exceeded the safety screen notification criteria. This report compiles the analytical results. Tank 241-AP-107 is a double-shell tank which is not on any of the four Watch Lists

  7. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  8. Approaching acquisition path analysis formally. A comparison between AP and nonAP states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, the IAEA has planned its activities mainly based on the presence of nuclear material. However, resources should be spent where they are needed most. Therefore, a new risk model was developed to change the inspection system to a comprehensive, objective‑driven approach where the State is considered as a whole, the so called State‑level concept (SLC). Acquisition path analysis (APA) is a key element of the State‑level concept. By considering the State’s nuclear profile, the APA generates a list of acquisition paths ranked by their attractiveness for the State. Currently, this process is mainly based on expert judgment. However, the IAEA’s requirements state that APA must be objective, reproducible, transparent, standardized, documented and as a result non‑discriminatory. A formal approach fulfilling the requirements was set up by the authors in the past [1]. This methodology is based on a three step approach. The process starts in the first step with the parametrization of the network. In the second step, the network is analyzed in order find all acquisition paths for a State. Finally, game theory is used in the third step to model the decisions made by the IAEA and the State. In this paper, an advanced methodology will be presented. Improvements were made in the interface definition between the three stages. Also, the general network model was updated and the automatic visualization of acquisition paths was accomplished. Furthermore, a prototype implementation will be shown. The advanced methodology was applied to two test non‑nuclear weapon States under comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA. Both States hold complex fuel cycles with only small technical differences. However,only one State is supposed to have the additional protocol (AP) in force. The example will show how the presence of the AP influences the detection probabilities of illegal behavior. As a consequence, these examples also indicate where to best focus

  9. National Television of Chile--New headquarters building acoustic projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaquin, Mario

    2002-11-01

    In the last 15 years TV stations in Chile have been incorporating in their facilities architectural acoustic and noise control approaches. This has been necessary as much for the technological advance, as for the necessity to achieve a better quality of sound that the listeners receive. In 1998, the National Television of Chile, with the sponsorship of the College of Architects of Chile, requested preliminary architectural designs in order to enlarge and to renovate its headquarters buildings in Santiago, Chile in stages. The Acoustic Project has been developed in an integral way, with three fundamental disciplines: noise and noise control; Machine rooms; vibrations and vibration control; Buildings, engines; architectural acoustics and acoustic comfort; TV studios and technical rooms. This presentation describes the Acoustic Project, phases I (1999), and II (2002), how it was possible to establish a common language with architects and engineers and the different specialties, to apply acoustic criteria and standards, the theoretical development and the projected acoustic solutions. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  10. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  11. Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960 (19:11 UTC), a Mw 9.5 earthquake occurred in southern Chile (39.5 S, 74.5 W). This was the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded. (It was...

  12. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA. PMID:24861179

  13. Popular Education for Peasant Communities in Chile. Chapter 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante R., Isabel; Letelier G., Eugenia

    The rural population of Chile has been served poorly by the formal educational system, rural educational attainment lags behind that of urban areas, and outmigration and alienation of rural youth are high. In the past decade, popular education has attempted to educate rural people and put them in control of their destinies by drawing on popular…

  14. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  15. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique kn...

  16. Reshaping Power Markets-Lessons from Chile and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, R. Peter; García, Hernán

    1996-01-01

    Power sector reforms in Chile and Argentina are now roughly fourteen and four years old. In both countries, restructuring and deregulation have increased efficiency, led to active entry by new generators, improved the quality of supply, and reduced prices in real terms. The authors' review of experience in both systems confirms that policymakers must apply effective measures to introduce a...

  17. Gender Effects of Social Security Reform in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Edwards, Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    In 1981 Chile replaced a mature government-run social security system that operated on a pay-as-you-go basis with a privately managed system based on individual retirement accounts. The new system is more fiscally sustainable because pension benefits are defined by contributions. The minimum pension guaranteed to beneficiaries with at least 20 years is funded from general taxes, preserving...

  18. 75 FR 11583 - The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...

  19. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  1. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2014-01-01

    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

  2. Towards a Vision for Agricultural Innovation in Chile in 2030

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a vision statement for the agricultural sector that may then guide the future investments in Chile's agricultural innovation system, A joint and shared perspective on how the sector might look and what role agricultural innovation should play in getting there is a prerequisite for any effective strategy. But developing such a vision is not only a function of what...

  3. Chile : A Strategy to Promote Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study is to provide the Government of Chile with a review of the portfolio of small and medium enterprise (SMEs) development programs and the institutions that provide them, leading to recommendations to improve the effectiveness of a streamlined portfolio. This emphasis is important for economic reasons, given the sectors role in employment, and the possibility of improving its integration ...

  4. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  5. DNA cleavage at the AP site via β-elimination mediated by the AP site-binding ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yukiko S; Sasaki, Shigeki

    2016-02-15

    DNA is continuously damaged by endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidation and alkylation. In the base excision repair pathway, the damaged nucleobases are removed by DNA N-glycosylase to form the abasic sites (AP sites). The alkylating antitumor agent exhibits cytotoxicity through the formation of the AP site. Therefore blockage or modulation of the AP site repair pathway may enhance the antitumor efficacy of DNA alkylating agents. In this study, we have examined the effects of the nucleobase-polyamine conjugated ligands (G-, A-, C- and T-ligands) on the cleavage of the AP site. The G- and A-ligands cleaved DNA at the AP site by promoting β-elimination in a non-selective manner by the G-ligand, and in a selective manner for the opposing dT by the A-ligand. These results suggest that the nucleobase-polyamine conjugate ligands may have the potential for enhancement of the cytotoxicities of the AP site. PMID:26777298

  6. HD 41641: A classical δ Sct-type pulsator with chemical signatures of an Ap star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorza, A.; Zwintz, K.; Tkachenko, A.; Van Reeth, T.; Ryabchikova, T.; Neiner, C.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Michel, E.; Baglin, A.; Aerts, C.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Among the known groups of pulsating stars, δ Sct stars are one of the least understood. Theoretical models do not predict the oscillation frequencies that observations reveal. Complete asteroseismic studies are necessary to improve these models and better understand the internal structure of these targets. Aims: We study the δ Sct star HD 41641 with the ultimate goal of understanding its oscillation pattern. Methods: The target was simultaneously observed by the CoRoT space telescope and the HARPS high-resolution spectrograph. The photometric data set was analyzed with the software package PERIOD04, while FAMIAS was used to analyze the line profile variations. The method of spectrum synthesis was used for spectroscopically determining the fundamental atmospheric parameters and individual chemical abundances. Results: A total of 90 different frequencies was identified and analyzed. An unambiguous identification of the azimuthal order of the surface geometry could only be provided for the dominant p-mode, which was found to be a nonradial prograde mode with m = +1. Using Teff and log g, we estimated the mass, radius, and evolutionary stage of HD 41641. We find HD 41641 to be a moderately rotating, slightly evolved δ Sct star with subsolar overall atmospheric metal content and unexpected chemical peculiarities. Conclusions: HD 41641 is a pure δ Sct pulsator with p-mode frequencies in the range from 10 d-1 to 20 d-1. This pulsating star presents chemical signatures of an Ap star and rotational modulation due to surface inhomogeneities, which we consider indirect evidence of the presence of a magnetic field. The CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain.This work uses ground-based spectroscopic observations made with the HARPS instrument at the 3.6 m-ESO telescope (La Silla, Chile) under the Large Program 185.D-0056.

  7. An alternatively spliced mRNA from the AP-2 gene encodes a negative regulator of transcriptional activation by AP-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Buettner, R; Kannan, P; Imhof, A.; Bauer, R.; Yim, S O; Glockshuber, R; Van Dyke, M W; Tainsky, M A

    1993-01-01

    AP-2 is a retinoic acid-inducible and developmentally regulated activator of transcription. We have cloned an alternative AP-2 transcript (AP-2B) from the human teratocarcinoma cell line PA-1, which encodes a protein differing in the C terminus from the previously isolated AP-2 protein (AP-2A). This protein contains the activation domain of AP-2 and part of the DNA binding domain but lacks the dimerization domain which is necessary for DNA binding. Analysis of overlapping genomic clones spann...

  8. AP@home: The Artificial Pancreas Is Now at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz; Benesch, Carsten; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-07-01

    In the past years the development of an artificial pancreas (AP) has made great progress and many activities are ongoing in this area of research. The major step forward made in the last years was moving the evaluation of AP systems from highly controlled experimental conditions to daily life conditions at the home of patients with diabetes; this was also the aim of the European Union-funded AP@home project. Over a time period of 5 years a series of clinical studies were performed that culminated in 2 "final studies" during which an AP system was used by patients in their home environment for 2 or 3 months without supervision by a physician, living their normal lives. Two different versions of the AP system developed within this project were evaluated. A significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin was observed during closed-loop conditions despite the fact that during the control period the patients used the best currently available therapeutic option. In addition, a "single-port AP system" was developed within the project that combines continuous glucose monitoring and insulin infusion at a single tissue site. By using such a combined device the patients not only have to carry one less device around, the number of access points through the skin is also reduced from 2 to 1. In summary, close cooperation of 12 European partners, both academic centers and industry, enabled the development and evaluation of AP systems under daily life conditions. The next step is to develop these into products in cooperation with commercial partners. PMID:26888971

  9. AP1000 - the new standard for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The AP1000 is the only Generation III+ reactor to receive Final Design Approval (FDA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and is expected to receive its Design Certification by the end of the year. Building on the proven features of current generation nuclear plants, the AP1000 combines experience with innovation into a design that surpasses current standards of safety and reliability. Use of passive safety features results in a simpler and more compact design that enhances safety, simplifies O and M requirements, and reduces capital and operating costs. At 1117 Mwe, the AP1000 is well suited for almost any grid system and will be fully competitive with combined-cycle gas and comparable fossil fuel plants. The AP1000 is ready to help launch a renaissance in new nuclear plant construction throughout the world. Maturity of Design: In excess of 1300 man-years and $400 million in development funding have been expended on the AP1000. It has undergone extensive, part scale testing at the system, sub-system and component level, in addition to a series of part scale integrated tests. The AP1000 is the most analyzed of the next generation reactors. Simplicity of Design/Economics: The AP1000 uses simplified and innovative passive safety systems to an unprecedented extent. Simplified passive safety systems provide reliable operation, reduced capital costs, and enhanced plant safety with large plant operating margins. The AP1000 features improved reliability through simplicity rather than addition of redundant safety trains. This simpler design is easier and less costly to operate and maintain than larger, more complex plants, while less equipment and smaller buildings translate into lower capital costs and shorter construction durations. After construction, economic benefit will be found in reduced operating and maintenance costs, largely due to reduced operating and maintenance staffing requirements. Construction aspects

  10. Antecedentes sobre el desarrollo de la carcinología en Chile Background of carcinology progress in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Jara

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile continental la utilización de los crustáceos se remonta al menos a 10.200 años atrás. Sin embargo, la descripción formal de los componentes de la carcinofauna chilena se inició hace alrededor de 200 años, reconociéndose a Juan I. Molina como el primer naturalista nacional y el primero en asignar nombres científicos a crustáceos de este país. El desarrollo de la carcinología en Chile es obra de un vasto conjunto de especialistas extranjeros y nacionales. Entre los extranjeros destacan viajeros como el inglés Charles R. Darwin, quien contribuyó al conocimiento de los cirripedios; el francés Alcide D'Orbigny, primero en describir decápodos fósiles de Chile; y el alemán Eduard Poeppig, a quien se debe la temprana descripción de decápodos marinos y dulceacuícolas. Entre las expediciones extranjeras destacan la del buque británico H.M.S."Challenger", la de la Universidad de Lund (Suecia a Chile y la más reciente del B/I alemán "Victor Hensen" a Magallanes. Entre los naturalistas chilenos destacan Claudio Gay, Rodulfo A. Philippi, Carlos E. Porter y Nibaldo Bahamonde, todos ellos relacionados con el Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y el último reconocido como el más importante promotor del desarrollo contemporáneo de la carcinología en Chile. Hoy el conocimiento de la carcinofauna chilena de decápodos puede considerarse relativamente completo a nivel de taxonomía alfa, pero es preliminar en relación con la biología y ecología de la mayor parte de las especiesAlthough the utilization of crustaceans in continental Chile is at least 10,200 years old, the formal description of the components of the Chilean carcinofauna only began about 200 years ago; Juan I. Molina having being the first Chilean naturalist to scientifically name autochtonous crustacean species. Many foreign and national scientists have contributed, with their efforts, to the development of carcinology in Chile. Among the foreigners we find

  11. Learning through delivery, Westinghouse AP1000 plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP1000 plant, which is a 1100 MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features, is designed around a conventional 2 loop, 2 steam generator primary system configuration with 2 hot legs, 4 reactor coolant pumps directly mounted in the steam generator lower head and 4 cold legs. A particular feature of AP1000 is its modular construction to minimize the time and cost of construction. Modular construction allows activities to be run in parallel, it allows more activities to be performed in a controlled factory instead of in the field, and it provides a better level of quality. The AP1000 plant design includes 106 structural modules and 52 mechanical modules. Structural modules include all penetrations for piping, cable trays, HVAC duct runs, and all reinforcement for pipe, equipment hangers, and supports. Structural modules are shipped in sub-modules to support transportation by rail or truck or barge. Mechanical modules contain equipment such as pumps, tanks, heat exchangers, air-handling units, and filters along with interconnecting pipes, valves, instruments, wiring and support services. Modular construction requires strong coordination between engineering, supply chain and construction. A total of 8 AP1000 units are currently under construction in China and in the United States. The lessons learned and best practices of each new AP1000 construction are systematically incorporated into the standard design. (A.C.)

  12. Past, Present, and Future of AP Chemistry: A Brief History of Course and Exam Alignment Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrogan, Serena

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program's commitment to continually enhance alignment with current best practices in college-level learning, the AP Program is currently evaluating and redesigning courses and exams, one of which launched during the 2013-2014 academic school year: AP chemistry. The history of the AP chemistry course and…

  13. AP Report to the Nation: A Closer Look at the Nation and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtell, Ellen A.; Gillie, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Patricia Z.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2012, the College Board published The 8th Annual AP Report to the Nation. This session provides a deeper dive into key information for the United States with an emphasis on Florida, and participants hear how one school in Florida utilizes AP Potential™ to help build their AP Program. Participants also learn about AP participation and…

  14. Vibration analysis of primary air pump JE01 AP003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JE01 AP003 primary coolant pump is one of the main components in the safe operation of the reactor so that needs to be done early detection of damage types and levels of its constituent components. The main components of the pump that is often damaged bearing. The purpose of this paper is to know the symptoms of bearing damage and the level of damage based on vibration analysis. One indication of the bearing has been damaged, that is the vibration or temperature rise in the bearing. One way to detect early symptoms of damage to the pump is to use the vibration response peak Based on the analysis of the measurement results cited the obtained results that the primary coolant pump JE01 AP003 has been damage to a free end looseness bearing with moderate levels of damage. Need JE01 AP003 bearing replacement even though the damage is not severe. (author)

  15. Containment integrity analysis for the Westinghouse Advanced AP600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987, Westinghouse has been performing containment cooling analyses in support of the advanced AP600 plant design. This analysis effort was intended to verify the feasibility of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) features of the AP600 design, which is being jointly developed by Westinghouse, Burns and Roe Company, and Avondale Industries. To support this goal, the response of the AP600 containment has been analyzed for a large-break loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and for a large steam line break (SLB). These cases were chosen based on the characteristic mass and energy releases each scenario would impose on the containment, with LOCA releases taxing the long-term heat-removal aspects while the SLB release typically defines the limiting short-term response. The transient results indicate that the PCCS design is feasible and capable of removing sufficient heat to limit containment pressure to within acceptable limits

  16. Experience with the EPICS PV Gateway at the APS

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The EPICS PV Gateway has become a stable, high-performance application that provides access to process variables while minimizing the impact on critical IOCs and implementing additional access security. The additional access security typically prevents write access but is highly configurable. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently uses 40 Gateways running on 11 machines to provide access to the machine network from the offices and for the individual experimental teams. These include reverse Gateways that allow administration of all 40 APS Gateways from a single MEDM screen, even though the Gateways are running on separate networks. This administration includes starting, stopping, making and viewing reports, and viewing and editing access security files. There is one Gateway that provides process variable renaming. This paper provides an overview of the Gateways at the APS and describes the procedures that have been set up to use and administer them.

  17. PKA-activated ApAF–ApC/EBP heterodimer is a key downstream effector of ApCREB and is necessary and sufficient for the consolidation of long-term facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Jin-A; Lee, Sue-Hyun; Lee, Changhoon; Chang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Yong; Kim, Hyoung; Cheang, Ye-Hwang; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Lee, Yong-Seok; Jun, Heejung; Bartsch, Dusan; Kandel, Eric R.; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2006-01-01

    Long-term memory requires transcriptional regulation by a combination of positive and negative transcription factors. Aplysia activating factor (ApAF) is known to be a positive transcription factor that forms heterodimers with ApC/EBP and ApCREB2. How these heterodimers are regulated and how they participate in the consolidation of long-term facilitation (LTF) has not, however, been characterized. We found that the functional activation of ApAF required phosphorylation of ApAF by PKA on Ser-2...

  18. Autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegia caused by AP4M1 and AP4B1 gene mutation: expansion of the facial and neuroimaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Bilguvar, Kaya; Koçer, Naci; Yalçınkaya, Cengiz; Çağlayan, Okay; Gül, Ece; Sahin, Sezgin; Çomu, Sinan; Günel, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP4) is a component of intracellular transportation of proteins, which is thought to have a unique role in neurons. Recently, mutations affecting all four subunits of AP4 (AP4M1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4B1) have been found to cause similar autosomal recessive phenotype consisting of tetraplegic cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was analyzing AP4 genes in three new families with this phenotype, and discussing their clinical findings with an emphasis on neuroimaging and facial features. Using homozygosity mapping followed by whole-exome sequencing, we identified two novel homozygous mutations in AP4M1 and a homozygous deletion in AP4B1 in three pairs of siblings. Spastic tetraplegia, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, limited speech, and stereotypic laughter were common findings in our patients. All patients also had similar facial features consisting of coarse and hypotonic face, bitemporal narrowing, bulbous nose with broad nasal ridge, and short philtrum which were not described in patients with AP4M1 and AP4B1 mutations previously. The patients presented here and previously with AP4M1, AP4B1, and AP4E1 mutations shared brain abnormalities including asymmetrical ventriculomegaly, thin splenium of the corpus callosum, and reduced white matter volume. The patients also had hippocampal globoid formation and thin hippocampus. In conclusion, disorders due to mutations in AP4 complex have similar neurological, facial, and cranial imaging findings. Thus, these four genes encoding AP4 subunits should be screened in patients with autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegic cerebral palsy, severe intellectual disability, and stereotypic laughter, especially with the described facial and cranial MRI features. PMID:24700674

  19. Transcriptional Regulation of the AP-2α Promoter by BTEB-1 and AP-2rep, a Novel wt-1/egr-Related Zinc Finger Repressor

    OpenAIRE

    Imhof, Axel; Schuierer, Marion; Werner, Oliver; Moser, Markus; Roth, Christina; Bauer, Reinhard; BUETTNER, REINHARD

    1999-01-01

    AP-2 transcription factors have been suggested to exert key regulatory functions in vertebrate embryonic development, in tumorigenicity of various cancer cell types, and in controlling cell cycle and apoptotic effector genes. In this study, we investigated transcriptional regulation of the AP-2α gene promoter mediated by an autoregulatory element (referred to as A32) with a core consensus AP-2 binding site at position −336 relative to the mRNA initiation site. AP-2 and multiple different nucl...

  20. Preliminary study on operational transient analysis for AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical operational transients have been analyzed with RELAP5 code for AP1000 NPP, in which the reactor power control system was simulated, including Reactor Control System (RECS), Rapid Power Reduction (RPR), Steam Dump Control System (SDCS), Feedwater Control System (FWCS), Pressurizer Pressure Control System (PPCS) and Pressurizer Level Control System (PLCS). It indicates that the plant control system is effective to bring the plant into a safe steady state without actuation of reactor protection system under the representative operational transient, only depends upon the plant control system adjustment. Analysis results show that the design requirement will be met for AP1000 operational transient. (authors)

  1. Analysis of the planning and scheduling functionality in APS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger-Jensen, Kenn; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2001-10-01

    The paper discusses the basic functionality of planning and scheduling in Advanced Planning and Scheduling systems (APS). Three basic planning options - unconstrained planning, constrained planning and optimization are analyzed by use of theory and examples based on test of an APS system. Even though the planning functionality are radically improved compared to MRP and MRP II, the balance between the objectives are found to be too rigid. This conclusion is based on a number of examples, comparing the outcome of different objectives such as constraints based planning versus optimized planning.

  2. SN 2002ap, the hypernova of class Ic

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, S. B.; Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C.; Bhattacharya, D; Sagar, Ram

    2003-01-01

    The supernova SN 2002ap was discovered in the outer regions of the nearby spiral M74 on January 29.4 UT. Early photometric and spectroscopic observations indicate the supernova belongs to the class of Ic hypernova. Late time (After JD 2452500) light curve decay slopes are similar to that of the hypernovae SN 1997ef and SN 1998bw. We present here the $BVRI$ photometric light curves and colour evolutions of SN 2002ap to investigate the late time nature of the light curve.

  3. Status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2856-MHz S-band, electron-positron linear accelerator (linac) has been constructed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It is the source of particles and the injector for the other APS accelerators, and linac commissioning is well underway. The linac is operated 24 hours per day to support linac beam studies and rf conditioning, as well as positron accumulator ring and synchrotron commissioning studies. The design goal for accelerated positron current is 8-mA, and has been met. Maximum positron energy to date is 420-MeV, approaching the design goal of 450-MeV. The linac design and its performance are discussed

  4. Miniature Autonomous Star Tracker Based on CMOS APS

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Dong; Zheng, You; Fei, Xing; Qin, Chou

    2006-01-01

    An APS (Active Pixel Sensor) based autonomous star tracker (AAST) has been proposed for small satellite and microsatellite attitude determination. A prototype of AAST has been developed. It has low mass of 1kg, low power of 3W, high rate up to 5Hz, and acquisition success rate of higher than 99.9%. The improvements in dimensions and performances are realized with the replacement of the CCD (Charge Coupled Device) by the APS. The optical design of the prototype is based on PSF (Point Spread Fu...

  5. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile. PMID:27187810

  6. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  7. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2014-01-01

    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...

  8. Berberine inhibits cyclin D1 expression via suppressed binding of AP-1 transcription factors to CCND1 AP-1 motif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye LUO; Yu HAO; Tai-ping SHI; Wei-wei DENG; Na LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To verify the suppressive effect of berberine on the proliferation of the human pulmonary giant cell carcinoma cell line PG and to demonstrate the mecha-nisms behind the antitumoral effects of berberine. Methods: The proliferative effects of PG cells were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetry. The cell cycle was examined by flow cytometry. The expression level of cyclin D1 was detected by RT-PCR. The activities of the activating protein-1 (AP-1) and NF-κB signaling pathways related to cyclin D1 were examined by luciferase assay. The cytoplasmic level of c-Jun was detected by Western blot analysis. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to examiae the binding of transcription factors to the cyclin D1 gene (CCNDl) AP-1 motif. Results: The results showed that the proliferation of PG cells treated with different concentrations (10, 20, and 40 μg/mL) of berberine for 24 and 48 h was suppressed significantly compared to the control group. After treatment with berberine, the proportion of PG cells at the G0/G1 phase increased, while cells at the S and G2/M phases decreased. Berberine could inhibit the expression of cyclin D1 in PG cells. Berberine inhibited the activity of the AP-1 signaling pathway, but had no significant effect on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Berberine suppressed the expression of c-Jun and decreased the binding of tran-scription factors to the CCND1 AP-1 motif. Conclusion: Berberine suppresses the activity of the AP-1 signaling pathway and decreases the binding of transcrip-tion factors to the CCND1 AP-1 motif. This is one of the important mechanisms behind the antitumoral effects of berberine as a regulator of cyclin D1.

  9. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  10. El estado de la seguridad ciudadana en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    de Rementería, Ibán

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo desarrolla, desde una perspectiva crítica, un detallado “estado del arte” de la temática de “seguridad ciudadana” en Chile, delineando cómo esta problemática obedece más bien a una percepción de inseguridad instalada en la ciudadanía desde los medios de comunicación, y legitimada por los expertos interesados en asegurar la sostenibilidad de sus servicios en el emergente “mercado de la seguridad.” Se sostiene en el ensayo que en Chile la situación de seguridad ciudadana es la mej...

  11. Reforma educativa y política en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two important educational reforms introduced since the return to democracy in Chile. The first one was targeted at the poorest 10% of schools in Chile. The second was a fundamental reform of the primary educational sector. Both have been successful in meeting their objectives, and mark a fundamental shift from the educational reforms of the Pinochet government. The reasons for the success of the reforms are broken down into political, institutional and operational factors. In essence, a small team of trained educational reformers, with widespread support and strong backing from the Minister of Education and the President were able to overcome the resistance of the bureaucrats of the Ministry of Education and that of the school teachers union.

  12. [Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelart, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America. PMID:12261387

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  14. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio MANCILLA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual. Algunos resultados indican que el tiempo de residencia, forma legal de ingreso al país, nivel educacional y experiencia previa de emprendimiento, influyen en la probabilidad de crear una actividad empresarial.

  15. [Adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile, 1968-1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E; Albala, C; Icaza, G

    1994-12-01

    "The paper starts with a brief analysis of the sources and the quality of the data and the mortality indices [for trends in adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile]....A comparison is made of mortality among the 13 regions of the country and an attempt is made to relate the observed differences to some environmental and life-style factors. Rural-urban and educational differences of mortality by cause of death are also analyzed. The paper ends by comparing mortality by chronic disease in Chile with that of other countries of the Latin American region, noting some difficulties [in] such a comparison and proposing hypotheses for future studies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12290226

  16. Variables perceptuales y emprendimiento naciente en Chile: oportunidad versus necesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon Sabatini, Joaquin; Franetovic Parker, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    In this work we seek to assess how perception variables affect on the timely decision to undertake in Chile, measured by the nascent entrepreneurship, ie, those entrepreneurs who are starting a new business, including any form of self-employment or commersialisation of all types of goods or services. This, controlling for other relevant variables of demographic and economic nature . It seems particularly interesting to quantify how affect self-confidence, perception of opportunity, fear of fa...

  17. Growth, Poverty and Employment in Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Zepeda; Diana Alarcón; Fabio Veras Soares; Rafael Guerreiro Osório

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient labour income and limited access to employment are critical problems that policy makers must address when designing development strategies in Latin American countries. The persistence of the high incidence of poverty and inequality can be explained largely by the poor performance of labour markets. This Working Paper uses household survey data for Chile, Brazil and Mexico, from the early 1990s to the early 2000s, to examine the link between the growth of labour income, employment...

  18. Physical dating violence among college students in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2007-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health concern both per se and because victimization in the young adult years can be a precursor to more severe incidents of domestic violence later, in the context of cohabitation or marriage. To date, no quantitative studies have examined dating violence among college students in Chile. To address this gap, a survey on this topic was administered to students at a major public university. The present analyses focused on the female sample (n=441). Generaliz...

  19. Peer Effects and Relative Performance of Voucher Schools in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Sapelli; Bernardita Vial

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of vouchers has been hindered by the lack of sufficient empirical evidence. The Chilean education voucher system was established at a national scale and has data for more than 15 years. The empirical literature developed to evaluate the voucher system in Chile faced methodological and/or data limitations up until late 1999, since there was no individual data available, and papers used the school as a unit of study. Additionally, the studies l...

  20. ESTATISMO Y NEOLIBERALISMO: UN CONTRAPUNTO MILITAR CHILE 1973-1979

    OpenAIRE

    VERÓNICA VALDIVIA ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE

    2001-01-01

    This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between t...

  1. Employment Generation, Firm Size, and Innovation in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Alvarez; José Miguel Benavente; Rolando Campusano; Conrado Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    This paper compiles and analyzes several sources of information to shed light on the relationship between innovation and employment growth in the manufacturing industry in Chile in the last 15 years. Our overall conclusions are that process innovation is generally not found to be a relevant determinant of employment growth, and that product innovation is usually positively associated with an expansion in employment. These results seem to be similar regardless of firm size and hold for both lo...

  2. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global markets. Despite this support, a declining number of farmers and an aging population are observed in rural areas. Most rural development programs focus on increasing competitiveness, whereas the stay...

  3. Reviews of National Policies for Education : Tertiary Education in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón, Maria Paulina; Crawford, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tertiary education in Chile has been transformed radically over the past 20 years. As recently as 1990, tertiary education was an elite system centered on a handful of traditional universities which served a small number of well-prepared students. Today the system is diverse and dynamic, with over 6,000 programs of study offered by more than 200 institutions. More than 800,000 students are...

  4. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ...

  5. REASONS FOR CONGLOMERATION: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT RESPONSES IN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE TARZIJÁN M; JOSÉ RIVERA

    2000-01-01

    This paper is intended to contribute to the understanding of the motivations behind the diversification decisions of the Chilean “economic groups”. With this objective we surveyed the largest such groups in Chile. Our results show that the most important reasons for diversification for the top management of the Chilean business groups are managerial synergies (board of directors), financial synergies, information synergies and some specific operational synergies such as economies of scope in ...

  6. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  7. Price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Saens; Germán Lobos

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of a road pricing scheme to optimize the use of transport infrastructure depends on the available information regarding the price elasticity of demand for bridges, tunnels and highways. The aim of this paper is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile using the seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) method and a panel of 48 monthly data drawn from 21 toll plazas (48 x 21). Our results show that, even when controlling for gasoline prices and economic act...

  8. Eighty Years of History of the Central Bank of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Leonardo Hernández

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Chile was founded in 1925, to provide the country with an institution that could stabilize the currency, regulate interest and discount rates, and avoid disruptions in the country’s financial, industrial and economic development (Decree Law Nº486, August 22, 1925). But a weak institutional framework meant that the Bank, far from ameliorating these problems, aggravated them, leading to decades of high and persistent inflation. Inflation became under control only during the ...

  9. Talcahuano, Chile, in the wake of the 2010 disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Because of Chile’s geographical position, earthquakes and tsunamis are recurrent phenomena and reducing vulnerability to these events is imperative. To do this, one needs to understand the geophysical features of the hazards involved and the vulnerability that exposed communities live with. This article presents some unexpected findings of a research regarding the latter and devised to investigate the vulnerability realities that the devastating 2010 earthquake/tsunami event in Chile exposed....

  10. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Robles Farías

    2015-01-01

    Chile has a long history of implementing social policies. It was one of the first countries in Latin America to expand free health care coverage and education, incorporating cash and in-kind transfers to promote access to social services and offer diverse protection mechanisms for its most vulnerable population groups. That said, its current social protection model is the result of a series of efforts, institutions and policies that have been consolidated over time.(?)

  11. Business Incubator Financing and Financial Services in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Chandra; Magda Narczewska

    2009-01-01

    Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 20-25 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to organize risk...

  12. Heterogeneous Economic Returns to Postsecondary Degrees: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Loreto Reyes; Jorge Rodríguez; Sergio S. Urzúa

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the economic returns to different postsecondary degrees in Chile. We posit a schooling decision model with unobserved ability, observed test scores and labor market outcomes. We benefit from administrative records to carry out our empirical strategy. Our results show positive average returns to postsecondary degrees, especially for five-year degrees. However, we also uncover a large fraction of individuals with realized negative net returns. Although psychic benefits of postseconda...

  13. Residential Segregation Effects on Poor’s Opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Larrañaga Jiménez; Claudia Sanhueza Riveros

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify whether or not the spatial concentration of poverty –also called economic residential segregation- affects the opportunities of the poor in Chile. Residential segregation is understood as the concentration particular population groups in determined geographical areas within cities. To identify the effects of segregation we use a panel of cross sections of the Casen household surveys, although the measures of segregation are computed from the Census data. The result...

  14. Desigualdades sociales y tipos de territorios en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Las desigualdades sociales en Chile incluyen desigualdades territoriales que permanecen no observadas cuando se enfoca exclusivamente las regiones administrativas. Un conjunto entrelazado de tipos de territorios representativos del proceso de urbanización en un nivel subregional, es propuesto para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales desde una perspectiva territorial. Un territorio es delimitado por un mercado de trabajo común, lo que es medido por la conmutación o movilidad territorial.

  15. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Rodríguez; Luz Angélica-Muñoz; Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study´s theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.METHOD: Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses.RESULTS: among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, B...

  16. Quality Assurance and Large Scale Reform: Lessons for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    David Hopkins

    2006-01-01

    This synthesis report begins with a brief overview of the education system in Chile and the expressed need for a national system of quality assurance. Five case studies from British Colombia, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and Scotland are presented along with the 'twelve commandments' for effective quality assurance. The report concludes with key arguments for evidence based accountability and quality assurance. This report was created from presentations from the International semina...

  17. Managing Natural Resources Revenue: The case of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    J. Rodrigo Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Countries abundant in natural resources face the dilemma of how to manage this source of revenues. The recent boom in commodity prices put this issue at the top of the agenda in natural resource rich economies. Chile, for instance, is the largest copper producer in the world, supplying 43% of world copper exports. In 2007, the state-owned corporation, CODELCO, produced one third of total Chilean copper output and the revenues from its copper exports accounted for 16% of total fiscal revenues....

  18. Nota técnica: Seguridad vial: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2011-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial ha servido de apoyo para el dialogo con el Gobierno Chileno en la preparación de la estrategia país del BID con Chile 2011-2014. En este se describe el estado de la situación de la seguridad vial en el país, se realiza un diagnostico del sector, se exponen los desafíos de desarrollo y se realizan recomendaciones de política.

  19. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities. PMID:25424677

  20. Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.

  1. Development of management system for fruit export from Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of agencies in the control of fruit quality and of phytosanitary aspects have considerably increased in the last four years, resulting in an improvement in the quality of fresh fruits exported from Chile to the USA and Europe. Most of the produce, requiring shipping times of 2 to 3 weeks, is being shipped in refrigerated vessels. The Fundacion Chile has helped this export industry not only by training field inspectors, capable of checking quality of fruit before it has been packed, but also by certifying this quality when required by the exporter or his overseas customer. Strict quarantine requirements in importing countries have imposed a number of restrictions and produce is fumigated either in Chile or in the port of import. It is suggested that before irradiation is applied to Chilean fruits for export one should: (a) evaluate its effect on quality, with special reference on maturity at harvest, (b) demonstrate quarantine efficacy to a standard accepted by importing countries, (c) solve logistical aspects, (d) evaluate application technique in dependence of different packagings, (e) make cost assessments and (f) work towards bilateral agreement regarding acceptance of treatment and of facilities. (author)

  2. Intermediate-break LOCA analyses for the AP600 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of a direct-vessel-injection line in an AP600 plant has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident (IBLOCA). Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations performed with the TRAC-PFl/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. The key processes occurring in an AP600 during a IBLOCA are primary coolant system depressurization, inventory depletion, inventory replacement via emergency core coolant injection, continuous core cooling, and long-term decay heat rejection to the atmosphere. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the latter phase of the long-term cooling period, the interval when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important

  3. Tank 241-AP-106 tank characterization plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-AP-106 (AP-106) is a candidate feed tank which is expected to be processed at the 242-A Evaporator. Three issues related to the overall concern of the evaporator must be evaluated: compatibility of the candidate waste with respect to feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator requirements; safety parameters of the candidate waste tank to avoid a facility condition which is outside the safety boundaries; and compliance of the waste as dictated by regulations from various government and environmental agencies. The characterization efforts of this Tank Characterization Plan are focused on the resolution of the issues above. To evaluate the potential for waste incompatibility with the feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator, as well as relevant safety issues, analyses will be performed on the grab samples obtained from tank AP-106. These analyses are discussed in Section 4.0. Once the characterization of tank AP-106 has been performed, the waste compatibility and safety assessment shall be conducted. This effort is discussed elsewhere

  4. Time Trials--An AP Physics Challenge Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    I have come to the conclusion that for high school physics classroom and laboratory experiences, simpler is better! In this paper I describe a very simple and effective lab experience that my AP students have thoroughly enjoyed year after year. I call this lab exercise "Time Trials." The experiment is simple in design and it is a lot of fun for…

  5. The AP Lever for Boosting Access, Success, and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegman, Rachel; Hatch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Four New Jersey school districts worked together to increase student achievement by applying a number of strategies focused on getting traditionally underrepresented students to take more AP courses. The districts are members of the New Jersey Network of Superintendents (NJNS), comprising 15 superintendents who work together to develop systemwide…

  6. The New AP Chemistry Exam: Its Rationale, Content, and Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paul D.; Kugel, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013-2014 academic year marks the rollout of the redesigned advanced placement (AP) chemistry course and exam. There have been many questions as to why the course was redesigned and how the new examination will differ from its legacy version. In this article we give a brief overview of the legacy course and examine why a redesign occurred in…

  7. Early Telegraphic News Dispatches: The Forerunner of the AP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzlose, Richard A.

    The origin of the Associated Press (AP) lies in the early cooperative news gathering efforts of the editors of several New York newspapers. As early as May 1846, these editors were "pooling" their energies in response to newly developed modes of communication--the wire and wireless telegraph and the trans-oceanic steamship mail services. The…

  8. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  9. A process definition repository based on step AP 213

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    Over the years, in the context of numerically controlled machined part manufacturing, the loss, misinterpretation, and redundancy of re-inputting manufacturing instructions and data during the evolution of a product design into the finished product has been a resource depleting and costly endeavor. It is the intent of this project to utilize the emerging standards from the International Standards Organization, ISO 10303 Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data, commonly referred to as STEP, to store and retrieve process planning information for a set of production work instructions. The project focuses on the utilization of the 1995 version of the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 10303-213:1995 (E) Application protocol: Numerical control process plans for machined parts (AP213). This project illustrates the methodologies used to build an object-oriented Process Definition Repository (PDR), describes both the benefits and shortcomings experienced in implementing AP213, and recommends enhancements to AP213 for process planning information. The deliverable will be a Part 21 data file, based on the application-interpreted model for AP213 and integrated with product design data.

  10. 76 FR 82079 - AP1000 Design Certification Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Vessel (RPV) Support System. SFP Decay Heat Analysis and Associated Design Changes. Spent Fuel Rack... any person. The NRC originally approved the AP1000 design certification in a final rule in 2006 (71 FR... notice of acceptance (ADAMS Accession No. ML073600743) in the Federal Register (73 FR 4926; January...

  11. Tank 241AP104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-11-09

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser 001 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives and ICD-23. The 222-S Laboratory will receive samples; composite the samples; perform chemical analyses on composite samples; and provide samples to the Waste Treatment Contractor and the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory at the 222-S Laboratory Complex will perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AP-104 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. The Waste Treatment Contractor will perform process verification and waste form qualification tests. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the L & H DQO process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan (Person 2000) and are not within the scope of this SAP. This report provides the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-104.

  12. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  13. AP1000 Features Prevent Potential Containment Recirculation Screen Plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of plant design development and evaluations that demonstrate that the AP1000 plant is not subject to potential containment recirculation screen plugging following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). Following a LOCA in a pressurized water reactor, it is necessary to recirculate water from the containment back into the reactor to maintain long term core cooling. The AP1000 utilizes passive safety systems to provide containment recirculation for long term core cooling following a LOCA. The AP1000 also has non-safety pumps which provide a backup means of providing recirculation. Screens are provided around the recirculation pipes to prevent debris from blocking recirculation flow and core cooling passages. Debris may be generated by the LOCA blowdown from insulation and coatings used inside containment. Even with effective cleanliness programs, there may be some resident debris such as dust and dirt. The potential for plugging the recirculation screens is a current PWR licensing issue. The AP1000 design provides inherent advantages with respect to the potential plugging of containment recirculation screens. These characteristics include prevention of fibrous debris generation, improved debris settling and improved recirculation screen design. Debris settling analysis demonstrates that failure of coatings does not result in debris being transported to the screens before it settles to the floor. Additional analysis also shows that the plant can tolerate conservative amounts of resident debris being transported to the screens. The AP1000 significantly reduces the probability of plugging the containment recirculation screens and significantly reduces inspection and maintenance of coatings used inside containment. (authors)

  14. Functional analysis of the two Brassica AP3 genes involved in apetalous and stamen carpelloid phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3 and PISTILLATA (PI are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8 residues in B.AP3.b led to the change of PI-derived motifs. Meanwhile, B.AP3.a specified petal and stamen development, whereas B.AP3.b only specified stamen development. In B. rapa, the mutations of both genes generated the SC mutant HGMS. In B. napus that contained two B.AP3.a and two B.AP3.b, loss of the two B.AP3.a functions was the key reason for the apetalous mutation, however, the loss-of-function in all four AP3 was related to the SC mutant AMS. We inferred that the 8 residues or the PI-derived motif in AP3 gene probably relates to petal formation.

  15. Excess Returns and Systemic Risk for Chile and Mexico Excess Returns and Systemic Risk for Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    McNelis, Paul D.; Guay C. Lim

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with excess returns in the equity markets and the evolution of systemic risk in Chile and Mexico during the years 1989-1998, a period of financial openness, policy reform and crisis. A time varying generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic in mean framework is used to estimate progressively more complex models of risk. They include the univariate own volatily model, the bivariate market pricing model, and the trivariate intertemporal asset pricing model. T...

  16. Excess Returns and Systemic Risk for Chile and Mexico Excess Returns and Systemic Risk for Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. McNelis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with excess returns in the equity markets and the evolution of systemic risk in Chile and Mexico during the years 1989-1998, a period of financial openness, policy reform and crisis. A time varying generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic in mean framework is used to estimate progressively more complex models of risk. They include the univariate own volatily model, the bivariate market pricing model, and the trivariate intertemporal asset pricing model. The results show no evidence of a significant reduction in systemic risk rather excess returns have remained volatile for both countries. For Chile, excess returns are significantly related to own lagged levels, while for Mexico excess are significantly related to own lagged variances. The influence of global factors are relatively minimal compared to potential home factors. This paper is concerned with excess returns in the equity markets and the evolution of systemic risk in Chile and Mexico during the years 1989-1998, a period of financial openness, policy reform and crisis. A time varying generalised autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic in mean framework is used to estimate progressively more complex models of risk. They include the univariate own volatily model, the bivariate market pricing model, and the trivariate intertemporal asset pricing model. The results show no evidence of a significant reduction in systemic risk rather excess returns have remained volatile for both countries. For Chile, excess returns are significantly related to own lagged levels, while for Mexico excess are significantly related to own lagged variances. The influence of global factors are relatively minimal compared to potential home factors.

  17. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  18. Karu-INIA, nuevo cultivar de papa para Chile Karu-INIA, new potato cultivar for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Kalazich B.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karu-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. creado a partir del cruzamiento Yagana-INIA x Fanfare, por el Programa de Mejoramiento Genético de la Papa del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Remehue, Osorno, el año 1989. Es una planta semi erecta, de buen vigor, con tubérculos de tamaño medio a grande, uniformes, de forma oval alargada, piel roja y pulpa amarilla clara. Posee altos rendimientos y se adapta bien a la mayoría de las zonas y épocas de cultivo de la papa en Chile. Su uso preferente es para consumo fresco, aunque produce una fritura de calidad altamente aceptable, similar a Yagana-INIA.Karu-INIA is a new potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar, created from a cross between the cultivars Yagana-INIA x Fanfare by the Potato Breeding Program of the National Agricultural Research Institue (INIA, at the Remehue Regional Research Center, Osorno, Chile, in 1989. It is a semi-erect plant, with vigorous growth, a medium to large size, long oval-shaped tuber, red skin and clear yellow flesh. It is a high yielding cultivar and adapts well to the majority of the potato production areas and crop seasons in Chile. It is preferred for fresh consumption, although it has fairly good frying quality, similar to Yagana-INIA.

  19. Functional Analysis of the Two Brassica AP3 Genes Involved in Apetalous and Stamen Carpelloid Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Xuefang; Zhang, Wenxue; Yu, Fei; Tian, Jianhua; Li, Dianrong; Guo, Aiguang

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are B genes which encode MADS-box transcription factors and specify petal and stamen identities. In the current study, the stamen carpelloid (SC) mutants, HGMS and AMS, of B. rapa and B. napus were investigated and two types of AP3 genes, B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b, were functional characterized. B.AP3.a and B.AP3.b share high similarity in amino acid sequences except for 8 residues difference located at the C-terminus. Loss of this 8...

  20. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  1. Installation Technology of AP1000 Steam Generator%AP1000蒸汽发生器安装技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东宏; 王志强; 张明; 门昌华; 胡德全

    2013-01-01

    AP1000 nuclear power plant is a 3rd generation advanced passive 1000 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with two loops of reactor coolant systems .Compared with the conventional 2nd generation pressurized water reactor technology ,the steam generator ( SG) of AP1000 has many improved changes concerning SG property features and arrangement requirements for facilities within the nuclear island . Based on these improved changes and relevant installation practices ,the installation technology of AP 1000 SG has been introduced and analyzed including installation preparation ,transportation ,lifting,and instal-lation construction ,etc., with a view to provide a technical reference to the installation of main equip-ments in steam supply system of nuclear power plant .%AP1000是二环路的1000 MWe级压水堆三代核电厂,采用非能动安全设施,与传统的二代压水堆核电技术相比,蒸汽发生器本体特征和核岛内的就位要求均有较大的改进。根据AP1000蒸汽发生器自身的特点,并在实践的基础上,对蒸汽发生器的现场安装技术,包括安装准备、现场运输、吊装、核岛安装等进行了介绍和分析,为核电站核蒸汽供应系统主设备的现场运输、吊装和安装提供技术参考。

  2. Postavení Chile na světovém trhu s mědí

    OpenAIRE

    Klajmonová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor's thesis is to analyse the world copper market and the role of Chile on this market. The first chapter describes the importance of copper for the world economy, copper production, usage and the world copper market. The second chapter describes the copper market in Chile. The copper market in Chile was transformed during the period of nationalization and privatization. These transformations have impact on the actual copper market in Chile as well. The state is owner of...

  3. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... continental United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based... weeds via the importation of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: December...

  4. 77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA Joint Commission... State. ACTION: Notice of the next meeting of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Environmental Affairs... States Trade Representative (``USTR'') are providing notice that the United States and Chile intend...

  5. 75 FR 5034 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile... are advising the public that we have received a request from the government of the Republic of Chile... the Republic of Chile. After reviewing the documentation submitted in support of this request,...

  6. 76 FR 18511 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Figs From Chile into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Fresh Figs From Chile into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh figs from Chile. Based on the... importation of fresh figs from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: April 4, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  7. Conservación de la biodiversidad en Chile: Nuevos desafíos y oportunidades en ecosistemas terrestres y marinos costeros Biodiversity conservation in Chile: New challenges and opportunities in terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN JORQUERA-JARAMILLO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de la biodiversidad producida por el crecimiento demográfico, la demanda por recursos y la actividad productiva es contradictoria con el reconocimiento de su importancia. En ecosistemas terrestres, el Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas del Estado (SNASPE contiene cerca del 19 % del territorio de Chile continental; aunque no representa todos los ecosistemas con especies amenazadas, puede ser complementado implementando nuevas áreas protegidas públicas (AP y privadas (APP. El desarrollo de áreas marinas protegidas (AMP es incipiente, y algunas iniciativas comparten la responsabilidad de conservación con los usuarios locales. En Chile, un conjunto de reglamentos, normas legales y tratados internacionales promueven distintas oportunidades de conservación en ecosistemas terrestres y marinos costeros, de las cuales emergen nuevos desafíos. Entre estos destacan, estandarizar la clasificación de especies según categorías de conservación en un protocolo internacional y optimizar las metodologías para seleccionar áreas prioritarias, ambos criterios indispensables para decidir qué y dónde conservar. Otro desafío es integrar el valor intrínseco de la biodiversidad con los servicios ecosistémicos que presta para instaurar una cultura participativa. Esto mejoraría la efectividad de las distintas estrategias de protección y uso sustentable de la biodiversidad al incorporar la educación y la participación ciudadana desde una perspectiva biocultural. La educación fomenta la conservación de la naturaleza al hacernos conscientes de nuestro entorno; mientras que la participación involucra a los ciudadanos como un actor más en la toma de decisiones, procurando la aplicación efectiva de las estrategias de conservación de la biodiversidad.Biodiversity loss caused by population growth, the demand of resources and productive activities is inconsistent with the recognition of its importance. In terrestrial ecosystems, the

  8. Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with:

  9. A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Male and female adults of a new species of Eupithecia Curtis from the Arica Province, Chile are described and illustrated. The species is compared with E. yubitzae Vargas & Parra, 2004, from the same locality, and E. galapagosata Landry & Rindge 1995, from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

  10. 76 FR 15225 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... request from the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile to allow the fresh baby kiwi fruit... repeated. The contents of the 200- mesh sieve would then be placed on a petri dish and analyzed for the... with the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of Chile. Harvested baby kiwi must be placed...

  11. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  12. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  13. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, 63 FR 66529 (December 2, 1998); Notice of Amendment of Final... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999); Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms... foreseeable time. See Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations, 75 FR...

  14. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 50818) and determined on January 4, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR... COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  15. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has directed the DOE to concentrate ear-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of issues (Conway 1993). The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process; Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the tank 241-AP-107 (AP-107)

  16. Status of APS 1-Mwe Parabolic Trough Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, S.; Brosseau, D.; Kolb, G.; Moore, L.; Cable, R.; Price, H.

    2005-11-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is currently installing new power facilities to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources that will satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). During FY04, APS began construction on a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. Site preparation and construction activities continued throughout much of FY05, and startup activities are planned for Fall 2005 (with completion early in FY06). The plant will be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than the conventional steam Rankine cycle plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  17. Densification and microstructure development during HIPing of AP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densification and the microstructural development during hot isostatic pressing of AP1 superalloy powder were compared with the predictions made from calculated HIP diagrams. Power law creep was found to dominate the densification of the Ni-base superalloy during HIPing. The densification was in accordance with calculated HIP maps at low pressures and annealing times, but at elevated pressures and prolonged HIPing times much faster than calculated. During HIPing some percent of the particles undergo minor deformation. It was found in AP1 that these particles showed coarse grains, whereas the more heavily deformed particles displayed a fine microstructure. The different degrees of deformation may arise from size differences of the particles. (orig.)

  18. Comparative advantages of AP1000 passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing need of nuclear power, almost all countries who want to build new nuclear power plant take the generation Ⅲ technology as their first choice. The main reason is that the safety of generation Ⅲ technology has been improved greatly than generation Ⅱ and Ⅱ + technology. The passive safety technology is introduced by AP1000 and it is one of the best in generation Ⅲ technologies. The representative passive containment cooling system of AP1000 and containment spray system of generation Ⅱ nuclear power plant were compared in the paper and analyzed using probabilistic safety assessment method. The reasons of passive safety system possessing comparative advantages were obtained by the concrete calculation. (authors)

  19. Electron-cloud measurements and simulations for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare experimental results with simulations of the electron cloud effect induced by a positron beam at the APS synchrotron light source at ANL, where the electron cloud effect has been observed and measured with dedicated probes. We find good agreement between simulations and measurements for reasonable values of certain secondary electron yield (SEY) parameters, most of which were extracted from recent bench measurements at SLAC

  20. QCD on the highly parallel computer AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been running quenched QCD simulations on 324 and 323 x 48 lattices using a 512 processor AP1000, which is a highly parallel computer with up to 1024 processing elements. We have developed programs for update, blocking and hadron propagator calculations. The pseudo heatbath and the overrelaxation algorithms were used for the update with performance of 2.6 and 2.0 μsec/link, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Thermal analysis of the beam missteering in APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several bending magnet beam missteering cases have been investigated for the 7-GeV storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). One of the critical missteering events is presented in this paper. Finite element analyses are performed to solve for both temperature and stress fields. Thermally induced deflections are determined by using beam bending theory. A safe current limit is established for the storage ring chambers

  2. Electron-cloud measurements and simulations for the APS

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, M.A.; Pivi, M.; Harkay, K.C.; Rosenberg, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    We compare experimental results with simulations of the electron cloud effect induced by a positron beam at the APS synchrotron light source at ANL, where the electron cloud effect has been observed and measured with dedicated probes. We find good agreement between simulations and measurements for reasonable values of certain secondary electron yield (SEY) parameters, most of which were extracted from recent bench measurements at SLAC.

  3. The interaction between the adaptor protein APS and Enigma is involved in actin organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Gonzalez, Teresa; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) is an adaptor protein phosphorylated by several tyrosine kinase receptors including the insulin receptor. To identify novel binding partners of APS, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein...... that was previously shown to be associated with the actin cytoskeleton. In HEK 293 cells, Enigma interacted specifically with APS, but not with the APS-related protein SH2-B. This interaction required the NPTY motif of APS and the LIM domains of Enigma. In NIH-3T3 cells that express the insulin...... receptor, Enigma and APS were partially co-localised with F-actin in small ruffling structures. Insulin increased the complex formation between APS and Enigma and their co-localisation in large F-actin containing ruffles. While in NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells the co-expression of both Enigma and APS did not...

  4. Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) in Chile from a Cytogenetic Perspective Alstroemeria presliana Herb. (Alstroemeriaceae) en Chile Bajo una Perspectiva Citogenética

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M Baeza; Otto Schrader; Eduardo Ruiz; M Negritto

    2008-01-01

    Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae) is an endemic genus of South America with two major distribution centers in the continent: Chile and Brazil. In Chile the genus is distributed from the North, near Iquique (20º13’ S, 70º09’ W) to the Chilean and Argentine Patagonia (53º10’ S, 70º54’ W). The central zone of Chile presents the highest number of species. A. presliana Herb. grows from Curicó (34º59’ S, 71º14’ W) to Cautín (38º45’ S, 72º34’ W) in Chile and Neuquén (36º50’ S, 71º05’ W), Argentina. A ...

  5. Una nueva especie de Ithome Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae: Chrysopeleiinae del norte de Chile A new species of Ithome Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae: Chrysopeleiinae from northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR A VARGAS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción del adulto, larva y pupa de Ithome tiaynai Vargas sp. n. Las larvas antófagas viven asociadas a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae. La distribución de esta especie comprende los valles costeros de Azapa y Chaca, Primera Región de Chile. Ithome tiaynai es la primera especie descrita desde Chile para este géneroDescriptions of the adult, larva and pupa of Ithome tiaynai Vargas sp. n. are presented. The anthophagous larvae are associated with Acacia macracantha Willd (Fabaceae. The distribution of this species includes the coastal valleys of Azapa and Chaca, First Region of Chile. Ithome tiaynai is the first species described from Chile for this genus.

  6. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ''green house'' will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken

  7. Alignment and commissioning of the APS beamline front ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen out of forty initial beamline front ends have been installed in the storage-ring tunnel at the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS). For the front-end installation, a four-step alignment process was designed and consists of (1) prealigning the front-end components with support tables in the preassembly area, (2) installing the components with tables in the storage-ring tunnel and aligning relative to the APS global telescope survey network, (3) confirming the alignment using a tooling laser alignment system, and (4) performing adjustments with the synchrotron-radiation beam during commissioning. The laser alignment system and the prealignment database have been of great importance for the expedient maintenance of front-end components. These tools are very important to a large synchrotron radiation facility, such as the APS, since they make a quick alignment setup possible and minimize alignment time inside the tunnel. This paper will present the four-step alignment process, the laser alignment system, and discuss the alignment confirmation results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Finite element modeling of AP1000 nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP1000 is a standard design developed by Westinghouse and its partners for an advanced nuclear power plant utilizing passive safety features. It is based on the certified design of the AP600 and has been uprated to 1000 MWe. The plant has five principal building structures; the nuclear island, the turbine building; the annex building; the diesel generator building and the radwaste building. The nuclear island consists of the containment building (the steel containment vessel and the containment internal structures), the shield building, and the auxiliary building. These structures are founded on a common basemat and are collectively known as the nuclear island. This paper describes use of the general purpose finite element program ANSYS [2] in structural analyses and qualification of the AP1000 nuclear island buildings. It describes the modeling of the shield building and the auxiliary building and the series of analyses and the flow of information from the global analyses to the detailed analyses and building qualification. (author)

  9. Standardized safety management of AP1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002, China published and implemented the Law of the People's Republic of China on Work Safety and promulgated a series of guidelines and policies, which strengthened the safety management supervision. Standardization of safety, as another important step on safety supervision, comes after safety assesment and safety production licensing system, is also a permanent solution. Standardization of safety is a strategic, long term and fundamental work, which is also the basic access to achieving scientific safety management and increasing the inherent safety of an enterprise. Haiyang AP1000 nuclear power plant, adopting the modularized, 'open-top' and parallel construction means, overturned the traditional construction theory of installation work comes after the civil work and greatly shorten the construction period. At the same time, the notable increase of oversize module transportation and lifting and parallel construction raises higher demands for safety management. This article combines the characteristics and difficulties of safety management for Haiyang AP1000 nuclear power plant, puts forward ideas and methods for standardized safety management, and could also serve as reference to the safety management for other AP1000 projects. (authors)

  10. Long-term stability of the APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation synchrotrons light source, was commissioned in 1995 at Argonne ''National Laboratory and has been fully-operational for beamline users since 1997. The APS storage ring can accommodate up to 68 user beamlines; about 70% of the available beamlines are currently in use by various collaborative access teams (CATS). The 7-GeV synchrotrons light source produces light in the soft to hard x-ray range that is used for research in such areas as x-ray instrumentation; material, chemical and atomic sciences; biology; and geo/soil/ environmental sciences. For the successful operation of an x-ray light source such as the Advanced Photon Source, the long-term stability of the concrete floor supporting the beam components and user beamlines is crucial. Settlements impact the orbit and location of the x-ray source points as well as the position of the x-ray beamlines. This paper compares the results of two successive resurveys of the APS accelerator components performed in 1995 and 1998

  11. AP600-passive containment cooling system structure design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present the design and analysis activities for the structures of AP 600 passive containment cooling system (PCCS). This design is being performed jointly by Ansaldo and Westinghouse as a part of the AP 600 program under the overall leadership of Westinghouse. The AP 600 is a 600 MWe advanced light water reactor that is being designed with passive safety features. The PCCS structures consist of the shield building roof which includes a 400,000 gallon water tank and the PCCS air baffles which direct air flow over the outside of a steel containment vessel to provide the passive cooling of the containment. Two different configurations have been investigated for the shield building roof. One is a flat roof with deep steel girders and a concrete slab with the water tank integral with the steel girders. Another is a conical concrete roof with a steel-lined reinforced concrete tank. Three different options for the water tank have been analyzed. The function of the air baffles is to provide a pathway for natural circulation in a postulated design basis event resulting in large energy release into a containment. (K.I.)

  12. Maternal AP determinants in the Drosophila oocyte and embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; He, Feng; Xie, Gengqiang; Deng, Wu-Min

    2016-09-01

    An animal embryo cannot initiate its journey of forming a new life on its own. It must rely on maternally provided resources and inputs to kick-start its developmental process. In Drosophila, the initial polarities of the embryo along both the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes are also specified by maternal determinants. Over the past several decades, genetic and molecular studies have identified and characterized such determinants, as well as the zygotic genetic regulatory networks that control patterning in the early embryo. Extensive studies of oogenesis have also led to a detailed knowledge of the cellular and molecular interactions that control the formation of a mature egg. Despite these efforts, oogenesis and embryogenesis have been studied largely as separate problems, except for qualitative aspects with regard to maternal regulation of the asymmetric localization of maternal determinants. Can oogenesis and embryogenesis be viewed from a unified perspective at a quantitative level, and can that improve our understanding of how robust embryonic patterning is achieved? Here, we discuss the basic knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryonic patterning along the AP axis. We explore properties of the maternal Bicoid gradient in relation to embryo size in search for a unified framework for robust AP patterning. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:562-581. doi: 10.1002/wdev.235 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27253156

  13. OLP embedment design method research for AP1000 nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: One of the most advanced nuclear power technology, the first AP1000 reactor is under construction in China. Modularization is one of the main characteristics for AP1000 nuclear plant building. Module wall with steel face plate is used instead of reinforced concrete structure wall. A number of OLP embedments need to be installed into the module wall to connect other structures such as pipes, equipment, operation platforms and any other component attached to the module wall. Therefore, the design of embedment is very important in AP1000 structural design. Purpose: A finite element analysis method and tool for embedment design is needed for convenience. Methods: This paper applies the self-developed GTStrudl command template and VBA macro program for embedment capacity calculation and evaluation based on Microsoft Excel to the embedment design. Results: A Microsoft Excel template for embedment design is developed. Conclusions: The analysis method and template brings reasonable results and may provide some help and use for reference for the engineering practice. (authors)

  14. PolyADP-ribose polymerase is a coactivator for AP-2-mediated transcriptional activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, P; Yu, Y; Wankhade, S; Tainsky, M A

    1999-01-01

    Overexpression of transcription factor AP-2 has been implicated in the tumorigenicity of the human teratocarcinoma cell lines PA-1 that contain an activated ras oncogene. Here we show evidence that overexpression of AP-2 sequesters transcriptional coactivators which results in self-inhibition. We identified AP-2-interacting proteins and determined whether these proteins were coactivators for AP-2-mediated transcription. One such interacting protein is polyADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). PARP su...

  15. Fuerza laboral de la mujer en Chile: cifras y características Woman labour force in Chile: data and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Jasna Stiepovich Bertoni

    1998-01-01

    El presente artículo muestra algunas características sociodemográficas de la fuerza laboral femenina en Chile y las dificultades que las mujeres deben enfrentar para acceder y mantenerse en su fuerza laboral, dada su condición de género.The present article shows us some sociodemographic characteristics of the women labour force in Chile, and the difficulties they have to accede and to maintain their labour source due to gender conditions.

  16. Estado de conocimiento de las aves de aguas continentales de Chile Synopsis of the Inland aquatic birds of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F Victoriano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se informa de manera sintética la composición de especies, distribución, estatus de conservación y algunos aspectos de la biología de las aves acuáticas de ambientes continentales de Chile. Esta avifauna está compuesta por un total de 133 especies, distribuidas en 69 géneros, 21 familias y 10 órdenes. El grupo representado por el mayor número de especies es el Orden Charadriiformes (51 especies, con una alta presencia en ambientes ecotonales estuarinos. En ambientes de aguas interiores el grupo con más especies es el Orden Anseriformes (29 especies. La distribución de la riqueza de especies se corresponde en términos generales con las tendencias de representación para cada Orden en Sudamérica. De acuerdo a esta revisión, una parte importante de los registros para Chile son esporádicos (28 especies o visitantes regulares (13 especies, y sólo un 69% del total pueden ser consideradas como residentes de nuestra avifauna acuática. De acuerdo a los estados de conservación, un total de 25 especies es considerada en algún sistema de clasificación, de las cuales una especie, Numenius borealis o zarapito boreal, se considera extinta en todo su rango distribucional. Según los registros de los últimos 50 años, el pidén austral (Rallus antarcticus es una especie extinta en la zona central de Chile, quedando sólo algunas poblaciones poco abundantes en el extremo sur del país y en el sur de Argentina. En Chile no existen especies de aves acuáticas endémicas. Sin embargo, al considerar como áreas de análisis las regiones biogeográficas clásicas de nuestro país, existen dos zonas con un alto número de especies exclusivas: en la ecorregión Desértica 9,1% del total nacional son endémicas de esa zona, mientras que la Tropical o Puna incluye un 7,6%. A pesar de que en las ecorregiones Mediterránea y Oceánica existe un alto número de especies, éstas muestran pocos taxa propios (3% y 2,3% respectivamente. Se

  17. On the generation of coastal lows in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies of the coastal-low occurrences in central Chile have been aimed at the formulation of a conceptual model to explain observed features in connection with applied studies. The most prominent weather pattern associated with CL occurrences, (type A), coincides with the onset of a warm, middle-troposphere ridge over central Chile, and a surface high over northern Argentina. The synoptic forcing of the low is related to weak frontal disturbances that travel equatorwards. They result in a thickening of the marine layer that becomes blocked by the coastal escarpment, at the time of the onset of the ridge aloft. The blocking of the stable air above the subsidence inversion by the Andes is also hypothesized. The analysis of the subsidence inversion, the geometry of the coastal and Andes mountain ranges, and a scale analysis of the non-dimensional governing equations for the generation of the coastal lows, following the approach of Reason and Steyn (1990); leads to the conclusion that both blocking actions are strong and persistent in central Chile. An interactive mechanism between the upper and lower blocking effects is postulated to explain the cyclonic vorticity and the initial steering of the coastal lows. The scale analysis of the governing equations for the propagation stage of the low suggests that, departing for the South African case, non-linearity is important here, and that solitary Kelvin waves could be expected. Theoretical phase propagation speeds and Rossby radii are found to range between 8 and 15 m s-1 and 100-250 km, respectively. The importance of strong southerly winds ahead of the low and weak winds at its trailing edge is also stressed, as another major departure from the coastal-low behaviour elsewhere. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  18. FÍSICA: SU TRAYECTORIA EN CHILE (1800-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO GUTIÉRREZ GALLARDO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la Física en Chile desde los comienzos de la República hasta 1960, poniendo énfasis en el desarrollo interno de la disciplina, la evolución de su concepción y la transmisión de su saber. El trabajo enfrenta el mito de la inexistente tradición científica en Chile, mostrando que en el caso de la Física ha habido un largo y sostenido desarrollo. En este desarrollo de la Física se distinguen cuatro etapas: (1 como capítulo de la Filosofía Escolástica; (2 como ciencia útil o indistinguible de la ingeniería; (3 como ciencia cultural y centro de una concepción científica del mundo; y (4 como disciplina con problemas propios, donde la investigación deviene parte central de su desarrollo. Para el historiador de la ciencia la novedad es que su desarrollo sigue una lógica donde los parámetros locales tienen una influencia muy significativa en comparación con aquellos determinados por el desarrollo mundial de la disciplinaThis paper presents the development of Physics in Chile from the beginnings of the Republic until the year 1960, emphasizing the internal development of the discipline, the evolution of its conception and the transmission of its body of knowledge. This work faces the myth of the non-existent scientific tradition in Chile by showing in the case of Physics a long and sustained development. In this development we distinguish four stages of Physics: (1 As a chapter of Scholastic Philosophy; (2 As a discipline closely related to engineering and real-life problems; (3 As cultural science and base of a scientific view of the world; (4 As a discipline with its own problems, where research becomes a central part of its development. For the science historian the novelty is that this development follows a logic where the local parameters have strong influence as compared to those determined by the universal development of the discipline

  19. Geopolitics representation: Chile and Argentina in southern ice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Isabel Manzano Itura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitics, from concept named in 1917 by Rudolf Kjellén has been in continuous evolution until today. Since the incorporation of the representations, the first concept has been of vital importance in different territorial conflicts’ analysis. By means of a geopolitical analysis, the present article intends to understand the geopolitical representations in the area of southern ice fields, the last boundaries issue that still remains in abeyance between Chile and Argentina and how is that both countries have discussed the problem on a basis of representations, in which maps have been the image of each one facing the other, favoring in this way competition between states.

  20. The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    1995-01-01

    Despite the growing reliance on payroll taxation worldwide, there is limited evidence on the incidence of payroll taxes. I provide new evidence by examining the experience of Chile before and after the privatization of its Social Security system. This policy change led to a sharp exogenous reduction in the payroll tax burden on Chilean firms; the average payroll tax rate in my sample fell from 30% to 5% over this six year period. I use data from a census of manufacturing firms, which contains...

  1. Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F J; Saldana, R C

    2007-12-01

    This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002-2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between sea and lake manure. Dry matter contents were low averaging c. 12-15%. Manures showed low OM contents with values heavy metal contents and a potential use in agricultural soils, which could reduce the risks of water pollution on water from fish farming. PMID:16962324

  2. ESTATISMO Y NEOLIBERALISMO: UN CONTRAPUNTO MILITAR CHILE 1973-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERÓNICA VALDIVIA ORTIZ DE ZÁRATE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the installation in Chile of a neoliberal model during the military regime headed by General Augusto Pinochet, between 1973 and 1979. Within that context, it offers a reinterpretation of the allegedly foundational character of that government, its also supposedly early adherence to the neoliberal matrix, and its break with the Keynesian capitalism which had prevailed since the 1930’s. The analysis is focused on the evolution of military with regard to the links between the State and development, and on the debate between neoliberalism and statism that was carried out within the armed forces

  3. Chanco formation, a potential Cretaceous reservoir, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecione, G.

    1983-07-01

    The Chanco embayment lies 300 km SSW of Santiago, Chile. The sequence within this basin above the metamorphic basement is: Chanco Formation (very clean sandstone), Quiriquina Formation (glauconitic sandstone, rich in organic matter), and Navidad Group (a very good caprock). This section thus contains reservoir, source and caprocks, and is therefore very promising for petroleum investigations. The offshore C-1 well yielded salt-water with gas shows, and two wells drilled onshore yielded shows of gas. The C-1 well lies on a gently-dipping EW-striking anticlinal structure, the presence of which makes the area very prospective.

  4. Las fábricas de la charla en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Areli Escobar

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo expone los resultados preliminares de la investigación doctoral en Antropología, orientada a conocer la materialidad y la subjetividad del trabajo de los call centers en Chile. Un salario definido por metas inalcanzables, el maltrato, el cansancio de nuevo tipo, la doble extracción del valor productivo y reproductivo de las mujeres trabajadoras y su entorno familiar, la explotación de las capacidades subjetivas, entre otros aspectos, dan cuenta de las nuevas formas que asume la ...

  5. PRIMER HALLAZGO DE Cyclospora cayetanensis EN CONCEPCION, CHILE 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANCY RIVERA

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el hallazgo de Cyclospora cayetanensis en una muestra de deposición, en la cual se observó también formas vacuoladas de Blastocystis hominis y trofozoítos y quistes de Entamoeba coli. La muestra provenía de un paciente de 50 Es importante señalar que la sola observación años de edad, de sexo femenino, quien había visitado Cuba, y que, a los 5 días de regreso a Chile, comenzó con sintomatología. El examen parasitológico seriado de deposición se llevó a cabo 30 días después de su regreso al país. Se realizó observación al fresco de heces preservadas en fijador PAF (fenol, alcohol, formalina con lugol, MIF (merthiolate, lugol, formol, y yodo de D'Antoni; al mismo tiempo se prepararon 3 frotis del sedimento fecal los que fueron teñidos mediante tinción de Ziehl Neelsen modificada, Kinyou y Safranina. Una proporción de los O quistes encontrados fueron medidos. La identificación de C. cayetanensis fue confirmada en esta muestra por el Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Atlanta, Georgia, USA y por el Departamento de Parasitología del Hospital for Tropical Diseases (London UK. Este constituye el primer hallazgo de C. cayetanensis informado en Concepción, ChileThe finding of Cyclospora cayetanensis in a stool sample from a 50 year old Chilean female patient is reported. The patient had recently returned from a visit to Cuba and exhibited diarrhoeal symptons in the fifth day after arriving to Chile. The stool sample was obtained 30 days after her return to the country. Direct microscopic abservation were made in preparations of the stool sample preserved in phenol, alcohol, fonmalin (PAF with iodine, merthiolate, iodine-fonmalin (MIF and iodine de D'Antoni. In addition, three smears of the faecal sedimenl were stained with madified Ziehl-Neelsen, Kinyou, and Safranin. The oocyst sizes were measured. The identification of C. cayetanensis was confinmed in this sample by the Center for Disease control and

  6. Movilidad sustentable en Chile: Oportunidades, experiencias locales y referencias globales

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Díaz Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo propone Premisas Conceptuales, Premisas Metodológicas y el desarrollo de Aspectos Estratégicos para la implementación de soluciones a la Movilidad Urbana. Se inspira en las ideas, experiencias e investigaciones de diversas personas quienes abordan desde lógicas puntuales aspectos temáticos específicos en el marco de la Planificación Urbana en general y de las aplicaciones en Transporte en particular. Chile atraviesa por una oportunidad histórica, quizás paradójicamente, a partir...

  7. Lejos de NYC: El hip-hop en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Quitzow

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo se abordan las manifestaciones concretas de una forma cultural urbana exportada desde Occidente a los países en desarrollo. A través de una reconstrucción de la historia de la cultura hip hop en Chile, se han intendado esbozar algunas conclusiones sobre su influencia en la formación de una identidad cultural urbana, tratando además de relacionar el desarrollo histórico del movimiento y de las prácticas actuales de la juventud en Santiago con tendencias más amplias en la socie...

  8. Economic Residential Segregation and Educational Achievements: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Román, Miguel Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Using a database from Chile, we have tested empirically the effects of economic residential segregation on educational achievements. Our hypothesis is based on literature’s findings about segregation’s negative impact on individuals’ well being. We found that segregation has negative impacts. This result would have interesting policy implications and goes in the opposite directions of those investigations’ findings, which indicate that segregation has just negligible effects. Keywords...

  9. Fundamentos del Tipo de Cambio Real en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Cerda; Alvaro Donoso; Aldo Lema

    2003-01-01

    Un modelo basado en la relación gasto-producto (efecto Salter-Swan) y los términos de intercambio, habría predicho un incremento más pronunciado del tipo de cambio real (TCR) en Chile durante la segunda mitad de los '80, una caída menos acentuada entre 1990 y 1997, y un aumento más fuerte a partir de 1998 cuando irrumpió la crisis financiera internacional. Este trabajo incorpora en forma exhaustiva otros factores en la determinación de largo plazo del TCR, tanto de oferta como de demanda. Usa...

  10. Status of Implementation of the Code of Conduct in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to present the status of implementation in Chile of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (hereinafter referred to as the Code) and its supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources (hereinafter referred to as the Guidance). It is presented as a contribution to the International Conference on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Maintaining the Continuous Global Con-trol of Sources throughout their Life Cycle, to be held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, from 27 to 31 October 2013. (author)

  11. El valle de Azapa en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cocilovo, José Alberto; Rothhammer, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza el proceso microevolutivo de la población prehistórica del Valle de Azapa (Norte de Chile), mediante un nuevo estudio de la información preparada con motivo de experiencias anteriores, relacionada con la obtención de una explicación genético-poblacional sobre la diferenciación biológica observada en el área. Hemos empleado matrices de distancias D2 de Mahalanobis calculadas entre cinco grupos de distintas fases cronológicas para la muestra total y para cada u...

  12. Health system reform in chile and colombia: results and balance

    OpenAIRE

    Granados Toraño, Ramón; Gómez Montoya, María C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the health system reforms, factors inherent to the health sector as well as external factors that gave origin to them must be considered. The policy of the World Bank acted as a determining factor and was taken into practice in the middle of processes that increased the inequalities in Latin America. The models of Chile and Colombia are examined from this background and some of the lessons that can be drawn from these experiences for other countries are pointed out.

  13. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  14. The dynamics of the labor markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor O. Lima; Ricardo D. Paredes

    2007-01-01

    A través de flujos provenientes de 3 estados, empleo, desempleo y fuera de la fuerza laboral analizamos la dinámica del mercado laboral en Chile en 1967-2007. Identificamos algunos períodos de distintos regímenes del mercado laboral y los relacionamos con cambios en flexibilidad. Encontramos que reformas tales como la de 1967, que introdujo la causa justa como requerimiento para despedir, no ayudó a los trabajadores a mantener sus trabajos, pero no hay evidencia de cambios sign...

  15. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  16. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  17. A novel AP4M1 mutation in autosomal recessive cerebral palsy syndrome and clinical expansion of AP-4 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Jameel, Muhammad; Klar, Joakim; Tariq, Muhammad; Moawia, Abubakar; Altaf Malik, Naveed; Seema Waseem, Syeda; Abdullah, Uzma; Naeem Khan, Tahir; Raininko, Raili; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Dahl, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability in one-third of cases. Recent findings support Mendelian inheritance in subgroups of patients with the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel genetic cause of paraplegic CP with intellectual disability in a consanguineous Pakistani family. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in two brothers with CP and intellectual disability. Analysis of AP...

  18. Role of the tryptophan residue in the vicinity of the catalytic center of exonuclease III family AP endonucleases: AP site recognition mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneda, Kohichi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Shida, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which AP endonucleases recognize AP sites have not yet been determined. Based on our previous study with Escherichia coli exonuclease III (ExoIII), the ExoIII family AP endonucleases probably recognize the DNA-pocket formed at an AP site. The indole ring of a conserved tryptophan residue in the vicinity of the catalytic site presumably intercalates into this pocket. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a series of mutants of ExoIII and human APE1. Trp-212 of ExoIII and Tr...

  19. The AP-1 transcription factor homolog Pf-AP-1 activates transcription of multiple biomineral proteins and potentially participates in Pinctada fucata biomineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangnan Zheng; Minzhang Cheng; Liang Xiang; Jian Liang; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates a series of physiological processes by specifically activating transcription of several genes, and one of its well-chartered functions in mammals is participating in bone mineralization. We isolated and cloned the complete cDNA of a Jun/AP-1 homolog from Pinctada fucata and called it Pf-AP-1. Pf-AP-1 had a highly conserved bZIP region and phosphorylation sites compared with those from mammals. A tissue distrib...

  20. NRC confirmatory AP600 safety system phase I testing in the ROSA/AP600 test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, G.S.; Kukita, Yutaka; Schultz, R.R.

    1996-03-01

    The NRC confirmatory phase I testing for the AP600 safety systems has been completed in the modified ROSA (Rig of Safety Assessment) test facility located at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) campus in Tokai, Japan. The test matrix included a variety of accident scenarios covering both design and beyond-design basis accidents. The test results indicate the AP600 safety systems as reflected in ROSA appear to perform as designed and there is no danger of core heatup for the accident scenarios investigated. In addition, no detrimental system interactions nor adverse effects of non-safety systems on the safety system functions were identified. However, three phenomena of interest have been identified for further examination to determine whether they are relevant to the AP600 plant. Those three phenomena are: (1) a potential for water hammer caused by rapid condensation which may occur following the actuation of the automatic depressurization system (ADS), (2) a large thermal gradient in the cold leg pipe where cooled water returns from the passive residual heat removal system and forms a thermally stratified layer, and (3) system-wide oscillations initiating following the ADS stage 4 actuation and persisting until the liquid in the pressurizer drains and steam generation in the core becomes insignificant.

  1. Atracción del picudo del chile a compuestos volátiles de sus hospederos.

    OpenAIRE

    Múñiz Merino, Manolo

    2014-01-01

    El picudo del chile (Anthonomus eugenii Cano), principal plaga del chile (Capsicum spp.) en América, responde a los aromas de sus plantas hospederas, por lo que estos podrían ser de utilidad como fuentes de atrayentes. En la presente investigación se analizaron los compuestos volátiles de las yemas florales y frutos de cinco hospederos de A. eugenii: chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L.), pimiento morrón (C. annuum), chile manzano (C. pubescens Ruiz y Pav), chile chiltepe (C. frutescens L) y hi...

  2. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Letelier V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  3. Chile2015: Lévy Flight and Long-Range Correlation Analysis of Earthquake Magnitudes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccar-Varela, Maria P.; Gonzalez-Huizar, Hector; Mariani, Maria C.; Serpa, Laura F.; Tweneboah, Osei K.

    2016-06-01

    The stochastic Truncated Lévy Flight model and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) are used to investigate the temporal distribution of earthquake magnitudes in Chile. We show that Lévy Flight is appropriated for modeling the time series of the magnitudes of the earthquakes. Furthermore, DFA shows that these events present memory effects, suggesting that the magnitude of impeding earthquakes depends on the magnitude of previous earthquakes. Based on this dependency, we use a non-linear regression to estimate the magnitude of the 2015, M8.3 Illapel earthquake based on the magnitudes of the previous events.

  4. Mastitis bovina por Prototheca zopfii: primer aislamiento en Chile Bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii: first isolation in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zaror

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Prototheca está formado por microalgas unicelulares sin clorofila, ampliamente distribuidas en el medio ambiente, algunas de las cuales pueden ser patógenas para el hombre y animales. Sin embargo, no existen antecedentes bibliográficos previos sobre la existencia de estas algas patógenas para el hombre y animales en Chile. Se examinó bacteriológicamente un total de 200 muestras de leche provenientes de 150 vacas lecheras con mastitis clínica, las cuales fueron sembradas en medio PIM modificado, selectivo para Prototheca. Se aisló Prototheca spp. en dos ocasiones consecutivas de una misma vaca muestreada con un intervalo de dos meses. El examen microscópico directo de las muestras de leche en fresco reveló la presencia células características de Prototheca spp. Mediante asimilación de fuentes de carbono se identificó la especie como P. zopfii, constituyendo el primer aislamiento de este agente a partir de un cuadro de mastitis clínica bovina en Chile. Este hallazgo es relevante para los programas de control de mastitis bovina en los rebaños lecheros ya que es un organismo poco frecuente y desconocido que no responde a los tratamientos antibióticos convencionales.The genus Prototheca includes unicellular achlorophyllous microalgae widely distributed in the environment, some of which could be pathogenic for human and animals. However, there is no previous report regarding these pathogenic microalgae causing infections in man or animals in Chile. Two-hundred milk samples collected from 150 dairy cows with clinical mastitis were inoculated onto PIM modified medium. Prototheca spp was isolated on two consecutive occasions from one cow sampled two months apart. Direct microscopic examination of wet smears made from milk samples revealed typical Prototheca cells. Biochemical tests based on carbon source assimilation identified the organism as Prototheca zopfii. This finding represents the first isolation of this environmental

  5. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  6. AP4 directly downregulates p16 and p21 to suppress senescence and mediate transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Jackstadt, R; Jung, P.; Hermeking, H

    2013-01-01

    Here we analyzed the function of the c-MYC-inducible basic helix–loop–helix leucine-zipper transcription factor AP4 in AP4-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). Loss of AP4 resulted in premature senescence and resistance towards immortalization. Senescence was accompanied by induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-encoding genes p16, a known tumor suppressor, and p21, a previously described target for repression by AP4. Notably, AP4 directly repressed p16 expression via conser...

  7. Packaging design criteria, transfer and disposal of 102-AP mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixer pump installed in storage tank 241-AP-102 (102-AP) has failed. This pump is referred to as the 102-AP mixer pump (APMP). The APMP will be removed from 102-AP 1 and a new pump will be installed. The main purpose of the Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to establish criteria necessary to design and fabricate a shipping container for the transfer and storage of the APMP from 102-AP. The PDC will be used as a guide to develop a Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP)

  8. Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Martin; Núñez, Lautaro; Cartajena, Isabel

    2005-10-01

    Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile has been found between 12 600 and 10 200 cal. yr BP. The new site at Salar Punta Negra (24°28S/60°53W/2976 m) includes about 1000 classifiable, mostly unifacial artefacts and, uniquely, three different diagnostic types of early projectile points. Two of the Lateglacial/early Holocene projectile types have wide distribution and are known from different geographical areas in South America: the Palaeoindian Fell fish-tail point mainly from the southern cone of South America, and the triangular Tuina points typical of the Puna of the south-central Andes in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. In addition, we found a third type, a stemmed point typical for the Salar Punta Negra. Filling a large geographical gap of Fell occupation, the site at Salar Punta Negra provides evidence for generally much higher mobility and diversity of early cultures, and supports an Andean-Pacific route for early human exploration of South America to the south through the desert at intermediate altitudes. Contemporaneous high-amplitude climatic changes were fundamental preconditions to provide adequate environments and habitats, and to make Palaeoindian hunting-gathering occupation possible in the Atacama Desert.

  9. EL ACTO DE NOMBRARSE MISTRAL EN POEMA DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Sepúlveda Eriz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La viajera espectral de Poema de Chile reflexiona sobre la adopción del nombre Mistral. Los fundamentos de esta elección van desde retornar a una intimidad anterior, la escena primigenia del campo, hasta el rechazo a la sociedad urbana. Este acto moderno de autonominarse constituye una atribución consciente frente al menoscabo y a los insultos recibidos en una posición representativa anterior. En vista de lo cual, la fantasma reclama los lugares, las palabras, los bienes y exige la recomposición de los cuerpos despedazados por el discurso blanco y etnocéntrico.The travelling spectrum of Poema de Chile reflects on the adoption of the name Mistral. The causes of this choice gofrom coming back to a previous intimacy -the original scene of the country- to the rejection of the urban society. The name she gives herself is a conscious act and therefore, a modern one, which is used as a response to the damage she received when she was in a previous situation. As a result, the ghost calls for the places, the language and the goods that were stolen, and she demands to recover the bodies that were torn by the white and ethnocentric discourse.

  10. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravena, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Suzuki, O. [Exploracion y Desarrollo de Recursos Hidricos, Santiago (Chile); Pena, H. [Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago (Chile); Pollastri, A. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, H. [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Grilli, A. [Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-06-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with {delta}{sup 18}O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to {delta}{sup 18}O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The {sup 18}O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the {sup 18}O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Lejos de NYC: El hip-hop en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Quitzow

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se abordan las manifestaciones concretas de una forma cultural urbana exportada desde Occidente a los países en desarrollo. A través de una reconstrucción de la historia de la cultura hip hop en Chile, se han intendado esbozar algunas conclusiones sobre su influencia en la formación de una identidad cultural urbana, tratando además de relacionar el desarrollo histórico del movimiento y de las prácticas actuales de la juventud en Santiago con tendencias más amplias en la sociedad chilena. En particular, se ha intentado determinar si el hip hop proporciona un formato significativo para la expresión de los problemas de los jóvenes urbanos de Chile, o si es parte de lo que algunos autores denominan una “pérdida cultural”, como consecuencia del capitalismo global y el imperialismo cultural de Estados Unidos.

  12. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2009-08-01

    During the first semester of 2009 Revista Médica de Chile has received an increasing number of manuscripts. Close to 30% were rejected while most other are in the process of being improved by the authors after receiving criticisms by external peer reviewers and the editors. The time lag between acceptance and publication of manuscripts is on an average six months. During 2008, 10% of articles published were submitted by authors from countries other than Chile and most of them were printed in English. Impact factor and other indexes provided by the ISI Web of Knowledge showed a promising improvement in 2008. The International Advisory Committee and the National Editorial Committee were renewed, a new Section on Laboratory Medicine was incorporated and several minor changes were done in design and format, in the title page and the issues' content. The main problems to be faced relate to the increasing cost of editing and printing, with a reduction in commercial advertising historically contributed by the pharmaceutical industry. Another major concern is to stimulate governmental agencies, scientific societies and universities to establish a national independent registry of clinical trials, that should become a mandatory requisite for every manuscript submitted to Chilean medical journals, reporting clinical trials performed in the country; foreign manuscripts should document the satisfaction of an identical requisite in their original source. PMID:19915775

  13. Astronomy Outreach Activities in Chile: IYA 2009 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.

  14. Chile. Actores Populares en la Protesta Nacional, 1983-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa REVILLA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los acontecimientos y los actores implicados en las movilizaciones producidas en Santiago de Chile en 1983-84, son el objeto de andlisis de este artículo. Tras una breve exposición del contexto económico y político, se describen los rasgos fundamentales y la evolución de las protestas. Del análisis de los hechos se deducen tres objetivos implícitos en las movilizaciones: recuperación de la identidad política y social, integración polltica de los excluidos y democracia. Los resultados son dispares; mientras en el plano político se produce una derrota, en lo referente a la expresividad de las acciones y al problema de la integración, las movilizaciones fueron exitosas.ABSTRACT: ThLs article focuses on the events and actors involved in the mobilizations tha took place in Santiago de Chile between 1983-1984. After a short exposition of the political and economic context, it describes the main characteristics and the protest's evolution. Three implicit objetives can be identified from the demostrations: the recovering of social and political identity, the political integration of the excluded people and democracy. The results are inequal; while on the political level a defeat ocurs, with regard to the expressiveness of the actions and the integration's problem, the mobilizations were successful.

  15. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  16. Tendencias generales en la toponimia del Norte Grande de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Latorre

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el autor se propone examinar las facetas más salientes de la preponderancia del sustrato indígena en la toponimia mayor del Norte Grande, asunto poco o nada tratado en descripciones del español de Chile. Pasa revista a voces como "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa" y otras. Finalmente, da algunas explicaciones de esa marcada presencia de topónimos autóctonos a pesar de cinco siglos de dominio español. (In this paper, the author examines the most salient features of the prevalence of indigenous backgrounds in the toponymy of Northernmost Chile, an aspect barely tackled, or simply neglected, in the descriptions of Chilean Spanish. The author reviews terms such as "Arica", "Chañaral", "Iquique", "Taltal", "Tocopilla", "Chuquicamata", "Andes", "Antofagasta", "Calama", "Pica", "Loa", and others. Also, some explanations are offered that may justify the notorious presence of native placenames, in spite of five centuries of Spanish domination.

  17. FERROCARRILES EN LA ZONA AUSTRAL DE CHILE, 1869-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Martinic B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se entrega una visión completa acerca de los ferrocarriles construidos y explotados en la región austral de Chile y se ofrece asimismo una explicación sobre su modesta expresión hist��rica, cosa notable en un territorio como la Patagonia chilena en cuya colonización y desarrollo ulterior fue importante la utilización de la tecnología industrial moderna. Se dan a conocer también algunas interesantes iniciativas ferrocarrileras que no llegaron a materializarseIn spite of the important development in Chilean Patagonia between circa 1870 an 1973, particulary in the old Magellan Territory, an almost surprising fact was that in between many incorporated industrial technology the railroad, a paradigm of modernity, had a scarce representation. In this paper, a complete review about railroads settled and exploted in southernmost Chile is done and a explanation of its modest expression and some interesting projects that necer became materialized which explains the emptiness in the historical information on the subject

  18. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  19. Oxygenation variability off Northern Chile during the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Díaz-Ochoa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Peru Chile Current ecosystem is characterized by high biological productivity and important fisheries. Although this system is likely to be severely affected by climate change, its response to current global warming is still uncertain. In this paper we analyze 10–166 year old sediments in two cores collected in Mejillones Bay, an anoxic sedimentary setting favorable for preservation of proxies. Based on a 166 year chronology we used indicators of bottom water oxygenation proxies (Mo, V, S, and the (lycopane+n-C35/n-C31 ratio and surface water productivity (biogenic opal, counts of diatom valves, biogenic Ba, organic carbon and chlorins to reconstruct environmental variations in Mejillones Bay. We find that at decadal scales, and during the last two centuries, a shift in the coastal marine ecosystem off Northern Chile took place which was characterized by intense ENSO-like activity and large fluctuations in biological export productivity, in bottom water oxygenation, and increased eolic activity (inferred from Ti/Al and Zr/Al. On top of this short-term variability, a gradual increase of sulfidic conditions has occurred being even more intensified since the early 1960s.

  20. [Diabetic renal disease: the World Kidney Day in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles, Leopoldo; Mezzano, Sergio

    2010-04-01

    The third version of the World Kidney Day will be held on May 13, 2010 in Chile and will be focused in diabetic renal damage, the main cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, we are living a pandemic of CKD, a progressive and irreversible condition with high social and economic impact. In Chile, we have 857 patients per million inhabitants in hemodialysis and 35% are secondary to diabetes. Our general prevalence of diabetes is 4.2%, rising to 15% in people aged more than 64 years. With a 34% prevalence of hypertension, an aging population, high prevalence of obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle, there is an estimation of a rise in 85% of the prevalence of diabetes in South-America, for the next decades. The steps to be taken are clear: campaigns should be aimed at (1) prevention of type 2 diabetes; (2) screening for early diabetic kidney disease; (3) increasing patient awareness of kidney disease; (4) using medications of proven strategy and finally (5) research on new therapies. These concepts must be included in community and professional education to reduce the effects of this pandemic. PMID:20668785

  1. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile. PMID:26530201

  2. SPATIAL INEQUALITY, MIGRATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Soto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1975 and 2000, annual per-capita GDP in Chile grew at 5%. Yet, regions did not benefit equally: poverty declined significantly in all regions but regional income inequality remained stagnant. We found that convergence in per-capita income and productivity levels is too slow to become a significant force in equalizing regional income. Lack of convergence is mostly associated with low levels of internal migration. This, in turn, is found to be largely the result of government policies, in particular, public housing. The efficient targeting of subsidies coupled with the prohibition to sell houses, tied families to their geographical location, inhibiting migrationEntre 1975 y 2000, el PIB por habitante creció 5% por año en Chile. Sin embargo, las regiones no se beneficiaron de igual forma: la pobreza cayó significativamente en todas ellas, pero la desigualdad de ingreso regional se mantuvo constante. Encontramos que la convergencia en el ingreso y productividad per capita es demasiado lenta para igualar los ingresos regionales. La falta de convergencia se relaciona con la insuficiente migración interna. Esta se debe, en gran medida, a políticas públicas, en especial la de vivienda. La alta eficiencia en la asignación de subsidios en conjunto con las restricciones de enajenación han anclado a las familias a sus lugares de origen, inhibiendo la migración

  3. Differences in infant temperament between Chile and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Chamarrita; Vallotton, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Temperament refers to individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation and is influenced by genetic and experiential variation and maturation. Temperament reflects biologically based individual differences that emerge in early life and remain relatively stable thereafter. Given the growing interest in cultural variation in infant temperament, this study examined the temperament of 12-month-old children in Chile and the US. The aims were to validate a version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised - Very Short Form in Spanish for Chile and to compare Chilean and US infants' temperament. For the first aim, 150 Chilean infants aged 10-15 months were assessed, and 73 US infants aged 10-15 months were examined for the second aim. The children's parents completed a demographic questionnaire and the IBQ-R-VSF, which measures three dimensions of temperament: Surgency, Negative Affectivity, and Effortful Control. The reliability of each dimension for the Chilean sample was between 0.70 and 0.75, and significant differences between Chilean and US infants emerged. Parents of Chilean infants reported higher levels of Effortful Control, whereas US parents reported that their infants exhibited higher levels of Negative Affectivity. A relationship between parents' higher educational level and infants' higher levels of Surgency was found for both countries. No gender or age differences were observed for any of the three temperament dimensions. These results and their implications for cultural studies are discussed. PMID:27450101

  4. Desarrollo metropolitano integrado: El caso de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Schiappacasse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Área Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo existen debilidades importantes en el establecimiento de mecanismos adecuados que permitan definir su orientación estratégica en un marco global competitivo; esta situación se intensifica en la medida que las áreas metropolitanas en Chile, no poseen una institucionalidad definida y un marco legal que las sustente. El AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. En este artículo se analiza la situación del AMS, en el marco de la discusión internacional, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. La intención es contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, aquellas orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que están experimentando las ciudades.

  5. NF-κB/AP-1-Targeted Inhibition of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses by Depigmenting Compound AP736 Derived from Natural 1,3-Diphenylpropane Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thai Ha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AP736 was identified as an antimelanogenic drug that can be used for the prevention of melasma, freckles, and dark spots in skin by acting as a suppressor of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression. Since macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are critical for skin health, here we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activity of AP736. The effects of AP736 on various inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO/prostaglandin (PG E2 production, inflammatory gene expression, phagocytic uptake, and morphological changes were examined in RAW264.7 cells. AP736 was found to strongly inhibit the production of both NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- treated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AP736 strongly inhibited both LPS-induced morphological changes and FITC-dextran-induced phagocytic uptake. Furthermore, AP736 also downregulated the expression of multiple inflammatory genes, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2, and interleukin- (IL- 1β in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Transcription factor analysis, including upstream signalling events, revealed that both NF-κB and AP-1 were targeted by AP736 via inhibition of the IKK/IκBα and IRAK1/TAK1 pathways. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that AP736 is a potential anti-inflammatory drug due to its suppression of NF-κB-IKK/IκBα and AP-1-IRAK1/TAK1 signalling, which may make AP736 useful for the treatment of macrophage-mediated skin inflammation.

  6. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  7. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today's modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state. PMID:21212817

  8. A new record of Equus (Mammalia: Equidae from the Late Pleistocene of central-south Chile Un nuevo registro de Equus (Mammalia: Equidae para el Pleistoceno Superior de Osorno, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMAR P RECABARREN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen dental and bone parts of a horse excavated from the Pilauco paleontological site, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W are analysed and interpreted. This site was formed in association with a peat bog located on the banks of the old Damas River and has conserved abundant late Pleistocene mammalian fauna and flora materials. A date of 11457 ± 140 14C yrs B.P. was obtained from a molar and agrees with our stratigraphic age model. We have identified the fossils as pertaining to the species Equus (Amerhippus andium, which confirms its presence in central-south Chile. Furthermore, the recorded geographic location indicate that the metapodial adaptations of the specimens previously described agree with the reconstructed late Pleistocene landscape of Pilauco, dominated by soft volcanic soils and isolated forest patches over large extensions of grasslands.Se analizan e interpretan 14 fósiles correspondientes a dientes y huesos de caballo registrados en el sitio Pilauco, Osorno (40°39' S-73°07' W. El sitio se formó asociado a un pantano en un borde del antiguo río Damas; en él se ha conservado abundante material de mastofauna y flora pleistocénica. Una fecha radiocarbónica de 11457 ± 140 A.P obtenida de un molar, es concordante con el modelo de edad del sitio. La identificación taxonómica permite asociar a los fósiles a la especie Equus (Amerhippus andium, lo que confirma la presencia de la especie en el centro-sur de Chile. Por otra parte, la posición geográfica de los hallazgos y la reconstrucción del paisaje indicarían que se trata de ejemplares cuyas adaptaciones en los metapodios son concordantes para el paisaje pleistocénico de Pilauco dominado por suelos volcánicos blandos, con presencia de bosquetes dispersos en grandes extensiones de praderas de gramíneas.

  9. Westinghouse Passive Plants - AP600 and S PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original thought behind the AP600 passive design was that if the U. S. nuclear industry was to be revitalized, it would require a new, advanced technology with clearly proven benefits in safety. Response from the international arena indicates that, regardless of local domestic consideration, a revitalization of the U. S. industry is seen as very important, even essential, worldwide. And the potential for scale up of these passive safety features has been clearly established, allowing the benefits of the passive technology to be realized in countries that, for whatever reason, are interested in larger plant sizes only. Government projections indicate that U. S. energy demands in the 1990s will grow steadily, creating the need for approximately 117,000 to 322,000 MW of new generating capacity by the year 2010. Although this growth in electricity demand continues to be strong, orders for new nuclear power plants have not kept pace, in part due to licensing delays, prohibitive construction costs, and public uncertainty about safety. However, with the increased concerns about the environmental and economic security risks involved with an excessive dependence on fossil fuels, there is a growing realization that nuclear power must play a major role in our energy future. Looking to the future, Westinghouse is developing the AP600, a simplified two-loop PWR featuring passive safety systems. Drawing on the results of the AP600 development and testing programs, Westinghouse is also developing the larger S PWR, a passive, three-loop power plant with an output in the 900 to 1000 MW range

  10. Euphorbesulins A-P, Structurally Diverse Diterpenoids from Euphorbia esula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Wu, Yan; Dalal, Seema; Cassera, Maria B; Yue, Jian-Min

    2016-08-26

    Aqueous ethanol extracts of powdered twigs of Euphorbia esula afforded 16 new diterpenoids, named euphorbesulins A-P. These euphorbesulins included presegetane (1-3), jatrophane (4-14), paraliane (15), and isopimarane (16) diterpenoids as well as six known analogues. Compounds 1-3 represent a rare type of presegetane diterpenoid. Their structures were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by X-ray crystallography. Diterpenoid 7 showed low nanomolar antimalarial activity, while the remaining compounds showed only moderate or no antimalarial activity. PMID:27447736

  11. COMMIX analysis of AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COMMIX modeling and basic concepts that relate components, i.e., containment, water film cooling, and natural draft air flow systems. of the AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System are discussed. The critical safety issues during a postulated accident have been identified as (1) maintaining the liquid film outside the steel containment vessel, (2) ensuring the natural convection in the air annulus. and (3) quantifying both heat and mass transfer accurately for the system. The lack of appropriate heat and mass transfer models in the present analysis is addressed. and additional assessment and validation of the proposed models is proposed

  12. Deionized water system design for the APS RF building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deionized (DI) water system design for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) radio frequency (RF) building is presented. The system is described by RF component specifications, limiting design parameters, hardware, monitoring equipment, and operating experience. Varying maximum/minimum specifications for flow rate, temperature, and pressure for the components are discussed. Similarities and differences between the five separate RF equipment stations are identified. The use of a supply and return manifold system at each station, which provides DI water to the equipment stations in a parallel arrangement, is described

  13. The driving mechanism of roAp stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse in detail the driving mechanism of roAp stars and present the theoretical instability strip predicted by our models with solar metallicity. A particular attention is given to the interpretation of the role played by the different eigenfunctions in the stabilization of the modes at the red edge of the instability strip. The gradient of temperature in the HI opacity bump appears to play a major role in this context. We also consider the particular and complex role played by the shape of the eigenfunctions (location of the nodes, ...).

  14. The NuStart AP1000 Compact Control Room Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry in the United States is experiencing renewed optimism that new nuclear power plants may be constructed in the foreseeable future. Presently a number of utilities in the U.S. are considering new nuclear plant construction. Among the reasons supporting the industry's optimism is the formation of the NuStart Energy Consortium. This consortium of leading energy companies, including Westinghouse Electric Company, is working with the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate and test the new licensing process for obtaining a Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) for an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). One ALWR design for which the NuStart Energy Consortium is pursuing a COL application is Westinghouse's passive AP1000. AP1000 received its Final Design Approval from the USNRC in the Fall of 2004 and was granted Design Certification by the NRC on December 30, 2005. A key element of the AP1000 COL application will be to close out Design Certification COL items related to the Main Control Room (MCR) and Human System Interface (HSI) design. During the AP1000 design certification licensing efforts, a control room and HSI design process was submitted and approved. Realizing that Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and HSI technology changes rapidly, Westinghouse chose to defer the detailed design of the control room and operator interfaces. This allows the latest technology to be used when a plant is actually going to be built. To fulfill the COL items for the upcoming application Westinghouse is performing a comprehensive Human Factors Engineering program in conjunction with development of an advanced set of HSI resources for a compact control room. This paper will discuss human factors program elements completed to date and the efforts currently in progress to complete the remaining elements. It will also describe the design progress for each HSI resource including a Wall Panel Information System, computerized procedure system

  15. Santiago Apóstol en la intimidad del santiaguero

    OpenAIRE

    Portuondo Zúñiga, Olga

    2010-01-01

    La relación entre el apóstol Santiago (el Mayor) y Santiago de Cuba remonta hasta el ya casi milenio de su fundación; y en el día de hoy, la ciudad está orgullosa de su nombre y de su patronazgo. La tradición engarza las cuentas de una historia común, sin que implique una plena identificación espiritual inicial, ni la inexistencia de escollos a salvar para que la comunidad asumiera como honra y nobleza su cualidad santiaguera.

  16. Salidas no documentadas y facturas apócrifas

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, María José

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo analizaremos el instituto de salidas no documentadas reglado en los arts. 37 y 38 y normas concordantes de la Ley 20.628 de impuesto a las ganancias, en relación a su naturaleza jurídica, procedencia del cómputo de gastos, posibilidad de deducción de créditos fiscales, la viabilidad de su aplicación al caso de comprobantes apócrifos o incompletos, los pronunciamientos judiciales relacionados y las consecuencias en el ámbito penal.

  17. AP1000 PSA model and its model format conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model of the third generation nuclear power technology (AP1000) is built with CAFTA code, while the RiskSpectrum code is used in our institute. Based on the analysis of the data files of the two codes, the conversion code CAFTA2RS is developed to extract information from the PSA model built with CAFTA, modify the data format that incompatible with RiskSpectrum, convert the gate type, such as AANB, EQU and so on, to the gate type acceptable with RS, and finally convert the PSA model from the format of CAFTA code to the format of RiskSpectrum code automatically. (authors)

  18. Inflation Uncertainty in Chile: Asymmetries and the News Impact Curve Inflation Uncertainty in Chile: Asymmetries and the News Impact Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Johnson

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historical analysis of inflation in Chile from 1933 to 2001, estimating generalized autoregressive heteroskedasticity models, including asymmetric extensions such as the Threshold, Quadratic and Box-Cox models. Traditional symmetric models accept the Friedman hypothesis establishing that inflation increases uncertainty. However, a more general class of asymmetric models rejects this hypothesis. This result is not valid for the asymmetric Box-Cox non linear model. Furthermore, we found that high levels of uncertainty in inflation increase the level of inflation with some lags, not rejecting the positive correlation established by Cukierman and Metzler. The News Impact Curve reflects those asymmetries. This article presents a historical analysis of inflation in Chile from 1933 to 2001, estimating generalized autoregressive heteroskedasticity models, including asymmetric extensions such as the Threshold, Quadratic and Box-Cox models. Traditional symmetric models accept the Friedman hypothesis establishing that inflation increases uncertainty. However, a more general class of asymmetric models rejects this hypothesis. This result is not valid for the asymmetric Box-Cox non linear model. Furthermore, we found that high levels of uncertainty in inflation increase the level of inflation with some lags, not rejecting the positive correlation established by Cukierman and Metzler. The News Impact Curve reflects those asymmetries

  19. Hydrogeologische Untersuchungen der Geothermalfelder von Puyehue und Cordón Caulle, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsch, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    -Resumen extendido- Investigaciones realizadas en conjunto con la Universidad de Chile, en las áreas geotermales activas entre Lago Ranco y Lago Rupanco en el Sur de Chile (40.5ºS) han sido enfocadas a establecer balances hídricos e hidroquímicos. Esta tesis muestra los resultados de dos estudios de terreno realizados en las temporadas enero-marzo 2001 y enero-febrero 2002, y una investigación bibliográfica y recopilación de datos llevada a cabo en Chile. Los cálculos del caudal total se bas...

  20. El aporte de los exiliados políticos al retorno a la democracia en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Avaria, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Chile sufrió una dictadura militar encabezada por el general Augusto Pinochet que se extendió por diecisiete años, de 1973 a 1990. Es así como Chile pasó a engrosar la lista de las demás dictaduras que pululaban en América Latina y particularmente en el Cono Sur, donde Paraguay, Brasil, Bolivia y Uruguay se encontraban bajo la bota militar, sumándoseles Argentina en 1976. Al igual que en los países vecinos, en Chile se instauró la práctica milenaria del exilio. La pena del destierro ha sid...

  1. Countering the resource curse: a comparative analysis of political economy for Chile and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explain how advanced economies with large mining sectors, like those of Australia and Chile, have managed to avoid the resource curse. Minerals (iron ore and coal) account for over two-thirds of Australia’s exports, and minerals (copper) amount to over two-thirds of Chilean exports as well. Hence, Australia and Chile have been labeled as commodity-based economies in the past. There is some validity to this claim, as Chile has gained significant fiscal revenues from cop...

  2. The Expansion of Cash Transfers in Chile and its Challenges: Ethical Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cecchini; Claudia Robles; Luis Hernán Vargas

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade Chile has attracted renewed interest for its innovative social protection policies and programmes, such as the Chile Solidario system to overcome extreme poverty (launched in 2002), the special plan for Universal Access with Explicit Guarantees (Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas, AUGE) to ensure access to healthcare (2004), the Basic Solidarity Pension (Pensión Básica Solidaria, PBS)?the cornerstone of the 2008 pension reform?and the system of Chile Grows Wi...

  3. Cuidadores informales de personas dependientes en chile. Aspectos psicosociales y culturales

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso Miranda, Deiza Yanet

    2013-01-01

    [ES] La investigación trata sobre los cuidados informales a personas dependientes en Chile. El estudio empírico fue realizado en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, con cuidadores informales de personas con dependencias de diversas edades, y de estratos socioeconómicos bajos y medios-bajos. La información recopilada fue tratada con metodología cualitativa, específicamente la Teoría Fundamentada. Los principales hallazgos indican que los cuidados en Chile, tanto en zonas urbanas como...

  4. Constitutive Expression of Sense & Antisense PtAP3, an AP3 Homologue Gene of Populus tomentosa, Affects Growth and Flowering Time in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the function of PtAP3, an APETALA3 (AP3) homologue gene isolated from Populus tomentosa Carr., the full length sequence (1 797 bp) and a fragment (870 bp) of PtAP3 were fused to a CaMV 35S promoter of pBI121 to generate the sense and antisense constructs of PtAP3. These constructs were transformed into tobacco by Agrobacterium infection of leaf disks and selection on kanamycin medium. Some sense and antisense transgenic tobacco plants were obtained by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Great phenotypic differences in transgenic tobacco plants were observed. Almost all of sense PtAP3 to transgenic tobaccos showed a higher growth rate than those of antisense transformants and a few developed pregnancy earlier than wild type seedlings and antisense transformants under the same conditions.

  5. Epidemiología de la difilobotriasis en la cuenca del río Valdivia, Chile Epidemiologia de difílobotriase na bacia do rio Valdivia, Chile Epidemiology of diphyllobothriasis in the Valdivia River basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de marzo y octubre de 1987 fueron examinados 1295 personas de seis distritos ribereños de la cuenca del río Valdivia, determinándose un 1,2% de prevalencia de infección por Diphyllobothrium en los distritos de Riñihue y Las Huellas. Además, se comprobó un 5,3% y un 9,8% de prevalencia en perros de los distritos de Riñihue y Malihue, respectivamente, pero no se observó infección en gatos y cerdos. Los parásitos recuperados después del tratamiento fueron identificados como Diphyllobothrium latum. La infección humana por D. latum en los distritos afectados se favorece por el consumo de peces ahumados o sometidos a cocción insuficiente. La investigación de 1450 peces (4 especies introducidas y 11 autóctonas capturados entre 1986-1987 en la cuenca del río Valdivia, demostró la existencia de plerocercoides de D. latum y/o Diphyllobothrium dendriticum en Salmo gairdneri y Salmo trutta, entre los peces introducidos, y en algunas especies autóctonas. La prevalencia e intensidad media en las infecciones de los peces así como el grado de agregación de las infrapoblaciones varía en los distintos sectores. Algunas especies de peces actuarían como huésped intermediario y otras como huéspedes paraténicos de Diphyllobothrium spp. en la cuenca del río Valdivia. Como medidas de control para la difilobotriasis en los distritos afectados se propone un mejoramiento de las condiciones de saneamiento básico, educación sanitaria y tratamiento de las personas infectadas.Foram examinadas 1.295 pessoas de seis localidades situadas às margens da bacia do rio Valdivia (Chile, encontrando-se uma prevalência de infecção por Diphyllobothrium igual a 1,2% em Riñihue e Las Huellas. Em cães a prevalência foi de 5,3% e e 9,8% em Riñihue e Malihue, respectivamente, não tendo sido observada infecção em gatos nem porcos. Os parasitas obtidos após tratamento foram identificados como Diphyllobothrium latum. A infecção humana

  6. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  7. Duplication of AP1 within the Spinacia oleracea L. AP1/FUL clade is followed by rapid amino acid and regulatory evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, D Noah; Golenberg, Edward M

    2009-02-01

    The AP1/FUL clade of MADS box genes have undergone multiple duplication events among angiosperm species. While initially identified as having floral meristem identity and floral organ identity function in Arabidopsis, the role of AP1 homologs does not appear to be universally conserved even among eudicots. In comparison, the role of FRUITFULL has not been extensively explored in non-model species. We report on the isolation of three AP1/FUL genes from cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracea L. Two genes, designated SpAPETALA1-1 (SpAP1-1) and SpAPETALA1-2 (SpAP1-2), cluster as paralogous genes within the Caryophyllales AP1 clade. They are highly differentiated in the 3', carboxyl-end encoding region of the gene following the third amphipathic alpha-helix region, while still retaining some elements of a signature AP1 carboxyl motifs. In situ hybridization studies also demonstrate that the two paralogs have evolved different temporal and spatial expression patterns, and that neither gene is expressed in the developing sepal whorl, suggesting that the AP1 floral organ identity function is not conserved in spinach. The spinach FRUITFULL homolog, SpFRUITFULL (SpFUL), has retained the conserved motif and groups with Caryophyllales FRUITFULL homologs. SpFUL is expressed in leaf as well as in floral tissue, and shows strong expression late in flower development, particularly in the tapetal layer in males, and in the endothecium layer and stigma, in the females. The combined evidence of high rates of non-synonymous substitutions and differential expression patterns supports a scenario in which the AP1 homologs in the spinach AP1/FUL gene family have experienced rapid evolution following duplication. PMID:19005675

  8. Particle velocity measurements in HVOF and APS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of reliable, repeatable coatings requires precise control of the process used to deposit them. Significant advances have recently been made in controlling the inputs to thermal spray processes, however, much work remains to be done to control process outputs and to correlate these with coatings characteristics. Thermal spray processes comprise the heating/melting, acceleration, impact, rapid solidification and incremental build-up of a large number of individual particles. Particle velocity is a key process parameter in determining coating properties such as density/porosity, bond strength and residual stress. Laser Stroboscopy and optical image analysis techniques have been used to image particles traveling in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) jets. Results indicate that these techniques can be used to measure particle velocity, trajectory and velocity distribution(s) in thermal spray jets. mean particle velocities of ∼400 m/s and ∼100 m/s have been measured for HVOF and APS respectively

  9. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1

  10. AP1000® SBLOCA simulations with TRACE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of AP1000 behavior in SBLOCA sequences. • Importance of CMTs and PRHR system for core cooling in case of small break sizes. • Well behavior of the plant in case of availability of half of the total ECCS because of DEDVI. - Abstract: The AP1000® is an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) design developed by Westinghouse which implements passive safety systems to provide core cooling in case of accident. The performing of such systems must be evaluated through the performance of experiments and simulations with a variety of thermal–hydraulic codes. This paper presents the results which has been obtained for different SBLOCA break sizes with the best estimate TRACE V5.0 patch 2 thermal–hydraulic code and their comparison with those obtained by Westinghouse with NOTRUMP code. The main results show that TRACE code predicts a similar trend in all sequences with some differences that are expected to be an issue of the more conservative models and hypothesis assumed in the SBLOCA licensing analysis performed with NOTRUMP. Some particular characteristics of this reactor are also shown in this paper such as the importance of core makeup tank (CMT) and passive residual heat removal (PRHR) system for core cooling in case of small break sizes and the behavior of the plant in case of availability of half of the total passive safety injection systems which is the case of the double-ended direct vessel injection line break (DEDVI)

  11. High-brightness beam diagnostics for the APS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector includes an S-band linac with the capability to accelerate beams to 650 MeV. The linac has recently been upgraded with the installation of an rf thermionic gun in addition to the standard DC thermionic gun. The rf gun is predicted to have lower emittance (5πmm mrad) and may be used to support the APS self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) experiments. The critical characterization of this gun's beam has begun with a beam diagnostics station at the end of the linac that can address beam transverse size, emittance, and bunch length (peak current). This station uses both an optical transition radiation (OTR) screen at 45 degree to the beam direction and a Ce-doped YAG single crystal normal to the beam with a 45 degree mirror behind it. The visible light images are detected by a Vicon CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera. Spatial resolution of about 30 microm (σ) and temporal resolution of 1 ps (σ) have been demonstrated. Examples of rf gun beam characterization at 220 MeV are reported

  12. Containment integrity analysis for the (W) advanced AP900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl and the lack of interest from utilities in committing to high powered, high maintenance light water reactor designs of the past have motivated the nuclear industry to develop smaller, lower powered, simplified designs. Simplified designs must employ more passive systems that require very low maintenance and rely on the basic laws of nature. These designs must not be limited only to the reactor, but must also include the containment building. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the design concepts and to verify the feasibility of the Westinghouse Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) design for a 900 MWe advanced passive reactor design (AP900) by presenting its response to a design basis large break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The mass and energy releases emanating from the design basis break were developed and a representative containment model was constructed. The COMPACT computer code, which is a multi-node program that solves the complete set of mass, energy and momentum equations, was used to determine the AP900 containment response. The PCCS design concept, the computer model, the analysis inputs, and the results of the study are discussed within this paper. (author). 2 refs., 9 figs

  13. Ciencia política en Chile: un espejo intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Fernández

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Al igual que el resto de las ciencias sociales, la ciencia política chilena está en deuda con su historia. Si bien existen reflexiones puntuales, más bien descriptivas, sobre la disciplina, no se ha desarrollado un análisis auto-reflexivo sobre su devenir como disciplina y profesión. A pesar de su relativa juventud, es ésta una tarea pendiente que, de enfrentarse, puede contribuir a hacer sentido acerca de su rol y naturaleza. A partir de la utilización del enfoque internalista, se recurre a la aplicación de entrevistas a cientistas políticos a fin de auscultar la percepción y las imágenes que los propios cultores tienen de temas relacionados con la vocación, la concepción de lo político y los ideales explicativos de la disciplina, los referentes disciplinarios, su función y relevancia social, sus fortalezas y posibilidades. Se propone, entonces, un primer relato que contribuya a una mayor sensibilización acerca del pasado y del futuro de la disciplina.Abstract Political science, like the other social sciences in Chile, is in debt with its history. While there have been some specific and descriptive reflections, an analytical reflection about its development as a discipline and profession is necessary. Despite the relative youth of political science in Chile, such a task can help us make sense its role and nature. Using an internalist approach and interviews with Chilean political scientists, the article examines perceptions and images about issues related to political science as a vocation, how the study of politics has been conceptualized historically, its references, its function and social relevance, its strengths and possibilities. The result is an account which may serve as a first step towards the creation of an increased sensibility for the past and the future of the discipline in Chile.

  14. A possible Plio-Pleistocene tsunami deposit, Hornitos, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Hartley

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A section equivalent to the Pliocene La Portada Formation exposed in the coastal cliff at Hornitos, northern Chile, contains a ca. 7-10 m thick conglomerate bed. The bed occurs within a succession of shallow marine sandstones and has an erosional contact with underlying strata. The largest boulders of basement (5 m are angular to very angular and are set within a matrix of very poorly sorted fine to very coarse grained shell-rich sandstone. Also present are very well rounded granodiorite pebbles and shallow marine sandstone intraclasts (maximum 10 m. The clast size, erosional contact, associated facies and bed thickness suggests that the conglomerate bed is a shallow marine tsunami deposit. The angular clasts indicate limited transport and no marine reworking prior to deposition. They represent alluvial fan sediment incorporated into the bed during tsunami backflow. Intraclasts of shallow marine sandstone are thought to have been ripped up and included in the bed during the seaward passage of the tsunami across the shorefaceUn posible depósito de tsunami Plio-Pleistoceno, Hornitos, norte de Chile. Una sección equivalente a la Formación La Portada de edad pliocena, expuesta en el acantilado costero en el sector de Hornitos, norte del Chile, expone un estrato de conglomerados de ca. 7-10 m de potencia. El estrato ocurre dentro de una sucesión de areniscas marinas someras y tiene un contacto de erosión con los estratos infrayacentes. Los clastos mayores (5 m de basamento son angulares a muy angulares y se emplazan en una matriz arenisca de grano fino a muy grueso, pobre a muy pobremente seleccionada y con abundantes conchas. También están presentes clastos bien redondeados de granodiorita junto a intraclastos de areniscas marinas someras. El tamaño de los clastos, el contacto erosional, las facies asociadas y la potencia del estrato sugieren que el estrato de conglomerados es un depósito marino somero correspondiente a un tsunami. Los

  15. Coastal Upwelling off Chile: Ocean Productivity and Surface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeln, D.; Lamy, F.

    2002-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system of the Peru-Chile Current belongs to the most productive regions in the world oceans. In spite of this fact only very little is known about the sediment distribution in its southern part off the coast of Chile. To increase the knowledge about this region a multi-parameter study of the surface sediment distribution at over 100 sampling sites along the Chilean continental slope between 23°S and 45°S has been carried out. Detailed analyses of sedimentary data (TOC, carbonate, and biogenic opal contents, delta 15N) reveal a close relation to environmental conditions in the region. Coastal upwelling along the Chilean coast, centered around main upwelling centers such as off Antofagasta (23°S), off Lengua de Vaca (30°S), off Valparaiso (33°S), and off Concepci¢n (35-38°S), sustains the high productivity observed in satellite pigment data and in sediment data. However, the highest pigment concentrations are found south of 40°S where prevailing onshore winds of the Southern Westerlies generally prevent coastal upwelling. There, also highest estimated accumulation rates of organic carbon and biogenic opal at the sea floor are found. Thus, the general pattern of a southward increase of surface water productivity known from satellite data is closely reflected in the organic carbon, biogenic opal and ?15N data, although the observation of highest productivity south of the upwelling area is surprising. Probably, this high productivity in the south can be attributed to the advection of (macro-) nutrients by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, supplying so-called high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to the Chilean margin. Impinging on the Chilean margin these waters can take up micronutrients such as iron from the strong riverine input and from benthic exchange processes. The combination of macro- and micro-nutrients in this area most likely results in the high productivity of the area between 40°S and 45°S. From there these fertile

  16. Adding the human dimension to drought: an example from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen

    2016-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights

  17. Preparation of and porosity measurements on oxidic APS spray coatings; Praeparation und Porositaetsmessung an oxidischen APS-Spritzschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motl, Wolfgang [H.C. Starck GmbH, Laufenburg (Germany); Schnarr, Holger [Struers GmbH, Willich (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Zirconium oxide coatings for application in the field of turbine construction have to exhibit certain properties in order to meet high temperature requirements. One of the most important properties is the porosity, for it provides a thermal insulation of the coated material. For this reason, the porosity is routinely determined as quality parameter for spray coatings which helps determining their suitability for a particular application. The following work summarizes the results of the round robin test ''Preparation of and Porosity Measurements on Oxidic APS Spray Coatings'' by the DGM working group ''Preparation''.

  18. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae: Evidence linking development and environmental responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liping; Yin, Yue; You, Chenjiang; Pan, Qianli; Xu, Duo; Jin, Taijie; Zhang, Bailong; Ma, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcription factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study. PMID:26472270

  19. Induction of neural crest in Xenopus by transcription factor AP2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Lee, Young-Hoon; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre; Sargent, Thomas D

    2003-01-21

    We report experiments with Xenopus laevis, using both intact embryos and ectodermal explants, showing that the transcription factor AP2alpha is positively regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling, and that this activation is an essential step in the induction of neural crest (NC). Ectopic expression of AP2alpha is sufficient to activate high-level expression of NC-specific genes such as Slug and Sox9, which can occur as isolated domains within the neural plate as well as by expansion of endogenous NC territories. AP2alpha also has the property of inducing NC in isolated ectoderm in which Wnt signaling is provided but BMP signaling is minimized by overexpression of chordin. Like other NC regulatory factors, activation of AP2alpha requires some attenuation of endogenous BMP signaling; however, this process occurs at a lower threshold for AP2alpha. Furthermore, AP2alpha expression domains are larger than for other NC factors. Loss-of-function experiments with antisense AP2alpha morpholino oligonucleotides result in severe reduction in the NC territory. These results support a central role for AP2alpha in NC induction. We propose a model in which AP2alpha expression, along with inactivation of NC inhibitory factors such as Dlx3, establish a feedback loop comprising AP2alpha, Sox9, and Slug, leading to and maintaining NC specification. PMID:12511599

  20. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se entrega un sistema de clasificación que refleja las relaciones de parentesco, inferidas a partir del análisis de la región 16S de ADN mitocondrial, de los patelogastrópodos que habitan en la zona intermareal a lo largo de la costa rocosa de Chile y Perú. Además, se incluye el análisis comparativo de estos patelogastrópodos en relación con la estructura, la morfología y los patrones de color de la concha, los dientes de la rádula y la anatomía corporal. Adicionalmente, se entrega información respecto de la distribución y ecología para todos los miembros de este grupo. Los resultados muestran que la fauna Lottiidae de Chile y Perú consiste en al menos nueve especies de patelogastrópodos intermareales. Esto es, ocho especies de patelogastrópodos agrupadas dentro del clado monofilético Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana y una especie no determinada y un "taxón problemático" asignado preliminarmente dentro del género Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. El grupo está presente entre los 5º S y 54º S, registrándose en los niveles intermareales superior, medio e inferior, desde zonas expuestas a protegidas del oleaje. A nivel intraespecífico, los resultados nos permiten proponer la sinonimia de S. parasitica con S. variabilis, y de S. ceciliana con S. boehmita. Según esto, S. variabilis presentaría al menos tres ecofenotipos: (1 en sustratos rocosos a lo largo de todo su rango geográfico, (2 sobre las conchas de Fissurella crassa y F. limbata principalmente en Chile centro-sur y (3 sobre las placas del chitón Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile y sur del Perú. Por su parte, S. ceciliana es una especie de patelogastrópodo que presenta un patrón morfológico y de coloración de la concha altamente variable. En general, la alta variabilidad del patrón de color y morfología de la concha sitúa a estos patelogastrópodos entre los más complejos y