WorldWideScience

Sample records for children

  1. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  2. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  3. Children's Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children & Families Children's Bureau By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) ... Current Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care ...

  4. Children Teaching Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  5. Wednesday's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  6. TV Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费沃尔

    2003-01-01

    Many children act in TV shows.They work several hours everyday, 1 they cannot go to regular(正规的) 2.How dothey get their schooling?In Hollywood,about forty, 3 give lessons for the children.Theirwork iS very 4 .They make sure that the children 5 many differ-ent subjects.They make sure, 6 ,that the children get enough 7and play.

  7. Epilepsy - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizure disorder - children; Convulsion - childhood epilepsy; Medically refractory childhood epilepsy; Anticonvulsant - childhood epilepsy; Antiepileptic drug - childhood epilepsy; AED - childhood epilepsy

  8. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  9. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...

  10. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  11. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  12. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  13. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent problems. Other than checkups, school-age children should be seen for Significant weight gain or loss Sleep problems or change in behavior Fever higher than 102 Rashes or skin infections Frequent ...

  14. Childrens testimony

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Rickard L

    2002-01-01

    Background: Most cases of child sexual use are identified through statements made by children and in many cases such statements constitute the only evidence available that abuse occurred. Despite its importance the use of children's testimonies is however complicated by the fact that a substantial proportion of victims delay disclosure of abuse or even deny such experiences when asked for them directly. A further complicating factor, highlighted by an abundance of experiment...

  15. Gum Disease in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types ... children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...

  16. Invisible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara

    2013-01-01

    A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them. PMID:23530395

  17. Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)

  18. Migraine Variants in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DONATE TODAY Home / Spotlight On / Migraine in Children Migraine in Children Thank you to Marcy Yonker, MD, FAHS for her contribution to this spotlight! Migraine and Children: It’s a Family Affair Migraine headaches ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  20. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  3. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation TV Violence and Children Quick Links Facts For Families Guide ... Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children ...

  4. Violence: Safeguarding Our Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This adaptation of the National Parent Teacher Association (PTA) booklet "Safeguarding Your Children" discusses cooperative efforts of communities, schools, and homes to protect children from violence. (SM)

  5. Wuxia's Children Shoes sole: Touching Children's Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Wuxia Children shoes sole company, founded in 1998, is the first professional children shoes sole business in Wenzhou city. It is located in Huanglong Commercial Center,Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province.

  6. Thromboembolism in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Cheng-xin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Thromboembotic events are being increasingly diagnosed in children. The incidence of symptomatic thrombolic events is 0.07%/10 000 children , 5.3/10 000hospital admissions of children and 2.4/1 000 admissions of newborns to intensive care units in west, but the incidence of thromboembotic events in children in China is an unknow now.

  7. Evacuation of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run

    and carrying through an evacuation where the youngest children need the most assistance in both phases. Self preservation i.e. where children descended stairs unassisted, was less than 25 % for children aged 0-2 years but over 85 % for children aged 3-6 years. Warning method influenced pre-evacuation time...

  8. Children Solve Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  9. Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan, Hassan H.

    2012-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis is a very common disease worldwide and specifically in the US population. It is a common disease in children but may be underdiagnosed. Several reasons may account to the disease being missed in children. The symptoms in children are limited and can be very similar to the common cold or allergic symptoms. Cough and nasal discharge may be the only symptoms present in children. A high index of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis of rhinosinusitis in these children. The m...

  10. Torture in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.

  11. Torture in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level. PMID:19920326

  12. Parents for children.

    OpenAIRE

    Jepson, A M

    1981-01-01

    Parents for Children is a specialist adoption agency set up to find homes for children with special needs--that is, those with physical, mental, and emotional handicaps; older children; and sibling groups. Of the first 38 children placed, one child died and six placements broke down, although four children were later re-placed. Almost all the children referred to the agency had been in care for most of their lives. A full assessment of each child is necessary before placement, but in several ...

  13. Design of Children Entertainment Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, mainly through analysis of problems on existing children entertainment facilities and the impact of children entertainment facilities on children psychological development, it is to be discussed about the key point of children entertainment facilities design.

  14. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...

  15. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: What is a ... the ureters. [ Top ] Are kidney stones common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney ...

  16. Medicines and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...

  17. Tonsillectomies and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...

  18. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  19. Traveling with children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002427.htm Traveling with children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Traveling with children presents special challenges. It disrupts familiar ...

  20. Children's hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Dailey, A

    1990-01-01

    Facing the inevitable death of a child is a difficult reality for many parents and health care providers as well. Children's Hospice International offers a variety of information and education services to support the provision of children's hospice care.

  1. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  2. Airway reconstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.

  3. Physical Activity and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Jul 21,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...

  4. Phonological Learning by Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, R. McCrae; Sachs, Jacqueline

    1979-01-01

    Finds no differences in the degree to which adults and seven-year-old children generalized Spanish stress patterns, although the children showed less interference from English stress patterns than the adults. (Author/RL)

  5. Children's Theatre in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Janet

    1985-01-01

    The author, an instructor from 1979-83 at the Children's Theatre Program of the Komplex Budaya Negara (National Cultural Complex), describes how children's theatre has evolved to achieve a distinct Malaysian identity by drawing from traditional theatre forms. (PD)

  6. Children and Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, in movies and videos, and/or playing violent video games. Parents should help protect their children from the ... watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the violent episodes ...

  7. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  8. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KNIAZKOVA V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  9. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  10. Metabolic syndrome in children

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Morea; Nicolae Miu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in children. Material and methods: We performed a cross sectional, retrospective study. A total of 395 children aged between 2-19 years old were examined.. The children have undergone physical examination; weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) were measured. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and laboratory tests needed to diagnose MS were performed. IDF ...

  11. Transgender Children in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Hellen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article is intended to provide evidence to suggest that information for teachers regarding transgender children does not represent an adequate picture of transgendered children in schools and that primary schools need to be made more aware of how to deal with transgender children, even if these children do not make themselves known to staff. It will argue that this is probably a contributing factor in transgender children’s underachievement in school. The implications of this research...

  12. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  13. SOCIAL ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Avakyan, Tamara; Volikova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanag...

  14. Bullying among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Janis R.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that teachers have differing views toward children who bully. Addresses characteristics of bullies and their victims, incidences of bullying among children, the effects of bullying on children, and recommendations for teachers' support, including school-wide, classroom, and individual interventions. (DLH)

  15. Children & Books. Sixth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Zena; And Others

    Designed for classes in children's literature in English and education departments and in library schools, the emphases in this book are on understanding children and their needs, on perspectives and background, on criteria and types of literature, and on artists and authors. The first part provides an overview of children's needs and interests,…

  16. Helping Children Understand Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  17. Nordic Children's Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun;

    2009-01-01

    A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restauran...

  18. Children's Choices for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…

  19. Children's Choices for 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of children's choices of the top 100 children's and young adults' trade books for 2002. Lists books selected for the Children's Choice by reading levels: beginning readers; young readers; intermediate readers; and advanced readers. Provides tips and activities for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. (SG)

  20. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  1. Literature for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…

  2. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  3. Counseling with Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with unique learning strengths and needs. Often misunderstood and frequently less served by the counseling profession, these children and adolescents need counseling services just as much as, if not more than, other children. Federal…

  4. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  5. Bereavement Support for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Mary Jo

    2007-01-01

    The death of a parent is one of the most significant and stressful events children can encounter. Surviving children may experience psychiatric problems and social dysfunction during their childhood and possibly throughout their adult lives. Children surviving a sibling's death may develop behavioral problems, because no one can fill the emptiness…

  6. Children and the Nintendo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Suzanne M.

    The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…

  7. Constipation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Constipation in Children Constipation happens when stool stays too long in a child's colon. Causes of constipation in children may include ignoring the urge to have a bowel movement, a diet low in fiber, certain medicines or health problems.​ Diagnosis of Constipation in Children ​A doctor will ...

  8. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to deliver new data and to bring attention to the subject of evacuation of children. Evacuation characteristics such as flow, densities and walking speeds are in focus. Currently literature on evacuation com-prehends mostly studies on adults. Ten Danish daycare centers...... higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children....... The children walk slower in horizontal plan than adults, however they are keen to run during evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increases and exceeds the adults’. Since the evacuation characte-ristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...

  9. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  10. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  11. Children's workforce strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Green Paper, Every child matters, recognised the crucial importance of the children's workforce to improving outcomes for children and young people. The Children's Workforce Strategy sets out the government's vision of a world-class children's workforce which is increasingly competent and confident, inspiring trust and respect from parents and carers as well as from children and young people themselves. The document sets out four major strategic challenges: to recruit more high quality staff into the children's workforce; to retain people in the workforce including by offering better development and career progression; to strengthen interagency and multi-disciplinary working; and to promote stronger leadership and management. The strategy builds on work already in hand and on existing good practice. It puts forward proposals to tackle each of the strategic challenges with action nationally and locally. PMID:16114715

  12. Children of Different Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle

    2007-01-01

    In this article we discuss the production of social distinctions within an institutional setting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a multi-ethnic pre-school in Denmark we focus on the interpersonal encounters between immigrant children, their parents and the staff. More specifically we explore...... an apparent paradox in daily practice where on the one hand staff attempt to mute differences between children on the assumption that all children are equal and should be treated as such, while on the other hand distinctions are in practice established when children behave in ways considered inappropriate...... in relation to their own long term interest. Our material indicates that this logic systematically marks Middle Eastern children as ?other?. This legitimises an educational effort to compensate practices of upbringing in the families by teaching these children how to behave in ways considered 'proper...

  13. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  14. Children's participation in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig

    2012-01-01

    and research in their own preschool settings. This article offers an argument based on theory and practical examples for the inclusion of children in educational and educational research. It also introduces some of the problems which warrant consideration if researchers are to understand and cooperate...... with children as co-researchers. The author 15 portrays the educational process and the research process as a possible way for the democratisation of children....

  15. Maltreated and abused children

    OpenAIRE

    HOUFOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...

  16. Domestic violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  17. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  18. Children's access to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

  19. Children in Risk Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Zhao

    2015-01-01

    <正>According to WilliamCorsaro,children do not only interpret adults’culture,but also create their own culture(40).However,how children interpret adults’culture and create their own culture to a large extent depends on adults,so adults influence the way children perceive the world and themselves.In Corsaro’s Orb Web Model,both social institutions and

  20. Children's television and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, P; Macken, Alan P; Leddin, Des; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter; O'Gorman, Clodagh S.

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The prevalence of overweight children, and hours of television viewed are positively correlated1,2. Causality may include greater periods of inactivity and exposure to food advertising and product placement while watching television. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum of 2 hours of non-educational television viewing per day for children over 2 years3. However, recent evidence suggests that children aged 6-11 years watch 24.5 hours of ...

  1. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  2. Hypertension in Children

    OpenAIRE

    B Fouladvand

    1985-01-01

    In a review of literature on the subject, etiology, pathophysiology, methods of blood pressure measurement and clinical aspects of hypertension in children are discussed. The measurement of blood pressure in children over 2 years of age as a routine procedure in ambulatory examination is emphasized. Despite controversial views expressed on the value of "Report of the task force on blood pressure control in children "Indicating blood pressures over 90th percentile for sex and age as actual hyp...

  3. [Acute fever in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Élise

    2015-05-01

    Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment.

  4. Measuring Vision in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Verweyen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring vision in children is a special skill requiring time, patience and understanding. Methods should be adapted to the child’s age, abilities, knowledge and experience. Young children are not able to describe their vision or explain their visual symptoms. Through observation, and with information from the mother or guardian, functional vision can be evaluated. While testing and observing children, an experienced assessor notices their responses to visual stimuli. These must be compared with the expected functional vision for children of the same age and abilities, so it is important to know the normal visual development.

  5. Administration for Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division ... more about the 100-day challenge Visit the Administration on Children, Youth and Families Website The Family ...

  6. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  7. Divorce and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Zang Xiaoping (editor of the Literary Gazette) Whether or not to get divorced for the sake of the children is an important question for every couple that is having problems. I think the key to solving the problem is to start by considering what would be best for the healthy development of their children.

  8. Facial paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  9. Children's Books about Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Patricia Pearl

    Created to promote a mutual understanding and acceptance among various faiths and cultures throughout the world, this book is an annotated bibliography of religious children's books. It has almost 700 critical evaluations of books with distinct religious themes for children from preschool to middle school. Chapters are: (1) "Religion"; (2) "God";…

  10. Children's Choice for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents a 25-item annotated bibliography for beginning readers, 30 items for young readers, 19 items for intermediate readers, and 24 items for advanced readers--all selected by children. Gives tips for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. Describes the Children's Choice project and book selection. (SG)

  11. Dengue in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with

  12. Children and Marital Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland

    1977-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between early childbearing and marital instability. Women with large families and those with no children were the most likely to experience disruption. The lowest dissolution rates were found for those with moderate numbers of children. (Author)

  13. Being Real for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…

  14. Laws for children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余生泽

    2002-01-01

    Laws(法律)for children are good things one hundred years ago in some countries,children worked eighteen hours a day in a factory_____age seven the factory owner could beat a child_____fell asleep or was not fast enough______parents add teacher could do the same.

  15. The Punishment of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…

  16. Children, Divorce and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1981-01-01

    An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)

  17. Divorce and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark J.

    The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)

  18. Query recommendation for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Weber, Ingmar; Serdyukov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest problems that children experience while searching the web occurs during the query formulation process. Children have been found to struggle formulating queries based on keywords given their limited vocabulary and their difficulty to choose the right keywords. In this work we propo

  19. Teaching Children of Catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Teaching children who are victims of Katrina is not a multicultural education issue per se. However, there are some intersections between the victims of Katrina and the educational responses to them, and some of the primary constituent groups and issues that multicultural education represents and intends to serve. These are children of color and…

  20. Headache in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, Ann Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Thomsen, Lise L.;

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific multidisciplinary treatment programme for children with headache and to describe the concept and settings of the Children's Headache Clinic in Denmark. Method: All new patients were included and evaluations were conducted...

  1. Soviet Children's Flags

    OpenAIRE

    Platoff, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    In the Soviet Union (1922-1991) small flags designed for and used by children were more than just toys. Deep scholarship and extensive illustrations of flags from the author’s collection show how such flags played a significant role in the socialization of Soviet children.

  2. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  3. Hematogenous osteomyelitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Halken, S; Damholt, V

    1986-01-01

    In a 10-year period, 31 children, including 9 infants, were treated for hematogenous osteomyelitis. Fifteen children were treated closed and 16 open. Thirteen of 14 positive cultures were Staphylococcus aureus. Three recurrences could possibly have been prevented by a more aggressive primary...

  4. Children as Art Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2011-01-01

    A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…

  5. Sleep Disorders in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪秋

    2002-01-01

    All the parents want their children to go to bed by themselves and sleep through the night. Unluckily, over 30% of today--s parents do not have such children. Instead, their kids are awake at night crying or resist going to bed in the evening.

  6. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  7. Gifted Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.

    2011-01-01

    Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

  8. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  9. Osteomyelitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the established methods of X-ray radiography, or conventional tomography, for the diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis in children, ultrasonography is another very useful technique. In many cases, MRI well supplements the range of available methods, but CT is inferior to the latter. Bone scintiscanning is not applicable for a differential diagnosis, i.e. for discriminating osteomyelitis from other lesions such as bone tumors or tumorous lesions. Due to the very small contribution of scintigraphy to differential diagnosis or therapy selection in case of osteomyelitis or other skeletal lesions in children, the radiation dose to the children as a result of scintiscanning is an important factor, with the energy dose to the metaphyseal growth complexes being the crucial dose. Skeletal scintiscanning in children therefore requires extremely accurate indication, and its almost routine application for differential diagnosis of localised bone lesions in children is by no means justified. (orig./MG)

  10. School for beggars' children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eferaro, S; Uloko, S D

    1993-01-01

    The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end. PMID:12318634

  11. Children with Usher syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...

  12. Benign pneumatosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, L.Z.; Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Background. In pediatrics, pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is usually due to necrotizing enterocolitis in premature newborns. Beyond infancy, PI is uncommon. ''Benign pneumatosis'' is PI in patients with few or no symptoms that resolves with conservative management. Objective. Our goal was to better characterize benign PI in children. Our investigation focused on identifying underlying risk factors, symptoms at time of diagnosis, management and outcome. Materials and methods. Available medical records and radiographs of children with pneumatosis intestinalis from 1990 to 1998 were reviewed for underlying conditions, symptoms at time of radiographs, management and outcome. Results. Thirty-seven children (mean age 4 years) were included. Thirty-two children had identifiable risk factors. Twenty -five children were immunocompromised by their underlying conditions or therapeutic regimen. Thirty-five children were managed conservatively with resolution of PI. Two patients, however, required surgery and one patient died. Conclusion. Benign pneumatosis does occur in children. The majority have underlying risk factors, most commonly related to immunosuppression. Clinical deterioration is the most useful indicator for surgical intervention. In most patients PI resolves with conservative management. (orig.)

  13. Vesicoureteric reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela A Kari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.

  14. Cohabitation and Children's Family Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…

  15. Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.

    1980-01-01

    Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

  16. Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…

  17. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  18. Sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.

  19. Children's Literature on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, James

    Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.

  20. Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation (CCF) is a national, non-profit organization focused on pediatric cardiomyopathy, a chronic disease of the heart muscle. CCF is dedicated to accelerating the search for ...

  1. Curing Children's Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy that harnesses the immune system of healthy siblings." In lay terms? To make transplants safer and more successful through tumor vaccines. Madelen and friend share a quiet moment at The Children's Inn ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a vesicoureteral reflux study. It can take several seconds to a few days for radiotracers to travel ... into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to ...

  3. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking the wrong types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in ... such as chocolate, peanut butter, and dark-colored soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

  4. Television and Children's Fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman

    1985-01-01

    Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)

  5. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dosages also must be tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and emotional growth and development. Special consideration must be given to potential side ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  7. Sexism in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Wilma J.

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature and school texts have reflected society's relegation of women to inferior, passive roles; while there is now an awareness that stereotypes and sexist terms should be eliminated, there is the danger that overreaction will diminish literary quality. (JD)

  8. Medicine safety and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  9. Eyeglasses and children's schemata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, R L; Stockton, L A

    1993-08-01

    The role of framed eyeglasses in children's person schemata was examined. American first graders (35 girls, 36 boys), rated by their teachers as low, medium, or high in cognitive development, judged peers photographed with and without glasses for physical attractiveness, school performance, conduct, sociability, and sociometric choice. There was a general same-sex bias in the children's ratings. The stimulus persons tended to be rated lower in attractiveness (especially if they were girls), school performance, and conduct when they were wearing glasses than when they were not wearing glasses. Glasses negatively influenced sociometric choice, but only for the most cognitively developed children. These results indicated that adults' stereotypes about people who wear glasses eventually become part of children's person schemata. PMID:8231122

  10. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is an ear infection? ... their hearing. How can I tell if my child has an ear infection? Most ear infections happen ...

  11. Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frustrated, and develops emotional problems such as low self-esteem in the face of repeated failure. Some children ... different issues affecting the child. A child and adolescent psychiatrist can help coordinate the evaluation, and work ...

  12. Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with their own relationships and experience problems with self-esteem. Children will do best if they know that ... can refer the parents to a child and adolescent psychiatrist for evaluation and treatment. In addition, the ...

  13. Children with Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different from their peers and the resulting low self-esteem can affect their ability to function well with ... ET is frustrating and embarrassing for children and adolescents, and can lead to anxiety, depression, and social ...

  14. Obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercise choices. Food may be used as a reward or to comfort a child. These learned habits ... your child is not athletic, find ways to motivate your child to be more active. Encourage children ...

  15. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001430.htm Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32. Read More Autism spectrum disorder Cerebral palsy Hearing loss Intellectual disability ...

  16. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano T. DeMarco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  17. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...... a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account and teach in local languages. Creating stronger links between home...

  18. Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Tumors Neuroblastoma Wilms Tumor Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin Disease Rhabdomyocarcoma Retinoblastoma Osteosarcoma Ewing Family of Tumors Learn About Cancer in Children Whether your child has just been diagnosed with ...

  19. Bathroom safety - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000154.htm Bathroom safety - children To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. To prevent accidents in the bathroom, never leave your child alone in the bathroom. ...

  20. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  1. Treating Children as Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her own style and needs, initially because of birth order and inborn traits, and later because of experiences. ... appropriately for their child's developmental age and needs. Birth order and family size also influence your children's development. ...

  2. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  3. Home safety - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reach of young children. After ironing, allow the iron to cool in a safe spot away from ... and prevention: Home safety: protect your child: prevent poisoning. Update May 5, 2015. Available at: www.healthychildren. ...

  4. Home safety - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a child to fit through. Make sure fire escapes are not accessible or have adequate fencing. ... children understand the difference between real guns and weapons they see on TV, movies, or video games. ...

  5. CHILDREN AS TARGET MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    SOMESFALEAN Vasilica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the reasons that lead marketers to give greater importance to children, how to explain this increased potential that children have on the existing market and strategies that marketers and companies use in order to reach this market. To this end we analyzed a series of articles, studies and research conducted on the subject, with implications in psychology, sociology, but especially in marketing. The results obtained show very interesting issues regard...

  6. Chronic cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S

    2013-08-01

    The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830

  7. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  8. Demystifying Septoplasty in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; Lima, Rosa Grazielle de; Lima, Francis Vinícius Fontes de; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Júnior, Ronaldo Carvalho Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Septum deviation in children may alter the early physiologic process of breathing, causing obligatory oral breathing and consequently changing craniofacial development and even intellect. Because of these consequences, septoplasty should be performed as early as possible. Materials and Methods The retrospective study reviewed the results of septoplasty in 40 children under 12 years old who had follow-up after surgery for a maximum period of 7 years. The research was submitted to ...

  9. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  10. Parenting Children with Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Nina Veetnisha

    2011-01-01

    Two general questions directed the focus of this thesis: (1). What are the everyday practical and moral underpinnings of parenting children with allergy? (2). How do particularly mothers retrospectively account for and justify they are responsible parents and moral agents in the interview situation? The overall aim was to explore the everyday practical and interactional strategies used by mothers when they are parenting children with allergy and in such contexts and relations where their...

  11. Children with behavorial problem

    OpenAIRE

    Cerar, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral problems are becoming more and more common phenomena in children education. When behavioral problems occur it is very important to have the appropriate approach that mitigates or completely removes them. The key to this is to know as much as possible about children development and behavioral problems. The theoretical part contains the features of a child's development and then I focused on behavioral problems and the causes that bring to such results. I described methods to remove...

  12. MOVEMENT DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary movements of different types are associated with many diseases in children. Movement disorders in adult have been published in different journals, but in children these disorders have been ignored, even in most of the paediatric neurology books. Here is a brief attempt to describe different types of movement disorders and their various names in different diseases. Possible investigations and treatment of the disorders have been described in short.

  13. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    2009-01-01

    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....

  14. Pharmacovigilance for children's sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph

    2014-02-01

    Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children.

  15. Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan M.D., Lori C.; Hillis M.D., Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research ...

  16. Children's Literature Grows Up

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Christina Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Children’s Literature Grows Up proposes that there is a revolution occurring in contemporary children’s fiction that challenges the divide that has long existed between literature for children and literature for adults. Children’s literature, though it has long been considered worthy of critical inquiry, has never enjoyed the same kind of extensive intellectual attention as adult literature because children’s literature has not been considered to be serious literature or “high art.” Children...

  17. Mirror Writing in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Eilidh

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Fischer (2011) found that children independently choose the direction that letters and digits face during literacy development when lacking explicit knowledge of directionality. In explanation of this finding, Fischer proposes an implicit right writing rule claims that the direction children choose is mainly biased rightward (drawing from left to right) because the majority of letters in the English language face this way. The purpose of this study was to test for the preval...

  18. Children and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Everette E.; Pease, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout history the media has primarily been produced by adults, for adults, about adults. Increasingly, children have become a matter of high priority in the modern media society, and as they have, they have also become the subject of much concern. From debates in Congress about the detrimental effects of movies, comic books, and video games over the last century to efforts to court children as media consumers, there is a clear recognition that the media are not now and probably ne...

  19. Postoperative pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, J M; Pickup, S E

    1996-06-01

    An audit project was designed to assess and improve the provision of postoperative analgesia in a children's hospital. Pain assessment for all children and analgesia standards for our institution were introduced prior to data collection. Data were collected on consecutive samples of 316 and 325 children undergoing surgery as inpatients during 10-week periods. Change was initiated between the two periods in response to our findings; our action plan involved education, changes to documentation, the widespread use of diclofenac in children over 2 years of age and recommendations for the prescription of analgesia. The initial prescription of analgesia increased from 95% to 98% (p = 0.019), administration of analgesia to children experiencing bad or severe pain increased from 57% to 71% (p = 0.032) and the number of children experiencing severe pain reduced from 17% to 11% (p = 0.050). Application of audit, by a clinical nurse specialist, enabled us to achieve and demonstrate improvements in the prescription, administration and effectiveness of postoperative analgesia. PMID:8694218

  20. Children and Stress: Caring Strategies to Guide Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffin, Novella J.

    2009-01-01

    Helping children to deal positively with stressful and tension causing events prepares them for healthy emotional and social development. This is an important responsibility of parents, teachers and other caregivers: to effectively guide and help children.

  1. Perioperative counseling in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koutelekos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Counseling is a part of professional role of nurses and a prerequisite for holistic care. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about Counseling of children that undergo surgery. Material and method: The methodology οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, between 2005-2009 mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to Counseling of children that undergo surgery, using the key words: Counseling, perioperative treatment, holistic care . Results: In the literature it is cited that counseling is provided by well trained and balanced individuals that have communication skills. Prerequisite of effective counseling is Conversation, where the nurse-consultant after elaborate listening proposes remarks, proposals, in order to enhance self-image, self-knowledge and self-esteem of the child and improve its’ personal emotional state. Perioperative counseling procedure as a part of the holistic care of children should follow and individualized approach either on preoperative and postoperative stage. Conclusion: Ultimate goal of effective counseling to children that undergo surgery is to improve the quality of provided care and increase the degree of satisfaction of hospitalized children and their families.

  2. Preputial retraction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Abhinav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess preputial retractability in children at various ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty boys attending the hospital were included in the study. Children with hypospadias or history of preputial manipulation were excluded. Preputial anatomy was studied and subjects were classified into five groups as described by Kayaba et al . RESULTS: The prepuce could not be retracted at all so as to make even the external urethral meatus visible in 61.4% children aged 0-6 months while this decreased to only 0.9% in children aged 10-12 years. At the other end of the spectrum, while prepuce could not be fully retracted in any child below 6 months, it could be done in about 60% in the age group of 10-12 years. CONCLUSION Preputial nonseparation is the major cause of preputial nonretraction in the pediatric age group. Prepuce spontaneously separates from the glans as age increases and true phimosis is rare in children. Surgical intervention should be avoided for nonseparation of prepuce.

  3. Epilepsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S T; Dodson, W E

    1996-12-01

    Childhood epilepsies comprise a broad range of disorders which vary from benign to progressive and disabling. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy type and determination of aetiology, when possible, are essential for appropriate treatment. The most common seizure type encountered in children is febrile seizures. These represent a benign condition which is not, in fact, epilepsy and usually does not require antiepileptic medication. When partial seizures occur in childhood, benign syndromes with spontaneous remission, such as rolandic epilepsy, must be distinguished from symptomatic epilepsies which may be refractory to medical management. Complex partial seizures in young children may appear different than in adults. The adverse effect profiles and dosing regimens of antiepileptic drugs in children are also different than in adults, and influence the choice of treatment. Epilepsy surgery should be considered for some children with intractible partial seizures. Generalized epilepsies also have a broader spectrum in children. The idiopathic generalized absence epilepsies are usually easy to control with medication. They range from childhood absence epilepsy which tends to remit in adolescence to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy which is a lifelong condition. In contrast, the seizures of West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome are difficult to control, and treatment involves therapeutic modalities rarely used in adults such as ACTH and the ketogenic diet. Many childhood epilepsy syndromes have a familial predisposition, and the genetic bases for several disorders have been described.

  4. Diabetic neuropathy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jean K; Pacaud, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide burden of diabetes and its complications in children continues to increase due to the rise in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although overt diabetic neuropathy is rarely present in children and adolescents with diabetes, subclinical diabetic neuropathy has been estimated to occur in approximately half of all children with type 1 diabetes with a duration of 5 years or longer and up to 25% of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed diabetes have abnormal findings on nerve conduction studies. The present review on the state of pediatric diabetic neuropathy covers the definition, prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, risk factors, and possible treatment approaches specific to children and adolescents with diabetes. It also highlights the many unknowns in this field. Nonetheless, new emerging interventions that can either prevent or delay the progression of diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications may become available in the near future. Until specific interventions for diabetic neuropathy are available for use in children, it will be hard to justify screening for neuropathy other than through clinical assessment. Meanwhile, the search for quicker, easily administered, and quantifiable tests for diabetic neuropathy and efforts to establish valid pediatric norms for well-established measures used in adults will need to continue.

  5. HUMAN TRAFFICKING. TRAFFICKING IN CHILDREN. PRACTICAL ASPECTS REGARDING CHILDREN EXPLOITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca-Ioana Rosu

    2010-01-01

    900 thousand children are working in their own households and 70 thousand were victims of worst forms of child labor, including sexual exploitation, forced work, trafficking in children, involvement in criminal activities and risk exposure. Also, approximately 3 thousand street children were involved in: products selling in the street, beggary or windshields washing. In Roma communities, the work of young children (even of 5 years old) is still a frequent practice. Isolated cases of girls inv...

  6. A Few New Children: Postinstitutionalized Children of Intercountry Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, Ruth Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Research regarding children of intercountry adoption is limited, and most children of intercountry adoption have complex histories that may place them at risk for difficulty or failure in the classroom. Although the performances of some children from orphanage environments approximate those of chronological-age peers 2 to 4 years postadoption,…

  7. Spinal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Intestinal Malakoplakia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahjoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disease, related to enterobacterial infection in the context of a disorder of cell-mediated immunity. Malakoplakia is exceptional in children and usually involves the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis is exclusively based on histological analysis.Cases Presentation: In this paper we have reported 3 children with intestinal malakoplakia which were enrolled during a period of 6 years between 2001 to 2006 at Childrens Medical Center. Two were male, and one female. The main clinical manifestations were: chronic bloody and mucosal diarrhea, abdominal pain and polypoid masses detected by diagnostic colonoscopy. Histological diagnosis proved to be definite in these cases. The response to drug treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole in all three patients was good. Conclusion: The presence of intestinal malakoplakia must be ruled out in every child having chronic bloody mucosal diarrhea.

  9. Spinal trauma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, C.; Carty, H. [Radiology Dept., Royal Liverpool Children' s NHS Trust-Alder Hey (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...

  12. Depression in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Return to Web version Depression in Children and Teens Depression in Children and Teens How are the symptoms ... aafp.org/afp/20001115/2297.html) Childhood and Adolescent Depression by SK Bhatia, M.D., and SC Bhatia, ...

  13. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  14. Big Earthquakes and Little Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    A children's social health index calculated from six aspects of social health indicates that the social health of children is deteriorating in the areas of infant mortality, child abuse, child poverty, teenage suicide, and high school dropouts. (SH)

  15. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children Page Content On this page: What is hemolytic ... spine. [ Top ] What causes hemolytic uremic syndrome in children? The most common cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome ...

  16. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Page Content On this page: What is irritable ... GI tract [ Top ] How common is IBS in children? Limited information is available about the number of ...

  17. Cancer in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 2011; 14(3):189-193. [PubMed Abstract] Smith ... factors for acute leukemia in children: A review. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115(1):138-145. [PubMed ...

  18. Death among children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001915.htm Death among children and adolescents To use the sharing features on ... injuries) are, by far, the leading cause of death among children and teens. THE TOP THREE CAUSES OF DEATH ...

  19. The cost of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas

    In this paper we estimate the opportunity cost of children. The underlying theoretical model is represented by a household production model. In the empirical analysis, we consider three different cohorts for men and women born between 1955 and 1970. For the women in the two oldest cohorts......, the opportunity cost of two children is estimated to 28-29 per cent of full income, which in monetary units is close to estimated income difference between women employed in the public and private sector. The opportunity cost of fatherhood is generally positive, but only significantly positive for men born...

  20. Recurrent parotitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattarai M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent parotitis is an uncommon condition in children. Its etiological factors have not been proved till date although causes due to genetic inheritance, local autoimmune manifestation, allergy, viral infection and immunodeficiency have been suggested. The exact management of this disorder is not yet standardized, but a conservative approach is preferred and all affected children should be screened for Sjogren′s syndrome and immune deficiency including human immunodeficiency virus. We report a 12 years female child who presented with 12 episodes of non-painful recurrent swellings of the bilateral parotid gland in the past 3 years.

  1. Abnormal shyness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, J B

    1993-10-01

    Recent nonclinical studies of children who do not often interact with their peers have identified at least three different kinds of solitude: temperamental shyness, social-evaluative shyness, and unsociability. These kinds of solitude can be clearly distinguished from social nonacceptance. The evidence for the different faces of children's solitude and their situational, age, and cultural specificity is reviewed, and potential implications for clinical child psychology are discussed. Clinical practitioners can profit from a recognition of the multifaceted nature of solitude in childhood. PMID:8245133

  2. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  3. Psychostimulant toxicity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ekinci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children above the age of 6 with a high safety and tolerability. When used above the recommended dosage, methylphenidate has been reported to cause toxicity symptoms including neuro-psychiatric and cardiac adverse reactions. In this overview paper, the available literature on psyhcostimulant toxicity in children and the clinical symptoms and follow-up of a 4-year-old child who accidentally used high dose of methylphenidate will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 184-193

  4. Parental schooling & children's health.

    OpenAIRE

    Zill, N

    1996-01-01

    Nearly one in every four children in the United States is born to a mother who has not finished high school, and more than one in eight is reared by such a mother during the critical preschool period. Large-scale studies show that the health and welfare of children are linked to the education level of their parents, with parent education often being a stronger predictor of child well-being than family income, single parenthood, or family size. Higher parent education levels make it more likel...

  5. Subdural empyema in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendaus, Mohammed A

    2013-08-14

    Subdural Empyema in infants and children might be life threatening if not managed properly. A search of the Pub Med database was carried out using a combination of the following terms: Subdural empyema, children, and management. Neurosurgical textbooks were reviewed as well. The prevalence, etiology, clinical features, investigations and management of SDE are reviewed in this article. Conservative management with antibiotics and follow up imaging is recommended if there are no focal deficits, change in mental status or if the patient is responding well to antibiotics. Alternatively, craniotomy is warranted in addition to antibiotics therapy. The surgeon might opt for burr holes in case the patient is frail or in septic shock.

  6. LITERATURE CHILDREN - CHILD AS PROTAGONIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Amancio do Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to issues related to social representations of children through the lens of the adult world; we recommend that fosters the child's opportunity to be author and co-author (protagonist in the production of children's literature and is known to be beyond their textual production considering that all production of children in school (painting, scribbling, drawings, sketches of letters and various signs is recognized as children's literature. 

  7. Street Children: a Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the findings from recent studies of street children in Ethiopia. Methods: Following a discussion of the term “street children,” comparisons are drawn between Latin American and Ethiopian street children in terms of gender, age, reasons for going to the streets, family relations and structure, delinquency, drug use, groups and the outcomes of street life. In particular, the victimisation of street children in Ethiopia is examined. Results: Widespread abuse o...

  8. LITERATURE CHILDREN - CHILD AS PROTAGONIST

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Amancio do Silva

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to issues related to social representations of children through the lens of the adult world; we recommend that fosters the child's opportunity to be author and co-author (protagonist) in the production of children's literature and is known to be beyond their textual production considering that all production of children in school (painting, scribbling, drawings, sketches of letters and various signs) is recognized as children's literature. 

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  10. Children's Environmental Concerns: Expressing Ecophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strife, Susan Jean

    2012-01-01

    While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…

  11. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  12. Left Behind: Children of Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerles, Joe F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…

  13. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  14. The "Adulteration" of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jo

    1984-01-01

    Suggesting that children's books have become more adult in content and tone, this essay addresses problem of organization of children's library materials to provide access to adult readers. Extent of adult appeal in children's books, examples of "adulterated" nonfiction and fiction, and questions concerning organizational and attitudinal changes…

  15. Young Children's Concepts of Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Swaminathan, Sudha; Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Sarama, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Investigates, by conducting individual clinical interviews of 97 children ages 3 to 6, the criteria preschool children use to distinguish members of a class of shapes from other figures, emphasizing identification and descriptions of shapes and reasons for these identifications. Concludes that young children initially form schemas on the basis of…

  16. Children's Developing Understanding of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The issue of children's conceptions of technology and technology education is seen as important by technology educators. While there is a solid body of literature that documents groups of children's understandings of technology and technology education, this is primarily focused on snapshot studies of children aged 11 and above. There is little…

  17. Children's Conceptions of Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisak, Marie S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines children's conceptions of parental authority. A total of 120 children were interviewed and asked to evaluate social events (stealing, family chores, friendship choice) pertaining to restraint of behavior and maintenance of parental rule systems. Results suggest that children's notions of authority are heterogeneous with respect to the…

  18. Noteworthy Children's Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of recently published children's books in Spanish for Spanish-speaking children or students learning Spanish as a second or foreign language. The list is divided into one section for very young children and another for middle grade students. Information is also given about a Web site where users can access a searchable database of…

  19. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames

    2007-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  20. Children, Deaf, of Deaf Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Baker; B. van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that th

  1. Ethnicity and Children's TV Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Harvey A.; Liss, Marsha B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of California intermediate-grade children revealed that Anglo and Hispanic children showed a strong preference for action/adventure shows, while Black children chose situation comedies at more than twice the rate of the other ethnic groups. Other differences were observed between ethnic groups and between sexes within ethnic groups. (GT)

  2. Problem children or harassed childhood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    instition as stressed andnoisy, and thus it is the children they try to change (re-socialize) to solve the problems. The paper concludes that the discoruses tend to individualize structural problems with the result that a large group of children are identified as problem children rather than given better...

  3. Foundations of Responsibility for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Children's vulnerability asks for people taking up responsibility for children. In this contribution, three different ways of thinking on foundations of (ethical and spiritual) responsibility for children are discussed, namely, a liberalist, a social-constructivist and a naturalist paradigm. The author argues that cultural and natural elements are…

  4. Inquiring Minds: Theorizing Children's Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cooper, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Children's interests are a common foundation for early childhood curricula. Yet, little research is available about the fundamental nature of children's interests and analytical ways to recognize and engage with these. Early work on children's interests adopted a psychological perspective and associated interests with activity choices. Recent work…

  5. Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Noel M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…

  6. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  7. Are children like werewolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; Leblanc, Allana G;

    2016-01-01

    24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, Ind...

  8. Atrial Fibrillation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Atrial Fibrillation in Children Updated:Jul 18,2016 Does your ... content was last reviewed on 04/16/14. Atrial Fibrillation • Introduction • What is Atrial Fibrillation? • Why AFib Matters • ...

  9. Fabry disease in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Rasmussen, AK;

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease is a rare, multiorgan disease. The most serious complications involve the kidney, brain and heart. This study aims to assess the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using agalsidase-beta in children with Fabry disease. We carried out a nationwide, descriptive and observational...

  10. Children's Conceptions of Jesus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Karen; Freathy, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a recent study investigating young children's (aged 10-11) conceptions of Jesus in England. The overall picture revealed by the study is that whilst there was a general assent amongst pupils in our sample towards an ethical and humanistic conception of the historical Jesus, there was less of a consensus about…

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a vein in your child’s arm or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. ... into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to the exam, but they may be given ...

  12. Vietnam in Childrens' Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…

  13. Chess and Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoram, D. T. E.

    1987-01-01

    A rationale for involving gifted children in the game of chess is presented (e.g., inexpensive equipment, ease of using introductory games to teach the moves, the aesthetic and mathematical satisfactions to be derived, scope for creativity, and development of thinking processes). (DB)

  14. Cough in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy for this cough, which eventually goes away. Cough suppressant medications can be tried in school-age children, but they don't always solve the problem. Bacterial Infection of the ... and cause irritation and cough. It's unknown why this happens, and sometimes the ...

  15. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  16. Sports Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Timothy N.

    1991-01-01

    A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…

  17. Children of the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Leonard

    It is estimated that by the year 2010, 50 percent of the population of southeast Asia will be under 15 years of age. Based on a research project completed in 1993, this book provides a regional overview of the quality of life for these children, and is targeted not only at those with an academic and professional interest in child care and social…

  18. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  19. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  20. Children's Advertisement Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…

  1. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;

    2013-01-01

    or recurrent or severe symptoms suggestive for allergy should undergo an appropriate diagnostic work-up, irrespective of their age. Adequate allergy testing may also allow defining allergic trigger in common symptoms. We provide here evidence-based guidance on when and how to test for allergy in children based...

  2. Putting Children First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Disadvantaged children's problems receive little if no attention by intellectuals and policymakers because of broad forces such as racial conflict, feminism, and the culture of individual rights. Personal responsibility and social and economic policies that support the family are strategies for helping economically, educationally, and emotionally…

  3. Children's Choices for 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents 103 titles for the 2003 Children's Choice grouped by reading levels: beginning, young, intermediate, and advanced readers. Provides the title, author, illustrator, publisher, ISBN, and price for each title as well as a brief annotation prepared by a review team. (SG)

  4. Glasses for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulties in the classroom. Most children who have difficulty with reading do not need glasses, but this can be ... have had cataract surgery usually need bifocals or reading glasses. Will ... normal vision development can be adversely affected. What are some things ...

  5. Depressive Stories for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    While stories with a depressing message are now common for teenagers, resistance to them remains where smaller children are concerned. But is this more a case of the publishers and providers concerned protecting their own particular image of childhood? This article looks at the case for books that also convey a sense of sadness to infants,…

  6. Indigenizing Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author situates the analysis of two popular children's books in theoretical frameworks emerging from American Indian Studies. Using a new historicist lens, she discusses Anne Rockwell's (1999) "Thanksgiving Day" and Laura Ingalls Wilder's (1935/1971) "Little House on the Prairie" and suggests that these…

  7. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  8. PARANEOPLASTIC MANIFESTATIONS IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, JH; TAMMINGA, RYJ; KAMPS, WA

    1994-01-01

    Paraneoplastic manifestations are signs and symptoms observed in patients with cancer, distant from the tumour or its metastases and not caused by invasion, obstruction or bulk mass. In children with cancer, paraneoplastic manifestations are rare and distinct from those observed in adults. Knowledge

  9. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  10. Helping Our Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Sophie

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Ikaiyurluki Mikelnguut (Helping Our Children) project in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska where trained natural helpers are helping Yup'ik Eskimo villagers to cope with crisis situations--notably teenage suicide and drug and alcohol abuse. (Author/BB)

  11. Children's Media Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…

  12. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  13. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  14. Violence in Children's Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Sue

    A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…

  15. Children's Craniofacial Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemifacial Moebius syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome Pierre Robin Sequence Treacher Collins syndrome Other syndromes Wonder News & Events Help CCA Shop ... Pierre Robin Sequence • Pfeiffer syndrome • Saethre-Chotzen syndrome • Treacher Collins syndrome Children's Craniofacial Association is a national, 501(c) ...

  16. Children Are Unbeatable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Argues that outlawing corporal punishment of children by parents in the U.K. would be in line with developments in European jurisprudence. Maintains that the United Kingdom is in breach of several international law norms. Claims that prohibiting corporal punishment would lead to less abuse and thus less interference with parental autonomy.…

  17. Young Children's Combinatoric Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty children, ranging in age from 4 to 10, were individually administered a series of tasks involving different combinations of 2 items selected from a discrete set of items. Analyses of their performances revealed a series of six, increasingly sophisticated, solution strategies ranging from random number selection of items to a systematic…

  18. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  19. Behavior Modification with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel G.

    1972-01-01

    The author urges wider use of positive reinforcement theories in helping emotionally disturbed and mentally handicapped children. Underlining the influence of environment on behavior, he also notes that behavior modification programs utilize fewer trained personnel more effectively and, like Tennessee's Re-Education Treatment, allow for therapy in…

  20. Children's velo-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2014-01-01

    embodying of know-how of traffic power relations and mobility technology. The paper examines how parents’ perception of risks are transgressed by cycle training and how cycling is fitted into complex household routines. By shedding light on the sensitive mechanisms that ‘make’ and sustain cycling children...

  1. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  2. Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Kate

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…

  3. Reading and Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeterman, Mardi; Paul, Peter V.; Donahue, Sheila

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and field-testing of Cornerstones, an approach to classroom literacy instruction for young deaf children that utilizes an educational television program and other engaging media components. Focuses on word-knowledge aspect, because of its influence on the development of background knowledge and reading comprehension.…

  4. Children's Knowledge about Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarsdottir, Anna B.; Zimmer, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Examined knowledge about medicines and perceived benefit among 101 children, ages 7 and 10. Found that medicine knowledge was explained using age, educational environment, and degree of internal locus of control as significant predictors. The negative effect of internal locus of control predicted perceived benefit. Retention of drug advertising…

  5. Children, mobility, and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia; Mikkelsen, Miguel Romero; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the potentials of a mixed methods approach to the study of children’s mobility patterns. The methodology presented here combined ethnographic fieldwork with global positioning system technology and an interactive questionnaire that children completed via mobile phone. This ...

  6. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in young children. http://bit.ly/1nCUenn , http://bit.ly/1UYugZ8 Discuss with parents the benefits ... the country. Visit this page for more help: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/finding-therapy.html . ...

  7. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...... otitis media....

  8. Developing Children's Literary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chew Fong

    2012-01-01

    The Malay literary materials and resources for early childhood in Malaysia are still in the infant stage and have not been expanded to include the main references or developed into big book form. The children literature in our market is not published based on educational philosophy and research, but it is produced based on profit. The process of…

  9. Social exclusion of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This report

  10. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  11. Obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Canoy, Dexter; Bundred, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is the result of long-term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Obesity in children is associated with physical as well as psychosocial problems. Long-term adverse health consequences of childhood obesity may include increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults.

  12. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids are high in sugar, salt, or fats. Children eat more when they are watching TV, especially if they see ads for food. Computers can help kids with their schoolwork. But surfing the internet, spending too much time on Facebook, or watching ...

  13. Children and chiropractic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise

    2009-01-01

    care profession has convincingly assumed the responsibility of spinal and musculoskeletal health for children. Considering the magnitude of the challenges ahead for both researchers and clinicians, this may be a good opportunity for doctors of chiropractic to take responsibility and engage...

  14. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  15. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at home: Failure in school; truancy Lack of friends; withdrawal from classmates Delinquent behavior, such as stealing or violence Frequent physical complaints, such as headaches or stomachaches Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or Aggression towards other children Risk taking behaviors Depression or ...

  16. Muslim Children's Other School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  17. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SMOKING NEAR CHILDREN! WE MUST TAKE CARE TO PREVENT DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY MOSQUITOS. GET RID OF STAGNANT WATER IN CONTAINERS AND DISCARDED TIRES. MOSQUITOS CAN REPRODUCE IN THESE PLACES AND THEN TRANSMIT DENGUE AND OTHER DISEASES WHEN THEY BITE PEOPLE! 13 ...

  18. Children's Rights with Endogenous Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad R. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses hypothetical contractarianism to consider the value of children's rights laws as a means of protecting children. Laws protecting children from their parents have the unintended but predictable consequence of making child-rearing less desirable for some parents and thereby reducing the number of children born. Such laws therefore produce a trade-off between the expected wellbeing of actual and possible persons. I show that a possible child behind an appropriate veil of ignorance may rationally oppose laws which benefit some and harm no actual children.

  19. Precocious Puberty in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the etiology of precocious puberty in children and to compare the clinical and laboratory parameters of central and peripheral precocious puberty. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Endocrine Clinic at National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Children presenting with precocious puberty were included. The age of onset of puberty was documented. Clinical evaluation, Tanner staging, height, height SDS, weight, weight SDS, body mass index, bone age, pelvic USG, plasma estradiol level and GnRH stimulation were done. Ultrasound of adrenal glands, serum level of 17 hydroxyprogesterone, ACTH, Renin, aldosterone and testosterone were performed in children with peripheral precocious puberty. MRI of adrenal glands and gonads was done in patients with suspected tumor of that organ and MRI of brain was done in patients with central precocious puberty. Skeletal survey was done in patients with Mc Cune-Albright syndrome. Results: CAH (81.8%) indentified as a main cause in peripheral percocious puberty and idiopathic (67.74%) in central precocious puberty. Eighty five patients were registered during this period. The conditions causing precocious puberty were central precocious puberty (36.47%), peripheral precocious puberty (38.82%), premature pubarche (10.58%) and premature thelarche (14.11%). There was a difference in the age of onset of puberty in case of central precocious puberty (mean=3, 2-6 years) versus peripheral precocious puberty (mean=5.25; 3.62 - 7.0 years). Children with central precocious puberty showed higher height SDS, weight SDS, FSH, LH than those with peripheral precocious puberty. Conclusion: Etiology in majority of cases with peripheral precocious puberty was congenital adrenal hyperplasia and idiopathic in central precocious puberty. Central precocious puberty children showed higher height SDS, weight SDS, FSH, LH than peripheral precocious puberty

  20. Children's temperament and teachers' decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, B K

    1982-01-01

    Findings from a series of studies of the educational implications of children's temperament patterns are summarized. This research has been guided by three hypotheses: (1) that there are real individual differences among children in behavioural styles or temperament; (2) that individual variations in children's patterns of temperament influence the nature of their interpersonal interactions; and (3) that perceived variations in temperament become especially powerful influences on adults' decisions when children are handicapped or at risk. Based on these assumptions, the study of temperament has followed two primary lines of research. in the first we have attempted to delineate the hypothesized link between perceived temperament variations and teachers' educational decisions. In the second we have attempted to determine the influence of perceived temperament variations on children's personal-social competence within intervention settings. Findings support a relationship between children's temperament and their achievement and adjustment in school. Temperament was related to measures of children's academic performance and to teachers' perceptions of other aspects of children's school adjustment. Further, teachers' ratings of children's temperament were related to their classroom management decisions. The results suggest that teachers' responses to children in the classroom are mediated by their perceptions of the children's temperament. PMID:6922762

  1. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

  2. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  3. Comparison of diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wang; Zhihong Yao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diadochokinetic rate reflects the motion state and synergic level of oral, lingual and speech muscle group, and it is an important index to judge the speech articulation, it is also very significant in the training and evaluation of vocal ability and the correction and treatment of speech.OBJECTIVE: To compare the diadochokinetic rate between deaf children and normal children.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: College of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty deaf children and 20 normal children of 6-7 years old, half boys and half girls, were selected from Hangzhou Rehabilitation Center for Deaf Children and Hangzhou Fuxing Kindergarten between January and March, 2006. The influences of organic dysarthria on our study had been eliminated, including intellectual and oral diseases, etc. Informed consents were obtained from the guardians of all the enrolled children.METHODS: ① The deaf children all cooperated with the study after proper communication with them. They practiced to pronounce/pa/,/ta/,/ka/clearly in order, then pronounced them together, that was/pataka/. They should slow down at first in order to pronounce clearly and cohere them together, then speeded up to practice,so that the results could not be affected by the unfamiliar pronunciation. After practice, the deaf children were tested by pronouncing /pataka/ for five time continuously, and they were asked to pronounce clearly and correctly with uniform intensity, loudness, speed, etc. They were tested for three times by the same methods,and the durations of the three times were recorded to obtain the average value, then the velocity was calculated. The tests for the normal children were the same as those mentioned above. ② The differences of the measurement data were compared by the ttest.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of diadochokinetic rate compared between deaf children and normal children.RESULTS: All the 20

  4. Children's media policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents

  5. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  6. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  7. Demystifying Septoplasty in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; Lima, Rosa Grazielle de; Lima, Francis Vinícius Fontes de; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Júnior, Ronaldo Carvalho Santos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Septum deviation in children may alter the early physiologic process of breathing, causing obligatory oral breathing and consequently changing craniofacial development and even intellect. Because of these consequences, septoplasty should be performed as early as possible. Materials and Methods The retrospective study reviewed the results of septoplasty in 40 children under 12 years old who had follow-up after surgery for a maximum period of 7 years. The research was submitted to the ethics committee and approved with protocol number 10331912.0.0000.0058. Results Forty patients underwent septoplasty, 39 (97.5%) had cauterization of inferior turbinate and associated procedure, 20 (50%) had adenotonsillectomy, and 17 (42.5%) had adenoidectomy. Conclusion Nasal septum deviation should be corrected early to provide the harmonious growth of the face and to enable normal development of the child, without the occurrence of nasal deformity. PMID:25992064

  8. Optics and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Manuel F M; De Campos, J Ayres; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra [Centro de Fisica da Universidade do Minho (Portugal); Vazquez-Dorrio, Jose B, E-mail: mfcosta@fisica.uminho.pt [Universidad de Vigo, EIM, Departamento de Fisica (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    Light and Optics are subjects that 'naturally' attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a series of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.

  9. Farm accidents in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogbill, T H; Busch, H M; Stiers, G R

    1985-10-01

    During a 6 1/2 year period, 105 children were admitted to the hospital as the result of trauma that occurred on farms. The mechanism of injury was animal related in 42 (40%), tractor or wagon accident in 28 (26%), farm machinery in 21 (20%), fall from farm building in six (6%), and miscellaneous in eight (8%). Injury Severity Score was calculated for each patient. An Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 25 was determined for 11 children (11%). Life-threatening injuries, therefore, are frequently the result of childhood activities that take place in agricultural environments. The most common injuries were orthopedic, neurologic, thoracoabdominal, and maxillofacial. There was one death in the series, and only one survivor sustained major long-term disability. Such injuries are managed with optimal outcome in a regional trauma center. Educational programs with an emphasis on prevention and safety measures may reduce the incidence of farm accidents. PMID:4047799

  10. When cities move children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant Klinker, Charlotte; Schipperijn, Jasper; Toftager, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method to assess context-specific physical activity patterns using accelerometer and GPS. The method efficiency is investigated by providing descriptive results on the use of domains and subdomains, and assessing how much of children's and adolescents' daily activity...... time can be classified by these domains and subdomains. Four domains and 11 subdomains were defined as important contexts for child and adolescent behaviour. During weekdays (n=367) and weekend days (n=178) the majority of children and adolescents spent time in active transport, urban green space......, clubs and sports facilities. Satisfactory method efficiency was found during weekdays. Natural experiments combined with objective assessment of context-specific behaviours hold the potential to create evidence on the effects of changes to the built environment on behaviour....

  11. Hydrocephalus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Warf, Benjamin C

    2016-02-20

    Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is evolving to models that incorporate dysfunctional cerebral pulsations, brain compliance, and newly characterised water-transport mechanisms. Hydrocephalus has many causes. Congenital hydrocephalus, most commonly involving aqueduct stenosis, has been linked to genes that regulate brain growth and development. Hydrocephalus can also be acquired, mostly from pathological processes that affect ventricular outflow, subarachnoid space function, or cerebral venous compliance. Treatment options include shunt and endoscopic approaches, which should be individualised to the child. The long-term outcome for children that have received treatment for hydrocephalus varies. Advances in brain imaging, technology, and understanding of the pathophysiology should ultimately lead to improved treatment of the disorder.

  12. English Education of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛雨潇

    2014-01-01

    With the further development of China's reform and opening up, our communication with the world more and more frequently, more and more closely. As the primary tool of international communication, English is particularly important. Now, to strengthen foreign language teaching, especially to learn foreign languages at children, has become a global trend. In China, many schools and teachers for many years to carry out a useful attempt of children's English teaching, and accumulated a lot of successful experience, of course, there are many difficulties and setbacks, and even failure. How to exclude the difficulty and the setback, avoid failure? I combined with my own teaching practice, discusses and studies for many years, has received the good ef-fect.

  13. Intelligence in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Nader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children

  14. Demystifying Septoplasty in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Septum deviation in children may alter the early physiologic process of breathing, causing obligatory oral breathing and consequently changing craniofacial development and even intellect. Because of these consequences, septoplasty should be performed as early as possible. Materials and Methods The retrospective study reviewed the results of septoplasty in 40 children under 12 years old who had follow-up after surgery for a maximum period of 7 years. The research was submitted to the ethics committee and approved with protocol number 10331912.0.0000.0058. Results Forty patients underwent septoplasty, 39 (97.5% had cauterization of inferior turbinate and associated procedure, 20 (50% had adenotonsillectomy, and 17 (42.5% had adenoidectomy. Conclusion Nasal septum deviation should be corrected early to provide the harmonious growth of the face and to enable normal development of the child, without the occurrence of nasal deformity.

  15. Probiotics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligler, Benjamin; Hanaway, Patrick; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    The gastrointestinal flora plays a complex and important role in the development of healthy immunologic and digestive function in children. Probiotics are safe in healthy children and effective in reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the duration of acute infectious diarrhea. Probiotics may also be effective in preventing community-acquired diarrheal infections, in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis. The exact strain or combination of strains most effective for common clinical indications has yet to be determined, but the exact strain used seems less important than whether an adequate dose is used (typically 5 to 10 billion CFUs per day or higher). Clinicians should familiarize themselves with the products available because there is a wide range in their quality. PMID:18061785

  16. Jaw fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, R; Kärjä, J; Kullaa-Mikkonen, A

    1990-03-01

    From a total of 350 jaw fractures treated in 1980-1984 at Kuopio University Central Hospital, 20% were in children. These injuries were evaluated retrospectively regarding age, sex, incidence and etiology. Forty-five of the patients were boys and 25 girls. The frequency of maxillary and mandibular fractures in 70 young patients was 28.6%. The most common type of bone fractures was fracture of the alveolar process, which was prevalent in persons with mixed dentition. Before the age of 7 years, falls from height were the common causes of jaw fractures. The major cause of the jaw fractures in children from 7 to 15 years old was road accidents (47.1%), especially in boys. Most of these were cycling accidents, only a few patients were victims of automobile accidents. In addition, about one third (25.7%) of the patients were treated in the hospital because of multiple injuries to other organs.

  17. Unmasking Children's Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Lancy, David F.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify (unmask) and critique the movement to promote children’s agency as a cornerstone of research, care, education and intervention with children. The article makes a case that this movement is harmful to a scientific approach to the study of childhood, distorts or ignores key understandings of the evolution of childhood and culture. The article demonstrates that the agency movement is ethnocentric, classist and hegemonic representing the dominance of contempo...

  18. Esophageal substitutions in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Vilorio Barreras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal replacements in children usually are necessary in patients with of esophageal atresia or those develop inflammatory scars after consumption of caustic substances. For the substitutive procedure diverse organs are employed, like small or thick intestine and stomach. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Esophageal replacement, approved by consensus in the the 3th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Camagüey, Cuba; February 23 - 26, 2004.

  19. Text simplification for children

    OpenAIRE

    De Belder, Jan; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2010-01-01

    The goal in this paper is to automatically transform text into a simpler text, so that it is easier to understand by children. We perform syntactic simplification, i.e. the splitting of sentences, and lexical simplification, i.e. replacing difficult words with easier synonyms. We test the performance of this approach for each component separately on a per sentence basis, and globally with the automatic construction of simplified news articles and encyclopedia articles. By including informatio...

  20. [Dysphonia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicollas, R; Giovanni, A; Triglia, J-M

    2008-06-01

    Dysphonia is a frequent reason for consultation in children. Most of the time, this presentation is the consequence of a vocal abuse, however, the physician has to be aware that an organic lesion, such as laryngeal papillomatosis can exist and so perform a flexible laryngoscopy. In case of laryngeal papillomatosis, surgery and several medical treatments will be proposed for a long time. In other cases, speech therapy, sometimes associated with surgery, will be performed.

  1. Diabetes insipidus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Ravindranath, Aathira

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of the common disorders affecting sodium and water homeostasis, and results when ADH is either inadequately produced, or unable to negotiate its actions on the renal collecting tubules through aquaporins. The diagnostic algorithm starts with exclusion of other causes of polyuria and establishing low urine osmolality in the presence of high serum osmolality. In this paper, we have reviewed the diagnosis, etiology and management of DI in children, with special emphasis on recent advances in the field.

  2. Mobile media and children

    OpenAIRE

    Haddon, L.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a range of research issues relating to children and mobile media, including the potential growth of children’s screen time, the regulation of children’s use of these media, the challenge of managing increasing media options, effects on children’s perception of time, problems posed for parental surveillance and the domestication of mobile media within peer groups. All of these are viewed in the context of broader societal change, evolving norms of childhood and parenthood...

  3. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  4. Vitiligo in children

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar AJ; Dhar S.; Kaur S

    1993-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Hundred children (upto 12 years of age) with vitiligo seen over a 1-year period were evaluated for their clinical pattern and therapeutic response to various modalities. Maximum number (29 percent) of patients were in the age group 6 to 9 years. Most of the patients (94 percent) had upto 5 percent skin involvement and the commonest (61 percent) clinical variant was vitiligo vulgaris followed by focal vitiligo (23 percent). None of the patients had any associated systemic diseases. M...

  5. Audiometry in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, George

    1987-01-01

    The author of this article reviews various techniques in the auditory assessment of infants and young children. The success of these tests depends on the overall functioning of the child, and not on chronological age alone. Any significant deviation from the normal auditory behaviour should raise suspicion of possible auditory impairment. Diagnostic audiology involves more than mere testing of the peripheral auditory mechanism in isolation. It necessitates investigation of possible neurologic...

  6. The world's children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, R

    1997-01-01

    World leaders from 159 countries agreed at the 1990 World Summit for Children to specific goals which would reduce levels of child and maternal mortality, and give every child access to basic education, clean water, and proper sanitation by 2000. Major progress has since been achieved in most countries, with more than 80% of the world's children now immunized against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Moreover, the deaths of over 1 million children annually are being averted through the increased use of oral rehydration therapy against diarrheal dehydration, poliomyelitis and guinea worm have almost been eradicated, the consumption of iodized salt is protecting approximately 12 million infants annually from iodine deficiency, and access to safe drinking water is on the rise. Scientific developments in pediatrics, the strengthening of national health services, and the use of cost-effective primary health care approaches such as immunization, oral rehydration therapy, the promotion of breast feeding, and growth monitoring have helped reduce the national rate of infant mortality (IMR) in Turkey to 42 per 1000 live births compared to the urban IMR in Turkey during the 1940s of 300-350/1000. Developments in public health, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), education and child development, and child protection and the CRC are discussed.

  7. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  8. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results.

  9. Studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases.

  10. Acute diarrhea in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  11. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results. PMID:26519329

  12. Studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases. PMID:22997878

  13. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  14. Academic Achievement in Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran

    1996-01-01

    Studied the influence of divorce on children's grades. The grades earned by children of divorce (N=74) and by control group children were similar, but children of manual workers had lower grade point averages than did children of higher level nonmanual employees. Study indicates that divorce alone does not significantly lower grades. (RJM)

  15. Children spontaneously police adults' transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D; Chiu Loke, Ivy; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining social order requires the policing of transgressions. Prior research suggests that policing emerges early in life, but little is known about children's engagement in such behavior in live interactions where there is uncertainty about the consequences. In this study, 4- to 11-year-old children (N=158) witnessed an unfamiliar adult confederate intentionally destroy another adult's property. Of interest was whether children would engage in policing behavior by protesting to the transgressor or by spontaneously reporting the transgression to a third party. Some children engaged in these behaviors spontaneously; nearly half (42%) protested the transgression, and 27% reported it without being prompted. Even when children did not spontaneously report the transgression, they almost always reported it when asked directly. The findings show that children commonly engage in policing even in the face of potentially negative consequences. PMID:27295206

  16. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  17. Beverages intake among preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Kolman, Mojca

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis we dealt with the consumption of beverages among preschool children. The purpose was to research the children's habits related to beverage consumption, especially sugar-sweetened beverages. The theoretical part presents the development factors that affect the eating habits of children. It also presents various factors of environment and the composition as well as the quality of different kinds of beverages. We conducted a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews. We in...

  18. Cough in Children: Clinical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Gülcan Öksüz

    2015-01-01

    Cough is an important reflex defense mechanism and it cleans the airways with the various stimuli. Children are more sensitive than adults to these environmental stimuli. Full mechanism of the cough reflex have not been completely analyzed. Causes of chronic cough in children are different from adults. Even cough is normal for most children, the presence of cough may be indicative of serious disorders and should be considered important because cough affects the child’s quali...

  19. Parental Practices Scale for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hernández-Guzmán; Manuel González Montesinos; Graciela Bermúdez-Ornelas; Miguel-Ángel Freyre; Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J.

    2013-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis conducted in a sample of 706 children 7 to 16 years of age, 354 girls and 352 boys, revealed a 5-factor solution (Rejection, Corporal Punishment, Support, Responsiveness, Warmth). Results supported the measurement model of the Parental Practices Scale for Children, which evaluates childrens perception of parental practices associated to offspring emotional adjustment. This finding was replicated in a second study (N=233, 126 girls and 107 boys). The measure demons...

  20. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  1. The advertising and children's audience

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; T.Ye. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive...

  2. Sharing among children across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, M.; Haun, D

    2010-01-01

    Young children from different cultural backgrounds actively engage in sharing, and show prosocial concerns in regard to resource distribution. Cross-cultural studies have revealed cultural variability in sharing and ideas of fairness in both children and adults, but have typically focused on resource distribution outcomes, not on the social behaviours that lead to redistribution. The goal of this task is to compare sharing interactions between young children across different cultural contexts...

  3. Estimating Influenza Hospitalizations among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Grijalva, Carlos G.; Craig, Allen S.; DUPONT, William D.; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Iwane, Marika K.; Schaffner, William; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2006-01-01

    Although influenza causes more hospitalizations and deaths among American children than any other vaccine-preventable disease, deriving accurate population-based estimates of disease impact is challenging. Using 2 independent surveillance systems, we performed a capture-recapture analysis to estimate influenza-associated hospitalizations in children in Davidson County, Tennessee, during the 2003–2004 influenza season. The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) enrolled children hospitalized ...

  4. Child Abuse and Disabled Children

    OpenAIRE

    Obilade, Titilola T.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract for presentation given at the Annual General Scientific Meeting/Workshop of the Medical Women’s Association of Nigeria in Lagos, Nigeria, on December 28, 2004. Children with disabilities are a population at a higher risk of abuse and maltreatment. Studies have shown that children with disabilities are 3.4 times more likely to be abused than nondisabled peers. These disabilities include children who are visually-impaired, hearing-impaired, chronically-ill, developmentally ...

  5. Treatment of diabetes in children

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, YI-QING; Gao, Min; Xue, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus are on the increase in children and adolescents. An increase in T2D is linked to the increasing rates of obesity in children. Usually, in both children and adults, T1D is treated with insulin while T2D is treated with metformin. There are other classes of drugs that are under assessment for their safety and efficacy in relation to pediatric patients. Most of these new drugs, however, have not been studied in children. Thus, the...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  7. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Delpisheh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  8. Children of Divorce--A Forgotten Constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Eugene T.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the negative effects of divorce on children and suggests that a restructuring of marriage and divorce laws (which would prohibit divorce in marriages with dependent children) might be justified in addressing this injustice against children. (DB)

  9. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  10. Neurophysiological evaluation in children with Friedreich's ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; du Marchie Sarvaas, G J; Brouwer, O F; Uges, D R; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, C C; Maurits, N M; Brunt, E R; van der Hoeven, J H

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In children with Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA children), clinical ataxia outcomes are hardly substantiated by underlying neurophysiological parameters. In young FRDA children, some reports (based upon International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale scores (ICARS)) mention transient neurolog

  11. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, H R

    1996-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using iminodiacetic (IDA) radiopharmaceuticals provides clinically useful information on the function of the biliary tract in a variety of pathological processes in children, including neonatal jaundice, gallbladder dysfunction, trauma, and liver transplantation. Phenobarbital premedication (5 mg/kg per day for a minimum of 5 days in divided doses) is used in infants who are being examined for neonatal jaundice to increase the accuracy of 99mTc-IDA scintigraphy in differentiating extrahepatic biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis. Biliary atresia can be ruled out in an infant if a patent biliary tree is shown with passage of activity into the bowel. If no radiopharmaceutical is noted in the bowel on imaging up to 24 hours, distinction between severe hepatocellular disease and biliary atresia cannot be made. The literature reports 91% accuracy, 97% sensitivity, and 82% specificity for hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of biliary atresia. The impairment of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary drainage is an important cause of liver disease in cystic fibrosis. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in cystic fibrosis has shown characteristic patterns of dilatation of mainly the left hepatic duct, narrowing of the distal common bile duct, gallbladder dysfunction, and delayed bowel transit. Cholecystitis in children may be acalculous. Sensitivity and specificity for the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis is reported to range from 68% to 93% and 38% to 93%, respectively. Cholescintigraphy in a suspected bile leak provides information generally not available with other techniques, except for direct cholangiography. If the amount of intraperitoneal accumulation of the tracer is greater than that entering the gastrointestinal tract, surgery is usually indicated. Hepatobiliary imaging in children who have undergone liver transplantation will assess graft vascularity, parenchymal function, biliary drainage, presence of a leak

  12. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  13. Scientists want more children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Howard Ecklund

    Full Text Available Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  14. The advertising and children's audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive in society and to develop memory. Others think that advertising reduces mental activity, imposes ideals of beauty and effects family relationships. Modern advertising industry is increasingly effects children. It is profitable because it is easier to attract young audience who easy perceive new things, habits and tastes. Children audience hasn’t molded own lifestyle. Social activities of companies are not limited to charity. Advertising for children should not be difficult and confusing to children. Following the requirements of creation the socially responsible advertising can gain adherents not only among adults but also among children, who will become loyal to particular company and products which it produces over time. The algorithm for creating socially responsible advertising campaign for children is proposed. Authors proposed appropriate slogans for different applications. It is very difficult to predict the children’s reaction. Indifferent attitude to the creation of advertising can lead to destruction of children’s right values. Children get information from any source. Conclusions and directions of further researches should be conducted towards the need of social responsibility for creating advertising in general and advertising for particular child. Children more respond to images with audio accompaniment. Special attention should be paid to the creation of television advertising and advertisement.

  15. Children in Japan and multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimauchi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia. PMID:10770069

  16. Children's perceptions of eating and body image

    OpenAIRE

    S. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Concerns about children's eating problems such as obesity, unhealthy eating, dieting and eating disorders have been rising in recent years because of their detrimental effects on children's health. By exploring nine year old children's perceptions of body image, their perceptions of the link between body size and food, and their perceptions of the control of children's eating, this study seeks to contribute to an understanding of why children may develop these eating problems. 98 children u...

  17. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488

  18. Should Children Have KFC?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There is much discussion about whether childrenshould have KFC or not.In my opinion,I think childrenshouldn’t have it because it’s bad for people’s health.KFC has a lot of kinds of French Fried chicken,such as,hamburgers, chicken,pudding, cheese andmany fast foods which is fried in oil.Even the onlything that isn’t fried,KFC salad,also has some porcineoil in it.Fried food can increase the risk of cancer.SOpeople call KFC rubbish food.Another reason is that children should have it forit’s their favourite foo...

  19. ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannepalli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors rare in children which are 0.2% of all Pediatric neoplasms. These are mostly Occurs less than 10 yrs. Most of pediatric ( E ndogenous Cushing's syndrome cases are caused by adrenocortical carcinomas and 20 - 40% of adrenocortical tumors have Cushing syndrome in addition to virilization. In present study we have treated 5 patients of adrenocortical tumors. All are left sided functional benign adrenocortical adenoma except one ( C arcinoma . After resection of Tumors the clinical Features of Cushing’s & Hypertension were subsided.

  20. Only-Children Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    ACCORDING to statistics,there are now more than 50million one-child families.To a society that has long held abelief that "more sons bring moreblessings," the shock of such a largenumber at once is evident. Someforeign researchers regard this as themost conspicuous family planningpolicy in the world. When this group of only-children appeared as the outcome ofsocial macro-adjustment, manypeople worried that they mightbecome a generation little suited tosociety. Over the past two years, theyhave begun to enter colleges anduniversities and have formed aspecial group among universitystudents.

  1. Visible Epiglottis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaluddin Ahmed, Farooque; Shinohara, Andrá Luis; Bonifécio da Silva, Salete Moura; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Visible epiglottis is a rare anatomical variant which is usually asymptomatic without the need of any medical or surgical intervention. It is most commonly seen in children but there are some reports of its prevalence in adults too. Cases of visible epiglottis seem to be unfamiliar among dental professionals. In this report, we have attempted to present this anatomical variant of epiglottis in the feld of dentistry by describing a case of an 8-year-old girl who presented to the depa...

  2. Egalitarianism in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences. These preferences are key for a unique aspect of human sociality – large scale cooperation with genetic strangers – but little is known about their developmental roots. We show here that young children’s other-regarding preferences assume a particular form – inequality aversion – that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, while the vast major...

  3. Older people without children

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Jill

    2009-01-01

    In a recent discussion about government proposals on care for older people (July 2009), the Radio 4 news presenter referred to a possible need to return to the attitude that it's the family's responsibility to look after its older members. Yet there is often already an expectation that the family – by which is usually meant children or grandchildren – can be relied upon to take an active part in the social life and any care arrangements for their older members. Indeed, social policy in much o...

  4. Inspired by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    What is your job? I act as an expert resource, supporting acute and community teams to provide safe and timely transition home for children on long-term ventilation (LTV) across London and the south east region. I provide parental and professional education and training, and take part in patient involvement projects, for example to ensure feedback is responded to. As a WellChild nurse I link into the established WellChild nurses' national network, which helps me seek support, share ideas and experiences with other nurses, contribute to research and undertake study days. PMID:27615587

  5. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1970-01-01

    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  6. Application of Behavior Modification to Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Charles S.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Research and application of principles of behavior modification with visually impaired and blind children are reviewed with particular attention to lower functioning multiply impaired children. (Author)

  7. All Children Like To Laugh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert L.

    Several points need to be addressed when selecting humorous books for children. First, people of all ages react to humor in different ways; therefore, what one child finds funny another may not. Care must therefore be taken in sharing books with and recommending books for children. Second, humor itself is difficult to define, but humor should…

  8. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  9. Children's Literature: Perceptions of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Ginny

    2008-01-01

    Bullying has occurred throughout the generations and in all kinds of societies. Bullying, in the context of children, generally involves one or more larger or older children subjugating a defenseless youngster who is incapable of protecting him/herself. This article focuses on varying measures of dealing with bullies at the early childhood level.…

  10. Teaching Chess to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankauskas, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching chess to young children as part of the problem-solving component of a kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Discusses the introduction of pairs of chess characters, playing challenge games with teachers to enhance skill development, and writing down the rules of the game. Notes that children's problem-solving and…

  11. Febrile Children in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Elshout (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractFever in children is a common symptom. Frequently,the underlying illness is self-limiting and medical intervention is seldom needed. However, general practitioners need to be alert on those children who are at risk for serious infections. In this thesis, we studied the natural course

  12. [Social media, children and pediatricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heuzey, M-F

    2012-01-01

    Using social media web sites is a common activity for children, and any site that allows social interaction (social network, games, virtual worlds...) is a social media site. Pediatricians are in a position to help families understand the benefits and the risks of these sites, and to diagnose problems in children and adolescents as cyberbullying, depression, and post traumatic disorder. PMID:22119289

  13. Street Children and Employment Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there is a general realization that there are 'people' in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is however changing with the emergence of 'birth' and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the streets. The phrase 'street children' refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. While the children on the streets may have a 'home' to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the end of the day. The street children live in abject poverty and are exposed to many risks. They suffer from malnutrition and deficiency diseases due to low and poor nutrition intake. The street girls get trapped in teenage prostitution quite early in life. Of concern are the issues related to the working street children. Many street children engage in collecting and selling waste paper, bottles and plastics. They are referred to as 'chokora' because of their work of turning garbage upside down as they look for something useful. Unfortunately they have to sell these wastes to powerful forces including people who underpay and harrass them

  14. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top 10 Tips to Help Children Develop Healthy Habits Fruit and Veggie Toolkit for Kids Healthy Foods Under $1 Per Serving 6 Simple Steps for ... from a cup. Don't overfeed infants and young children — they ... Introduce healthy foods and keep offering them if they're initially ...

  15. Children and Their Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Debra Lindsey; Howard, Esther M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes obstacles presented by poverty in the fulfillment of the basic needs of children. Individually addresses Maslow's five basic needs with regard to children reared in poverty: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belonging and love needs; (4) self-esteem needs; and (5) self-actualization needs. (Author/SD)

  16. Benefits for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are under the Children with Special Health Care Needs provision of the Social Security Act. State health agencies usually manage these ... contact your local Children with Special Health Care Needs program. 17 Notes 18 Notes 19 Social Security Administration SSA Publication No. 05-10026 ICN ...

  17. Stress Management and Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vidisha A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress can affect anyone, and gifted children are no exception. Giftedness can sometimes be the cause of the stress. Perfectionism, sensitivity, and intensity are characteristics of gifted children that may exacerbate stress. Stress can be constructive. Prolonged stress, however, with no time to recover becomes detrimental. Continued stress upsets…

  18. Finger Mathematics for EMR Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.; Chavez, Maria

    An approach to teaching mildly retarded children math skills using finger calculation is discussed. Drills progress from using one to two hands and doing multiplication and division. The appropriateness of finger calculation with children in the sensory motor and preoperational stages of development is noted, and the approach's ability to enhance…

  19. The Future of Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Joan Ganz

    1984-01-01

    The United States remains one of the few postindustrial societies that does not take television seriously, especially as it affects children. Expectations that the new technologies, such as cable and video discs, may provide new opportunities to serve the real interests of children should be tempered by television's past performance. (RM)

  20. KIDMONEY: Children as Big Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Shelly

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how marketers are targeting children as a consumer segment. Highlights include advertising budgets and media, how children spend their money, the more influential role of the child in the family, in-school marketing, controversial advertising on Channel One, marketing on the Internet, and parental control. (AEF)

  1. Creating Space for Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  2. Rehabilitation of severely injured children.

    OpenAIRE

    Gans, B. M.; di Scala, C.

    1991-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in childhood. Ideal systems of care integrate comprehensive management of acutely injured children with rehabilitation. We review the nature of childhood injury, its disabling consequences, and the best ways to manage the care of children with serious injuries.

  3. Seeing Children's Eagerness for Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Deb

    2009-01-01

    The photo "Rescuing Hug" (www.52best.com/hug.asp) made famous on the Internet a few years ago had a huge impact on the way the author sees children's relationships with each other. With this inspiring story, the author has come to the powerful realization that if she believes children have the capacity and desire for deep connections then she…

  4. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  5. Teaching children to save energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  6. Assessing Learning with Children(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Understanding the teaching requirements from the syllabus Task 1 List all the activities that you have done or you think you can do with children in the classroom.For example:reading aloud,children reciting a dialogue,etc.

  7. Classic African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  8. Group Counseling for Navy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchum, Nancy Taylor

    1991-01-01

    Conducted six-session group counseling program for Navy children (n=22) enrolled in public schools whose fathers were on deployment. Pretest and posttest scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory suggest that participation in the group counseling unit positively affected self-esteem of Navy children whose fathers were on deployment. Found…

  9. Education of Migrant Children Worrisome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The plight of migrant workers in China, estimated to number in the hundreds of millions, has drawn grave concerns from top leaders and common people alike.Part of their plight is the schooling of their children that they cannot go to school on equal terms as local children.

  10. Children's Strategies on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkels, Elza

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an interview study of 104 12-year old children. The aim was to learn more about how children use the Internet, what they find negative on the Internet and what coping strategies they use. The media debate seems to display consensus regarding what threats the Internet poses to young people. However, this study…

  11. Severe Anemia in Malawian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.C.J.; Kamija, S.P.; Faragher, E.B.; Brabin, B.J.; Bates, I.; Cuevas, L.E.; Haan, de R.J.; Phiri, A.I.; Malange, P.; Khoka, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Lieshout, L.; Beld, M.G.H.M.; Teo, Y.Y.; Rockett, K.A.; Richardson, A.; Kwiatkowski, D.P.; Molyneux, M.E.; Hensbroek, van M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. Methods We conducted a case¿control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration,

  12. Children of Dutch Nazi collaborators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tames, I.

    2015-01-01

    This article looks into what happened to the children of Dutch Nazi collaborators after the liberation of the Netherlands in May 1945. The author first outlines the historical context in which these children lived and the manner in which they recounted and recorded their memories much later. In comb

  13. [Disk calcifications in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P; Fauré, C; Denarnaud, L

    1985-05-01

    It is not unusual for intervertebral disk calcifications to be detected in pediatric practice, the 150 or so cases reported in the literature probably representing only a small proportion of lesions actually diagnosed. Case reports of 33 children with intervertebral disk calcifications were analyzed. In the majority of these patients (31 of 33) a diagnosis of "idiopathic" calcifications had been made, the cervical localization of the lesions being related to repeated ORL infections and/or trauma. A pre-existing pathologic factor was found in two cases (one child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated by corticoids and one child with Williams and Van Beuren's syndrome). An uncomplicated course was noted in 31 cases, the symptomatology (pain, spinal stiffness and febricula) improving after several days. Complications developed in two cases: one child had very disabling dysphagia due to an anteriorly protruding cervical herniated disc and surgery was necessary; the other child developed cervicobrachial neuralgia due to herniated disc protrusion into the cervical spinal canal, but symptoms regressed within several days although calcifications persisted unaltered. These findings and the course of the rare complications documented in the literature suggest the need for the most conservative treatment possible in cases of disc calcifications in children. PMID:4032343

  14. MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard-Fabian Schumacher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This review is focused on childhood specific aspects of malaria, especially in resource-poor settings. We summarise the actual knowledge in the field of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention.

    These aspects are important as malaria is responsible for almost a quarter of all child death in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria control is thus one key intervention to reduce childhood mortality, especially as malaria is also an important risk factor for other severe infections, namely bacteraemia.

    In children symptoms are more varied and often mimic other common childhood illness, particularly gastroenteritis, meningitis/encephalitis, or pneumonia. Fever is the key symptom, but the characteristic regular tertian and quartan patterns are rarely observed. There are no pathognomonic features for severe malaria in this age group. The well known clinical (fever, impaired consciousness, seizures, vomiting, respiratory distress and laboratory (severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactataemia features of severe falciparum malaria in children, are equally typical for severe sepsis.

    Appropriate therapy (considering species, resistance patterns and individual patient factors – possibly a drug combination of an artemisinin derivative with a long-acting antimalarial drug - reduces treatment duration to only three days and should be urgently started.

    While waiting for the results of ongoing vaccine trials, all effort should be made to better implement other malaria-control measures like the use of treated bed-nets and new chemoprophylaxis regimens.

  15. MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard-Fabian Schumacher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on childhood specific aspects of malaria, especially in resource-poor settings. We summarise the actual knowledge in the field of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention. These aspects are important as malaria is responsible for almost a quarter of all child death in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria control is thus one key intervention to reduce childhood mortality, especially as malaria is also an important risk factor for other severe infections, namely bacteraemia. In children symptoms are more varied and often mimic other common childhood illness, particularly gastroenteritis, meningitis/encephalitis, or pneumonia. Fever is the key symptom, but the characteristic regular tertian and quartan patterns are rarely observed. There are no pathognomonic features for severe malaria in this age group. The well known clinical (fever, impaired consciousness, seizures, vomiting, respiratory distress and laboratory (severe anaemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactataemia features of severe falciparum malaria in children, are equally typical for severe sepsis. Appropriate therapy (considering species, resistance patterns and individual patient factors – possibly a drug combination of an artemisinin derivative with a long-acting antimalarial drug - reduces treatment duration to only three days and should be urgently started. While waiting for the results of ongoing vaccine trials, all effort should be made to better implement other malaria-control measures like the use of treated bed-nets and new chemoprophylaxis regimens.

  16. Neuropathic pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard F; Wiener, Suzanne; Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP), due to a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is not well documented or researched in children. NP is a clinical diagnosis that can be difficult, especially in younger children. Nevertheless, it is important to recognise NP, as pain mechanisms and consequently management and prognosis differ from other types of long-term pain. NP is common in adult pain clinics but many of the underlying disease states in which it occurs are infrequently or never encountered in paediatric practice. However, NP in childhood has been reported, even in the very young in certain clinical situations. Causes of NP include traumatic injury, complex regional pain syndrome type II, cancer and chemotherapy, chronic infection, neurological and metabolic disease, and inherited sensory nerve dysfunction. The clinical and laboratory study of traumatic peripheral nerve injury has revealed important age-related differences in clinical presentation and prognosis. It is clear that mechanisms operating during development can profoundly modify the consequences of nerve damage and NP. Clinically, diagnosis, assessment and treatment of NP are based on methods and evidence derived from data in adults. Improvements in the understanding and management of NP are likely to come from developmentally appropriate improvements in the clarity and consistency of diagnosis and systematic, well-researched approaches to treatment.

  17. Shock in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davendralingam Sinniah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shock, a major cause of morbidity andmortality in children, is the the most anxiety-provokingemergency that needs to be addressed urgently andeffectively by the attending paediatrician. It is a statewhere the metabolic demands of the tissue are not met dueto circulatory dysfunction. Unlike adults, hypotension isa very late feature of shock in children. As the child’scondition worsens, the clinical presentation of thedifferent causes of shock become similar, and nullifyany aetiological differences. Regardless of the type ofshock, the final common pathway is inadequate tissueperfusion and oxygen supply to meet cellular demands.Delayed recognition and treatment result in progressionfrom compensated reversible shock to uncompensatedirreversible shock with widespread multiple systemorgan failure to death. This paper reviews thephysiological basis, and pathophysiological classificationof the various types of shock and their respectiveaetiologies. The clinical features of the different typesof shock are described, and current diagnostic andtherapeutic strategies are applied for the most effectiveand appropriate treatment for resuscitating the child inshock. A strong index of suspicion, early recognition,timely intervention and transfer to an intensive care unitare critical for successful outcomes in the managementof paediatric shock.

  18. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor INALOO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Inaloo S, Haghbin S. Multiple Sclerosis in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:1-10. Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. References1. Lublin F. History of modern multiple sclerosis therapy. J Neurol 2005 Sep;252(Suppl 3:iii3-iii9. Review.2. Murray TJ. Robert Carswell: the first illustrator of MS. Int MS J 2009 Sep;16(3:98-101.3. Kabat EA, Glusman M, Knaub V. Quantitative estimation of the albumin and gamma globulin in normal and pathologic cerebrospinal fluid by immunochemical methods. Am J Med 1948 May;4(5:653-62.4. Kumar DR, Aslinia F, Yale SH, Mazza JJ. Jean-Martin Charcot: the father of neurology. Clin Med Res 2011 Mar;9(1:46-9.5. Dawson JD. The histology of disseminated sclerosis.Trans of the Roy Soc Edinb. 1916;50:517-740.6. Gadoth N. Multiple sclerosis in children. Brain Dev 2003 Jun;25(4:229-32. Review.7. Banwell BL. Pediatric multiple sclerosis. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2004 May;4(3:245-52.8. Renoux C, Vukusic S, Mikaeloff Y, Edan G, Clanet M, Dubois B, et al. Natural history of multiple sclerosis with childhood onset. N Engl J Med 2007 Jun 21;356(25:2603-13.9. Boiko A, Vorobeychicle G, Paty D, Devonshire V, Sondovnick D. Early onset multiple sclerosis: a long longitudinal study. Neurology 2002 Oct 8

  19. Scaphoid fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scaphoid fractures are rare in childhood. Diagnosis is very difficult to establish because carpal bones are not fully ossified. In suspected cases comparative or delayed radiography is used, as well as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and bone scintigraphy. Majority of scaphoid fractures are treated conservatively with good results. In case of delayed fracture healing various types of treatment are available. Objective. To determine the mechanism of injury, clinical healing process, types and outcome of treatment of scaphoid fractures in children. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed patients with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone over a ten-year period (2002-2011. The outcome of the treatment of “acute” scaphoid fracture was evaluated using the Mayo Wrist Score. Results. There were in total 34 patients, of mean age 13.8 years, with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone, whose bone growth was not finished yet. Most common injury mechanism was fall on outstretched arm - 76% of patients. During the examined period 31 children with “acute” fracture underwent conservative treatment, with average immobilization period of 51 days. Six patients were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 25 patients, after completed rehabilitation, functional results determined by the Mayo Wrist Score were excellent. Conclusion. Conservative therapy of “acute” scaphoid fractures is an acceptable treatment option for pediatric patients with excellent functional results.

  20. Children's generic interpretation of pretense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Carolyn; Friedman, Ori

    2016-10-01

    We report two experiments investigating how 3- to 5-year-olds learn general knowledge from pretend play-how they learn about kinds of things (e.g., information about dogs) from information about particular individuals in pretend play (a certain dog in a pretend scenario). Children watched pretend-play enactments in which animals showed certain behaviors or heard utterances conveying the same information. When children were subsequently asked about who shows the behavior, children who watched pretend play were more likely to give generic responses than were children who heard the utterances. These findings show that children generalize information from pretend play to kinds even without being prompted to think about kinds, that pretend play can be informative about familiar kinds, and also that pretend play is a more potent source for general knowledge than are utterances about individuals. PMID:27268159

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  2. Undernourished children and milk lactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Briend, André; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2016-01-01

    of the potential positive and negative effects of lactose in the treatment of undernourished children. METHODS: Searches were conducted using PUBMED and Web of Science up to July 2015. Relevant references in the retrieved articles were included. RESULTS: Lactose may exhibit several health benefits in young...... children, including a prebiotic effect on the gut microbiota and a positive effect on mineral absorption. Studies in piglets suggest there might also be a stimulating effect on growth, relative to other carbohydrates. Lactose intolerance is a potential concern for undernourished children. Most....... At limited extra costs, lactose or lactose-containing milk ingredients may have beneficial effects if added to food products for undernourished children. CONCLUSIONS: Lactose may be an overlooked beneficial nutrient for young and undernourished children. Research is needed to define the balance between...

  3. What Children Can Teach Us: Developing Digital Libraries for Children with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druin, Allison

    2005-01-01

    At the University of Maryland, an interdisciplinary team of researchers from information studies, computer science, education, art, and psychology worked with seven children (ages seven to eleven) to design a new digital library for children. This partnership led to new approaches for collection development, cataloging (metadata standards), and…

  4. Austin Children`s Museum ``Go Power`` project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Go Power, was conceived as an interactive exhibit and related set of activities designed to promote in children and families an understanding and appreciation of energy concepts. Planned in 1990, the project culminated its first phase of activities with colorful, interactive exhibit about the pathways and transformations of energy, on display at the Austin Children`s Museum between February 5th and June 6th, 1993. The project was supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Lower Colorado River Authority and various local foundations and businesses. This report describes the process, product and outcomes of this project.

  5. Nutritional status of vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J T; Dietz, W H; Andrews, E M; Suskind, R M

    1982-02-01

    Thirty-nine preschool children consuming different types of vegetarian diets were studied. Type and amount of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and amount of sodium and cholesterol provided by their diets were more like intakes suggested in the proposed Dietary Goals for the United States than to levels in usual diets of nonvegetarian children. Macrobiotic vegetarian children consumed less animal food than did other vegetarian children. The mean intake of vitamin D of macrobiotics was an eighth of the Recommended Dietary Allowance and mean serum alkaline phosphatase values were elevated. The mean intake of vitamin B12 levels were normal. Vegan macrobiotic children had the lowest intakes of vitamins B12 and D. Other vegetarians' mean intakes of these vitamins met the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Mean iron intakes of the vegetarians approximated the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Hematological indices were suggestive of mild iron deficiency anemia in a quarter of subjects. Serum cholesterol values were low for the group. Physical measurements were within normal limits and macrobiotic vegetarians were not smaller or leaner than other vegetarian children. The nutritional difficulties discovered could be corrected by careful planning of vegetarian children's diets while preserving the beneficial qualities of the diet in other respects.

  6. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  7. Acute pancreatitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Radoica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute pancreatitis in children is mostly due to abdominal trauma, diseases or congenital anomalies of the biliary-pancreatic tree. Both exogenous and endogenous functions of the gland could be disturbed by various levels of damage. Clinical Finding and Diagnostics. Acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal signs and general deterioration are the main clinical findings. The examination can be completed by blood and urine tests of amylase, electrolytes level, and the C-reactive protein. In addition to these tests, ultrasound, computed tomography and endoscopy are required as well. Therapeutic Methods. The therapy of choice is non-operative treatment using medicaments to control the pain, decrease the pancreatic activity and prevent further complications. If the conservative treatment fails, the surgical approach is necessary: drainage, resections, by-pass procedures, etc. Conclusion. Acute pancreatitis is a very serious disease in childhood. Clinical experience and rational approach are very important in the diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

  8. Soccer injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  9. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  10. Secondary drowning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J H

    1980-10-25

    Secondary drowning (and near-drowning) is one of the post-immersion respiratory syndromes. It is defined as deterioration of pulmonary function that follows deficient gas exchange due to loss or inactivation of surfactant. A review of 94 consecutive cases of near-drowning in childhood showed that this syndrome occurred in five (5%) cases. Its onset was usually rapid and characterised by a latent period of one to 48 hours of relative respiratory well-being. It occurred more rapidly after immersion in fresh water. The two children immersed in salt water died of secondary drowning, while the three immersed in fresh water recovered completely. If it is anticipated, recognised, and treated vigorously prognosis of secondary drowning is good in fresh water cases but bad after salt water immersion.

  11. CT head in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Padma, E-mail: padma.rao@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Bekhit, Elhamy, E-mail: elhamy.bekhit@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Ramanauskas, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.ramanauskas@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Kumbla, Surekha, E-mail: surekha.kumbla@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    The advances in computerized technology (CT) technique over the last few decades have greatly modified imaging protocols in children. The range of pathologies that can now be demonstrated has broadened with the advent of newer techniques such as CT perfusion and the ability to perform complex reconstructions. Increasing speed of scanning and reduction in scan time have influenced the need for sedation and general anaesthetic as well as impacting on motion artefact. Additionally, concerns about radiation safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation have further impacted on the inclusion of CT in the imaging armamentarium. Justification and image optimisation are essential. It is important to familiarize oneself with the appearances of normal variants or age related developmental changes. CT does however remain an appropriate investigation in a number of conditions.

  12. Urticaria mimickers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Anubhav N; Mathes, Erin F

    2013-01-01

    Acute urticaria is a self-limited cutaneous condition marked by transient, erythematous, and pruritic wheals. It is a hypersensitivity response that is often secondary to infection, medications, or food allergies in children. In contrast, the urticarial "mimickers" described in this review article are often seen in the context of fever and extracutaneous manifestations in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis ranges from benign and self-limited hypersensitivity responses to multisystem inflammatory diseases. Establishing the correct diagnosis of an urticarial rash in a pediatric patient is necessary to both prevent an unnecessary work up for self-limited conditions and to appropriately recognize and evaluate multisystem inflammatory disorders. Herein, we describe two cases to illustrate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, histopathology and differential diagnoses for several mimickers of acute urticaria including: urticaria multiforme, serum sickness like reaction, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy, systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, and urticarial vasculitis. PMID:24552410

  13. Fusobacterium infections in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arane, Karen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Question A 2-year-old patient in my practice with acute otitis media that has progressed to mastoiditis with a high fever returns with positive culture results for Fusobacterium. What should I do next? Answer Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Although Fusobacterium infections are rare, they can become severe if not treated promptly. Appropriate treatment is combination antibiotic therapy consisting of a β-lactam (penicillin, cephalosporin) and an anaerobic antimicrobial agent (metronidazole, clindamycin). At times surgical involvement is required for mastoiditis such as drainage of abscesses or insertion of a ventilation tube. Delayed treatment of an infection caused by Fusobacterium can lead to serious complications, including Lemierre syndrome. Children should be seen in a hospital for close monitoring. PMID:27737977

  14. Pancreatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, M

    1992-12-01

    The pathophysiology of pancreatic autodigestion is poorly understood. Pancreatitis affects all age groups, and the diagnosis is sometimes missed when serum amylase and lipase activities are not measured in the child with abdominal pain. Acute pancreatitis in children has become a more commonly seen condition and the causes have varied. Laboratory and radiological studies play an important role in determining the diagnosis and prognosis. Family history is important in the diagnosis of idiopathic hereditary pancreatitis. Most acute episodes resolve with supportive care, but the mortality in acute pancreatitis is currently about 15% (Hadorn et al., 1980). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or an endoscopic retrograde pancreatogram may be necessary to investigate relapses of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis can be a life-threatening condition requiring lifetime medical management.

  15. Thermometry in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Batra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of temperature is important for detection of fever and hypothermia in pediatric patients. Ideal temperature-measurement technique should be safe, easy, noninvasive, cost effective, time efficient, and should precisely reflect core body temperature. Pulmonary artery is the closest to hypothalamus and best reflects the core temperature. Other sites used are distal esophagus, urinary bladder and nasopharynx. All these methods are invasive and difficult to use in clinical practice. Amongst the noninvasive methods, rectal thermometry is considered to be the closest to core temperature, but it has its own drawbacks. With the current evidence available, tympanic artery thermometry for children more than 2 years of age and temporal artery thermometry in all age groups are taking precedence over other methods.

  16. DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Some children of Borazjan area have minute white flecks, yellow or brown spot areas scattered irregularly over the tooth surface, the causative factor was attributed to excess of fluoride in water. To verify this matter short chemical examination of water samples from endemic area was carried out. The results of water analysis by colorimetric method, using zirconium a1izarin reagent after distillation the samples, showed that the average mount of fluoride of Borazjan and the mixture of treated. Water of Boshigan River with water piped of Borazjan wells were 4 and 2 times respectively more than recommended control limits for fluoride and confirmed that this was the causative agent of mottled, teeth (Dental Fluorosis.

  17. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  18. Neurobrucellosis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Ata; Hendaus; Rasha; Muneer; Qaqish; Ahmed; Hassan; Alhammadi

    2015-01-01

    Neurobrucellosis is a complication of brucellosis,which is considered endemic in the Indian subcontinent,Arabian Peninsula and Mediterranean countries.Brucella reaches the central nervous system via hematogenous spread in the infected human being,or through phagocytosis.Neurobrucellosis can present with any neurological symptoms,hence,the index of suspicion must be high enough to make proper diagnosis.Cerebrospinal fluid studies are usually diagnostic,while imagings including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are of little assistance.As for therapy,a combination of antibiotics must be administered with a goal to reduce relapse or avoid failure.The duration of treatment should be tailored as per clinical signs and symptoms until the cerebrospinal fluid components return to normal,which might be up to six months.In this article,we present an overall view of current understanding of neurobrucellosis in children,its epidemiology,clinical features,diagnostictests,and management options.

  19. Alopecia areata in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical presentations of alopecia areata in children as well as the frequency of associated disorders. Children of either gender suffering from alopecia areata, upto 15 years of age, who fulfilled the selection criteria were included in the study. Only freshly registered cases were studied. Severity of the disease was graded as mild, moderate and severe disease, and other clinical patterns including alopecia totalis, alopecia universalis and ophiasis. Hematological and biochemical profile was evaluated. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis in order to determine p-value using the percentages of variables. One hundred and fourteen patients comprising 54 males (47%) and 60 females (53%), aged 4 upto 15 years, the mean age being 9.1 years, were enrolled. Family history of alopecia areata was positive in 11 patients (10%). Fifty nine patients (51%) were of age 6-10 years, 39 patients (35%), aged 11-15 years, and 16 (14%) were of age below 5 years. Mild alopecia areata (41%, p<0.05) was the most common presentation followed by moderate disease (31%, p<0.05), severe alopecia (17%, p <0.05), alopecia totalis (7%, p <0.05), alopecia universalis (2.7%, p=0.05) and ophiasis (1.7%, p=0.05). Nail changes were found in 40 patients (35%, p<0.05). Definite evidence of atopy was obtained in 23 patients (20%, p<0.05). The autoimmune disorders associated with alopecia areata included: hypothyroidism (4.3%), vitiligo (3.5%), psoriasis (1.8%), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE 0.9%), hypoparathyroidism (0.9%) and diabetes mellitus (0.9%). The spectrum of childhood alopecia areata ranges from mild, moderate and severe alopecia, ultimately to alopecia totalis, alopecia universalis and ophiasis. Nail changes as well as atopy and autoimmune disorders are the associated disorders. (author)

  20. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  1. Anorectal malformations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Pranshu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Anorectal malformations are one of the most common congenital defects. This study was undertaken to study the hospital incidence of anorectal malformations (ARM, frequency of various types of defects, their sex distribution and the spectrum of anomalies associated with ARM. The effect of presence of an associated defect on mortality and morbidity was also studied. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive children attending the pediatric surgery department were included in this study. A detailed history was taken, and examination was performed for the primary as well as the associated defects. Appropriate investigations like invertogram, cologram were done wherever indicated. Management was as per the standard protocol. The data was recorded and analyzed. Results: Out of the 100 patients, 51 were males and 49 females. One out of every 6.62 admission was for ARM. Twenty percent of the female babies had high, 76% intermediate and 4% had low anomalies, whereas 80.39% males had high, 3.92% intermediate and 15.6% showed low malformations. Ten percent of the patients had pouch colon. Associated anomalies were seen in 33 patients - 20 males and 13 females; 19 in high, 10 in intermediate, 1 in low group and 3 children with cloacal malformations. Associated defects seen were urogenital (17%, cardiovascular (7%, gastrointestinal (9%, genital (5% and limb defects (7%. There were 8 deaths, and complications were seen in 13 patients. Ten patients had two or more defects associated with ARM. Conclusions: Anorectal malformations occurred equally in males and females. Females had intermediate defects more frequently, rectovestibular fistula being the commonest. Males were more likely to have high lesions; anorectal agenesis without fistula was the commonest defect. The most common associated defects seen were vesicoureteric reflux and esophageal atresia. Complications were seen more commonly in males with high lesions. There was a

  2. Bowel vaginoplasty in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Yogesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with bowel vaginoplasty done in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of eight children aged 10 months to 8 years, who underwent bowel vaginoplasty over a period of 5 years (2000-2005. The indications of bowel vaginoplasty included anorectovestibular fistula (ARVF associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome (n=6 and cloaca (n=2. The bowel segment used for vaginoplasty included colon (n=3, ileum (n=2 and duplicated rectum (n=1. In two patients of ARVF associated with uterovaginal agenesis, the distal- most part of ARVF was transected at the level of peritoneal reflection and left as neovagina, whereas the proximal bowel was pulled through at the proposed neo-anal site. All the patients were advised daily home dilatation of the neo vaginal orifice with Hegar′s dilators, for a period of six weeks. RESULTS: Bowel vaginoplasty was done in eight patients. None had any significant per-operative complication. Two patients had abdominal wound dehiscence, requiring secondary suturing. Two patients had mucosal prolapse of the neovagina, which required trimming. One patient died two months after discharge, because of meningitis. Out of the eight patients, seven are in regular follow-up. Six patients have neovagina, cosmetically acceptable to the parents; all have been radiologically proven to have adequate length. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance with nipple-like vaginal orifice and scarred perineal wound, that merits a revision. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis and excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Although post surgical results are acceptable to the parents cosmetically, the sexual and psychological outcome is yet to be assessed. Conclusions: Bowel vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure to treat the pediatric patients of uterovaginal agenesis and cloaca.

  3. Experiences of Daycare Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…

  4. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  5. Young Children's Play in Online Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Virtual worlds for children are becoming increasingly popular, and yet there are few accounts of children's use of these worlds. Young children are spending increasing amounts of time online as technology continues to create significant changes in social and cultural practices in the 21st century. Some of children's online interactions can be…

  6. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  7. SOS Children's Friendly Community Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaš, Mirko; Lenard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    SOS Children's Village Croatia is categorized as a children's home whose primary goal is taking care of children without an adequate parental care or parents themselves. Moreover, it aims at providing children, regardless of their racial, national or religious affiliation, with affection and love in a safe family environment. In addition, SOS…

  8. Ordinal Position Differences in Children's Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1984-01-01

    Compares the interactions of 20 firstborn and 17 lastborn children with their parents and siblings. Children were observed at home for five 45-minute sessions. Oldest children differed from youngest children in emitting more behaviors to parents than to siblings and in receiving more negative responses from parents and siblings. (Author/CB)

  9. Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on…

  10. Children Make You Happier...and Poorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Zygmunt

    2006-01-01

    This article, which formed the opening keynote address of the Fifth International Conference on Children's Spirituality, addresses the place of children in the globalized social economy. It begins by arguing that current attitudes in the West towards children are conditioned by several contradictions in consumerism. Children, no longer as…

  11. 42 CFR 435.117 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public..., Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  12. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  13. Providing nursing care in a children's hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Alison

    Children who are admitted to hospices need specialist treatment that enables them to enjoy their childhood as much as possible while they receive the care they require. Their parents also have particular needs. During Children's Hospice Week, which started on September 21, the Association of Children's Hospices aims to raise awareness of the work done by children's hospices and the services they provide.

  14. Policy Implications of Advertising to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Emilie

    Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…

  15. Evaluative expression in deaf children's written narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, E.M. van; Hell, J.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Background: Deaf children vary in the use of and proficiency in signed language. The majority of studies on writing skills of children who are deaf did not assess deaf children's proficiency in signed language and/or grouped together deaf children with varying sign language skills. Aims: Adopting a

  16. Advertising to Children: Concepts and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. Carole, Ed.; Carlson, Les, Ed.

    This book presents cutting-edge research designed to stimulate and inform the debate over advertising to the children's market and the effects such advertising has on children. Perspectives are organized in sections to address what children know and think about advertising, how advertising works with children, and what issues are at the forefront…

  17. Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishiyama, Mark M.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Jimenez, Amy M.; Perry, Lee M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Social inequalities have profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence and academic achievement, and recent findings indicate that low SES (LSES) children are impaired on behavioral measures of…

  18. Color Perception in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Burley, Rachel; Notman, Leslie; Alder, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether color perception is atypical in children with autism. In experiment 1, accuracy of color memory and search was compared for children with autism and typically developing children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability. Children with autism were significantly less accurate at color memory and search than…

  19. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children…

  20. Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…

  1. An Analysis on Children's Rights in Stories Recommended for Children in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman-Kepenekci, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    Children's rights are legally protected benefits for children to develop physically, mentally, emotionally, socially and morally with freedom and honor in a healthy and normal way. It is important that children know the rights they have. Works of high quality children's literature ensure the socialization of children by making them understand or…

  2. Speech Databases of Typical Children and Children with SLI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grill

    Full Text Available The extent of research on children's speech in general and on disordered speech specifically is very limited. In this article, we describe the process of creating databases of children's speech and the possibilities for using such databases, which have been created by the LANNA research group in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Czech Technical University in Prague. These databases have been principally compiled for medical research but also for use in other areas, such as linguistics. Two databases were recorded: one for healthy children's speech (recorded in kindergarten and in the first level of elementary school and the other for pathological speech of children with a Specific Language Impairment (recorded at a surgery of speech and language therapists and at the hospital. Both databases were sub-divided according to specific demands of medical research. Their utilization can be exoteric, specifically for linguistic research and pedagogical use as well as for studies of speech-signal processing.

  3. Common Tuina Techniques in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tuina techniques in children are similar to those in adults. Some are same in name, but different in methods,such as pushing technique. Some techniques are just applied to children rather than to adults, such as pushing method. In clinical practice, such intense Tuina techniques as nailing, grasping, and pinching are practiced as the ending manipulations, so as not to hurt children and affect treatment. Such media as ginger juice,Talcum powder and egg white are commonly used to prevent from skin abrasion and improve therapeutic effects.

  4. Neuropathic pain management in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hyde, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    There are difficulties in assessing, managing, and evaluating neuropathic pain in dying children, particularly those with neurological impairment. Neuropathic pain in children often presents differently to how it presents in the adult population. Comprehensive assessment as well as pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are crucial to its successful management and frequently require input from an interdisciplinary team. Notwithstanding the need for further research, this paper brings together research papers, reviews, and clinical guidelines to present an exploration of existing evidence regarding care for children with neuropathic pain and their families.

  5. ASSISTIVE ROBOTS WORKING WITH CHILDREN - SEEN BY CHILDREN AND PARENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Jerković; Agota Major; Marina Oros

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this paper aimed to answer three main questions – the difference in children’s preference of robot appearance and colour; gender differences in children’s preference of different models of robots and in the attribution of gender to the robot; the difference in attitudes towards robots of parents depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status. The sample consists of first grade children and their parents from seven primary schools. Results show that children prefer mo...

  6. Safe and Responsible Online Behaviors for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hsien L. Chen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet makes new learning opportunities possible for children by offering vast amount of resources and powerful communication means Oftentimes, the Internet is the first resource children choose for information seeking. Other than schoolwork related resources,the Internet. contains unlimited interesting and entertaining information for children. As going online becomes a favorite pastime for millions of children,teachers and parents need to caution children about the negative side of the Internet. They need to teach children online safety and responsibility, and further,monitor their online behaviors. The article, first, discusses the possible threats to childrens online safety, including potential sex offenders, pornographic materials,and unethical marketing tactics aimed at children. Then, it addresses unethical and irresponsible behaviors, such as plagiarism, spamming, and hacking, which are committed or may be committed by children. Finally, the article explains how teachers and parents can help children become responsible and ethical Internet users.

  7. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income community children (n = 29). The children in therapeutic foster care exhibited longer sleep latency and increased variability of sleep duration tha...

  8. Children's Motives for Admitting to Prosocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yayoi; Lee, Kayo

    2016-01-01

    There has been extensive research on children's moral evaluation of lying in prosocial situations. Current knowledge regarding the concept of lying has been derived from studies showing that cultural differences exist, whereby non-Western children tend to rate lie telling more positively than Western children do. These findings suggest that there are different views about whether children should publicize their prosocial behaviors and that children have universal motives when they admit to en...

  9. Children's processing of emotion in ironic language

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Andrew; Whalen, Juanita M.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we addressed two novel questions: (1) is children's irony appreciation and processing related to their empathy skills? and (2) is children's processing of a speaker's ironic meaning best explained by a modular or interactive theory? Participants were thirty-one 8- and 9-year-olds children. We used a variant of the visual world paradigm to assess children's processing of ironic and literal evaluative remarks; in this paradigm children's cognition is revealed through their ...

  10. Safe and Responsible Online Behaviors for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Hsien L. Chen

    2003-01-01

    The Internet makes new learning opportunities possible for children by offering vast amount of resources and powerful communication means Oftentimes, the Internet is the first resource children choose for information seeking. Other than schoolwork related resources,the Internet. contains unlimited interesting and entertaining information for children. As going online becomes a favorite pastime for millions of children,teachers and parents need to caution children about the negative side of th...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you and your child will stay in the department for a recovery period and will be given ... in children, and almost always mild, and radiology departments are well-equipped to deal with them. Radiation ...

  12. Childrens Health Insurance Program (CHIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Web site discusses and provides downloadable data on state and program type, number of children ever enrolled, and the percentage of growth compared to the...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... possible to obtain very detailed pictures of the heart and blood vessels in children, even newborn infants. ... have, and if there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  15. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  17. Student Art for Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project in which high school student volunteers designed art activities for blind children. Students incorporated the sensation of motion and texture into their designs for toys, puzzles, games, and story illustrations. (AM)

  18. Normative sexual behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, W N; Grambsch, P; Broughton, D; Kuiper, J; Beilke, R L

    1991-09-01

    A large-scale, community-based survey was done to assess the frequency of a wide variety of sexual behaviors in normal preadolescent children and to measure the relationship of these behaviors to age, gender, and socioeconomic and family variables. A sample of 880 2- through 12-year-old children screened to exclude those with a history of sexual abuse were rated by their mothers using several questionnaire measures. The frequency of different behaviors varied widely, with more aggressive sexual behaviors and behaviors imitative of adults being rare. Older children (both boys and girls) were less sexual than younger children. Sexuality was found to be related to the level of general behavior problems, as measured by the Achenbach Internalizing and Externalizing T scores and to a measure of family nudity. It was not related to socioeconomic variables. PMID:1881723

  19. Use of Antibiotics in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Broe, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune;

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to describe the use of systemic antibiotics among children in Denmark. Methods: National data on drug use in Denmark were extracted from the Danish National Prescription Database. We used prescription data for all children in Denmark aged 0 to 11 years from January 1, 2000...... to December 31, 2012. Results: We obtained data on 5,884,301 prescriptions for systemic antibiotics issued to 1,206,107 children. The most used single substances were phenoxymethylpenicillin (45%), amoxicillin (34%) and erythromycin (6%). The highest incidence rate of antibiotic treatment episodes......–1. There was little evidence of heavy users. Conclusion: Prescribing rate of antibiotics to children in Denmark remained stable at a high level from 2000 to 2012. An increase in the use of broad-spectrum beta-lactam penicillin was noted, but otherwise the prescribing pattern adhered well to National guidelines...

  20. Helping Grieving Children and Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may trigger renewed grief. Understanding how children and teens view death It is helpful to know how ... as writing in a journal or drawing a picture. Without overwhelming your child, share your grief with ...

  1. Poland: Children's Fiction in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povsic, Frances F.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates children's books that present Polish folklore and legends, biographies of famous Polish people, personal accounts of life in Poland, and stories about Polish Americans and people living in Poland. (ET)

  2. Treatment for Constipation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a reward system when children use the bathroom regularly taking a break from potty training until ... Once a child has better eating and bowel habits, the doctor will recommend stopping the laxative. If ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed ...

  4. Assessing Learning with Children(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the teaching requirementsfrom the syllabusTask 1List all the activities that you have doneor you think you can do with children in theclassroom.For example:reading aloud,chil-dren reciting a dialogue,etc.

  5. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children ... that will provide the needed diagnostic information. The benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Using a multidetector CT unit to examine children ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  7. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  8. Transfusion in critically ill children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects...... of transfusion in critically ill children by including 65 papers, which were evaluated based on previously agreed selection criteria. Current practice on transfusing critically ill children is mainly founded on the basis of adult studies, common practices with cut-off values, and expert opinions, rather than...... evidence-based medicine. Paediatric patients have explicit physiological challenges and requirements to be addressed. Critically ill children often suffer from anaemia, have substantial iatrogenic blood loss with subsequent transfusions, and are at a higher risk of complications, often due to human errors...

  9. Assessing Learning With Children(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Giving feedback to and getting feedback from children The first question you may have might be what feedback means.Feedback is everything that we do to tell our learners how they are doing.For example,

  10. Recreational Reading for Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, John N.; Isaacs, Carolyn W.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography lists approximately 100 works (1974-82) of fiction, biography, poetry, fantasy/science fiction, picture books, and mystery/adventure for gifted elementary children's recreational reading. Citations include information on author, approximate grade level, and publisher. (CL)

  11. Defining overweight and obesity - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these things in adults. ... 44. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in ... adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...

  12. Anti-reflux surgery - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach). Problems with these muscles can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This surgery can also be done during a ... Anti-reflux surgery is usually done to treat GERD in children only after medicines have not worked ...

  13. Children Need Time to Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Carducci

    2012-01-01

    In the West,tiger mothers and wolf fathers are considered examples of extreme parenting.However,many Chinese parents put pressure on their children and probably look to such tiger mothers and wolf fathers as role models.

  14. Teaching Retarded Children about Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Winifred

    1983-01-01

    Mentally retarded children need sex education, not only about biological factors involved in sexuality, but also in terms of emotional and social development as well. Ways that parents can prepare retarded youngsters to cope with emerging sexuality are discussed. (PP)

  15. Pulmonary Function Testing in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are s pirometry and airway resistance tests . What is spirometry? Spirometry is the most common lung function test done. ... follow very specific instructions. Most children can do spirometry by age 6, though some preschoolers are able ...

  16. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI; Seyyed Hossein FAKHRAEE; Sina MIRAFKHAMI; Mojtaba YOUSEFI; Mona VARZANDEH FAR

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD), that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA). DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantl...

  18. Food advertising in children's magasines

    OpenAIRE

    Šorli, Ema

    2014-01-01

    Children are particularly interesting to the media and advertising, since they are more receptive to advertisement than adults during adolescence. The problem of advertising is mainly unhealthy food, but for child’s healthy growth and development a balanced diet and physical activity are most needed. The objectives of the thesis were to explore children's magazines and to determine the frequency of food advertising, and to present the phenomenon of food advertisements through different period...

  19. Cranial computerized tomography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of cranial ultrasound (A-scan) and computerized tomography (CT) in 81 children were corresponding in 90%, when ventricular diameter was determined, in 85% of intracerebral dysplasias, and in 12,5% of neonatal intracranial hemorrhagia. Comparison of EEG and CT findings in 70 of these children were corresponding in 54% of the cases with respect to 'normal' and 'abnormal'. On the basis of these results routine one-dimensional ultrasound scanning still seems to be a useful procedure. (orig.)

  20. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves rela...

  1. Nutrition in neurologically impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition, either under- or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Energy needs are difficult to define in this heterogeneous population, and there is a lack of information on what normal growth should be in these children. Non-nutritional factors may influence growth, but nutritional factors such as insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism also contribute to growth failure. Malnutrition is associated with s...

  2. Video assisted gastrostomy in children

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Children with severe diseases can be provided nutritional support through a gastrostomy if needed. At the Department of Paediatric Surgery in Lund we have used the Video Assisted Gastrostomy (VAG) procedure since 1994 when establishing gastrostomies. In this thesis, children with different diseases, who all had undergone the VAG procedure, were studied in five different clinical studies. Postoperative complications were collected and validated. We have not seen any major complications associa...

  3. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.;

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  4. Addressing passive smoking in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha G Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. AIM: To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS in children. METHODS: All physicians (n = 720 representing the three health professions in Limburg, The Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. RESULTS: The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11% of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, The Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed.

  5. Addressing Passive Smoking in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Sasha G.; Jennifer S Kuijlaars; Ilse Mesters; Muris, Jean W M; van Schayck, Constant P; Edward Dompeling; Feron, Frans J. M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS) in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. AIM: To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians) regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS) in children. METHODS: All physicians (n = 720) representing the three health professions in...

  6. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter;

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning.......This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  7. [Dietotherapy children with liver diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovskaia, E V; Strokova, T V; Topil'skaia, N V; Isakova, V A

    2009-01-01

    In children with liver diseases disorders of the nutritional status appear more quickly and delay normal growth and development. Administration of the nutritional support based on nosological and syndromal approaches lets provide optimal conditions for normalization of the liver functions, improves efficiency of therapy and prognosis of the disease. The article contents modern recommendations on the organization of nutrition in children with different liver diseases, correction of metabolic disorders during complications of liver pathology. PMID:20120964

  8. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-im...

  9. Tangible music composer for children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Juan Ignacio; Larrea, Martín Leonardo; Manresa-Yee, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Music education should start from an early age. Theories of child development and learning emphasize the importance of manipulating physical objects. Music learning and teaching has traditionally been carried out mainly by visual and auditory activities. With this in mind, we combine music learning with tangible interfaces to stimulate senses toward music in children over six years old. We present a token+constraint tangible interface for children to learn musical skills such as musical notes...

  10. Children and unintentional firearm death

    OpenAIRE

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children in the United States are at far greater risk of unintentional gun death than children in other developed countries. The relative figures may even be worse since the estimates for US child unintentional gun deaths are derived from the Vital Statistics which have been shown to be underestimates. No study has used a national data system to investigate the circumstances of fatal child gun accidents. Methods We use data from the National Violent Death Reporting System for 16 st...

  11. Children and unintentional firearm death

    OpenAIRE

    Hemenway, David; Solnick, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children in the United States are at far greater risk of unintentional gun death than children in other developed countries. The relative figures may even be worse since the estimates for US child unintentional gun deaths are derived from the Vital Statistics which have been shown to be underestimates. No study has used a national data system to investigate the circumstances of fatal child gun accidents. Methods: We use data from the National Violent Death Reporting System for 16 ...

  12. Effects of Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Öngider, Nilgün

    2013-01-01

    There is now strong consensus in the research literature that children whose parents have divorced are at increased risk of displaying a variety of problem behaviors compared to children living in continuously intact families. Divorce can be a profound catalyst for psychological, social, and economic change. Also, many studies have documented short-term and long-term negative effects of parental marital conflict and divorce for offspring, including poorer academic, social, and psychological o...

  13. Urinary tract injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for

  14. Maternal Employment and Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia M. Anderson; Kristin F. Butcher; Levine, Phillip B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates whether children are more or less likely to be overweight if their mothers work. The prevalence of both overweight children and working mothers has risen dramatically over the past few decades, although these parallel trends may be coincidental. The goal of this paper is to help determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood overweight. To accomplish this, we mainly utilize matched mother/child data from the National Longitudin...

  15. Acute otitis media in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherpillod J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  16. Young children as Internet users

    OpenAIRE

    Daramola, O. (Oladipo)

    2015-01-01

    In the current available research concerning the real usage of the internet among the young children, most researchers particularly emphases on the risk and opportunities regarding the active use of the internet. Limited experimental research emphases on the role-based and impact of the parent guidelines in the context. In the current studies, internet parenting methods are well-defined and operationalized to study the influence on the real usage of the internet among children both at home an...

  17. Children, torture and psychological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayarian, Aida

    2009-01-01

    Torture is a strategic means of limiting, controlling, and repressing basic human rights of individuals and communities that is often covert and denied by authorities. Deliberate infliction of pain and suffering or intimidation or coercion on children to obtain a confession or information, for punishment of real or perceived offences on the basis of discrimination about race, ethnic or political affiliation, is practiced in many places around the world. Impact of torture on children may vary depending on the child's coping strategies, cultural and social circumstances. We at Refugee Therapy Centre provide psychotherapy and associated treatments to people who have been tortured, giving priority to children. While our main objective is provision of clinical services, our focus is also to influence policy and practice by searching for evidence and demonstrating solutions to improve the lives, homes and communities of children disadvantaged by torture and the services that support them. We seek to provide some remedies to children of refugees who are suffering the consequence of trauma that they experienced and demonstrate good practice. In this paper I will give a brief introduction of our work at the RTC. I then discuss and reflect on children and torture. I will present a vignette and some examples of clinical intervention. PMID:19920332

  18. Children's Schooling and Parents' Investment in Children: Evidence from the Head Start Impact Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander M. Gelber; Adam Isen

    2011-01-01

    Parents may have important effects on their children, but little work in economics explores whether children's schooling opportunities crowd out or encourage parents' investment in children. We analyze data from the Head Start Impact Study, which granted randomly-chosen preschool-aged children the opportunity to attend Head Start. We find that Head Start causes a substantial increase in parents' involvement with their children--such as time spent reading to children, math activities, or days ...

  19. "Children are sexually innocent": Iranian parents' understanding of children's sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G

    2014-04-01

    Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use.

  20. LIMPING IN CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santili, Cláudio; Júnior, Wilson Lino; Goiano, Ellen de Oliveira; Lins, Romero Antunes Barreto; Waisberg, Gilberto; Braga, Susana dos Reis; Akkari, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Limping in children is a common complaint at pediatric, pediatric orthopaedic offices and in emergency rooms. There are several causes for this condition, and identifying them is a challenge. The older the patient, the better the anamnesis and more detailed the physical examination will be, enabling an easier medical assessment for searching the source of the disorder. In order to make the approach easier, three age groups can and should be considered. Among infants (1 to 3 years old), diagnosis will most likely be: transitory synovitis, septic arthritis, neurological disorders (mild brain palsy (BP) and muscular dystrophy), congenital hip dislocation (CHD), varus thigh, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and neoplasias (osteoid osteoma, leukemia); in the scholar age group, between 4 and 10 years old, in addition to the diagnoses above, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, discoid meniscus, inferior limbs discrepancy and unspecific muscular pain; in adolescents (11 to 15 years old): slipped capital femoral epiphysis, congenital hip dislocation, chondrolysis, overuse syndromes, dissecans osteochondritis, and tarsal coalition. The purpose of this study is to provide an update on how to approach pediatric patients presenting with limping, and to discuss its potential causes. PMID:27022509

  1. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Torreggiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  2. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  3. Can Computers Harm Children?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margarita; Martin-Hidalgo; 宋毛林

    2000-01-01

    我是一个七旬老人。我常慨叹,在我有生之年能够用上电脑,是我一生中最幸运的事情之一。在我家里,不仅我用电脑,而且,我的小孙子也用上了电脑。目睹孩子久坐于电脑前,我曾寻思:孩子天性的萌发是否会受到影响?读了此文,我发现,操此心者,非我一人也! 1/Early exposure to computers stunts(阻止)children’s development! 2/Children are increasingly being denied warmth,artistic inspiration andtanding. 3/Introduction to computers at an early age does not heighten children’screativity and can cause eyestrain(眼睛疲劳),repetitive stress injuries andobesity. 读者朋友,你同意以上观点吗?

  4. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  5. The children of Ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Pulis

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Bob Marley: Songs of Freedom. RITA MARLEY, ADRIAN BOOT & CHRIS SALEWICZ (eds.. London: Bloomsbury, 1995. 288 pp. (Paper £ 14.99 Marley and Me: The Real Story. DON TAYLOR (as told to Mike Henry. Kingston: Kingston Publishers, 1994. xxxv + 226 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 Dread Talk: The Language of Rastafari. VELMA POLLARD. Kingston: Canoe Press, 1994. x + 84 pp. (Paper J$ 150.00 Rastafari: Roots and ldeology. BARRY CHEVANNES. Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 1994; Kingston: The Press - University of the West Indies, 1995. xiv + 298 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95, Paper US$ 17.95; J$ 500.00 Seeking a myth to justify the enslavement of Africans, explorers, scholars, and others turned to the Bible, that most sacred and preeminent of Western texts, conjured-up an old biblical curse, and set it to work one more time. As Europe entered the Modern Era, Africans were reinvented as the children of Ham and were targeted for a life of servitude in the New World. Five hundred years later, black folk in Jamaica seized upon an event in Africa, re-interpreted a passage in the Revelation of John, and set in motion a project that transformed enslavement and exile into a religious movement of global proportions.1

  6. Basketball injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  7. [Button gastrostomy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Iu A; Novozhilov, V A; Rasputin, A A; Us, G P; Kuznetsova, N N

    2015-01-01

    For the period January 2002 to December 2013 it was performed 84 interventions for introduction of gastrostomy tube. The first group included 24 open operations and the second group had 60 laparoscopic operations by using of button devices MIC-KEY (Kimberly-Clark, Roswell, USA) in neonates and infants. Statistically significant difference was not observed during comparison of demographic data of patients. Differences in groups were found in statistical analysis of intra- and postoperative parameters (p<0.05). Mean duration of surgery in the first group was 37.29 min, in the second group - 23.97 min. Time to start of feeding and transition to complete enteral nutrition was less in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery than after open intervention (10.5 and 19.13 hours, 23.79 and 35.88 hours respectively; p<0.05). It was revealed augmentation of hospital stay in the 1st group in comparison with the 2(nd) group (11.71 and 7.09 days respectively; p<0.05). Frequency of postoperative complications was 18.33% in the 2(nd) group and 24% - in the 1st group (p<0.05). The authors consider that button devices are simply and effective technique of gastrostomy establishment in children. It is associated with minimal surgery duration and allows to start early enteral nutrition in comparison with open techniques.

  8. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Massicotte, Patricia [Stollery Children' s Hospital and University of Alberta, Departments of Pediatric Hematology and Cardiology, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  9. Basketball injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  10. Stereotypes concerning normal and handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, T S; Dyck, N; Kappes, B M

    1979-05-01

    Individuals' attitudes were assessed toward various groups of children. In study 1 the respondents were 65 male and female teachers from across the state of Kansas. In study 2 the respondents were 89 men and women in attendance at the 1978 International Conference of the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities. In both studies the evaluations of the labels "gifted children," "normal children," and "physically handicapped children" were found to be significantly more positive than the evaluations of the labels "mentally retarded children," "learning disabled children," and "emotionally disturbed children." These results seem to indicate that definite negative stereotypes are held toward the latter three groups of children. In study 1 these findings were found to occur generally regardless of the respondents' sex, age, educational level attained, and amount of previous mainstreaming experience.

  11. ESOPHAGEAL REPLACEMENT IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giannotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: esophageal replacement in childhood, is indicated for intractable stenosis and long-gap atresia. When it is impossible to preserve the native esophagus we must create an appropriate conduit that should allow physiological oral feeding. Patients and Methods: we present two cases. The first patient, born with long gap esophageal atresia (AE, was submitted to ligation of fistula, gastrostomy and esophagostomy. When he was 1 years old came to our observation with two derivations. The radiological examination with contrast confirmed the large gap between the two oesophageal stumps. We decided to refer the patient to esophageal substitution with isoperistaltic jejunum through the posterior mediastinum. The second patient was born with AE type III and he was submitted to ligation of fistula, primary anastomosis, and 4 additional interventions of closure of recurrent fistula, esophageal resection and anti-reflux surgery. He came to our observation when he was 6 years old. The radiography showed esophageal dysmotility and dislocation of the stomach in the chest. We decided to subject the patient to esophageal replacement with stomach in toto. Results: Both patients had a good post-operative course. They began food orally in the first case in 18th day and in the second case in 7th. At follow-up after 1 year the children ate regularly, they don’t show respiratory symptoms or gastro-oesophageal reflux and they have a good growth. Conclusions: Esophageal replacement is a complex surgical procedure, which provides various options. Only a careful preoperative evaluation allows us a choice of organ to be used as esophageal substitute. The colon is the most widely used. There are other surgical options that may offer, in skilled hands, the same guarantees. Both our cases have a good long term follow-up with regular diet and weight-height growth. Our experience confirms the validity of the 2 techniques, which include preferably the use of

  12. Asperger Syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koutelekos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Asperger’s Syndrome is reported in the pervasive developmental disorders and was categorized as a separate disorder, initially in the ICD -10 (World Health Organization, 1992 and afterwards in the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Organization, 1994. The Asperger’s Syndrome is distinguished by a team of symptoms that concern the low output in the social interaction and the communication dexterities, as well as the increased stereotypical behavior in various activities and interests.The aim of this particular article that constitutes a case study is the descriptive approach of the Asperger’s Syndrome, through the study of the child behavior.The methodology that was followed in the present case-study was based on inquiring studies and reviews that were drawn from international data bases that correspond to this particular case study of syndrome Asperger in children.Results: The individuals with Asperger’ s syndrome, as well as the case study, tend to experience really big difficulties in elementary social behaviors, as failure in the development and creation of friendly relations or in the search of entertainment activities with others. Moreover, they face difficulties in the comprehension of non verbal communication (body language and the other’s expressions, the body gestures or even the eye contact.Conclusions: The precocious recognition of Asperger’s syndrome is imperative, with final objective the continuous briefing and sensitization of all health professionals, as well as the wider public, toward this syndrome. The earlier a parent foreruns for the diagnosis, the bigger probabilities they stand for a potential functional re-establishment of the syndrome.

  13. ASSISTIVE ROBOTS WORKING WITH CHILDREN - SEEN BY CHILDREN AND PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jerković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper aimed to answer three main questions – the difference in children’s preference of robot appearance and colour; gender differences in children’s preference of different models of robots and in the attribution of gender to the robot; the difference in attitudes towards robots of parents depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status. The sample consists of first grade children and their parents from seven primary schools. Results show that children prefer models of robots which are animal-like, with overstressed cartoon-like facial features and are compact and stocky. Gender differences in the model preference and gender attributed to the robot were found. Dominant colour that children coloured the robot pictures was blue. Parents have more positive than negative attitude towards the assistive robots.

  14. [Children's conditions. Peace should be used for the children's advantage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neertoft, S

    1990-02-28

    It is estimated that about half of the budgets of underdeveloped countries are spent on armaments and repayments of debt. These two essentially unproductive activities cost an average of $500/family in underdeveloped countries each year. At the same time about 8000 children die each day for lack of vaccination. About 7000 children die each day from dehydration as a result of diarrhea and about 6000 children die each day from lung inflammation. The solutions to these health problems are well known and would cost only about what the USSR spends on vodka or what tobacco companies in the US spend on cigarette advertising. It would amount to 10% of the European Economic Community's support to agriculture and about 2% of what developing countries altogether spend on armaments. UNICEF, the UN children's organization, in its 1990 report on the state of the world's children estimates that about 40,000 children die each day worldwide from preventable causes and that many more live undernourished in poor health, physically and mentally unable to sustain the level of capability that they were born with. With military expenditures falling, there is hope that the peace dividend can be diverted to improve the world level of health care. If the debt crisis could be solved, a cut of only 5-10% in military expenditures would produce about $50 billion which could be used in the poorest parts of the world during the next 10 years to cover the most fundamental needs for food, pure drinking water, health care and education. PMID:2343404

  15. Anaesthesia and recently vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, J H; Roberton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Most countries have active vaccination programmes for children aged two months and older. It is likely that many children presenting for medical procedures which require general anaesthesia have been vaccinated recently. Although there is no evidence suggesting increased risks associated with anaesthetizing recently vaccinated children there are many theoretical reasons why this situation needs critical assessment and review. After vaccination there is local swelling and pain at the site of the injection and the most common side effects seen are fever, malaise, headache, rash and myalgia which may last from one day to three weeks. Anaesthesia, stress and trauma are known to suppress the immune system. It is suggested that if possible, children should not be subjected to anaesthesia for elective procedures within two to three weeks after vaccination. Urgent procedures should be managed according to anaesthetic principles which will minimize the effect of anaesthesia on the physiological system affected by the immunization process at the time. Paediatric anaesthesia risk management programmes should include vaccination data to enable the risks of anaesthesia in recently vaccinated children to be analysed.

  16. [Somatic trends in Moscow children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, T K

    2008-01-01

    Somatic trends was considered in Moscow children in a wide age range of 3 to 17 years, by attracting several series of data since the 1990s. To have the greater informative value in data analyses, investigators use the normalized rather than absolute values of various anthropometric signs in the considered data series versus the 2005 data in the age range of 3 to 7 years and versus the 1980s data in the range of 8 to 17 years. The overall somatic tendency in Moscow children aged 3 to 17 years in past decades is towards a transverse body development and some dolichomorphism with a continuous increase in longitudinal skeletal sizes. These processes are most pronounced in girls than in boys and preschool children than in school ones. The stronger somatic trend in preschool children can be associated with that they are, as compared with schoolchildren, neophytes in the compact anthropogenic space and have been, in the past decades, involved in the neurogenic growth stimulators world (a computer and computer games, unlimited TV seeing, inevitable intensive preparation for new-generation schools--increased intellectual-load lyceums and colleges). The decreased transverse body development and overall constitution asthenization seem to result from somatic muscular component abatement with no clear trends in adipopexis in schoolchildren and with an increase in subcutaneous fat deposition in preschool children. PMID:18507175

  17. Depressive symptomatology in hospitalised children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rangaka

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the extent and nature of depressive symptoms exhibited by black South African children during hospitalisation for orthopaedic procedures. Social factors associated with the risk for depression, in response to hospitalisation, were also examined. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted on a sample of 30 children aged between 6 and 12 years. The assessment entailed a structured interview, together with the following psychometric instruments: A Global Mood Scale, a Depressive Symptoms Checklist, a Hospital Fears Rating Scale and a Self Report Depression Rating Scale. A large proportion of the children were rated by ward sisters as showing high levels of depressive symptomatology two weeks after admission to hospital. As expected, discrepancies were found between adult and child self-ratings of depression. The results of this study indicate that hospitalisation for orthopaedic child patients is associated with the development of depressive symptomatology. It is suggested that emphasis be placed on the development of supportive programmes and procedures aimed at maximising children's coping responses to hospitalisation, particularly for children who find themselves Isolated from their communities and families, as a result of both centralised health services and poor socio-economic conditions.

  18. Impact of Food Allergy on Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Asthma in Children Share | The impact of food allergy on asthma in children Published Online: September, 2013 ... school-aged children is high. Studies suggest that food allergy has increased in prevalence, and often children with ...

  19. Children and Clinical Studies: Why Clinical Studies Are Important

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and ...

  20. Language and cognitive development in deaf children: deaf children with deaf and deaf children with hearing parents

    OpenAIRE

    Ajda Pfifer

    2011-01-01

    The article reviews the current studies regarding language and cognitive development in children who are deaf. Deaf communicate orally and with sign language. 90 % of deaf children are born into hearing families and hearing parents in most cases do not know the sign language. Besides, hearing parents usually want for their child to become "normally" speaking. Most of the deaf children born into hearing families have very poor early communication. It is now well established that deaf children ...

  1. Danish children´s upbringing as consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jens Carsten

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes Danish 5-18 year olds children's situation in year 2000 based on TNSGallup'squantitative annual children- and youth index. The focus is on the following topics:Children's economy and saving ability, children and the emerging electronic world, brandawareness, transaction...... knowledge and shopping, media use and, interest and activities.KeywordsChildren's consumption, children's money spending, children's purchasing, children'sinterest and activities...

  2. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  3. Cervical Spine Instrumentation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedequist, Daniel J; Emans, John B

    2016-06-01

    Instrumentation of the cervical spine enhances stability and improves arthrodesis rates in children undergoing surgery for deformity or instability. Various morphologic and clinical studies have been conducted in children, confirming the feasibility of anterior or posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine with modern implants. Knowledge of the relevant spine anatomy and preoperative imaging studies can aid the clinician in understanding the pitfalls of instrumentation for each patient. Preoperative planning, intraoperative positioning, and adherence to strict surgical techniques are required given the small size of children. Instrumentation options include anterior plating, occipital plating, and a variety of posterior screw techniques. Complications related to screw malposition include injury to the vertebral artery, neurologic injury, and instrumentation failure. PMID:27097300

  4. [Buccal epithelium reactivity in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A V; Rybalkina, D Kh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the analysis of the buccal smears from 200 healthy children and children with chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox. The smears were stained using Pappenheim's method. The peculiarity of buccal mucosa cytograms of children of different ages was the significant increase in mature forms of the cells (presence of differentiation stage 5 and 6 cells) in adolescents. They also had a lower area of epitheliocytes at all the stages of differentiation and of their nuclei. In chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox, the complex of cytological changes was detected, that included the increase of the leukocyte number, changes in the proportions of epitheliocytes in cell population, augmentation of inflammation-destruction and destruction indexes. PMID:21539088

  5. Supraglottic airway devices in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R

    2011-01-01

    Modern anaesthesia practice in children was made possible by the invention of the endotracheal tube (ET), which made lengthy and complex surgical procedures feasible without the disastrous complications of airway obstruction, aspiration of gastric contents or asphyxia. For decades, endotracheal intubation or bag-and-mask ventilation were the mainstays of airway management. In 1983, this changed with the invention of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), the first supraglottic airway device that blended features of the facemask with those of the ET, providing ease of placement and hands-free maintenance along with a relatively secure airway. The invention and development of the LMA by Dr. Archie Brain has had a significant impact on the practice of anaesthesia, management of the difficult airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children and neonates. This review article will be a brief about the clinical applications of supraglottic airways in children. PMID:22174464

  6. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. PMID:25533889

  7. Children Literature: Shaping Gender Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IQRA JABEEN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze stereotype construction of gender roles in the text of children's stories which inculcate in the children’s crude minds socially developed gender differences. For this purpose, the study followed Dell Hymes’ speaking model. This model has sixteen components that can be applied to different types of Discourse (speech interaction: message form; message content; setting; scene; Speaker/sender; address or; the hearer/receiver/audience; addressee; purposes (outcomes; purposes (goals; key; channels; forms of speech; norms of interaction; norms of interpretation; and genres. Selected children's stories were analyzed to identify their role as primary thought developing sources in the mind of young learners thus shaping their gender identities. This study would be beneficial in drawing the attention of authors, editors and writers of children's literature to redefine gender roles in order to minimize gender differences.

  8. Desensitization of Children to Television Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Victor B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    To find if children do become desensitized to violence, a test for a measurable physiological difference in emotional response to filmed violence was administered to children who are high exposure and low exposure television viewers. (Author/KM)

  9. Dental Health Evaluation of Children in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begzati, Agim; Meqa, Kastriot; Siegenthaler, David; Berisha, Merita; Mautsch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess caries prevalence of preschool and school children in Kosovo. Methods: The assessment, which was carried out between 2002 and 2005, included measurements of early childhood caries, deft and DMFT. Results: In total, 1,237 preschool and 2,556 school children were examined. The mean deft of preschool children was 5.9, and the mean DMFT of school children aged 12 was 5.8. The caries prevalence for 2- to 6-year-old preschool children was 91.2%, and the prevalence for 7- to 14-year-old school children was 94.4%. The prevalence of early childhood caries was 17.6%, with a mean deft of 10.6. Conclusions: All data assessed showed the very poor oral health status of children in Kosovo. Interviews with children and teachers indicated poor knowledge regarding oral health. Significant measures must be taken to improve this situation. PMID:21228954

  10. What parents prefer and children like

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Edelenbos, Merete

    2007-01-01

    The inherent challenge of investigating food choice of new products for children is that more than one person is involved in the longterm decision-making. Parents decide in the purchase situation while children pass their verdict when they consume the meal. In this paper we suggest linking family...... decision-making and food choice, and reveal results from two empirical studies of vegetable-based food for children. One study discloses parents' preferences regarding different food concepts while the other looks into children's liking before and after tasting the products. Results show that parents know...... fairly well what children like. Sharing the meal experience with their children and having meal variation options are important benefits for parents. Parents are more concerned about health while children prefer products that look familiar. However, after tasting an unfamiliar product children are less...

  11. Exploring the Realities of Television with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Patricia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines first- , third- , and sixth-grade children's abilities to discriminate between the reality and fantasy of television programs. Lengthy clinical interviews were conducted with each of 36 children, including viewing and discussion of 12 videotaped program segments. (SW)

  12. A Developmental View of Children's Behavioral Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of scores of 469 third to sixth graders on the Children's Tolerance Scale yielded significant grade level differences with older children generally the most tolerant. The more outer-directed behaviors were rated as most disturbing. (CL)

  13. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Sleep Growing Healthy Healthy Children > Healthy Living > Oral Health > Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Healthy Living Listen Español Text ...

  14. Young Children's Developing Understanding of Geometric Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Mary Anne

    1999-01-01

    Presents research findings and suggestions on how children learn to categorize shapes. Discusses specific ways to present developmentally appropriate activities designed to enhance children's understanding of basic shapes. Contains 12 references. (ASK)

  15. Learning Among Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Learning Among Children with Spina Bifida Overview Parents, teachers and health care professionals have observed that children with Spina Bilda have problems with motor ...

  16. Understanding Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aggressive or violent behavior Being the victim of physical abuse and/or sexual abuse Exposure to violence in ... and War: How to Talk to Children Sexual Abuse Physical Punishment Music and Music Videos Firearms and Children ...

  17. Guiding the Behavior of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Harrelson, Peggy O'Neill, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    Through effective discipline, children can learn to make positive choices, learn problem-solving skills, and learn values of respect and responsibility. This publication contains several common-sense strategies for effectively guiding the behavior of young children.

  18. Growth Failure in Children with Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us Health Information > ... used in infants; however, sometimes older children and adolescents benefit from them as well. Encouraging children to develop ...

  19. Anemia caused by low iron - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency - children ... able to absorb iron well, even though the child is eating enough iron Slow blood loss over ... bleeding in the digestive tract Iron deficiency in children can also be related to lead poisoning .

  20. Myocardial infarction in children: Two interesting cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction in children is extremely rare and can have various etiologies. The following two case reports highlight rare but important causes of myocardial infarction in children.