Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G
Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use. PMID:24343162
Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children’s emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86) and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91) children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Children’s emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension...
Solis, Jessica M.; Shadur, Julia M.; Burns, Alison R.; Hussong, Andrea M.
In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug...
Children who experience neglect require immediate help because severe deprivation can affect all aspects of children's development. Parental behaviors indicative of child neglect include failure to (1) feed children adequately, (2) insure adequate medical care, (3) maintain good personal hygiene, (4) clothe children appropriately, (5) supervise…
Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R
Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding. PMID:26612541
Neeru Kapoor; Verma, D.P.S.
A study seeks to assess the children's understanding of television advertising from the early childhood to the early adolescence and the role of parent-child interaction in this process. For the purpose, two non-disguised structured questionnaires were designed and administered: one to the children and the other to their parents. Children from both the sexes were considered. The study has revealed that Indian children are not as easy a target as advertisers and critics believe. They are able ...
Sally Smith's contribution to the world of children with learning disabilities is well documented, particularly by the other contributors to this journal. An area deserving attention, but one usually overlooked, is Smith's understanding of the parent's perspective--the challenges of parenting a child with learning disabilities. It was a priceless…
Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Pyle, Angela; Villeneuve, Michelle; Dods, Jennifer; Dalton, C. J.; Minnes, Patricia
Research has shown the benefits of parent involvement for student participation in education. Parent advocacy is a critical form of involvement by parents for children who are young, have disabilities, and are making transitions. Studies have classified forms of parent advocacy but have not illuminated the components necessary for effective parent…
Broadhead, Moira; Chilton, Roy; Crichton, Catriona
The Scallywags service works specifically within home and school environments to promote parent, teacher and child competencies for children at risk of developing behavioural and/or emotional problems. The scheme has been successfully evaluated, demonstrating significant reductions in parental stress for parents involved in the scheme. This paper…
O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.
Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their…
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia Print A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...
Chapman, Thandeka K.; Bhopal, Kalwant K.
Commonsense understandings of school practices have historically painted parents of color as inattentive and non-participatory actors in public school settings. Racist implementations of policy and individual actions, based on teacher ideology and deficit paradigms of race, force parents of color to take an oppositional stance in public school…
Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Peter W. Forbes; Anne Diehl; Beardslee, William R.
We evaluated predictors and moderators of differential response to two family-based depression prevention programs for families with a depressed parent: a clinician-facilitated intervention and a lecture group intervention. Individual and family level variables were examined using regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. For the outcome of child understanding of depression, parental changes in child-related behaviors and attitudes predicted greater child understanding (p < 0...
Bovina I.B.; Dvoryanchikov N.V.; Budykin S.V.
The article presents the first part of the work devoted to the study of ordinary representations of parents and teachers about information security of children and adolescents. It is about addressing the problem of information security of children and adolescents, discuss the effects of observing violence in the mass media on the subsequent behaviour of viewers, refers to directing television roles on the example of transfer schemes by S. Milgram in the context of television game (experiment ...
Hani, Hanady Bani; Gonzalez-Barrero, Ana Maria; Nadig, Aparna S
This study examined two facets of the use of social cues for early word learning in parent-child dyads, where children had an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or were typically developing. In Experiment 1, we investigated word learning and generalization by children with ASD (age range: 3;01-6;02) and typically developing children (age range: 1;02-4;09) who were matched on language ability. In Experiment 2, we examined verbal and non-verbal parental labeling behaviors. First, we found that both groups were similarly able to learn a novel label using social cues alone, and to generalize this label to other representations of the object. Children who utilized social cues for word learning had higher language levels. Second, we found that parental cues used to introduce object labels were strikingly similar across groups. Moreover, parents in both groups adapted labeling behavior to their child's language level, though this surfaced in different ways across groups. PMID:23021075
Full Text Available The article presents the first part of the work devoted to the study of ordinary representations of parents and teachers about information security of children and adolescents. It is about addressing the problem of information security of children and adolescents, discuss the effects of observing violence in the mass media on the subsequent behaviour of viewers, refers to directing television roles on the example of transfer schemes by S. Milgram in the context of television game (experiment J. L. Beauvois with colleagues. This paper examines the impact on users has the Internet, discusses the main directions of action in relation to ensuring information security of children and adolescents, focusing on psychological aspects of the concept of information security of children, demonstrates the importance of studying "naive theories" that govern the actions aimed at ensuring information security of children. The authors explain the prospect of studying problems of information security of children in the framework of the theory of social representations.
Tracy R. G. Gladstone
Full Text Available We evaluated predictors and moderators of differential response to two family-based depression prevention programs for families with a depressed parent: a clinician-facilitated intervention and a lecture group intervention. Individual and family level variables were examined using regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. For the outcome of child understanding of depression, parental changes in child-related behaviors and attitudes predicted greater child understanding (p<0.001. For the parent outcome of behavior and attitude change, across intervention conditions, younger parent age (p<0.05, female parent gender (p<0.01, more chronic and severe parental depression history (p<0.05, lower SES (p<0.05, and single-parent status (p<0.05 were associated with better outcomes across conditions. Effect sizes were moderate, ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 SD. Family and marital functioning were not found to be predictors of any outcomes. When both parents were depressed at baseline, there was no difference in the clinician- versus lecture-based approach, and when only the father was depressed, families reported more changes with the clinician condition than with the lecture condition (p<0.05. Findings from this study can help identify intervention strategies that are appropriate for different types of at-risk individuals and families.
Today more and mere young men say that their parents don’t understand them well. They think their parents are very striet with them and don't give them enough space to do their own things which they like to. They even think their parents are out of touch with modern life. So,generally speaking, they don' t want to talk with their parents, they don' t tell everything, especially their secret to their parents. It seems there is a gap between the parents and their children.
Gunnarsson, Nina Veetnisha
Two general questions directed the focus of this thesis: (1). What are the everyday practical and moral underpinnings of parenting children with allergy? (2). How do particularly mothers retrospectively account for and justify they are responsible parents and moral agents in the interview situation? The overall aim was to explore the everyday practical and interactional strategies used by mothers when they are parenting children with allergy and in such contexts and relations where their...
Levine, Emily L.
The purpose of this study was to examine parents' perceptions of their role in supervision of their children's use of technology and their reported responses to events in which their children are cyberbullying oppressors, victims, or bystanders. The theoretical perspectives such as Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological theory,…
Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.
This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…
This phenomenological research investigated what fifteen preschool educators have come to know about children's self-regulation and emotion regulation development, and how we can better enable them to communicate with parents about their children's development. The data sources included over 100 pages of transcripts, field notes and journal…
Science News, 1978
Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...
Jepson, A M
Parents for Children is a specialist adoption agency set up to find homes for children with special needs--that is, those with physical, mental, and emotional handicaps; older children; and sibling groups. Of the first 38 children placed, one child died and six placements broke down, although four children were later re-placed. Almost all the children referred to the agency had been in care for most of their lives. A full assessment of each child is necessary before placement, but in several ...
Nearly one in every four children in the United States is born to a mother who has not finished high school, and more than one in eight is reared by such a mother during the critical preschool period. Large-scale studies show that the health and welfare of children are linked to the education level of their parents, with parent education often being a stronger predictor of child well-being than family income, single parenthood, or family size. Higher parent education levels make it more likel...
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel
The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…
A.E. Baker; B. van den Bogaerde
Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that th
Tisak, Marie S.
Examines children's conceptions of parental authority. A total of 120 children were interviewed and asked to evaluate social events (stealing, family chores, friendship choice) pertaining to restraint of behavior and maintenance of parental rule systems. Results suggest that children's notions of authority are heterogeneous with respect to the…
Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand childrens subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Childrens well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.
Ranttila, Junette; Shrestha, Trishna
The contents of this thesis were focused in the context of children and adolescents depression. This topic was chosen to help parents and guardians further understand depression in children and adolescents. By understanding and learning to recognize the presence of depression, the possible negative outcomes that this illness brings can be prevented or lessened. To be able to understand the presence of depression in children and adolescents, varying depressive symptoms experienced by di...
Boles, Richard E.; Roberts, Michael C.
Objective To examine the effects of parenting distractions on supervising behaviors in relation to child risky behaviors. Methods Forty preschool-aged children and their parents were randomly assigned to occupy a simulated home living room for 45 min with the parent involved in either (a) no planned distraction, (b) a telephone call distraction, (c) a TV show distraction, or (d) a computer assignment distraction. Parent and child behaviors were recorded and coded. Results Parent supervising b...
Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.
This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…
Yurk Quadlin, Natasha
Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488
Laura Hernández-Guzmán; Manuel González Montesinos; Graciela Bermúdez-Ornelas; Miguel-Ángel Freyre; Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J.
Confirmatory factor analysis conducted in a sample of 706 children 7 to 16 years of age, 354 girls and 352 boys, revealed a 5-factor solution (Rejection, Corporal Punishment, Support, Responsiveness, Warmth). Results supported the measurement model of the Parental Practices Scale for Children, which evaluates childrens perception of parental practices associated to offspring emotional adjustment. This finding was replicated in a second study (N=233, 126 girls and 107 boys). The measure demons...
Nichole Holtvluwer writes for fellow guides who work in the toddler community. Recognizing that communication with parents is the most important path to serving the child, Holtvluwer offers concrete advice beginning with the guide's most important stance: withholding judgment. She details four steps to working with parents or caregivers: building…
Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.
This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…
Lopez, Nanette V; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Corder, Kirsten; Eisenberg, Christina M; Zive, Michelle M; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P
Consumption of sugary beverages has been identified as a contributor to childhood obesity. Studies have established the importance of specific parenting practices to children's beverage consumption; however, no study has examined multiple operationalizations of parenting to better understand where to focus future interventions. The present study examined the relationship between children's sugary beverage consumption and a parenting model that included household food rules, parent modeling of food rules, parent-mediated behaviors, and parent support. Baseline data from Project MOVE/me Muevo were used. Participants included 541 children, aged 5 to 8 years old, and their parents. Parents completed a 45-minute self-administered survey in Spanish or English, providing information about their child's dietary intake, as well as their parenting practices. Children's sugary beverage consumption included nondiet soda, noncarbonated sugary drinks, and sport drinks. Household food rules and parent modeling of food rules were assessed with seven items each. Parent-mediated behaviors consisted of four behaviors. Parent support was assessed with five items. Parent support and parent-mediated behaviors, including total screen time and eating at fast-food restaurants at least weekly, were associated with greater consumption of sugary beverages in children. No other parenting variables were significant. Encouraging caregivers to promote healthy dietary behaviors and provide healthy choices, limiting children's television and computer use, and reducing fast-food consumption can contribute to reductions in sugary beverage consumption among children. PMID:22709703
Hewitt, Allison M; Stephens, Christine
This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination. PMID:17828673
... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...
Craig, Francesco; Operto, Francesca Felicia; De Giacomo, Andrea; Margari, Lucia; Frolli, Alessandro; Conson, Massimiliano; Ivagnes, Sara; Monaco, Marianna; Margari, Francesco
In recent years, studies have shown that parents of children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDDs) experience more parenting stress than parents of typically developing children, but the relation between the type of disorders and parenting stress is far from clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 239 children with Specific Learning Disorders (SpLD), Language Disorders (LD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD). Parents of children with NDDs experience more parenting stress than those of children who have TD. Although, parents of children with ASD or ADHD report the most high scores of parenting stress, also the parents of children with SpLD or LD report higher parental stress compared with parent of children without NDDs. Another interesting finding was that IQ level or emotional and behavioral problems are associated with the higher levels of parenting stress. This study suggest that parent, both mothers and fathers, of children with different type of NDDs should be provided with interventions and resources to empower them with the knowledge and skills to reduce their stress and to enhance their quality of life. PMID:27280521
Yahirun, Jenjira J; Sheehan, Connor M; Hayward, Mark D
This article asks how adult children's education influences older parents' physical health in Mexico, a context where older adults often lack access to institutional resources and rely on kin, primarily children, as a main source of support. Using logistic and negative binomial regression models and data from the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (N = 9,661), we find that parents whose children all completed high school are less likely to report any functional limitations as well as fewer limitations compared to parents with no children who completed high school. This association remains significant even after accounting for parent and offspring-level characteristics, including parents' income that accounts for children's financial transfers to parents. Future research should aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the association between adult children's education and changes to parents' health over time. PMID:26966254
Lopez, Nanette V.; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Corder, Kirsten; Christina M Eisenberg; Zive, Michelle M.; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.
Consumption of sugary beverages has been identified as a contributor to childhood obesity. Studies have established the importance of specific parenting practices to children's beverage consumption; however, no study has examined multiple operationalizations of parenting to better understand where to focus future interventions. The present study examined the relationship between children's sugary beverage consumption and a parenting model that included household food rules, parent modeling of...
Žnidarčič, Karin Tanja
In the diploma work I attempt to provide an insight of TV watching habits of school children and eventual parent supervision at such. Mass media, especially television, is an omnipresent element influencing our daily lives. I also mentioned the importance of understanding the affects of TV content on school children in the period of their middle childhood as well as the role of parents or other adults in the supervision of TV programs watched. The fact that not all TV programs are suitable f...
Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.;
considered on the basis of a psychological understanding of loss and grief. RESULTS: During the first year of life, index children were more ill and were cared for in the home for a longer time than were reference children. From the 3rd year of life, differences in illness were minimal. Index parents...... children. After discharge, index parents had an increased need of support that could not be fulfilled by family/friends. An understanding hereof may be found in the vulnerability of the children and in a psychological understanding of loss and grief. The parents lacked contact and dialogue with other...
This doctoral thesis provides a set of studies of social influences on fertility timing. Swedish register data are used to link individuals to their parents and siblings, thereby allowing the study of impacts of family of origin, social background, and parental death on fertility. The Swedish Medical Birth Register is used to investigate the effect of mode of delivery on higher order births. The thesis consists of an introductory chapter with an overview of the consequences and predictors of ...
An expert panel recommended that TV reduction should be a component in obesity treatment programs. Parents are an important social influence on children and could be a target for interventions. Valid measures of TV-parenting practices (PP) are needed to understand parental influences on children's T...
Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…
Ray, Vivien; Gregory, Robin
Drew on parent questionnaires, child interviews, and focus groups to investigate school incidents experienced by children of lesbian and gay parents and determine children's feelings of discrimination. Found that youngest students were frustrated by peers' lack of understanding about their families. Teasing/bullying experiences were common between…
Rosenwald, Mitchell; Bronstein, Laura
Foster parents play a pivotal role in the child welfare system. A study that employed focus groups with foster parents was conducted at a private foster care agency with the initial purpose of understanding the characteristics of foster children that foster parents both preferred and not preferred. In the qualitative research tradition, their…
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.
This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…
Ahmad Alipour; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Farideh Farokhzadi; Reza Rostami; Mehdi Dehestani
The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders an...
Evans, Mary Ann; Moretti, Shelley; Shaw, Deborah; Fox, Maureen
Examined parental coaching strategies during shared book reading between parents and their first-grade children. Found that parents provided more feedback clues when their child was unsuccessful in rereading a word after initial feedback, causing children's success levels to rise. Children with weaker word recognition skill were offered feedback…
Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Rabiei, Katayoun; Nouri, Fatemeh; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Moattar, Fariborz; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Haghjooy Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Zarfeshani, Sonia; Pourmoghaddas, Masoud
BACKGROUND Understanding the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents is important for planning appropriately to control their children’s weight. We aimed to study these variables in parents of normal, underweight, overweight, and obese children. METHODS This cross-sectional study targeted the parents of normal, underweight, overweight, and obese children, who were selected using multistage random sampling method. The parents’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors about the weight ...
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Kiff, Cara J; Fisher, Philip A
This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal slope, with a significant indirect effect through maternal negativity, suggesting that parenting practices might mediate an allostatic effect on stress physiology. PMID:22528032
... here Home 22 Apr 2013 Report Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children Supporting Children and Families After Traumatic ... Adult Learning and the Workforce International Client Services Student Assessment Research and Evaluation Policy, Practice, and Systems ...
There is little consensus among social science researchers about the effectiveness of alternative parenting strategies in producing desirable child outcomes. Some argue that parents should set strict limits on the activities of their adolescent children, while others believe that adolescents should be given relatively wide discretion. In this paper, I develop and estimate a model of parent-child interaction in order to better understand the relationship between parenting styles and the develo...
Subhash D Wagh; Showkat A Ganaie
The present study aimed to assess and understand the attitude and needs of the parents having children with intellectual disability. Thirty parents (both father & mother) were including in the sample from general services of National Institute for the mentally handicapped, Secunderabad. The assessment was done by using “A Scale to measure, parental attitude towards mental retardation (Rangswami, 1986) and NIMH-FAMNS (Parents) to measure needs of the parents”. In...
Gisele De Mozzi; Adriano Henrique Nuernberg
Abstract Taking into consideration the supremacy of a child's profile often chosen by adoptive parents, this study aimed to understand the adoption of children with disabilities from the perspective of adoptive parents who have experienced this practice. The participants were eleven adoptive families of disabled children, all of whom had knowledge about the health conditions of the adoptive children at the time of adoption. The instruments used were a semi-structured interview and a sociodemo...
Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. METHO
R. Rodenburg; A.M. Meijer; M. Dekovic; A.P. Aldenkamp
Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. Metho
The issue of children's conceptions of technology and technology education is seen as important by technology educators. While there is a solid body of literature that documents groups of children's understandings of technology and technology education, this is primarily focused on snapshot studies of children aged 11 and above. There is little…
Asadul Islam; Russell Smyth
In most developing countries children provide some form of insurance against risks when parents are old, which, in turn, justifies parental preference to have more children. In this paper, we examine the causal effect of number of children on several measures of health status of elderly parents using newly available China Health and Retirement Survey data. Because number of children in a family is not exogenously determined, we use a natural experiment (variations in Chinaâ€™s one child polic...
Friedman, D E
The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices. PMID:11712457
Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity
Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23711490
Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…
Schwartz, Lita Linzer
Most of the literature relevant to today's religious cults has paid scant attention to the parents of cult members. Two recent studies (1979 and 1982) of parents of ex-cult members revealed that initial parental responses to a child's cult involvement ranged from anxiety to terror. In general, the parents were baffled by their children's new…
Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Zur, Hana
This study, guided by the Family Systems Theory, examines the direct effect of maternal use of corporal punishment on children's adjustment difficulties. Also, it explores whether corporal punishment serves as a mediating factor in the relationship between several maternal characteristics, marital relationships, and children's adjustment difficulties. A total of 2,447 Arab mothers completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaires. The use of corporal punishment was generally strongly supported by the Arab mothers in our sample. A greater likelihood of using corporal punishment was found among mothers of boys rather than girls, among mothers with lower perceived self-efficacy to discipline children, and among mothers with a lower perception of their husbands' participation in child-related labor. In addition, the higher a mother's reports on disagreement with her husband about discipline methods and the stronger her level of maternal stress, the more likely she was to use corporal punishment. Corporal punishment also mediated the association between the above mentioned factors and child adjustment difficulties. Furthermore, a husband's emotional support and family socioeconomic status were directly associated to children's adjustment difficulties. The results of the current study emphasize the need to observe children's development within the context of their family systems and to consider the mutual influences of different subsystems such as marital relationships and mother-child interactions. Prevention and intervention programs should raise parents' awareness concerning the harmful effects of corporal punishment and take into account the impact of dynamic transactions of parental conflicts and disagreements regarding discipline methods on child outcomes. PMID:24856131
Zarybnisky, Emily M.
This study explored why parents choose Montessori schools for their children. Parents from two public (n = 40) and two private (n = 10) Montessori schools responded to a written survey designed to discern what characteristics parents valued in making their decision. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, and chi-square tests were used to understand the…
Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Edelenbos, Merete
The inherent challenge of investigating food choice of new products for children is that more than one person is involved in the longterm decision-making. Parents decide in the purchase situation while children pass their verdict when they consume the meal. In this paper we suggest linking family...... decision-making and food choice, and reveal results from two empirical studies of vegetable-based food for children. One study discloses parents' preferences regarding different food concepts while the other looks into children's liking before and after tasting the products. Results show that parents know...... fairly well what children like. Sharing the meal experience with their children and having meal variation options are important benefits for parents. Parents are more concerned about health while children prefer products that look familiar. However, after tasting an unfamiliar product children are less...
Webb, James T.; Gore, Janet L.; Amend, Edward R.; DeVries, Arlene R.
Raising a gifted child is both a joy and a challenge, yet parents of gifted children have few resources for reliable parenting information. The four authors, who have decades of professional experience with gifted children and their families, provide practical guidance in areas such as: Characteristics of gifted children; Peer relations; Sibling…
Chao, Ruth K.
Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…
This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)
Ashlock, Robert B.
Described are activities that can be shared by parents and children at home. Guidelines for parents and activity descriptions are included. Activities are associated with all parts of the house, yard, playground, and neighborhood. (KR)
Linardakis Manolis K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the perceptions of parents of typical children towards inclusive education and children with special needs. The research design was exploratory and descriptive in nature. Fifty parents of typical children of an inclusive school and 5 experts heading an organisation for children with special needs formed the sample. In-depth interviews were conducted to gain information on the awareness and understanding about an inclusive setup, descriptions and explanations of children with special needs, and advantages and disadvantages of an inclusive setup for children. In addition, draw and dialogue technique was used with parents and experts to supplement the data from the interviews, to elicit descriptions and understanding of children with special needs. Results showed positive reactions towards children with special needs. Parents supported inclusion, but suggested separate classes for academics. Experts’ descriptions of children with special needs were more technical than those of the parents.DOI 10.5463/DCID.v22i1.10
Dr. Gita Movallali
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Despite the abundance of literature about deaf children, few works specifically address the concept and practice of difficulties in parenting hearing-impaired children. The first interactions of the child are with his parents, and parents have the most important role in child improvements during early intervention programs. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate different aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children.Methods: In this article, we reviewed all aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children in papers from 1984-2009 in Medline, Scopus and Proquest and relative textbooks. The semi-professional role of parents of hearing-impaired children make them feel under excessive stress and this usually affects their other roles as fathers and mothers. Many factors including child age, type of hearing loss and parents’ individual characteristics may influence the impact of child’s hearing loss on parents.Conclusion: Parenting a hearing-impaired child is both similar and different to parenting any other child. Where there are differences, there are usually challenges too. Taking support and advice from professionals and other parents are necessary and invaluable for parents of hearing-impaired children.
Monasa Aslam; Geeta Kingdon
This study investigates the relationship between parental schooling on the one hand, and child health outcomes (height and weight) and parental health-seeking behaviour (immunisation status of children), on the other. While establishing a correlational link between parental schooling and child health is relatively straightforward, confirming a causal relationship is more complex. Using unique data from Pakistan, we aim to understand the mechanisms through which parental schooling promotes bet...
Ninety-five Japanese children (aged 6-12) were interviewed using hypothetical stories to examine their reasoning about parent-child conflicts. Participants were most likely to reject parental authority and to support child's discretion in conflict situations where the parent interfered in the child's personal choice and gave the child commands…
Sloan, Michael P.; Meier, John H.
This paper reports an effort to classify parents of abused children according to existing and new typologies derived from parents' psychopathological personality profiles. Several previously reported typologies for abusive parents are reviewed and elaborated. In addition, reference is given to data and insights gained from an ongoing study of 50…
You, Wen; Davis, George C.; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; McIntosh, Alex
We develop a theoretical model that includes household production and parental time allocation to explore the effects of parental time allocation on children's obesity-related measures. We utilize a unique primary household survey dataset that has health measures and time diary records on each parent and a child in the household.
Honig, Alice Sterling; Zdunowski-Sjoblom, Nicole
Family interviews were conducted with 28 7-12-year-old children who had experienced various forms of bullying and relational aggression by their peers, as well as with their parent and with an older sibling. Interviews explored possible supportive strategies of older siblings, parents, and teachers. All bullied children reported negative feelings…
Kan, K.; Tsai, W.D.
This paper analyzes the effects of parenting practices on children's education. Our empirical analyses are based on household data from Taiwan. More specifically, we investigate the influence of parents' child-rearing practices (i.e., encouragement and punishment) on their children's education attainments and aspirations. We also explore the…
Danielson, Kathy Everts
States that the influence of the home environment on children's learning has long been recognized as significant. Presents some exemplary programs and guiding principles that teachers can share with parents to promote their children's literacy. Lists 10 simple reading-writing activities that could be shared with parents at an open house or…
textabstractA lecture given on the occasion of the public acceptance of the appointment as extraordinary professor of Children, Media, and Parental Mediation in the Department of Media and Communication at the Erasmus School of History, Culture, and Communication, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, on Thursday 9 June, 2011. Summary: Children nowadays live in a media-rich environment, which can make parenting a daunting task. This inaugural lecture discusses three aspects of parental mediation o...
Kamhon Kana; Wei-Der Tsai
This paper analyzes the effects of parenting practices on children's education. Our empirical analyses are based on household data from Taiwan. More specifically, we investigate the influence of parents' child-rearing practices (i.e., encouragement and punishment) on their children's education attainments and aspirations. We also explore the association between parents' socioeconomic background and their child-rearing practices. The empirical results help explain the relationship between fami...
Music Therapy has consolidated it's position as an effective treatment approach for children with ASD. The use of MT way of thinking and MT-like techniques by the parents in everyday life, can contribute to improve their understanding of their child's needs, and help to cope with daily challanges....... The lecture will present a Parent Counseling approach upon an extensive clinical experience in working with parents of children with ASD, and will conclude examples from counseling sessions. This approach is now tested through research....
This Master's degree work presents research of parenting role in their children's initial literacy education development. The study was focused on systematic initial literacy in second grade elementary school. Theoretical knowledge and study results of various (domestic and foreign) authors were included in the research, in which parents and their children of two different second grade classes participated in two groups: Experimental Group (EG) and Control Group (CG). Children of both groups ...
Hunt, Tamara Jo-Lynne
The purpose of this study was to understand the conditions necessary to gain research access to parents of children with anorexia. In this study, I also examined and explored avenues parents have for sharing their story and their experiences of parenting a child with anorexia as well as whether gatekeepers have a role in connecting parents and…
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children, the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL, Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.
Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria A.; Marton, Imola
We examined parental ADHD symptoms and contextual (parental education, social support, marital status) predictors of parent domain parenting stress (parental distress) as a function of child ADHD symptoms in a sample of 95 parents of 8 to 12 year-old children with and without ADHD. Parents' perceptions of parental distress and social support were…
McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene
A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…
PACER Center, 2004
In the fall of 2003, PACER Center's Parent Partnership Project for Children's Mental Health conducted a survey to better understand what parents and families need from the children?s mental health system in Minnesota. The research team developed a survey questionnaire, a telephone interview, and a focus group session directed at learning what was…
Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren
There are good theoretical reasons why transfers from parents are likely to be important around the time of the first home purchase. Transactions costs associated with trading houses make people with increasing income paths prefer to buy a house that is more expensive than what matches their...... suggested that transfers from parents to children are significant exactly around the time where children buy their first home. Using a panel data set issued from Danish administrative registers with information about wealth of a sample of first-time homeowners and their parents, we document that child and...... parent resources, house value as well as financial resources are correlated. We then go on to test if there are direct parental transfers targeted to the purchase of the house, and in case of an unemployment spell during the years after the purchase where children typically hold little liquid assets. We...
Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R
There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (Panalysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children. PMID:16611394
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...
Anmyr, Lena; Larsson, Kjerstin; Olsson, Mariann
The aim was to increase understanding of parents' experiences of having a child with a cochlear implant (CI) and to explore how these related to children's use of CI. Twelve parents of children, full-time users or limited users of CIs, participated in the study. Qualitative content analysis showed that the parents of children who used their CI differed from the parents with limited users in how they handled stressors. Support from health care professionals was seen as insufficient. Parents need to get involved in dynamic processes in which health care resources promote parental coping. PMID:26958933
Manjiri Dighe; Sunita Jadhav; Mary Ann Muckaden; Anuradha Sovani
Children with advanced, life-limiting illness have unique needs which are different from those of adults. Pediatric palliative care is an under developed specialty. Aims : To identify concerns of parents of children with advanced, incurable cancers, and to elicit their attitudes toward revealing the diagnosis and prognosis to the sick child. Method : This study was carried out in a large tertiary cancer center in India. Parents of 20 pediatric palliative care patients attending the ou...
Ollagnier, Nadège; Chen, You
Depression is a significant mental illness treated in various health care settings in Finland, such as closed or open psychiatric wards, clinics but also in any other health institution. Nurses can meet depressive patients in any working environment. Depressive patients experience a various range of symptoms and those having children can encounter challenges in their parenting skills. Therefore children can be impacted by their parent’s condition. Nevertheless, child-parent bonding and po...
Bananas, Inc., Oakland, CA.
Written for residents of Alameda County, California, this guide to information, organizations, resources, and services related to parenting and children consists of numerous entries organized into four parts. Part 1 provides information to parents seeking child care. Part 2 suggests home learning and reading activities; lists libraries in the…
Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.
Save-Pédebos, Jessica; Bellavoine, Vanina; Goujon, Estelle; Danse, Marion; Merdariu, Dana; Dournaud, Pascal; Auvin, Stéphane
Many studies have shown that anxiety disorders are common in children with epilepsy. We explored symptoms of anxiety simultaneously in children and their parents. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale in children and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adult in parents. We included 118 parents and 67 children, who were divided into three groups: (1) first seizure, (2) epilepsy, and (3) nonepileptic paroxysmal event. We found that the level of anxiety in parents and children differed. We observed a significant increase in the anxiety level of parents whose children have had a first seizure, while we found a significant increase in the anxiety level of children and adolescents followed for epilepsy. These findings suggest that there is no direct relationship in the anxiety of the parents and their child. Further studies are needed to understand this variation over time. PMID:24384381
Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojicic; Natasha Chichevska-Jovanova
This article reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the attitudes of parents of “normal” developing children toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream education in Macedonia. Specifically, the study was aimed to explore the similarities and differences in the attitudes of two groups of parents: a group of parents of preschool children and a group of parents of school age children. Participants included 88 parents. Generally, many of the parents accept...
The current report was developed under the aegis of a joint ILO/World Bank/UNICEF project “Understanding Children's Work” in Yemen. It provides an overview of the child work phenomenon in Yemen – its extent and nature, its determinants, its consequences on health and education, and national responses to it. The report serves two important UCW project objectives in the country. First, it helps provide a common analytical understanding of child work, that can be used to inform the current activ...
Ng, So-sum; 吳素心.
Past studies from various cultures have reported that parents of children with special needs experience more distress. The present study aimed to explore the psychological states of local Chinese parents of children with special needs in Hong Kong with the construct of coping flexibility incorporated. Participants were 116 parents of children with special needs and 62 parents of children without special needs. Results indicated that Chinese parents of children with special needs had higher a...
Patterson, C J
This paper reviews research evidence regarding the personal and social development of children with gay and lesbian parents. Beginning with estimates of the numbers of such children, sociocultural, theoretical, and legal reasons for attention to their development are then outlined. In this context, research studies on sexual identity, personal development, and social relationships among these children are then reviewed. These studies include assessment of possible differences between children with gay or lesbian versus heterosexual parents as well as research on sources of diversity among children of gay and lesbian parents. Research on these topics is relatively new, and many important questions have yet to be addressed. To date, however, there is no evidence that the development of children with lesbian or gay parents is compromised in any significant respect relative to that among children of heterosexual parents in otherwise comparable circumstances. Having begun to respond to heterosexist and homophobic questions posed by psychological theory, judicial opinion, and popular prejudice, child development researchers are now in a position also to explore a broader range of issues raised by the emergence of different kinds of gay and lesbian families. PMID:1446541
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
Approximately one in four children in the United States is exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. Countless other children are living in families in which there is illicit drug abuse. Growing evidence suggests that genetics and environmental factors can predispose children of substance abusing parents to behavioral problems…
Although Eastern European migration has increased greatly, the research on its impact on children and families has been limited. In this study I examined the impact of parental economic migration on children psychosocial and academic outcomes in Romania, one of largest Eastern European migrant sending country. Surveys were conducted with 382…
Cheryl A. Zecevic
Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.
Harwood, Chris; Knight, Camilla
In this study, we examined the stressors experienced by British tennis-parents. The parents (n = 123) completed an extensive survey focused on the internal and external demands that they had encountered through having a child compete in the sport. The survey consisted of open-ended questions related to competition, coaching, organizational, personal, and developmental issues. Inductive and deductive content analysis resulted in the development of seven core themes of tennis-parental stressor: competition, coaches, finance, time, siblings, organization-related, and developmental. Parents experienced a diverse number of competitive stressors indicating the particular difficulties they faced before, during, and after matches involving their child, opponents, other parents, and officials. They also reported a wide range of organizational stressors that paralleled the financial, social, and personal investments that accompanied their support roles. The results of this research reinforce the importance of parents possessing the necessary skills to cope with the psychological, developmental, and logistical demands of competitive tennis. Implications with respect to induction workshops and education for coaches and parents are presented, as well as consideration for governing bodies to enhance their communication channels and logistical support. Future research recommendations are posed to build upon the study of this domain in youth sport. PMID:19191064
Safdar Rehman Ghazi
Full Text Available This study examined parental involvement in their children academic motivation with the objectives; to investigate the morally and financially involvement of the parents in their children academic motivation in rural areas at primary level. It was concluded that most of the parents are not well aware of their role for their children education. In addition their attitude is of irresponsible type, they do not take interest in their children education even they do not help children in their homework or making arrangements for their tuition and as well as children participation is not encouraged in co-curricular activities. Instead of positive reinforcements negative reinforcements are used to motivate children towards education. It is recommended that proper tuition should be arranged for children and they should also be helped in their homework and as well as they should also be encouraged for participation in co-curricular activities in the school. Positive reinforcement sources like gifts, prizes, curse of their favorite/desirable places, should be used to improve children performance. They should also be assisted in their daily life needs.
The socio-emotional well-being of maltreated children is a key priority for practitioners and policy-makers alike; yet not enough is known about the developmental mechanisms that might link children's parenting experiences with their psychosocial adjustment. Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children's peer relationships and self-perceptions. Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children's social understanding and empathy c...
Full Text Available Children with advanced, life-limiting illness have unique needs which are different from those of adults. Pediatric palliative care is an under developed specialty. Aims : To identify concerns of parents of children with advanced, incurable cancers, and to elicit their attitudes toward revealing the diagnosis and prognosis to the sick child. Method : This study was carried out in a large tertiary cancer center in India. Parents of 20 pediatric palliative care patients attending the outpatient department were interviewed and emerging themes identified. Results : Parents showed varying degrees of anticipatory grief. Most families were financially strained. Most parents were reluctant to discuss disease and dying with the child. Siblings were rarely told or directly involved in care. There was resistance to allowing the palliative care team to communicate with the patient. Patients did not receive any formal support. Parents identified family and neighbors as the main sources of support. Conclusions : Parental attitudes hinder open communication with dying children in India. There is a need for research to explore the concerns of families of children with fatal illness. Specialist training is required for professionals working in pediatric palliative care to address this issue.
Ivan Jerković; Agota Major; Marina Oros
The study presented in this paper aimed to answer three main questions – the difference in children’s preference of robot appearance and colour; gender differences in children’s preference of different models of robots and in the attribution of gender to the robot; the difference in attitudes towards robots of parents depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status. The sample consists of first grade children and their parents from seven primary schools. Results show that children prefer mo...
Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah
Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…
Poehlmann, Julie; Eddy, J Mark; Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Myers, Barbara J; Mackintosh, Virginia; Kuznetsova, Maria I; Lotze, Geri M; Best, Al M; Ravindran, Neeraja; Loper, Ann Booker; Clarke, Caitlin Novero; McHale, James P; Salman, Selin; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn K; Martinez, Charles R; Burraston, Bert
Children with incarcerated parents are at risk for a variety of problematic outcomes, yet research has rarely examined protective factors or resilience processes that might mitigate such risk in this population. In this volume, we present findings from five new studies that focus on child- or family-level resilience processes in children with parents currently or recently incarcerated in jail or prison. In the first study, empathic responding is examined as a protective factor against aggressive peer relations for 210 elementary school age children of incarcerated parents. The second study further examines socially aggressive behaviors with peers, with a focus on teasing and bullying, in a sample of 61 children of incarcerated mothers. Emotion regulation is examined as a possible protective factor. The third study contrasts children's placement with maternal grandmothers versus other caregivers in a sample of 138 mothers incarcerated in a medium security state prison. The relation between a history of positive attachments between mothers and grandmothers and the current cocaregiving alliance are of particular interest. The fourth study examines coparenting communication in depth on the basis of observations of 13 families with young children whose mothers were recently released from jail. Finally, in the fifth study, the proximal impacts of a parent management training intervention on individual functioning and family relationships are investigated in a diverse sample of 359 imprisoned mothers and fathers. Taken together, these studies further our understanding of resilience processes in children of incarcerated parents and their families and set the groundwork for further research on child development and family resilience within the context of parental involvement in the criminal justice system. PMID:23782434
Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Zhang, Frank Lei; Hussemann, Jeanette; Wu, Chen-Yu
While children’s orientations to achievement are strong predictors of attainments, little is known about how parental economic hardship during recessionary times influences children’s orientations to their futures. The Youth Development Study has followed a community sample of young people in St Paul, Minnesota from mid-adolescence through their mid-thirties with near-annual surveys, and has recently begun surveying the children of this cohort. Using linked parent and child data, the present ...
Falkmer, Marita; Anderson, Katie; Joosten, Annette; Falkmer, Torbjörn
Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) increasingly participate in inclusive education. The present study reviewed studies of children with ASC for parents' perceptions of aspects they believed contributed to inclusive mainstream school settings. Understanding the parental perspective on the facilitators for inclusion of their child…
PACER Center, 2004
In the fall of 2003, PACER Center's Parent Partnership Project for Children's Mental Health conducted a survey to better understand what parents and families need from the children's mental health system in Minnesota. The research team developed a survey questionnaire, a telephone interview, and a focus group session directed at learning what was…
PACER Center, 2004
In the fall of 2003, PACER Center's Parent Partnership Project for Children's Mental Health conducted a survey to better understand what parents and families need from the children's mental health system in Minnesota. The research team developed a survey questionnaire, a telephone interview, and a focus group session directed at learning what was…
This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…
Lasser, Jon; Corley, Kristyn
Children with Asperger's Disorder present unique challenges due to their impairments in social functioning. In order to better understand the experiences of parents of children with Asperger's Disorder, interviews were conducted with 20 parents. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and coded using the systematic methods of Grounded Theory. The…
Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E
Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323
Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakci, Ayse Ferda
Effective parenting is vital for intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of a child. This study examined the differences between the parenting dimensions of deaf children and healthy ones. The sample of the study consisted of 292 children and their parents (146 of them deaf children and 146 of them healthy ones). Dimensions of parenting (warmth, rejection, structure, chaos, autonomy, and coercion) were measured using the Parent as Social Context Questionnaire. The mean scores of the positive parenting dimensions of warmth and autonomy of deaf children were significantly lower; however, the mean scores of the negative dimensions of chaos and coercion of deaf children were significantly higher than those of healthy ones. Deaf children can become successful adults with the help of their parents. Our results regarding parenting dimensions will be a guide for future nursing interventions planned to develop the relationships between deaf children and their parents. PMID:26620870
Hwang, Yoori; Jeong, Se-Hoon
Children's addiction to smartphones has become a serious issue, and parental mediation could help prevent children's problematic use of smartphones. This research examined the factors that predict and explain parents' intention to mediate children's behavior over smartphone use. Based on a survey of 460 parents of elementary school students, we found that parental mediation was predicted by (a) parent's own addiction to smartphones, (b) perceived severity of smartphone addiction, and (c) personality traits such as neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the predictors of parental mediation regarding children's smartphone addiction, and the findings suggest some strategies to increase parental mediation. PMID:26544162
The purpose of this work is to describe and understand the significance of sports for children active in sports, their parents, and family. I am interested in how daily sports practice is understood by children active in sports and their parents and what sports mean for upbringing of children and young people. In the study eighteen children were interviewed, twelve boys and six girls in the ages of 10-12 years and their parents. Nine of the children play golf and nine play soccer. The perspec...
To mention the words, children and death, in the same breath is almost inconceivable. The one is life, sunshine, and laughter. The other is closure, and darkness, and tears. Yet death touches each one of us, including children. To understand life is to understand that there is also death, and as children grow and develop, they observe that what lives must also die.
Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojicic
Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the attitudes of parents of “normal” developing children toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream education in Macedonia. Specifically, the study was aimed to explore the similarities and differences in the attitudes of two groups of parents: a group of parents of preschool children and a group of parents of school age children. Participants included 88 parents. Generally, many of the parents accept inclusive education, but most of them still think the special school is better place for education of children with disability.
A number of philosophical points of view that have guided parents' attempts to socialize their children are presented. Research findings and conclusions that explore the impact on children of parental disciplinary practices are discussed. (Author/AM)
Adolescent parents and their children present to health care practitioners as two paediatric patients, each with unique health care needs. Young parents and their children may be at risk for negative health outcomes, not directly as a consequence of maternal age but because of poverty and other inequities in the social determinants of health. The health needs of child and mother are best assessed using a nonjudgmental approach, appropriate screening tools and open questions that address both preventative and acute health issues. The dyad's coexisting needs may be anticipated as they relate to growth and development, infant and adolescent mental health, nutrition and food security, safety, relationships, parenting, education, sexual health and the facilitation of supports and resources. Care providers who understand adolescent development and integrate medical home elements of a patient-centred 'medical home' into their practices are ideally positioned to facilitate positive health outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:27441025
Huizinga, G.A.; Visser, A.; van der Graaf, W.T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.
Background: This study was designed to investigate: (i) parent-adolescent communication in families of cancer patients; (ii) relationships between parent-adolescent communication and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in adolescent children; and (iii) associations between parents' illness characte
Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Aster, Amanda M.
Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent’s sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion imp...
Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.
There is a paucity of research focusing on the needs of gifted children and their families, in particular, there is a lack of empirically supported parenting strategies to help parents in parenting their gifted child. This article provides an overview of the literature on difficulties experienced by parents of gifted and talented children,…
Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam
We explore the origins of the intergenerational association in entrepreneurship using Swedish adoption data that allow us to quantify the relative importance of prebirth and postbirth factors. We find that parental entrepreneurship increases the probability of children's entrepreneurship by about...... entrepreneurship. We investigate several candidate explanations for this large postbirth factor and present suggestive evidence in favor of role modeling....
Howard, Kimberly S.
Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…
P. Nikken (Peter)
textabstractA lecture given on the occasion of the public acceptance of the appointment as extraordinary professor of Children, Media, and Parental Mediation in the Department of Media and Communication at the Erasmus School of History, Culture, and Communication, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, on
Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael
Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…
YONG LI; CHENG-YE JI; JIONG QIN; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG
Objective To investigate the prevalence of parental anxiety associated with epileptic children, and to explore whether and how this specific condition affects children's quality of life (QOL), and what are the significant determinants for parental anxiety. Methods Three hundred and forty parents whose children were affected with known epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Questionnaires for quality of life in childhood epilepsy (QOLCE), and hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) of parents were used to collect demographic data of both children and their parents, as well as clinical manifestations of epilepsy and family status. Results Parental anxiety (of any severity) was observed in 191 subjects at interview, giving a prevalence rate of 56.2%. Of the 191 subjects, 18.5% reported mild anxiety, 24.4% moderate anxiety, and 13.2% severe anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety included frequency of seizure in children, average monthly income per person and parents' knowledge about epilepsy (P<0.05). Parental anxiety significantly (P=0.000) correlated with quality of life of children with epilepsy. Conclusion Parents of children with epilepsy are at high risk of having anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety originate both from children and from parents. Parental anxiety is significantly related with children's QOL. It is important for experts concerned to recognize such a relationship to improve the QOL of children and their parents.
McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances
The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in sample of 579 high risk families. The measure assesses the frequency of several parenting behaviors, the perception of the parenting behaviors as probl...
Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.
This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All…
Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei
The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely…
McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances
The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in…
Powell, L. A.; Barlow, J. H.
The aim of the study was to assess the Training and Support Programme (TSP) among parents of children with ataxia. Twenty-seven parents and their children completed the TSP. Data were collected by home record sheets and observation sheets completed by parents and therapists, respectively, and telephone interviews with 10 parents. Benefits reported…
Cordelia Estevez Casellas; Natalia Castello Aracil; Sonia Tirado González
Many studies have described the impact on families of children with developmental disorders, which cause a wide range of intense emotional responses in the parents and involve a difficult readjustment period regarding family dynamics. Providing parents with emotional and psychological support forms part of the work of the psychologist who specializes in childhood developmental disorders, because this type of intervention will improve the parents’ quality of attention and the stability of the ...
Cordelia Estevez Casellas
Full Text Available Many studies have described the impact on families of children with developmental disorders, which cause a wide range of intense emotional responses in the parents and involve a difficult readjustment period regarding family dynamics. Providing parents with emotional and psychological support forms part of the work of the psychologist who specializes in childhood developmental disorders, because this type of intervention will improve the parents’ quality of attention and the stability of the children. Thus, the parent´s needs must be understood and the importance that they give to these needs. Valid tools must be developed to guide professionals during the evaluation of these families and interventions. Using a descriptive crosssectional design that includes parents and professionals, this article describes and compares the needs of this population. A total of 37 parents with children with a developmental disorder were interviewed, as well as 20 professionals from different schools and child intervention centres. The results suggest that both groups agree on the needs of the parents, but not on the importance that they give to them.
Parental responsibility allows parents to exercise rights over their children and to make decisions on behalf of the child that are in the best interests of the welfare of the child. It is a crucial part of being a parent. In recognition of the changing demographic of the family resulting in more cohabiting couples and step families the law relating to parental responsibility was changed in 2003 and 2005. With the development of more effective assisted conception techniques and increased use of 'do-it-yourself ' insemination using semen purchased over the Internet it was necessary to amend the rules relating to parenthood as a result of assisted conception. This article considers the amendments relating to the recognition of parenthood introduced by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008. PMID:25757591
Saranli, Adile Gülsah; Metin, Emine Nilgün
The purpose of this research is investigating effects of the SENG (Social Emotional Needs of Gifted Children) Parent Education Model on gifted children and their parents. The participants of this study were parents of 3rd, 4th and 5th grade gifted children attending Yasemin Karakaya Science and Art Center in Ankara, Turkey and the children…
Marceau, Lisa D; Welch, Lisa C; Pemberton, Victoria L; Pearson, Gail D
A gap in information about pediatric clinical trials exists, and parents remain uncertain about what is involved in research studies involving children. We aimed to understand parent perspectives about pediatric clinical research after viewing the online Children and Clinical Studies (CaCS) program. Using a qualitative descriptive study design, we conducted focus groups with parents and phone interviews with physicians. Three themes emerged providing approaches to improve parent's understanding of clinical research by including strategies where parents (a) hear from parents like themselves to learn about pediatric research, (b) receive general clinical research information to complement study-specific details, and (c) are provided more information about the role of healthy child volunteers. Parents found the website a valuable tool that would help them make a decision about what it means to participate in research. This tool can assist parents, providers, and researchers by connecting general information with study-specific information. PMID:26711142
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Hadi Zarafshan; Salehe Ghasempour
Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children. Method Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers) of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD) (...
Ermisch, John; Francesconi, Marco
This paper presents the conditions under which a causal interpretation can be given to the association between childhood parental employment and subsequent education of children. In a model in which parental preferences are separable in own consumption and children?s wellbeing, estimation is complicated by endowment heterogeneity and by the fact that parents may compensate or reinforce children?s endowments relevant to educational attainment. A sibling difference estimation strategy is genera...
Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith A.
Parenting was examined among families of children with borderline intelligence in comparison to families of typically developing children and children with developmental delays. Parenting data were obtained at child age 5 via naturalistic home observation. Mothers of children with borderline intelligence exhibited less positive and less sensitive parenting behaviors than did other mothers and were least likely to display a style of positive engagement. Children with borderline intelligence we...
Full Text Available The study presented in this paper aimed to answer three main questions – the difference in children’s preference of robot appearance and colour; gender differences in children’s preference of different models of robots and in the attribution of gender to the robot; the difference in attitudes towards robots of parents depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status. The sample consists of first grade children and their parents from seven primary schools. Results show that children prefer models of robots which are animal-like, with overstressed cartoon-like facial features and are compact and stocky. Gender differences in the model preference and gender attributed to the robot were found. Dominant colour that children coloured the robot pictures was blue. Parents have more positive than negative attitude towards the assistive robots.
In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program. The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information developed in this program is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, The National Cancer Institute, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and care-givers. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas is an adapted version of various scientific publications and international clinical practice guidelines, validated by oncology experts and by the Nephro-blastomas Committee of the French Society against Cancers and Leukemias in children and adolescents (SFCE). It was elaborated with the active participation of parents and other family members. It is meant to provide a basis for the explanation of the disease, to help parents asking questions, and to facilitate discussions with the health-care team. It is available from the FNCLCC (101, rue de Tolbiac, 75013 PARIS, Tel. (0033)1 76 64 78 00, www.fncicc.fr). This document was validated at the end of 2005 and published in May 2006. SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guides are systematically updated when new research becomes available. Information leaflets, extracted from the handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding nephro-blastomas and published in this edition of the Cancer et Radiotherapie, describe the physiopathology
van der Oord, Saskia; Bogels, Susan M.; Peijnenburg, Dorreke
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for children aged 8-12 with ADHD and parallel mindful parenting training for their parents. Parents (N = 22) completed questionnaires on their child's ADHD and ODD symptoms, their own ADHD symptoms, parenting stress, parental overreactivity, permissiveness and mindful…
McMonigle, Catherine Lorraine
Family Play Therapy is a creative therapeutic approach to engage children in therapy in the context of their family system. While the young field of family play therapy offers both the benefits of family therapy and play therapy, research concerning its efficacy is largely unavailable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experience of family play therapy in context of child sexual abuse treatment, from the perspective of child clients and their parents. ...
Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Cummings, E Mark
Dimensions of martial conflict, children's emotional security regarding interparental conflict, and parenting style were examined as mediators between parental dysphoria and child adjustment. A community sample of 262 children, ages 8-16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital conflict resolution tasks, which children later observed to assess their emotional security. Questionnaires assessed parents' dysphoria, parenting, and children's adjustment. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental dysphoria was linked with child adjustment through specific and distinct mediating family processes, including marital conflict and parenting. Children's emotional security in the context of particular marital conflict styles also mediated relations between parental dysphoria and child adjustment problems, with similar pathways found for mothers and fathers. These pathways remained significant even after significant parenting contributions were considered. PMID:17390219
Sadiqua Anjum, Nasir Mohiuddin M, Narayan Reddy U, Narsing Rao J, Sana Afreen, Mir S Adil, Javeedullah M
Introduction: Medical prescriptions are bound to be misinterpreted by patients and pharmacists if not properly conveyed. Pediatric prescriptions differ from adult prescriptions having wide variation in doses and formulations. There is a need to evaluate the lacunae in the parental understanding of pediatric prescriptions. Aims and objective: To evaluate the parental understanding of pediatric prescription and to evaluate the adequacy of communication with the physician and pharmacist regardin...
Umberger, Wendy A; Risko, Judy; Covington, Edward
A qualitative study explored the challenges and needs of children living with parental chronic pain. Young adult children (n=30) of parents with chronic pain were interviewed. Parents (n=20) with chronic pain participated in four focus groups. Content analysis yielded five categories of child challenges: (a) understanding the big picture; (b) enduring hardships; (c) grieving losses; (d) communicating with parent, and; (e) isolating self from peers. Three categories of child needs emerged: (a) knowledge; (b) skills, and; (c) supervised interaction. Understanding these challenges and needs is a vital step in the process of developing evidence-based interventions for this at-risk group. PMID:25557986
Demant, Jakob Johan; Ravn, Signe
This article discusses how Danish parents and their children communicate trust. Based on Niklas Luhmann’s sociological theory, the article explores new aspects of communication about alcohol-related rules. The analysis shows how the parents emphasize the importance of communicating trust, while the...... adolescents, on the other hand, observe the parents’ communication on the basis of their own, more instrumental, logic. Trust becomes a functional solution to the parents’ paradoxical situation, because it enables them to balance between a democratic family ideal, emphasizing the adolescents’ independence...
Full Text Available A child's obesity is generally perceived by the public to be under the control of the child's parents. While the health consequences of childhood obesity are well understood, less is known about psychological and social effects of having an obese child on parents. We set out to characterize stigma and courtesy stigma experiences surrounding obesity among children with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS, a multisystem genetic disorder, and their parents.Twenty-eight parents of children with BBS participated in semi-structured interviews informed by social stigmatization theory, which describes courtesy stigma as parental perception of stigmatization by association with a stigmatized child. Parents were asked to describe such experiences.Parents of children with BBS reported the child's obesity as the most frequent target of stigmatization. They perceived health care providers as the predominant source of courtesy stigma, describing interactions that resulted in feeling devalued and judged as incompetent parents.Parents of children with BBS feel blamed by others for their child's obesity and described experiences that suggest health care providers may contribute to courtesy stigma and thus impede effective communication about managing obesity. Health care providers may reinforce parental feelings of guilt and responsibility by repeating information parents may have previously heard and ignoring extremely challenging barriers to weight management, such as a genetic predisposition to obesity. Strategies to understand and incorporate parents' perceptions and causal attributions of their children's weight may improve communication about weight control.
Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.
This study compared parent reports of sleep behaviors of 38 children with autism or pervasive developmental disabilities with those of children with mental retardation alone, in special education but not retarded, or typically developing children. Findings indicated that parent perception of children's sleep difficulties and sleep quality was…
Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith A.
Parenting was examined among families of children with borderline intelligence in comparison to families of typically developing children and children with developmental delays. Parenting data were obtained at child age 5 via naturalistic home observation. Mothers of children with borderline intelligence exhibited less positive and less sensitive…
Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C
The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877
Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan
This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun
OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715
... and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...
Ahasanul Haque; Ali Khatibi
This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and co...
S Karande; S Kuril
Background: Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD) undergo stress in coping up with their child′s condition. Aims: To document the parenting practices of parents having a child with newly diagnosed SpLD and to analyze their impact on parent-child relationships. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From May 2007 to January 2008, 150 parents (either mother or father) of children consecutively diagnosed as havi...
Barlow, J.; Smailagic, N; Bennett, C.; Huband, N.; Jones, H.; Coren, E
Background Parenting programmes are a potentially important means of supporting teenage parents and improving outcomes for their children, and parenting support is a priority across most Western countries. This review updates the previous version published in 2001. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of parenting programmes in improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and developmental outcomes in their children. Search methods We searched to find new studies...
Lytle, Megan C; Foley, Pamela F; Aster, Amanda M
Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent's sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents' coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed. PMID:25477556
Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek
This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…
Full Text Available The violence on child in an intra-familial medium is a reality of current society we are living in. The social impact of domestic violence is extended because it affects not only the victims but also the witness persons knowing about the domestic violence situations. The protection and promotion frame of children rights can be achieved by implementing parental education programs. In this paper, we reviewed the actual stage of the researchers in Romania on the family violence phenomenon on the child, highlighting the categories of risk factors which influence the phenomenon’s dynamics. With regard to these factors, we defined the parental education and we presented the different levels of necessary intervention in the parental education programs.
The violence on child in an intra-familial medium is a reality of current society we are living in. The social impact of domestic violence is extended because it affects not only the victims but also the witness persons knowing about the domestic violence situations. The protection and promotion frame of children rights can be achieved by implementing parental education programs. In this paper, we reviewed the actual stage of the researchers in Romania on the family violence phenomenon on the...
This is a book about children and their parents. There are many different kinds of children and at least about as many different kinds of parents. In addition to the many different disciplines that study children and their parents, such as sociology, psychology, child studies and gender studies, to name but a few, this study concerns a legal question with regard to the parent-child relationship, namely how the law assigns parents to children. This subject is approached in a comparative legal ...
Lai, Wei Wei; Goh, Tze Jui; Oei, Tian P.; Sung, Min
This study examined psychological well-being and coping in parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children. 73 parents of children with ASD and 63 parents of typically developing children completed a survey. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly more parenting stress symptoms (i.e., negative parental…
Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with disabilities play an essential role in the successfulrehabilitation of their children. However, the high level of care required mayaffect the mental health of the parents and consequently contribute to anunfavorable rehabilitation outcome in their children. The aims of this studyare to investigate the mental health of parents of children with physical disabilitiesand to elucidate the factors affecting parental mental health.Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Ninety-one parents of children with physicaldisabilities who visited the outpatient rehabilitation clinics of a tertiaryhospital were invited to join the study. Data from the parents and childrenwere recorded during face-to-face interviews. Parental- perceived stress wasassessed using the simplified Parenting Stress Index (PSI/SF. Parental mentalhealth was evaluated as the main outcome measure using the 12-item versionof the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12.Results: Forty parents (44% were categorized as psychiatric cases on the CHQ.Child-related factors that negatively affected parental mental health werepoor walking ability (p < 0.05, dependency on others to perform activities ofdaily life (ADL (p < 0.01, and younger age (p < 0.05. Parent-related factorsthat negatively affected parental mental health were low income (p <0.05, no religious beliefs (p < 0.01, high level of parental distress (p <0.01, parent-child dysfunctional interaction (p < 0.01, and having difficultchild (p < 0.05. The most significant predictor of overall parental mentalhealth in multivariate analysis was found to be parental distress.Conclusions: Parents of children with physical disabilities were at risk of poor mentalhealth. Perceived parental distress is the most important factor affectingparental mental health. Strategies to reduce parental stress should be developedto prevent deterioration of parental mental health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family
Leon, Kim; Wallace, Tamar; Rudy, Duane
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between children's representations of parent-child alliances (PCA) and their peer relationship quality, using a new scale that was developed to rate representations of PCA in children's family drawings. The parent-child alliance pattern is characterized by a relationship between parent and…
Shermis, Michael, Ed.
This book focuses on how to make math friendly for parents and children. The book has a companion audiotape with ideas and guidelines for the interested parent. The book's introduction also suggests some ways for parents to guide their children's reading. Part 1 of the book consists of three "Read-along Stories": "Turkey Tallies" (Lou Hamilton and…
Centre County Vocational-Technical School, Pleasant Gap, PA. CIU 10 Bi-County Development Center for Adults.
The basic skills activities in this booklet are intended for use by adult basic education (ABE) students who are parents or who otherwise interact with children. The lessons are constructed to be used first by ABE teachers or counselors with a parent and then by the parent and child at home. The lessons introduce concepts that children can learn…
Kumpfer, Karol L.; Tait, Connie M.
Originally designed as a drug abuse prevention program for drug-abusing parents and their children, the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) has developed into a family-change program. Presented in 14 2-hour-long, consecutive weekly sessions, SFP has two versions: for elementary school children and their parents and for parents and youth 10-14…
Kurtz, Linda; And Others
Incidence of parental divorce remains at record levels. Studies estimate that 45% of all children born since 1970 will spent an average of six childhood years in a single-parent home as a result of divorce. This study examined the relationship between visitation practices of non-custodial parents and the children's coping resources (self-esteem…
Szakowski, Amy; Brubaker, Robert G.
Parents of 39 deaf and 37 hearing children (ages 3-8) completed the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Inconsistent discipline was positively correlated with behavior problems for both groups. There was no evidence that greater prevalence of problems among deaf children resulted from inadequate parenting.…
Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects smokin
Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy
The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment…
Lindsey, Eric W.; Mize, Jacquelyn
Examined associations between interparental agreement, parent-child responsiveness, and children's social competence with peers. Associations were found between parental agreement in beliefs about control and parental similarity in use of control with child. Associations between agreement measures and children's social competence were partially…
Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis
This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…
Full Text Available This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and commercials especially if this understanding is measured by non-verbal rather than verbal measure. However, the results based on verbal measures are not as conclusive. The findings also indicated that children age has substantial positive effect on the children understanding of TV advertising. This effect pronounced for verbal measure of comprehension intent for advertisements. Results also showed a small but significant negative effect of parental control of TV viewing, in which a high control of TV viewing result in a relatively low understanding of TV advertising.
Goodall, J.; Ghent, K.
This article reports on a small scale study, examining the influence of parental faith belief on parental engagement with children's learning. The literature surrounding parental engagement and the impact of familial belief on children's outcomes is examined. It is clear from work in the US that familial faith belief has an impact;…
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…
Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.
This packet contains seven brochures developed during a project on literacy education and parenting skills for deaf parents of young hearing children (DP/HC). The topics of the brochures are as follows: behavior management, self-esteem, speech development in children, language development, nutrition, safety, and deaf parents in a hearing child's…
Crockett, Jennifer L.; Fleming, Richard K.; Doepke, Karla J.; Stevens, Jenny S.
This study examined the effects of an intensive parent training program on the acquisition and generalization of discrete trial teaching (DTT) procedures with two parents of children with autism. Over the course of the program, parents applied the DTT procedures to teach four different functional skills to their children, which allowed for an…
Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J
Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. PMID:25681294
Full Text Available Parents of children with disability are faced with care demands more challenging and much different than care demands in parenting typicaly developed child. Care quality and parental sensitivity are often lower in families of children with disabilities, than in families of tipicaly developed children, which results in higher incidence of insecure attachment. One of possible explanations lays in assumption that there are many psychological and sociodemographic factors affecting parents’ capacity for caring. The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in care quality, measured through parental investment, between parents of children with disabili- ties and parents of typicaly developed children. According to the previous research results which suggests that mothers’ and fathers’ care quality provision differs, the next aim in this study was to examine the gender differences in parental investment. The sample consisted of 75 mothers and 75 fathers of children with disabilities and 127 mothers and 127 fathers of typicaly developed children. To assess the quality of parental investment in child we used PIC scale (Parental Invest- ment and Child Questionnaire, Bradley, 1997. The results showed statisticaly significant difference in parental investment between parents of children with disability and parents of typicaly developed children (F=10.72; df(1; p<.01. Gender effect wasn’t significant. Structure analysis showed that the two groups of parents differ mostly in Accepting parenting role and child (wλ=0.94, F(4,346=5.68, p<.01. The results were interpreted according to theoretical starting point, in light of inner working models and accepting child’s diagnosis. Results are suggesting that more research should be done on investigating factors that contribute to lower care quality in families of children with disabilities. The results were interpreted in the light of practical implications as well, raising a question of
Magnussen, M G
A sample of 186 outpatient children considered by both clinicians and parents as depressed or non-depressed were compared in terms of child and parent variables. Parents of depressed children appeared to be more overinvolved with their children, more overprotective, more likely to have communication difficulties in the family and more apt to undermine the child's learning. More girls were depressed than boys and depressed children exhibited more somatic complaints and coexisting phobic or anxiety disorders. The results of the present study need to be replicated with a broader group of depressed and non-depressed children and their families from other regions of the country. Further research in this area is indicated in order to provide clinicians who work with depressed children with a better understanding of their symptoms and parental characteristics. PMID:2007343
Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.
The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…
Full Text Available In our study we investigated how children express their wishes for products advertised on television and how parents respond to their children's wishes. 133 parents of children between 3 and 9 years of age filled in three questionnaires: Questionnaire on children's and parents' response to television advertising, Parental control of children's television viewing (an adapted version and Family functioning scales. Results have shown that children usually tell their parents about their wishes or ask for a specific product several times. They rarely nag with the intention of getting a product. Parents react differently to their children's wishes: most of them usually explain to their children that they cannot get everything they want or they reconsider whether the child really needs a certain product. They rarely come up with excuses. We have found significant correlations between parents' purchasing styles and their reactions to children's requests. Those parents who tend to buy items which they were not planning to get, comply their children's wishes more often than those who stick to what they intended to purchase in the first place. Findings of the study were used to prepare a list of useful strategies for parents and teachers – how to discuss the effects of advertising with children.
The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
The objective of this present is to test the effects of the parents' parenting patterns, education, jobs, and assistance to children in watching television on the children's aggressive behavior. This present research employed a quantitative approach with an ex-post factor design. The data were collected from 175 parents of which the children…
Duman, Sarah; Margolin, Gayla
This study examined children's aggressive and assertive solutions to hypothetical peer scenarios in relation to parents' responses to similar hypothetical social scenarios and parents' actual marital aggression. The study included 118 children ages 9 to 10 years old and their mothers and fathers. Children's aggressive solutions correlated with…
Swick, Kevin James
Foster parents face many challenges in caring for children in foster care. Perhaps the major challenge is to achieve a caring environment for children who have experienced trauma and much change. Thus, this article provides ideas and strategies for nurturing foster parents toward a caring relationship with their children.
Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…
Jung, Eunjoo; Zhang, Yue
The authors investigated the relationships among multiple aspects of parental involvement (English proficiency, school involvement, control and monitoring of children), children's aspirations, and achievement in new immigrant families in the United States. They used data on immigrant parents and school-age children (N = 1,255) from the New…
To determine the factors associated with stress among parents of children with autism. Study Design: A cross-sectional field survey study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, from September 2012 to November 2013. Methodology: The sample consisted of 100 parents (50 mothers and 50 fathers) of children with autism. Measures of childhood autism rating, sense of coherence, parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress, and demographic data sheet were completed by the parents in outdoor units of children hospital, institutes, and at their homes. Results: Significant correlations were found between severity of impairment and parenting stress (r = .53, p < .01), between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress (r = -.35, p < .01, and between sense of coherence and parenting stress (r = -.26, p < .05). No significant gender difference emerged in terms of parenting self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and parenting stress. Results of stepwise regression partially supported our hypothesized model, as severity of child impairment, and parenting self-efficacy appeared as significant predictors of parenting stress (R2 = .35). However, there was no evidence of role of demographic variables in the parenting stress. Conclusion: The severity of child's impairment emerged as the most salient risk factor for parenting stress; however, it was concluded that parents ability and confidence in their competence of parenting a child in challenging situations may reduce their stress. (author)
Weber, Christine L.; Stanley, Laurel
The focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a series of free workshops for parents of gifted children. The parent education workshops provided research-based information as recognized by experts in the field of counseling gifted children. Content areas include the characteristics of gifted children, identification, appropriate…
Dean, Anne L.; And Others
Through an examination of story content, determines whether the conceptions of peer and parent-child relations of black children from lower income families are altered by the experience of parental maltreatment. (HOD)
Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John
Investigates second, fourth, and sixth graders' reasoning about interrelationships between parental authority, friendship, and sibling relations. Children's conceptions regarding legitimacy of and obedience to parental rules prohibiting friendship vary as a function of reasons given for rules. (Author/BB)
Fialka, Janice M.; Feldman, Arlene K.; Mikus, Karen C.
The authors draw upon the metaphor of "dance" to better understand the complexities and possibilities of forming partnerships between educators, administrators, early childhood providers, therapists, support staff, other professionals, and parents of children with disabilities. This revised edition of "Do You Hear What I Hear? Parents and…
Alexander M. Gelber; Adam Isen
Parents may have important effects on their children, but little work in economics explores whether children's schooling opportunities crowd out or encourage parents' investment in children. We analyze data from the Head Start Impact Study, which granted randomly-chosen preschool-aged children the opportunity to attend Head Start. We find that Head Start causes a substantial increase in parents' involvement with their children--such as time spent reading to children, math activities, or days ...
Crissman Halley P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical research on psychological aspects of disorders of sex development (DSD has focused on psychosexual differentiation with relatively little attention directed toward parents' experiences of early clinical management and their influence on patient and family psychosocial adaptation. Objectives To characterize parental experiences in the early clinical care of children born with DSD. Study Design Content analysis of interviews with parents (n = 41 of 28 children, newborn to 6 years, with DSD. Results Four major domains emerged as salient to parents: (1 the gender assignment process, (2 decisions regarding genital surgery, (3 disclosing information about their child's DSD, and (4 interacting with healthcare providers. Findings suggested discordance between scientific and parental understandings of the determinants of "sex" and "gender." Parents' expectations regarding the benefits of genital surgery appear largely met; however, parents still had concerns about their child's future physical, social and sexual development. Two areas experienced by many parents as particularly stressful were: (1 uncertainties regarding diagnosis and optimal management, and (2 conflicts between maintaining privacy versus disclosing the condition to access social support. Conclusions Parents' experiences and gaps in understanding can be used to inform the clinical care of patients with DSD and their families. Improving communication between parents and providers (and between parents and their support providers throughout the early clinical management process may be important in decreasing stress and improving outcomes for families of children with DSD.
Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. PMID:26253552
Pramod Gupta; Jagdish Buwade
The purpose of this study was to examine parents' attitudes toward inclusion for their children with disabilities in general education and to associate their perspectives with parent variables e.g. Sex, education and child variables e.g. age, gender and types of disability. The sample consisted of parents (51 mothers, 68 fathers) of children with disabilities, residing in Hyderabad region. Each parent completed the Attitude Toward Inclusion/ Mainstreaming'' scale (Leyser and Kirk, 2004), comp...
Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon; Choi, Yoo-Im
[Purpose] The purpose of this research was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the effects of father’s parenting participation on parenting stress among mothers with disabled children and (2) more specifically, to investigate the importance of fathers’ parenting participation in decreasing mothers’ parenting stress. [Subjects and Methods] To examine these relationships, this study recruited 82 mothers with disabled children from rehabilitation centers in the Gwangju city. The common characteristics of ...
Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Todd, Peter M.; Mata, Jutta
We investigate how accurate parents are at predicting their children's meal preferences and what cues best describe parents’ predictions. In Study 1, 30 parents predicted their children's school lunch choices from actual school menus. Parents’ prediction accuracy matched the stability of children's meal choices (assessed in a 4-month retest), implying that accuracy was as high as can be expected. Parents appeared to make their predictions by using specific knowledge about their child's likes ...
Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.;
(Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also......Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the...... present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...
Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.
Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)
Kilroy, Sarah J; Egan, Jonathan; Maliszewska, Aneta; Sarma, Kiran M
This article examines the impact on parents in an Irish context whose children have experienced sexual abuse and aims to explore the pathways to distress. This is in order to understand what factors facilitate or hinder parents from supporting their child to the best of their ability, given that parental support is a crucial moderating factor in children's recoveries. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 13 parents in this context and analyzed using a grounded theory methodology. The overall concept that emerged was termed "systemic trauma" and was composed of eight categories that help to explain the pathways of impact for parents. This model can help clinicians understand and respond to the needs of parents in the aftermath of CSA. PMID:24818809
Plug, Erik; van der Klaauw, Bas; Ziegler, Lennart
This paper examines whether children are better off if their parents have stronger social networks. Using data on high-school friendships of parents, we analyze whether the number and characteristics of friends affect the labor-market outcomes of children. While parental friendships formed in high school appear long lasting, we find no significant impact on their children's occupational choices and earnings prospects. These results do not change when we account for network endogeneity, networ...
Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974251
Young children's perceptions of their parents have been shown to affect responses to parents, and to be relevant in personality development and self-esteem. Typically, research examining children's perceptions of their parents focused on children from intact families. Yet, with the frequent occurrence of divorce in our society, and the trauma and lifestyle changes often associated with marital dissolution, it is possible that children's perceptions of their parents may also change. This ...
Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon; Choi, Yoo-Im
[Purpose] The purpose of this research was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the effects of father's parenting participation on parenting stress among mothers with disabled children and (2) more specifically, to investigate the importance of fathers' parenting participation in decreasing mothers' parenting stress. [Subjects and Methods] To examine these relationships, this study recruited 82 mothers with disabled children from rehabilitation centers in the Gwangju city. The common characteristics of parents and children, father's parenting participation, and mother's parenting stress were assessed using standard questionnaires. [Results] Based on mother reports, findings suggest that as fathers' parenting participation increases mothers' parenting stress decreases. [Conclusion] The present study reveals a need for improvement in parenting education and in providing fathers of disabled children with a temporary leave of absence from work. Specifically, this research highlights the importance of shared parenting responsibilities among family members. Finally, our findings suggest that developing a standardized national program for assisting parents with disabled children may help decrease parenting stress in mothers. PMID:26834361
Nicholson, B C; Janz, P C; Fox, R A
The effectiveness of a brief parental-education program for 40 families with very young children was studied. Families were assigned to either a parental-education or waiting-list control group. The parental-education program included information and strategies drawn from developmental and cognitive psychology and social learning theory. Analysis showed that participating parents significantly reduced their use of corporal and verbal punishment, changed their parenting attitudes, and improved their perceptions of their children's behavior in comparison to the control group. Effects were maintained at six weeks follow-up. Results supported tailoring parental-education programs to the unique needs of participants. PMID:9709516
Fraser, A; Macdonald-Wallis, C.; Tilling, K; Boyd, A.; J. Golding; Davey Smith, G.; Henderson, J.; Macleod, J; Molloy, L.; Ness, A; Ring, S.; Nelson, S M; D.A. Lawlor
Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13 761 women (contributing 13 867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19–22 years...
Sandra P. Small
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand parental approach to the topic of smoking with school-age preadolescent children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 parents and yielded a grounded theory that explains how parents communicated with their children about smoking. Parents perceived smoking to be a latent danger for their children. To deter smoking from occurring they verbally interacted with their children on the topic and took action by having a no-smoking rule. There were three interaction approaches, which differed by style and method of interaction. Most parents interacted by discussing smoking with their children. They intentionally took advantage of opportunities. Some interacted by telling their children about the health effects of smoking and their opposition to it. They responded on the spur-of-the-moment if their attention was drawn to the issue by external cues. A few interacted by acknowledging to their children the negative effects of smoking. They responded only when their children brought it up. The parents’ intent for the no-smoking rule, which pertained mainly to their homes and vehicles, was to protect their children from second-hand smoke and limit exposure to smoking. The theory can be used by nurses to guide interventions with parents about youth smoking prevention.
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
Parent Guidelines for Helping Children after an Earthquake Being in an earthquake is very frightening, and the days, weeks, and months following are very stressful. Your children and family will recover ...
Ramberg, Axel; Feldkötter, Sinja
One of the most discussed questions in clinical literature concerns the impact of child abuse by mentally ill parents (cf. Mattejat, 1998). It's obvious that most children cannot understand such a parental behaviour and that this lack of understanding along with the lack of knowledge about their parents' emotional disorder results in childrens' fear, disorientation and uncertainty. The consequences are massive interferences in the relationship between parents and children, who could develop an anxious-resistant insecure or even a disorganized/disoriented attachment. But how does a child react, if the behaviour of its parents is ambivalent itself and alternates from abuse to care? Such a parental behaviour is described as the "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome". This article regards the effects of a "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome" on the childrens' attachment development. After discussing the basic assumptions about the "Munchhauen by Proxy Syndrome" and the attachment theory we draw conclusions about the syndrome's effect on childrens' attachment behaviour. PMID:26509970
Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane
A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. PMID:23434545
Kiel, Elizabeth J; Maack, Danielle J
Although sensitivity to the Behavioral Inhibition System within Gray's (1970) reinforcement sensitivity theory relates to individuals' own depressive and anxious symptomatology, less is known about how parental BIS sensitivity relates to early indicators of internalizing problems in young children. Moreover, the extent to which this parental characteristic relates to parenting behavior, and children's internalizing problems above and beyond parenting, remains unknown. The current study assessed maternal BIS sensitivity, overprotective parenting, and toddlers' internalizing behaviors in a sample of 91 mothers while controlling for mothers' own internalizing symptomatology. Heightened BIS sensitivity related to both overprotective parenting and internalizing behaviors. Overprotective parenting partially mediated the relation between BIS sensitivity and children's internalizing behaviors, although BIS sensitivity maintained a marginal relation to internalizing behaviors. Maternal BIS sensitivity and toddler internalizing behaviors may represent a shared disposition towards inhibition that is somewhat accounted for by overprotective parenting. PMID:22904590
Wojcieszek, Krzysztof Andrzej
The paper describes the proposition of solution of a difficult dilemma concerning the real role of parents in the development of children in families with alcohol problem (alcohol misuse and dependency of parents). From one side drinking parents are the cause of serious destruction of child health and development. From the other side we have the data about positive influence of strong bonds between children and their parents in alcohol use prevention (parenting as protective factor). Original philosophical theory of person structure with additional theory of parenting supplies the possibility of the solution of the dilemma. It is necessary to differentiate the personal relationship and the emotions (and behaviours) as two different levels of bonding. Alcohol dependent parents have influence on both levels, they protect and make the risk at the same time. The proposal is that the protective influence is still more powerful and important, so it is necessary to protect bonds between children and their parents despite the fact of some lateral destruction. It is also necessary to confront parents with the effects of their behaviour (intervention, therapy) to develop their possibilities to renovate their parenting functions, which is necessary for effective prevention. The theory allows to understand the situation of the child in the alcohol family more precisely. It is especially important for social workers, teachers and therapists working with such families. Some rules for working with the children of alcoholics are formulated. PMID:14704491
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL. Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1 describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2 describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3 explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4 try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and
Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.
This study evaluated parenting attitudes, family environments, depression, and anxiety in a sample of primarily minority urban mothers to better understand maltreating mothers (n = 83), who retain custody of their children and how they are similar to and different from foster mothers (n = 50), kin caregivers (n = 52) of maltreated children, and…
This paper examines the development of children’s understanding of animals’ minds and mental capabilities over two experiments. Experiment 1 modified standard false-belief and discrepant-desire tasks in two age-groups (3-4 and 7-8 years) to test developmental and species differences in children’ basic cognitive reasoning about animal and human minds. Experiment 2 incorporated a modified mental-capacity rating task in three age-groups (3-4-, 7-8 years, and adults) to investigate developmental ...
Botezat, Alina; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm
Many children grow up with parents working abroad. Economists are interested in the achievement and well-being of these "home alone" children to better understand the positive and negative aspects of migration in the sending countries. This paper examines the causal effects of parents' migration on their children left home in Romania, a country where increasingly more children are left behind in recent years. Using samples from a unique representative survey carried out in 2007 instrumental v...
This review points out that experts still do not clearly understand the perception of gifted children be their parents and the way the last build relations in the «parent-children " system. Parents of gifted children clearly need special family resources that might contribute to the progress of their children in future. Such resources are a key to the success of these children at the family level and are commonly - family habits, strategies, values, and ways of life. This study is phenomenolo...
Barrett, Dean John
One of the ways in which children of depressed parents are affected is in the area of cognitive schemata. In cognitive behavioral theory, schemata drive emotions and therefore influence behavior. Subsequently, a better understanding of the cognitive schemata of children of depressed parents is attempted in this paper. It offers a review of the…
Mitchell, Linda Crane; Richman, Alice R.; Clawson, Kaitlyn
Background. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA) is increasingly utilized to detect copy number variants among children and families affected with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, CMA is controversial due to possible ambiguous test findings, uncertain clinical implications, and other social and legal issues related to the test. Methods. Participants were parents of children with ASD residing in the North Eastern region of North Carolina, USA. We conducted individual, face-to-face interviews with 45 parents and inquired about their perceptions of CMA. Results. Three major themes dominated parents' perceptions of CMA. None of the parents had ever heard of the test before and the majority of the parents postulated positive attitudes toward the test. Parents' motivations in undergoing the test were attributed to finding a potential cause of ASD, to being better prepared for having another affected child, and to helping with future reproductive decisions. Perceived barriers included the cost of testing, risk/pain of CMA testing, and fear of test results. Conclusion. This study contributes to the understanding of psychosocial aspects and cultural influences towards adoption of genetic testing for ASD in clinical practice. Genetic education can aid informed decision-making related to CMA genetic testing among parents of children with ASD. PMID:27413549
Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly
There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems. PMID:26649858
Nett, Ulrike E; Daschmann, Elena C; Goetz, Thomas; Stupnisky, Robert H
The purpose of the present study was to explore what parents know about their Children's boredom in school; specifically, the frequency, intensity, and antecedents of their Children's boredom, as well as how they cope with boredom. A questionnaire was administered to 437 grade 9 students (54% female, M age = 14.82) and their parents (72% mothers, 14% fathers, 12% both parents, M age = 45.26) measuring variables related to students boredom in mathematics class. Three different measurements were used to evaluate the accuracy of parents' judgments: (1) the correlation between parents' and students' answers, (2) the mean differences between parents' and students' answers, and (3) the mean values of absolute differences of parents' and students' answers. The results suggest that parents generally have an informed knowledge about their child's boredom and related facets. This is reflected by a mean correlation of medium size ( = 0.34) and a small mean effect size of the difference between parents' and students' judgments over all items ( = 0.20). Parents are also substantially better in judging their Children's boredom compared to guessing for all variables (mean effect size of = 0.65). They had the most precise judgments for the frequency and intensity of boredom. The antecedents of boredom (e.g., characteristics of instruction) were also well estimated by parents; specifically, parents tend to have a bias in favor for their children evidenced by overestimating antecedents that cannot be influenced by the students and underestimating those that can be influenced by the students. The least concordance was found between parents' and Children's perception of boredom coping strategies (e.g., accepting boredom), implying that parents lack information about how their children intentionally cope with boredom. Implications for research on student boredom are discussed as well as practical applications involving parents in boredom prevention. PMID:27445876
Binder, Per-Einar; Stige, Brynjulf
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most widely used children's mental health diagnosis today, but the validity of the diagnosis is controversial, for instance, because it might conceal relational and ecological dimensions of restlessness. We invited parents and professionals from one local community in western Norway to participate in cooperative group discussions on how to conceptualize and understand children's restlessness. We carried out a thematic and reflexive analysis of the cooperative group discussions on ADHD and children's restlessness, and present findings related to three ecological levels inspired by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems model. At the level of the individual, restlessness was discussed as individual trait, as the expectation to be seen and heard, and as a result of traumatization. At the level of dyad, group or family, restlessness was discussed as a relational phenomenon and as parents' problems. At the level of community, restlessness was discussed as lack of cooperation and lack of structures or resources. Our findings show how contextualized and cooperative reflexivity can contribute to more valid understandings of children's restlessness, and how cooperative inquiry can stimulate reflections about solidarity and sustainability in relation to adult's actions. PMID:26701898
Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most widely used children's mental health diagnosis today, but the validity of the diagnosis is controversial, for instance, because it might conceal relational and ecological dimensions of restlessness. We invited parents and professionals from one local community in western Norway to participate in cooperative group discussions on how to conceptualize and understand children's restlessness. We carried out a thematic and reflexive analysis of the cooperative group discussions on ADHD and children's restlessness, and present findings related to three ecological levels inspired by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems model. At the level of the individual, restlessness was discussed as individual trait, as the expectation to be seen and heard, and as a result of traumatization. At the level of dyad, group or family, restlessness was discussed as a relational phenomenon and as parents' problems. At the level of community, restlessness was discussed as lack of cooperation and lack of structures or resources. Our findings show how contextualized and cooperative reflexivity can contribute to more valid understandings of children's restlessness, and how cooperative inquiry can stimulate reflections about solidarity and sustainability in relation to adult's actions.
Schvartsman, Claudio; Farhat, Sylvia Costa Lima; Schvartsman, Samuel; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
OBJECTIVE: To investigate parental smoking patterns and their association with wheezing in children. METHODS: We performed a case-control study that included 105 children between 6 and 23 months of age who were divided into two groups: cases (children with 3 previous episodes of wheezing) and controls (healthy children without wheezing). The children's exposure to cigarette smoking was estimated using a questionnaire completed by the mothers and by the children's urinary cotinine levels. RESU...
Swick, Kevin J.
Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.
Brown, Scott Torrance
Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate changes in the strategies they use to cope with parenting stress, shifting from problem-focused to emotion-focused coping as their child ages (Gray, 2006). Once parents have resolved their child's diagnosis, they may manage their emotions through sharing social support with…
Hastings, Richard P.
This paper proposes a model whereby children's behavior problems, parental stress, and parenting behavior are related. It reports evidence that child behavior problems lead to parental stress but finds other model aspects have not been tested in the developmental disability field. Also considered are practical implications integrating research of…
Pescud, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone; Henley, Nadine
Objective: To explore low socioeconomic parents' beliefs in relation to children's nutrition. Design: A qualitative, longitudinal study over 12 months involving 37 low socioeconomic parents. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Method: Parents' nutrition-related beliefs were explored via interviews, focus groups and…
Xie, Qing; And Others
This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…
Parent role models greatly influence the development of young children's attitudes toward physical activity and sports, and eventually their level of competence and confidence. Physical educators can work with parents to provide a healthy and inviting introduction to sports. Twelve tips for parents are included. (IAH)
White, Tonya; Ettner, Randi
It is a relatively uncommon event that children find themselves in a situation with a parent who undergoes a transition from one sex to another. Unlike situations of divorce or a parent with a medical or major psychiatric disorder, it is unlikely that the children will know of other children who encounter similar situations. There is very little literature that describes the adjustment of these children and the nature of their relationships with their parents and peers. Such information would be beneficial for clinicians assisting children and families in this situation. To better delineate the adjustment of these children, we interviewed 27 parents of 55 children. The interview took place on average 6 years after the gender transition. The measures obtained included the parent and child relationships at present and also at the time of the transition. We also inquired about academic function, peer relationships and social stigma. The results found that children who were younger at the time of the parent's transition tended to have better relationships and less adjustment difficulties. In addition, parental conflict that continues after the transition period tends to reflect greater family conflict between the transitioned parent and their child. PMID:17136300
Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny
This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…
Närvänen, Anna-Liisa; Markström, Ann-Marie
The aim of this article is to describe how parents and preschool teachers talk about children's interactional skills in parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and how this can be related to socialization processes. The analyses show that children's communicative skills, such as turn-taking in conversation and co-operation, are…
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…
Brobst, Jennifer B.; Clopton, James R.; Hendrick, Susan S.
Balancing the roles of parent and partner is challenging for most people and may be especially challenging when extra time and effort are required in the parenting role. The current research compared 25 couples whose children have autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with 20 couples whose children do not have developmental disorders. Comparisons were…
Symon, Jennifer B.
The number of individuals diagnosed with autism has risen at an alarming rate. Expanding services should be a primary consideration of programs for children and their families. This article presents outcome data from a week-long parent education program for families of children with autism to suggest that parents can learn not only how to…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…
Huang, Juan; Prochner, Larry
Self-regulated learning is an important aspect of student learning and academic achievement. Certain parenting styles help children develop self-regulated learning and encourage them to exert control over their own learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Chinese parenting style and children's involvement in…
Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick
The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…
Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy
The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In lin
Mancini, Jay A.; Blieszner, Rosemary
Discusses the following dominant themes in the relationships of older parents and their adult children within the context of societal age structure changes: roles and responsibilities, parent-child interaction, individual well-being, relationship quality, and caregiving by adult children. Concludes with speculations on the future of research on…
Full Text Available This study utilizes a qualitative method to explore the critical reflections of Hmong parents helping their children maintain their native language. Specifically, it examines parents thoughts, feelings and experiences related to Hmong language maintenance. Findings reveal that Hmong parents worry about their children losing their ability to speak their native language. They believe that maintaining the Hmong language provides advantages in achieving academic success, attaining careers, and continuing to serve as role models in the community. Parents stressed the need to use Hmong at home in order to help their children develop and maintain the language. They reported some successes in doing so, while acknowledging several challenges.
Paczkowski, Emilie; Baker, Bruce L
Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main effect on parenting stress at all ages, which was mediated by child behavior problems for mothers in the DD group at every age and across time. In the TD group, mediation was found at age 3 years. Additionally, support was found for a moderation effect of positive beliefs on the relation between child behavior problems and parenting stress, but only in the DD group at age 3. These findings have implications for interventions drawing on Seligman's (1991) work on learned optimism, the positive counterpart of learned helplessness. PMID:20107620
Amato, Paul R.; Afifi, Tamara D.
Research on divorce has found that adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N=632). Children with parents in…
Objectives. Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent-child relations. This study examines how adult children’s divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the ef
Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer
The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…
Swick, Kevin J.
Homeless parents of young children confront several barriers to developing effective parenting skills and dispositions. Perhaps the major barrier is that of the negative stereotype that many people use to label them. They also often have not had positive parent role models and in many cases have had to deal with the issues of violence. Parent…
Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa
Parental control is among the important factors influencing the psychological development of children. In addition to other questionnaires, a questionnaire of father and mother control was administered to adolescents in nine countries. The results showed that parental control differs across cultures. Parental control was higher in the eastern than…
Barton, Erin E.; Lissman, Dana Cohen
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between group training using an abbreviated version of the Incredible Years parent training with family coaching and positive parenting practices. Two at-risk mothers and their young children with disabilities participated in the study. Both mothers were enrolled in a group parent training…
Tone, Danielle M.; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
The intent of this manuscript is to inform others about stress, parental stress, and highlight the negative consequences of stress on children by directly providing information to parents of infant and preschool children in the form of a psychoeducational workshop. Given that the early years of life have many critical periods of development and…
Alizadeh, Hamid; Applequist, Kimberly F.; Coolidge, Frederick L.
Objective: This study examines the relationship between parental self-confidence, warmth, and involvement, and corporal punishment in families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The diagnosis of ADHD was established through clinical interviews with the parents, children, and teachers, according the criteria…
Alonso-Geta, Petra María
The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style. PMID:22748726
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This study examined parental and teacher expectations of kindergarten readiness of Latino children. The perceptions ofLatino mothers, Latino fathers, and kindergarten teachers were analyzed and compared. Specifically, parents' and teachers' responses were compared in three areas: perceptions of what parents can do to prepare children for kindergarten, priorities for requisite kindergarten entry skills, and rankings of the importance of specified skills to be emphasized in kindergarten. Differ...
Graham, Elspeth; Sabater, Albert
The link between children’s health and the education of their parents, especially mothers, is now well established. However, far less is known about the possible influence of the educational attainment of adult children on the health of their parents. This study investigates the relationship between the education of adult children and the longevity of older parents using individual-level longitudinal data for 11 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Of ...
Childhood obesity continues to grow in the UK despite multiple prevention and intervention strategies. Research on childhood obesity has tended to focus on quantitative research with parents of overweight children, however recently there has been some qualitative studies done with parents and research is beginning to emerge with overweight children themselves. The purpose of this thesis was therefore to draw together the available qualitative research with parents and to undertake an origin...
Varela, R. Enrique; Niditch, Laura A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W.; Creveling, C. Christiane
A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n = 27) and non-clinical (n = 20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionna...
Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston
Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone. PMID:22149041
Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y
This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong. PMID:12723448
This study focused on the coping strategies of parents' with children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and the relation between these strategies and parenting styles. Coping strategies were measured using the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Purpose in Life Test (PIL-R). Parental attitudes toward loving care, stress, worry, and guilt feelings were assessed using the Family Impact Questionnaire. Two groups of participants were included: parents with children with ASD (EG) (n = 66) ...
Lee, Ji Kyung
Parenting stress may be inevitable for any parent. However, stress can be even greater for parents with children who have disabilities. Among parents of children with disabilities, parents of children with autism are particularly at risk of feeling overwhelmed due to the specific developmental condition and characteristics of children who have…
Parada, Humberto; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Horton, Lucy A; Ibarra, Leticia; Arredondo, Elva M
This study examined father and child sociodemographic characteristics in relation to fathers' feeding-related parenting strategies and whether their parenting strategies were associated with children's reported fruit and vegetable (FV), weekly fast-food, and daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake among 81 Latino father-child pairs. Father's employment status, acculturation, number of children in the home, and child's age and weight status were associated with the use of different parenting strategies. More control was associated with less FV intake, but more reinforcement was associated with more FV intake by children. Fathers play a role in their children's diet and should be considered in future interventions. PMID:27065160
The general purpose of my study is to examine what different notions of children and childhood emerge when parents talk about children's TV-habits. More specifically, this paper concentrates on two aspects of children's use of television in which parents' concern about protecting children becomes evident. The two aspects are: the question of whether children should be allowed to watch the news and the question of limiting the time children are allowed to spend in front of the TV.
Vivian Eva M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Results Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84% of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01. The parents of these children (n = 29 were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65% of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069. Conclusions This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.
Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman
It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children. PMID:19820986
Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping up with their child′s condition. Aims: To document the parenting practices of parents having a child with newly diagnosed SpLD and to analyze their impact on parent-child relationships. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From May 2007 to January 2008, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parenting practices and parent-child relationships were measured by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parent Form (APQ-PF and the Parent Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation coefficients between subscales of APQ-PF and PCRQ were computed. Multiple regression analysis was carried out for statistical significance of the clinical and demographic variables. Results: Parents who were: (i "involved" in parenting had a good "personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (ii practicing "positive parenting" had good "warmth, personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (iii "poorly supervising" their child′s activities lacked "warmth and personal relationship," (iv practicing "inconsistent discipline′ had a higher "power assertion" and (v practicing "corporal punishment" lacked "warmth" and had a higher "power assertion and possessiveness" in their relationships with their child. Parent being poorly educated or currently ill and child having all three types of SpLD present concomitantly or a sibling or a sibling with a chronic disability or being in class standard IX to XI were variables that independently predicted a poor parenting or parent-child relationship subscale score. Conclusions: The present study has identified parenting practices that need to be encouraged or excluded for improving parent-child relationships. Initiating these measures would help in the
Hindt, Lauren A.; Davis, Laurel; Schubert, Erin C.; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J.
Approximately five million children in the United States have experienced a co-resident parent’s incarceration in jail or prison. Parental incarceration is associated with multiple risk factors for maladjustment, which may contribute to the increased likelihood of behavioral problems in this population. Few studies have examined early predictors of maladjustment among children with incarcerated parents, limiting scholars’ understanding about potential points for prevention and intervention. Emotion recognition skills may play a role in the development of maladjustment and may be amenable to intervention. The current study examined whether emotion recognition skills differed between 3- to 8-year-old children with and without jailed parents. We hypothesized that children with jailed parents would have a negative bias in processing emotions and less accuracy compared to children without incarcerated parents. Data were drawn from 128 families, including 75 children (53.3% male, M = 5.37 years) with jailed parents and 53 children (39.6% male, M = 5.02 years) without jailed parents. Caregivers in both samples provided demographic information. Children performed an emotion recognition task in which they were asked to produce a label for photos expressing six different emotions (i.e., happy, surprised, neutral, sad, angry, and fearful). For scoring, the number of positive and negative labels were totaled; the number of negative labels provided for neutral and positive stimuli were totaled (measuring negative bias/overextension of negative labels); and valence accuracy (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) and label accuracy were calculated. Results indicated a main effect of parental incarceration on the number of positive labels provided; children with jailed parents presented significantly fewer positive emotions than the comparison group. There was also a main effect of parental incarceration on negative bias (the overextension of negative labels); children with
Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...
Pasalich, Dave S; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J
Children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits manifest a range of deficits in their emotional functioning, and parents play a key role in socializing children's understanding, experience, expression, and regulation of emotions. However, research examining emotion-related parenting in families of children with CU traits is scarce. In two independent studies we examined emotion socialization styles in parents of children high on CU traits. In Study 1, we assessed parents' self-reported beliefs and feelings regarding their own and their child's emotions, in a sample of 111 clinic-referred and community children aged 7-12 years. In Study 2, we directly observed parents' responding to child emotion during an emotional reminiscing task, in a clinic sample of 59 conduct-problem children aged 3-9 years. Taken together, the results were consistent in suggesting that the mothers of children with higher levels of CU traits are more likely to have affective attitudes that are less accepting of emotion (Study 1), and emotion socialization practices that are more dismissing of child emotion (Study 2). Fathers' emotion socialization beliefs and practices were unrelated to levels of CU traits. Our findings provide initial evidence for a relationship between CU traits and parents' emotion socialization style, and have significant implications for the design of novel family-based interventions targeting CU traits and co-occurring conduct problems. PMID:23857716
Joyce F Benenson
Full Text Available Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.
Luke, Nikki; Banerjee, Robin
Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children's peer relationships and self-perceptions. Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children's social understanding and empathy could play a key role as mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a…
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
This study examined how educational expectations parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children’s attainment, and how parents’ own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study that followed participants from ages 18 to 64. Compared to the norm, parents with mild intellectual deficits expected thei...
Tully, Erin C; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Garcia, Sarah E
This study investigated children's empathic responses to their mother's distress to provide insight about child factors that contribute to parental socialisation of emotions. Four- to six-year-old children (N = 82) observed their mother's sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's facial negative affect was rated and their heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded during the conversation, and their emotion understanding of the conversation was measured through their use of negative emotion words and perspective-taking themes (i.e., discussing the causes or resolution of mother's emotions) in narrative accounts of the conversation. There were positive quadratic relationships between HRV and ratings of facial affect, narrative references to mother's negative emotions and perspective-taking themes. High and low HRV was associated with high facial negative affect, suggesting well-regulated sympathy and poorly regulated personal distress empathic responses, respectively. Moderate HRV was associated with low facial negative affect, suggesting minimal empathic engagement. High and low HRV were associated with the highest probabilities of both emotion understanding indicators, suggesting both sympathy and personal distress responses to mother's distress facilitate understanding of mother's emotions. Personal distress may motivate attempts to understand mother's emotions as a self-soothing strategy, whereas sympathy-related attempts to understand may be motivated by altruism. PMID:24650197
Delgado, L E; Lutzker, J R
We developed a comprehensive training program to teach young parents what symptoms to look for to judge the severity of their children's illnesses, what to do at home to comfort their children, and when to consult their children's physician or take them for emergency treatment. Three pairs of subjects received training that included written handouts, verbal instructions, modeling, positive practice, and verbal reinforcement. Skill acquisition was assessed by a behavioral test in which parents...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the content of the objective and subjective components of the social situation of children without parental care. Based on the study of psychological research, the author concludes that the identity of the children left without parental care, is formed in a special, deficit of the social situation of development, the optimization of which is the focus of psycho-pedagogical support personal development of these children.
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program interventions among 99 children diagnosed with ADHD (ages 4–6). Mother reported significant treatment effects for appropriate and harsh discipline, use o...
Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research indicates that impaired hearing is one of the most stressful disabilities. The parenting stress involved could lead to family malfunction and improper parenting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive parenting programs on the parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children.Methods: The statistical population comprised mothers of all 7-12-year-old impaired hearing children in Tehran city. Thereafter, using the random sampling method, 24 individuals were shortlisted as research participants and were randomly assigned to two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was trained with a positive parenting program based on the Sanders program (1993 over eight sessions. The measurement instrument was the Abidin parenting stress questionnaire.Results: The mean score for grades in the experimental groups’ parent and child domains at the pre- and post-test stages had reduced more than that in the control group. In addition, the results of a multivariate covariance analysis indicated that positive parenting training was effective in the reduction of parenting stress scores, reinforcement, and child mood components in the child domain, and in the feelings of competence, relationships with the spouse, and role limitation components (p<0.05 in the parent domain.Conclusion : Considering the benefits of training parents for the reduction of parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children, this method is recommended in all learning centers for the deaf.
Eddy, J. Mark; Martinez, Charles R.; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M.; Shortt, Joann Wu
The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. As prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce recidivism, but also to prevent incarceration in the first place, particularly amongst the children of incarcerated parents. Positive family interaction is relate...
Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Pai, Tzu-Chi
The research goal is to ascertain the current beliefs of the parents of preschool children regarding art education in Taiwan. Background factors on the parents were tested to show the differences between the parents' beliefs regarding art education and the actual art achievements of the children. From there, relationships between the beliefs and…
Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A
Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and
Magdy M Zedan
Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are the recommended controller drug for asthma treatment. The aim of our study was to determine concerns and fears of parents of children with asthma towards the use of ICS. One hundred parents of asthmatic children were interviewed using structural questionnaire. Airway inflammation was reported by only 6% of interviewed parents, whereas airway narrowing was addressed by 34%. Interesting data, 71% of parents were concerned with the role of steroids in asthma treatment, but more than half (53% of them addressed fears from side effects. Apparent gaps were found in knowledge of parents of asthmatic children about ICS as controller asthma medication. So, physician and health providers should explain to asthmatic parents that airway inflammation is the core for asthma management. This may remove fears about ICS and thus improve adherence to treatment.
Lai, Fanglin Jasmine
Children with autism often place increased demands on their families due to the nature of their disorders. Research has repeatedly shown that parents of children with autism experience higher levels of stress and lower levels of overall well-being than parents of children with other disabilities, or parents of typical children. Compared to…
This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…
Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…
Mysore Narasimha Vranda
Full Text Available Purpose: This study explored parental attitudes towards children with specific learning disabilities.Method: The study sample comprised parents of 60 children (30 boys and30 girls with Specific Learning Disability (SLD who attend the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Out-Patient Department at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. The attitudes of parents were assessed using the Parental Attitude Scale.Results: The results revealed significant differences related to gender of the children on various domains of the scale.Conclusion: The study highlights the need to educate parents to lower their expectations for children with specific learning disabilities, and to strengthen the social support network of these children’s families.
Kårstad, Silja B; Wichstrøm, Lars; Reinfjell, Trude; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid S
We studied potential determinants of the development of children's emotion understanding (EU) from age 4 to 6 in a Norwegian community sample (N = 974) using the Test of Emotion Comprehension. Interpersonal predictors included the accuracy of parental mentalization, parental emotional availability, and teacher-reported child social skills. Intrapersonal child factors were child gender and verbal skills. Overall, children's EU increased significantly over time. After adjusting for child gender, age-4 EU, and parental socio-economic status, greater child verbal and social skills and greater parental mentalization each uniquely predicted growth in EU. Results are discussed in terms of theory and research on children's EU and parents' emotion socialization. PMID:26014751
Small, Stephen A.; Eastman, Gay
Examines parental responsibilities of rearing adolescent children as well as the factors that can support or undermine a parent's ability to perform them. Integrates current research and theory on child rearing, adolescent and adult development, and parent adolescent relations to present a conceptual framework for parenting adolescents. Discusses…
Martins, Camilla Soccio; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Zahr, Nide Regina; Arone, Kátia Michelli Bertoldi; Roque, Eliana Mendes de Souza Teixeira
We sought, in this investigation, to understand the family dynamics in the view of parents and children involved in Domestic Violence against children and adolescents institutionalized in the Center of Assistance to the Victimized Child and Adolescent (CACAV), in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews applied to parents and children from six families involved in domestic violence. The data were analyzed through content analysis. Ecology of human development was used as theoretical reference. Domestic violence was reported, though it is understood as common practice for the families. We identified that the parents' view favors the denial of the violence perpetrated. The children, on the other hand, point that love ties and affection are more significant for their development than blood relations. We believe that the knowledge acquired as how violence is experienced, can contribute with intervention strategies capable of breaking the perverse cycle of violent family relationships. PMID:18157438
Jensen, J.F.; Tonnesen, L.L.; Söderström, Margareta;
OBJECTIVE: The sale of paracetamol products for children is increasing, and more children are accidentally given overdoses, even though the use of paracetamol against fever is still under discussion. This study explores Danish parents' use of paracetamol for feverish children and their motives for...
Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja
Storytelling represents an aspect of children's general language competence. The characteristics of the home literacy environment, especially joint reading between parents and children, have a significant effect on children's storytelling. The purpose of this study was to explore the age differences in the storytelling of three- to six-year-old…
Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett; Haslam, Divna; Sanders, Matthew R
There is widespread support for the hypothesis that, post-disaster, children's mental health is impacted-at least in part-via the impact on parents, parenting, parent-child interactions, and the family environment. To some degree, the enthusiasm with which this hypothesis is held outstrips the evidence examining it. The current paper critically evaluates the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and concludes that although limited (both in terms of number of existing studies and methodological flaws), the extant literature indicates some parent-related variables, as well as some aspects of the family environment are likely to constitute risk or protective factors for children. Given that parenting is modifiable, it is proposed that the identified parent- and family-related factors represent important therapeutic targets, and a universal post-disaster parenting intervention (Disaster Recovery Triple P) is described. PMID:27086314
REISING, MICHELLE M.; Watson, Kelly H.; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E.
This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9–15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms an...
Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi
Full Text Available Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based on social learning models, is an effective and practical way for treatment of children with incongruent behavior. In this study, we evaluate parenting styles of ADHD children and normal children. Methods. This study was conducted in Zahedan in 2012. Subjects aged 7 to 12. They were divided into patient and normal groups. Parenting styles were evaluated with Baumrind’s questionnaire. The data were analyzed with SPSS ver.18. Results. The findings showed that the parents of ADHD children have lower permissive score than the normal group, but authoritarian score was lower in the normal group. The authoritative score has no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, age, gender, and parent’s education affected the parenting styles. Discussion. The present study indicates that parents with ADHD children have different parenting styles; and factors like gender and parents education are influential in parenting methods. This finding were also present in some past surveys. Many studies have shown that teaching-parenting styles to parents with ADHD children improves the inner family relationship. Conclusion . The results indicated that parents of children with ADHD are less permissive but more authoritarian in their parenting.
Fidika, Astrid; Salewski, Christel; Goldbeck, Lutz
Background Parents of children with chronic conditions are known to be at risk of impairment in their quality of life (QoL). Studies considering other chronic conditions proposed diverse factors to have an impact on the parent’s QoL. So far, there has been little research on parents who have a child with phenylketonuria (PKU). This study was designed to evaluate the parental quality of life (PQoL) of parents of children and adolescents who have PKU and identify possible predictors of PQoL. Me...
Full Text Available This presentation concerns a group for parents of mentally retarded children.A group of these parents receives professional help and environmental support. The parents are encouraged to assume responsibility in the everyday life educational process of their children.As Baker / 1980 / states: “ If parents cope better on daily basis with the child who has mental retardation, not only the child but also the parents would benefit”.Taking part in the group gave the parents:· the opportunity to meet other parents with the same children;· to talk to other parents and feel less isolated;· to share information and experiences, skills and ideas;· the opportunity to listen to the needs and problems of other parents;· to change the ways of working to meet the child’s needs;· share information about the possibilities of education and services;· parents are encouraged to meet together to support one another;· parents need a special approach to many problems existing in their families.· the education in the group puts the beginning of the work with the parents.The idea is to gather the efforts of specialists from different fields and to establish multi-disciplinary group aiming to work with the parents and create a good collaboration and partnership between them in order to improve the living conditions and services to the retarded persons.This paper reports on the development, evaluation and dissemination of the program for education of parents with mentally retarded children. At the Symposium we will be able to present the results of the effectiveness of the education.
Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat
Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…
This is a book about children and their parents. There are many different kinds of children and at least about as many different kinds of parents. In addition to the many different disciplines that study children and their parents, such as sociology, psychology, child studies and gender studies, to name but a few, this study concerns a legal question with regard to the parent-child relationship, namely how the law assigns parents to children. This subject is approached in a comparative legal ...
Jeni Harden; Kathryn Backett-Milburn; Alice MacLean; Lynn Jamieson
'What do you want to be when you grow up?' is a question often asked of children yet little is known about how children and their parents think about their future in terms of employment. This paper, based on qualitative longitudinal research with 14 families, explores children's and parents' narratives about children's employment futures, illuminating the values, social relations and structures through which such narratives are formed. The paper reflects on the extent to which children's pres...
How can we understand the role of parents in children´s bullying in school? If we look into the international research literature, we find a field dominated by the perspective that bullies and victims of bullying have typical problems at home that can explain their behaviour. Parents´ strategies of...... child rearing, the way they relate to their children and the atmosphere at home, are viewed as the breeding ground for children´s behaviour as either bullies or victims in school. In my research into parental positions in children’s bullying, I have taken another departure point. By means of analyses of...... varied empirical material consisting, in part, of interviews with parents, schoolteachers and principals as well as of a range of public documents concerning bullying, parents’ responsibilities, the purpose of school, etc., this research project contributes to the field with new and different insights...
Kamper, S. J.; Dissing, K. B.; Hestbaek, L.
as it can be unclear how reports from the two parties relate to one another. In the case of research into pediatric pain, a parent's report is commonly used as a proxy for the child's rating. This being the case, it is necessary to improve the understanding of the relationship between the two types...... of pain report. Purpose: To assess the degree of agreement between parents' report of their child's pain and the child's own assessment. Methods: Data were collected as part of a larger cohort study investigating the health of Danish school children. The study sample included 354 child-parent pairs...... who were independently asked whether the child had experienced musculoskeletal pain in the previous week. The children were between the ages of 10 and 14 years old. Parents provided answers via text message and children were questioned in person at their school. Crosstabulations were presented to...
Francesca Romana Montecchi
Full Text Available In Western societies many immigrants live in difficult social and working conditions. Together with other factors, this state of affairs represents a risk for the well being of their children. This article will consider the principle risk factors for child psychopathology and/or distress, with a distinction between temporary and permanent factors and with a peculiar attention to the interplay between risk and protective factors. Risk factors can be ordered in cultural, social, familiar/parental and individual factors. Some of these are general risk factors, applying to child and adolescent psychopathology and distress independently from the status of immigrants’ offspring (among them there are some risk factors related to poor social conditions, independently from being an immigrant or a low-social-class Western citizen. Other factors are specific of migration, some of them being related to: a different ways of immigrated families to situate themselves within the host society (assimilation, separation, integration, marginality; b cultural/familiar attitudes in child’s nurture and education; c the family role of women as well as factors specific of the pregnancy period in immigrants; d the ability of the school system to enhance and support children’s abilities to integrate within the new society; e the political/bureaucratic facilitation/impediment to the regularization of VISA, with the consequent effect on the sense of identity/rejection within/from the host society.In conclusion, the programs for monitoring immigrants’ living and health conditions should also include: the assessment of parental skills, the dynamic indicators of risk and protection indexes, the assessment of living conditions and social school environment, with a careful attention to those early signs of discomfort that might precede possible later onset of psychopathology and/or social distress.
Full Text Available Communication is a must and family communication enhances family ties. This study is design to discover whether quantity of time spent between parents and children have a direct impact on children misconduct activities. This is a quantitative study using a survey questionnaire. Data were gathered from 1163 respondents which comprised of 641 secondary school children and 522 parents and were analyzed using SPSS software. The data collection process took three months to be completed. The outcome showed that the children perceive the amount of time spent with their parents does have an impact towards their misconduct activities. However, it was not the same for the parents. It seems that parents did not perceive that the amount spent for communicating with their children will affect their childrenâs misconduct activities. Parents should pay more attention to the time that they spent with their children as their children value the time that they spent with their parentsâ. It is crucial for parents to allocate some time in their hectic schedule to communicate with the children so that the children would not feel neglected and left out by their own parents thus making them prone to unhealthy activities.
Abused parents are the forgotten victims of family violence. This paper reports on the victimisation of 50 parents who are members of a lay support group, "Parents of Rebellious Children" (PORCH). Although it was not the aim of this study to investigate the role that TS could possibly play, it was a serendipity finding that TS may be a contributing factor in the rebelliousness exhibited by some children. These parents did not only experience severe verbal and physical abuse but also suffered ...
Huang, Huei-Lin; Chao, Chia-Chen; Tu, Chuan-Ching; Yang, Pin-Chen
It has been observed that it is relatively difficult for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to follow social rules and behave in a socially desirable manner. The ADHD children in Chinese culture, which emphasizes Confucian values, might encounter even greater adjustment difficulties. The purpose of the present study is to implement a behavioral parent training program in a Confucian environment and examine its effectiveness. Twenty-three ADHD preschoolers (age: 3-6 years) and their parents were selected to participate in the present study. Fourteen of these 23 parents completed a 10-session parent training program. Parent ratings of ADHD/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and problem behaviors at home were collected at the first, fourth, sixth, seventh, and tenth sessions. Three instruments were used to evaluate treatment outcome: the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-Parent Form, Child Attention Profile, and Home Situations Questionnaire. The results showed that both ADHD/ODD symptoms and home behaviors of these 14 children improved significantly after the parent training. There was also a significant decline in the severity of symptoms and problem behaviors at home with the progression of training. These findings support the effectiveness of this parent training program for parents of ADHD children in an environment of Confucianism. Limitations of the present study and future direction for research are discussed. PMID:12753567
Francine C Jellesma
Full Text Available Past research shows that imaginary companions are a normal phenomenon in childhood and do not indicate risk for psychopathology. The aim of this study was to see if parents are nevertheless concerned about imaginary companions. Internet-forums were searched in English, German, and Dutch in order to answer this question. Parental messages about present imaginary companions were analysed. Analyses of 89 posts made on a diverse set of internet-forums for parents revealed that half the parents expressed concerns about imaginary companions, especially parents with children older than 4.5 years old. When the imaginary companion was older than the child, parents were more likely to be concerned. Almost all messages were about imaginary companions, which might indicate that parents are less concerned about personified objects. The results signify that parents need more information in order to ensure they know imaginary companions are a normal childhood-experience.
Full Text Available Human rights are the basic standards that people need to live in dignity. In addition to the rights that are available to all people, there are rights that apply only to children. Children need special rights because of their unique needs; they need additional protection that adults don’t. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international document that sets out all of the rights that children have – a child is defined in the Convention as any person under the age of 18. On the other hand Islam recognises family as a basic social unit. Along with the husband-wife relationship the Parent-child relationship is the most important one. To maintain any social relationship both parties must have some clear-cut Rights as well as obligations. The relationships are reciprocal. Duties of one side are the Rights of the other side. So in Parent-child relationship the Rights of parents are the obligations (duties of the children and vice versa, the Rights of children are obligations (duties of parents. Islam clearly defines the Rights of Parents (which mean duties of children and obligations of parents (which means Rights of children.
Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi; Assareh,Marzeyeh; Heidaripoor, Amirahossein; Rad,Raheleh Eslami; Pishjoo, Masoud
Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based...
Park, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Young In
In order to understand how mothers develop their parenting styles under rapidly changing cultural contexts, this study examines and compares Korean upper-middle-class mothers' parental goals and real parenting practices as they reported. For this purpose, face-to-face in-depth interviews with 20 Korean mothers were conducted. By analyzing the…
Cassidy, J; Parke, R D; Butkovsky, L; Braungart, J M
The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of parent and child emotional expressiveness within the family context, to examine links between these patterns and children's peer relations, and to examine whether these links might be mediated by children's understanding of emotions. Subjects were 61 kindergarten and first-grade white, middle-class children and their parents. Parent and child expressiveness were assessed in a laboratory ring-toss game designed to elicit a range of emotional responses. Parent expressiveness in the home was also assessed with Halberstadt's Family Expressiveness Questionnaire. The questionnaire, completed by both mother and father, assesses a range of emotions in a variety of settings typical of many families, and consists of items tapping both positive and negative expressiveness. Children were interviewed about their understanding of emotions across a broad range of areas. Results indicated that maternal expressiveness (home) and paternal expressiveness (home and laboratory) but not children's expressiveness with parents were associated with children's peer relations. Although children's understanding of emotions was generally not associated with family expressiveness, understanding predicted children's peer relations. In addition, children's understanding influenced the links between maternal expressiveness in the home and peer relations and between paternal expressiveness in the laboratory and peer relations. This pattern of results underscores the importance of the emotional climate of the family for the development of children's social relations with peers. PMID:1600825
McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.
Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that affect academic achievement. The concept of family, attachment styles, different parent attitudes and reflection on children academic lifes of these attitudes are examined.
Kaslow, Florence W.
Discusses psycholegal issues involved in intraspousal and interfamily law suits. Delineates six categories of lawsuits. Suggests that conflicts in families are already fairly extreme when adult children sue parents and that family lawsuits often make rifts irreparable. (Author/CM)
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that affect academic achievement. The concept of family, attachment styles, different parent attitudes and reflection on children academic lifes of these attitudes are examined.
Full Text Available Alternating residence for children with separated parents has become increasingly popular in Sweden over the last few decades. In this article, a brief background to the use of alternating residence in Sweden will be provided. Relevant legislation will be described and some of the apparent problems in connection to this kind of living arrangement will also be discussed. It is estimated that approximately one out of every five children with separated parents today are living alternately with both parents. The high frequency of alternating residence can probably be explained, to a great extent, by determined legislative work to ensure that joint custody is the main rule for separated parents. Joint custody after separation encourages parents to take a more active part in the child’s life. Alternating residence can be seen as the optimal way to ensure that a child is provided natural and stress-free contact with both parents in the different events of everyday life that is not possible when the child lives with one parent. However, there are also problems related to alternating residence that need to be addressed. The possibility for the courts to decide on alternating residence against the will of one of the parents appears to have little justification considering that one of the prerequisites for this form of living arrangement is that it is beneficial for children if their parents can co-operate. There are also other aspects of the regulation of alternating residence that need to be improved, in particular questions concerning the child maintenance. Different aspects of the public social security system for children with separated parents also need to be adjusted to provide just and fair solutions for children with alternating residence. Finally, since alternating residence is motivated by a desire to protect the best interests of the child, further research clarifying the experiences of children with alternating residence needs to be carried
@@ It is natural for young people to be critical of their parents at times and to blame them for most of the misunderstandings between them. They have always complained, more or less justly, that their parents are out of touch with modern ways; that they are possessive and dominant; that they do not trust their children to deal with crisis; that they talk too much about certain problems-and that have no sense of humour, at least in parent-child relationships.
Livingstone, Sonia; Mascheroni, Giovanna; Dreier, Michael; CHAUDRON STEPHANE; LAGAE KAAT
Despite being often ambivalent regarding the potential benefits and risks of digital media, parents begin thinking about, and finding ways to manage, the digital media use of their children when they are very young. Partly, they act out of already-established styles of parenting and family values, extending these to ICT uses at home as soon as these begin. Partly, they are already mediating the activities of their older children, and they adjust their approach to include their younger chil...
Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…
Nguyen Thi Van HANH
Full Text Available Family is a social institution. It is a product of history defined by the economic, political, cultural and social conditions of a given society. In Vietnam, industrialization and urbanization have considerably affected to family, changing its size, structure, relationship and quality. This article has the objective of studying the relationship among parents and children in Vietnamese family nowadays through the below factors: (1 the care of parents on their children; (2 the amount of time parents use for taking care of their children; (3 the way parents use for teaching their children; (3 behavior and desires of parents on son and daughter. Main methods used are secondary data analyzing and in-depth interview. Figures on Vietnamese family used in this paper are taken from National Survey on Family 2006 carried out by Family Department of the Population, Family and Children Committee, the General Statistics Office, the Family and Gender research Institute and the United Nation Children’s Fund and some other resources. We can see from the result that there are many changes in the relationship among parents and children in Vietnamese family nowadays. On one hand, it is getting more democratic and there are more equality among sons and daughters. On the other hand, parents seem not to care much about their children as before for they have lots of other things to do. The changes in the relationship among parents and children in Vietnamese family are considered the consequence of the industrialization and urbanization period, and to its turn, it is one of the main causes for the instability of Vietnamese family structure.
Virtala, Maria; Suikkanen, Aino-Kaisa
The purpose of this final project was to describe the harmful effects of parental substance abuse from child perspective as having to grow up in a substance abusing family is considered as child maltreatment. In addition, the trends in parental substance abuse and the children's visibility in the treatment cycle were stressed as the data was gathered from Järvenpää Addiction Hospital's children's treatment documents. This study is of qualitative nature including 80 treatment documents fro...
Matthews, Hannah; Walker, Christina
Quality child care enables parents to work or go to school while also providing young children with the early childhood education experiences needed for healthy development. The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary federal program that provides funding for child care assistance for low-income working parents. Child care…
Levin, Douglas; Arafeh, Sousan; Deniz, Carla Baker; Gottesman, Julie
This report is intended to provide information to parents and other primary caregivers to help them consider what effects their family media use strategies and practices can have on their young children, and to provide ideas and strategies to help parents and caregivers select and use media resources with their families in developmentally…
Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Adapted from a series of 20 monthly columns which originally appeared in Highlights for Children, Inc.'s "Newsletter of Parenting," the material in this booklet explores: (1) ways in which television influences viewers; (2) what television teaches; and (3) some positive aspects of television. It also suggests activities for parents which will…
Singer, George H. S.
The study examined the efficacy of a stress management training procedure for reducing anxiety and depression in parents of severely handicapped children between the ages of 4 and 16. Thirty-six parents were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups which completed pre- and post-measures of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the…
Full Text Available A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. Parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. A total sample of 210 children in the age group of 8-10 years were chosen for the study which was equally divided among 3 different schools i.e. Municipal, Private, & Aided with the help of purposive sampling. Aself- structured questionnaire was prepared on children's perception on parenting styles with 10 hypothetical statements. The tool was validated and the reliability of the tool was found Father: r = 0.979, Mother: r= 0.983. The data was quantitatively analyzed. The findings indicate that the schooling background doesn't affect the parenting styles. Most of the parents use authoritative parenting styles, want their children to be responsive and mature, they develop a sense of independence in their children, but still have limits and consequences.
In this paper empirical evidence is presented on the determinants of obesity in youth in the U.S., with particular emphasis on isolating the effects of diet and parent's fatness on the obesity outcome. The results show that parents fatness has statistically important impacts on skinfold growth among children and adolescents. Diets between obese and non-obese youth, however, do not differ substantially. Evidence that youth with "fatter parents" are able to produce more skin-fold or adipose tis...
This paper summarizes the most recent empirical research on parental and social investments in children, with a focus on policies providing non-parental child care. The empirical findings are conceptualized in a simple theoretical framework showing how parents' decisions and policy intervention interact in contributing to child's development. The results from these studies are presented taking into account the institutional context where the policy has been implemented and the timing of the i...
Shahrokh Amiri; Mohammad Ali Ghoreishizadeh; Yasaman Alavizadeh; Farnaz Saedi
Background. Evaluation of family system is an important area in the context of child and adolescent mental health. This study aimed to estimate psychiatric disorders in parents of children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder (BID). Methods and Materials. In this cross-sectional study, during 2012-2013, all of the children and adolescents diagnosed with BID based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version were included. All of the parents (bot...
Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.
Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…
Norlin, David; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Malin
International research indicates that children with disabilities are more exposed to negative parenting than their non-disabled peers. The mechanisms behind this increased risk are likely operating at the levels of the individual child, the family and the broader social context. The present study investigated harsh parenting practices using…
Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684
Full Text Available The family and its important role in the development of the child is the inspiration for many types of research that have the intention to emphasize certain aspects of family life and the consequences of the family relations in the development of the children. The issue of this research is to find out if there is a connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and self-concept in the children of early school age. The research is conducted on 30 children of single-parent families. The children of these single-parent families are children who have lived in families with conflicts and they have been direct or indirect participants in the conflict of the divorced parents. In the process of research, we applied projective techniques: Machover which consists of drawing a person’s figure, as well as a drawing a house and a tree-HTP (House-Tree-Person.The results are obtained through qualitative analysis and interpretation of each drawing particularly. During the investigation the relation between the variables, it is confirmed that there is a considerable connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and the self-concept in children. It is confirmed, during the process that the children of divorced parents from negative self-concept. In children of single-parent families it is indicated that this group of children in relation to the psychological picture for themselves presented the following characteristics: lowered EGO, mechanisms for defense, feeling of insecurity, low self-confidence, aggressiveness, great virility, and caution.
Mæhle Magne; Paulsen Bård; Lydersen Stian; Løhre Audhild; Vatten Lars J
Abstract Background Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache) w...
Full Text Available The present study investigates whether the results of the study of Willinger and Eisenwort (2005 could also apply to a sample of preschool children not referred to a tertiary medical institution. Moreover, we were interested in the accuracy of maternal estimates of their children’s development regarding vocabulary for parenting stress, regarding behavioural problems, intellectual development, age and gender of the child. 108 children between the ages of three and six and their mothers were investigated by several diagnostic scales concerning child development with respect to language, motor and intellectual development as well as child behavioural problems and parenting stress concering child and parent characteristics. The mothers’ estimates regarding the children`s vocabulary were assessed by the same vocabulary test used for the children by presenting the test as questionnaire to the mothers. There was a significant trend towards an overestimation of a child’s developmental functioning regarding vocabulary. Group comparisons between groups of different levels of maternal overestimations (mild, moderate and severe overestimation of their child’s language development with respect to parenting stress levels considering age, sex, intellectual develoment and child behaviour problems showed the lowest parenting stress level regarding child characteristics in the group of severe overestimation and the highest level of parenting stress regarding parent characteristics in the group of mild overestimation. Significant influences of child behaviour and intellectual level on parenting stress were found. The results showed that mothers should not be used as only source of information about their children’s developmental status, especially with respect to their active vocabulary. However, maternal overestimation seems to have a positive impact on parenting stress regarding child characteristics, which could possibly be explained as a defense
Krevans, Julia; Gibbs, John C.
Ten- to 14-year olds and their mothers and teachers completed measures of parental discipline and children's prosocial behavior, empathy, and guilt. Parents' use of inductive rather than assertive discipline was related to children's prosocial behavior; children of inductive parents were more empathic than other children; and children's empathy…
Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S
Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad(TM) were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21-75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child's positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents' perceptions of their child's technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27242603
Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark
Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…
Wolfe, David A.; Mendes, Maria G.; Factor, David
A parent-administered program to reduce television viewing of primary school-aged children was tested on two boys and three girls from three different families who were heavy viewers of television. Children were given 20 unearned tokens each week by their parents, which they could exchange for up to 10 hours of viewing time. The child earned a gold token for viewing in accordance with the rules for 4 consecutive weeks, which was exchanged for a reward. Parents were given instructions to follo...
A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. Parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. A total sample of 210 children in the age group of 8-10 years were chosen for the study which was equally divided among 3 different schools i.e. Municipal, Private, & Aided with the help of purposive sam...
Breitenstein, Susan M; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon
Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP) and comparing its effects for African-American (n = 291) versus Latino (n = 213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from the CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children's behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities. PMID:22622598
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Methods Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a ≥ 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. Results In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020 but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day, was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037. For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038. Conclusions There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys
Vinila, V. Josephine; Ravichandran, Aparna; Santhi, Prakash S.; Prakash, S. G. R.; Narender, K.
The families of children with hearing impairments are more focused on early detection and intervention. Transition to school is a stressful experience to the parents as they miss out on understanding the importance of transition process and the information required for a successful, efficient and effective transition to school. The current study…
Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study investigated the combination of mothers' and fathers' parenting styles (affection, behavioral control, and psychological control) that would be most influential in predicting their children's internal and external problem behaviors. A total of 196 children (aged 5-6 years) were followed up six times from kindergarten to the second grade…
A conservative estimate is that one in six children in school today has a parent dependent on or addicted to alcohol or other drugs. This places these students at high risk for social and emotional problems, as well as for school failure, drug use, and delinquency. Schools, however, are a logical place to reach them. Identifying children of those…
Lyons, Rena; Brennan, Sara; Carroll, Clare
The everyday lives of children with disabilities are not well understood, with few studies exploring how participation in everyday life is conceptualized and given meaning. The overall aims of this study were, first, to explore parental views of their children's participation and, second, to identify barriers and facilitators in relation to…
Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine
This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
Being the parent of a disabled child is not easy, it is experienced as a situation marked by stress, crises and grief. As Vygotsky described eighty years ago, the development of children with disabilities and the culture do not fit as they do for non-disabled children. The development of a child...
Kapalka, G. M.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of eye contact in reducing ADHD children's problems with compliance. Seventy-six parents of ADHD boys between ages 5 and 10 were randomized into two treatment groups and a control group. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that, as hypothesized, eye contact was effective in reducing ADHD children's problems with…
Luce, Megan R.; Callanan, Maureen A.; Smilovic, Sarah
Recent experimental research highlights young children's selectivity in learning from others. Little is known, however, about the patterns of information that children actually encounter in conversations with adults. This study investigated variation in parents' tendency to focus on testable evidence as a way to answer science-related questions…
Esche, Jeanne; Griffin, Carol
The handbook for parents of deaf blind children describes practical techniques of child care for such activities as sitting, standing, walking, sleeping, washing, eating, dressing, toilet training, disciplining, and playing. For instance, it is explained that some visually handicapped children acquire mannerisms in their early years because they…
Wolfel, Oliver; Heineck, Guido
Although it is well-known that individuals' risk attitudes are related to behavioral outcomes such as smoking, portfolio decisions, and educational attainment, there is virtually no evidence of whether parental risk attitudes affect the educational attainment of their dependent children. We add to this literature and examine children's secondary…
Under Prime Minister Tony Blair's New Labour government, increased criminalisation of previously non-criminal behaviour, anti-social behaviour and greater accountability of children and parents for their behaviour were evident. The article provides an overview of anti-social behaviour legislation and the implications for children, schools and…
Derman-Sparks, Louise; Gutierrez, Maria; Phillips, Carol Brunson
Based on research indicating that children between ages 2 and 5 become aware of gender, race, ethnicity, and disabilities, this brochure attempts to assist parents in dealing with misconceptions, discomfort, fear, and rejection of differences that may develop into prejudice in their young children. The brochure argues that bias adversely…
Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge about the impact of parental education on the development strategies of justice of children and adolescents in destabilizing the social conditions of modern society determines the relevance of the author's work. The study involved 64 subjects (39 women and 25 men aged 24 to 48 years, with minor children, including 30 subjects with a harmonious style of parenting and 34 - with disharmonious style. We used a questionnaire "Analysis of family relationships" (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitskis, a technique of studying legal awareness of J. Tapp and F. Levine, as well as specially designed questionnaires, aimed at studying the cognitive (knowledge of parents about legal socialization and behavioral (conversations on topics of law, reinforcement and punishment of right and wrong actions, monitoring of performance, personal example components of legal socialization. We obtained new empirical evidence on the relation between the features of legal socialization of children and parent-child relationship, clarified the role of the individual types of parental attitudes in the formation of the legal socialization of children, revealed the factors of parental attitudes that hinder and facilitate the process of legal socialization of children
Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Noël, Marie-Pascale
Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition capacities and parenting behaviors were assessed in a three-wave longitudinal data collection. The main analyses examined the impact of parenting on the development of children's inhibition capacities. They were conducted using a multilevel modeling (MLM) framework. The results lead to the conclusion that both mothers and fathers contribute through their child-rearing behavior to their children's executive functioning, even when controlling for age-related improvement (maturation) and important covariates such as gender, verbal IQ, and place of enrollment. More significant relations between children's inhibition development and parenting were displayed for mothers than for fathers. More precisely, parenting behaviors that involve higher monitoring, lower discipline, inconsistency and negative controlling, and a positive parenting style are associated with good development of inhibition capacities in children. PMID:24607865
Frenandez-Alviraa, Juan Miguel; Mouratidou, Theodora; Bammann, Karin;
Objective: To assess the relationship between parental education level and the consumption frequency of obesity-related foods in European children. Design: The analysis was based on data from the cross-sectional baseline survey of a prospective cohort study. The effects of parental education...... on food consumption were explored using analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Setting Primary schools and pre-schools of selected regions in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Subjects Participants (n 14 426) of the IDEFICS baseline cohort study aged 2 to 9...... years. Results: Parental education level affected the intake of obesity-related foods in children. Children in the low and medium parental education level groups had lower odds of more frequently eating low-sugar and low-fat foods (vegetables, fruits, pasta/noodles/rice and wholemeal bread) and higher...
Mackenzie, Sandra; Evers, Susan
A survey was conducted to ascertain parenting concerns and willingness to participate in parenting groups as a means of addressing concerns. Questionnaires were sent to 121 families with a child aged three years or under. Mothers and fathers were asked to complete separate questionnaires. Analysis of the 85 sets of questionnaires returned indicates that more mothers (51.8%) than fathers (24.9%) had at least five parental concerns. The top five concerns of mothers were “discipline”, “childhood...
Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Bagheri Hagh, Ali; Kolbadi Nejad, Mohammad; Amirsalari, Susan; Torkaman, Mohammad
Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross-sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics were enrolled. To investigate the general orientation of parents about their child sleep problem we asked them a global question at first regarding sleep of their child. After that, the Persian version of BEARS questionnaire was completed by them. Only 30 (9.9%) parents reported sleep problems in their children in response to primary global question but by collecting the data from BEARS questionnaire it was revealed 45.18% (136/301) of children had one or more of sleep disorders at all. As mentioned 136 (45.18%) children had slept problems of which the most frequent complaint (15.28%) was related to bedtime problems. The second complaint (11.96%) was awakening during the night children. A significant association between sleep problems and child gender was not found. Co-sleeping with parents was found in 55.48% of all children in this study. Despite the high prevalence and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the present study suggests that parents underreport sleep problems at consultation. We suggest children should be assessed for sleep disorders in monitoring and health screening visits. PMID:26553088
Full Text Available Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross - a sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics were enrolled. To investigate the general orientation of parents about their child sleep problem we asked them a global question at first regarding sleep of their child. After that, the Persian version of BEARS questionnaire was completed by them. Only 30 (9.9% parents reported sleep problems in their children in response to primary global question but by collecting the data from BEARS questionnaire it was revealed 45.18% (136/301 of children had one or more of sleep disorders at all. As mentioned 136 (45.18% children had slept problems of which the most frequent complaint (15.28% was related to bedtime problems. The second complaint (11.96% was awakening during the night children. A significant association between sleep problems and child gender was not found. Co-sleeping with parents was found in 55.48% of all children in this study. Despite the high prevalence and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the present study suggests that parents underreport sleep problems at consultation. We suggest children should be assessed for sleep disorders in monitoring and health screening visits.
Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon
Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP), and comparing its effects for African-American (n=291) versus Latino (n=213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior proble...
Ros, Rosmary; Hernandez, Jennifer; Graziano, Paulo A.; Bagner, Daniel M.
This study investigated the extent to which parental homework completion during behavioral parent training (BPT) for children with or at risk for developmental delay contributed to parenting and child outcomes. Parents of 48 children (Mage = 44.17 months, SD = 14.29; 73% male; 72% White) with developmental delay (IQ < 75) or at risk for developmental delay (due to premature birth) with co-occurring clinically elevated externalizing behavior problems received Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (...
Strayer, Janet; Roberts, William
In Roberts and Strayer (1996) we described how emotional factors were strongly related to children's empathy, which in turn strongly predicted prosocial behavior. This paper focuses on how these child emotional factors, assessed across methods and sources, related to parental factors (empathy, emotional expressiveness, encouragement of children's…
Brown, Ana C.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Liu, Xianchen; Haine, Rachel A.
This article considers the implications of suicide and violent deaths (including suicide, homicide, and accidents) for the development of interventions for parentally bereaved children. Analyses of data from the Family Bereavement Program find minimal differences in children's mental health problems, grief or risk and protective factors based on…
Shut up! : social inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities in Ghana : an empirical study of how parents and teachers experience socialinclusion [i.e. social inclusion] of children with intellectual disabilities
The aim of this study is to understand social inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities from the perspectives of parents and teachers. The specific context is to understand the inclusion of these children through meaningful participation in social activities. In-depth interviews were held with six biological parents of children with intellectual disabilities and six teachers who teach children with intellectual disabilities to explore their experiences on contexts t...
Ihmeideh, Fathi; Khasawneh, Samer; Mahfouz, Safi; Khawaldeh, Moustafa
This study aimed to investigate the problems facing parental involvement in Jordanian kindergartens from the parents' perspectives. A 36-item questionnaire that addressed five domains was designed by the researchers and distributed among the study participants. The study sample consisted of 297 parents of kindergarten children from various…
McGregor, Sharon A.; Knoll, Monja A.
Research into parental homework-related experiences has predominantly focused on parental attitudes to homework. This research has shown that parental attitudes can affect the formation of attitudes in children and subsequently their academic success. Most research has focused on a secondary school context, but there is still a lack of knowledge…
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Judy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.
Children with ADHD are often non-compliant with parental instructions. Various methods have been used to reduce problem behaviors in these children, with medication and manipulation of behavioral contingencies being the most prevalent. An objection often raised by parents is that these management strategies require them to impose external control…
Mihić Vladimir; Mihić-Lisul Ivana
This paper aims to answer whether an ethnic distance in young children, age 11-12 (third and fourth year of primary school)s, as well as if their parents can be determined and what are the levels of that distance. Main techniques used were Bogardus` scale of social distance (somewhat modified for the children) and a questionnaire for the parents dealing with some aspects of knowledge about the culture. Results show that levels of ethnic distance are much higher in children, but also that this...
Shahla Afsharpaiman; Ali Bagheri Hagh; Mohammad Kolbadi Nejad; Susan Amirsalari; Mohammad Torkaman
Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross - a sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics...
Wiefferink, Carin H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H. M.
It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion…
Cerezo, M Angeles; Dasi, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan Carlos
This research presents an evaluation of the intervention dose-effect of the Parent-Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS). The PCPS is a universal community-based program to support parenting, during the first 18 months, and to promote protective adaptive systems in children through a schedule of quarterly office-based appointments, starting at 3 months of age. Generally children attend for six visits. When the Program opens in a particular area, parents of all children under 18 months are invited. The different ages of the children who are joining present a unique opportunity to obtain groups to evaluate the program dose-effect using a cohort-sequential design. This dose-effect on parent and infant outcomes was examined by: (1) self-report of parental sense of competence and factors negatively affecting their parenting and (2) the quality of the child's attachment, using Ainsworth's Strange Situation Test. The study was based on 594 families. Results showed dose effects for parental sense of competence, in the parental self-efficacy dimension. The proportion of securely attached children was significantly higher in groups with medium and high program dose. These results were obtained after considering the effect on the parent and child outcomes of two socio-demographic factors that showed differences among the groups under study: single parenthood and working at home. In the variables under study the PCPS, serving a socially deprived area, showed dose effects. The evaluation strategy can be useful for evaluators and planners working with universal programs that offer a longitudinal service. PMID:23298818
Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Andersen, Anette;
parent of each child were invited to participate in the Hi Five baseline study. The response rate for children answering a questionnaire was 89% (n = 7,525), and 36% of the parents (n = 3,008) participated in a weekly illness registration study using text messages (short message service) over a period of...... 22 weeks. Text messages and questionnaire data were linked at the individual level, leaving 2,269 child-parent pairs in the analysis, corresponding to 27% of the eligible sample. RESULTS: The agreement between children's and parents' reports of illness-related absenteeism was good, with high absolute......OBJECTIVES: To examine the agreement between children's and parents' reporting of illness-related absenteeism from school and to examine predictors for disagreement between children and parents. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 8,438 schoolchildren aged from 5 to 15 years (grade 0-8) and one...
Full Text Available This study explored psychological features in 33 children aged 8—17 years suffering from rheumatic disorder and in their mothers. 11 children were in the emergency department, 22 in the department of rheumatology. The following methods were used: observation, conversation, the Draw-a-Person and Three Wishes tests, the Dembo-Rubinstein self-esteem scales, and the Parent’s Essay technique. According to the level of their mental activity the children were divided into 4 groups: ‘inactive’, ‘passive’, ‘relatively active’ and ‘active’. Working with the ‘inactive’ children was impossible; the main task was to help their mothers cope with emotional distress. The ‘passive’ children received emotional support and were taught how to understand and express their needs; their parents were taught how to communicate with the child in various ways. Working with the ‘relatively active’ children and their parents had the aim of reestablish- ing productive interactions between them. Working with the ‘active’ children consisted of supporting their self-esteem, self-respect and interests; their parents were taught to better understand age-specific and indi- vidual psychological features of the child and to take into account limitations caused by the illness.
Sheryl Jyothi Cornelio; Nayak, Baby S; Anice George
Introduction: Childhood cancer is the leading cause of death among children. Leukemia is one of the most common childhood cancers. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers on parenting children with leukemia. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach with phenomenological design was used. To collect depth information from the mothers of children with leukemia, purposive sampling technique was adopted. Data were collected from ten mothers. Se...
Birch Leann L; Ventura Alison K
Abstract Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess ...
Roberts, Kevin J.
Parents need to be aware of the dangers and the opportunities the cyber world offers. Video games are being used in the classroom. Commerce is increasingly taking place online and computers are indispensable in the workplace. A cyber-oriented child possesses some great advantages. The author urges parents to become experts in the cyber world so…
Full Text Available While there is a strong evidence base for behavioral parent training in the treatment of child conduct problems, the clinical impact is less well known. Metaanalyses report effect sizes in the medium range, but the common practice of reporting “small,” “medium,” and “large” effects can be misleading and difficult to understand for practitioners and clients. There is a need for more research addressing the clinical significance of behavioral parent training, which would help to bridge the gap between research and practice. In the first part of this report, a reanalysis in terms of clinical significance of two outcome studies published by the authors was conducted. In the second part, the results from the first part were compared to six outcome studies published by other authors. The median number needed to treat across studies was five, which means that for every five treated children, one shows reliable change and moves from the dysfunctional to the functional population.
Rescorla, Leslie A; Bochicchio, Lauren; Achenbach, Thomas M;
informant differences varied in magnitude across the societies studied. Cross-informant correlations for problem scale scores varied moderately across societies studied and were significantly higher for Externalizing than Internalizing problems. Parents and teachers tended to rate the same items as low......Parent-teacher cross-informant agreement, although usually modest, may provide important clinical information. Using data for 27,962 children from 21 societies, we asked the following: (a) Do parents report more problems than teachers, and does this vary by society, age, gender, or type of problem......? (b) Does parent-teacher agreement vary across different problem scales or across societies? (c) How well do parents and teachers in different societies agree on problem item ratings? (d) How much do parent-teacher dyads in different societies vary in within-dyad agreement on problem items? (e) How...
Keatinge, Diana; Stevenson, Karen; Fitzgerald, Mary
Two linked descriptive qualitative studies, conducted 12 months apart aimed to identify parents' perceptions of discharge information relating to a recent admission of their child to hospital. Study one participants included parents (n = 7) who telephoned a paediatric telephone triage service seeking information about their child's postdischarge care. Study 2 included parents (n = 12) of children admitted to a regional hospital's general paediatric ward. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews conducted with parents following their child's discharge from hospital. These data were analysed using qualitative content analysis separately. The studies were linked in so far as the results from study one informed the modification of the design of study two and its interview protocol. Both studies revealed verbal as well as written information is helpful to parents, plain language usage is important, messages from the health-care team are sometimes inconsistent, and parents need information specific to their particular circumstances. PMID:19703052
Lei He; Qiu-Yan Liao; You-Qi Huang; Shuo Feng; Xiao-Ming Zhuang
:The modified HBM provided a good theoretical basic for understanding factors associated with parents' decisions on their children's vaccination against seasonal influenza.
Daud, Atia Taufik Ismail
The main aim of this thesis was to explore the possible association between parents severe emotional trauma and their children s psychopathology (Transgenerational transmission of parents traumatic experiences to their children), as well as resiliency factors and the relationship between prolonged traumatisation and personality development. The association between parental trauma and children s psychopathology was explored by investigating a group of parents with tortu...
Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeff A.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Diamond, Guy; Schloredt, Kelly A.
This study examined whether improvement in parents' depression was linked with changes in their children's depressive symptoms and functioning. Participants were 223 parents and children ranging in age from 7 to 17 years old (M = 12.13, SD = 2.31); 126 parents were in treatment for depression and 97 parents were nondepressed. Children were…
Reblin, Patricia A.
A program was implemented to involve 10 parents in helping their preschool children with language delays. Monthly parent support groups were held, and 10 professional speakers lectured to parents on child development topics. Parents were trained by a speech language pathologist to be language facilitators for their children. Parents were also…
Peay, Holly Landrum; Rosenstein, Donald L; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles
Children of individuals with bipolar disorder (BPD) have increased risk for mood disorders and other adverse psychosocial outcomes due to genetic and environmental risk. Though parents with BPD are aware of increased risk to children, little is known about efforts undertaken in response or their perceived utility. Among parents who self-report with BPD, this study identifies key variables associated with parental coping with children's risk of mood disorders; and explores the relationship between monitoring children's moods and perceived coping efficacy. In this U.S. study, active parental coping with, and cognitive distancing from, child's risk were measured using novel scales. Parents (n = 266) who self-identified as having BPD completed a web-based survey. They had at least one unaffected child. Most participants endorsed monitoring their children's moods. Monitoring was associated with increased perceived control over the child's well-being (p self-report of current depression (β = 0.16, p = 0.037), explaining 13.8% of the variance (F = 8.81, p distancing from the child's risk was positively associated with confidence in diagnosis (β = 0.25, p = 0.001), and negatively associated with self-report of current mania (β = -0.19, p = 0.007), perceiving BPD as genetic (β = -0.26, p distancing. The findings support the importance of understanding causal attributions and the value of genetic education and counseling for parents with BPD. Further research is necessary to elucidate the psychological benefits of active coping versus cognitive distancing from child's risk, and explore additional variables that predict parental coping with children's risk of mood disorders. PMID:24581078
There has been much discussion worldwide on parenting after parental separation, especially on the desirability for the children involved of equally shared care (co-parenting) and the feasibility of legal arrangements in which the children alternate their residence between their parents’ houses (res
Kirkland, Cassandra L.; Skuban, Emily Moye; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Ketring, Scott A.; Bradford, Angela; Smith, Thomas; Lucier-Greer, Mallory
Research indicates that the quality of co-parenting and couple relationships has an impact on parenting and on children's development, including their social skills and academic abilities. However, few applied studies have tested whether efforts to enhance the couple and co-parenting relationship result in benefits to the children, and no research…
Terrett, Gill; White, Roxanne; Spreckley, Michele
The purpose of this study was to assess changes in children's language skills and parenting stress following participation in the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program (PCMGP). The intervention group consisted of 29 parents (age range 24 to 43 years, "M" = 33.5, SD = 4.1) and 30 children (18 females and 12 males) with ages ranging from 1 to 46 months…
Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers…
van Dongen N
Full Text Available Nadine van Dongen,1 Ad A Kaptein21Patient Intelligence Panel Health Ltd, London, United Kingdom; 2Section Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: We evaluated the opinions of parents in The Netherlands concerning treatment of their children with growth hormone, and examined beliefs and perceptions about treatment and quality of health care communication and support.Methods: An Internet survey was completed by 69 parents who had children prescribed growth hormone and were part of the Patient Intelligence Panel. Acceptance of the diagnosis and treatment was investigated with reference to four topics, ie, search and quality of information, involvement in decision-making process, operational aspects, and emotional problems and support.Results: Among the parents surveyed, 48% reported a lack of freedom to choose the type of growth hormone device that best suited their needs, 92% believed that their children (and they themselves would benefit if the children self-administered growth hormone, and 65% believed training to support self-administration would be helpful. According to 79%, the availability of support from another parent with experience of treating their own child with growth hormone, alongside their doctor, would be valuable. Thirty-seven percent of the parents indicated that their children felt anxious about administration of growth hormone, and 83% of parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome their anxiety. An increase in reluctance to receive treatment with growth hormone was observed by 40% of parents after the children reached puberty, and 57% of these parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome this reluctance.Conclusion: Understanding how growth hormone treatments and their implications are perceived by parents is a first step towards addressing quality of growth hormone treatment, which may be instrumental in improving adherence. The data show a need for
Swartling, U; Helgesson, G; Hansson, M G; Ludvigsson, J
Based on extensive questionnaire data, this paper focuses on parents' views about children's right to decide about participation in research. The data originates from 4000 families participating in a longitudinal prospective screening as 1997. Although current regulations and recommendations underline that children should have influence over their participation, many parents in this study disagree. Most (66%) were positive providing information to the child about relevant aspects of the study. However, responding parents were split about whether or not children should at some point be allowed decisional authority when participating in research: 41.6% of the parents reported being against or unsure. Those who responded positively believed that children should be allowed to decide about blood-sampling procedures (70%), but to a less extent about participation (48.5%), analyses of samples (19.7%) and biological bank storage (15.4%). That as many as possible should remain in the study, and that children do not have the competence to understand the consequences for research was strongly stressed by respondents who do not think children should have a right to decide. When asked what interests they consider most important in paediatric research, child autonomy and decision-making was ranked lowest. We discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:19567697
Bois, Julien E; Lalanne, Julien; Delforge, Catherine
We examined parental influence on athletes' pre-competitive anxiety. The effect of parental presence during competition was studied as was the role of parenting practices. Data were collected from a sample of 341 athletes (201 basketball players and 140 tennis players) before an official competition. Analysis of variance indicated that the presence of both parents was associated with higher pre-competitive anxiety for all participants, except male tennis players. The absence of both parents did not result in less anxiety. A second analysis of variance revealed that females tennis players at provincial and national level perceived greater parental pressure than most other participants. Canonical correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between pre-competitive anxiety and parenting practices for tennis players, but not for basketball players. Directive behaviours and pressure were positively associated with pre-competitive anxiety for all tennis players, whereas praise and understanding was negatively related to anxiety for female tennis players only. PMID:19847683
The article reviews the current studies regarding language and cognitive development in children who are deaf. Deaf communicate orally and with sign language. 90 % of deaf children are born into hearing families and hearing parents in most cases do not know the sign language. Besides, hearing parents usually want for their child to become "normally" speaking. Most of the deaf children born into hearing families have very poor early communication. It is now well established that deaf children ...
Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.
We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…
The parental acceptance-rejection factor was considered by Rohner as one of the major parental factors influencing children's mental health. The "Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire PARQ" was administered to adolescents in nine countries. The results show that parental acceptance-rejection differs across countries. Fathers were more…
Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Schneider, Brian W.
Objective/Method: Statistically significant and clinically meaningful effects of behavioral parent training on parental functioning were examined for 20 children with ADHD and their parents who had successfully completed a psychosocial treatment for ADHD. Results/Conclusion: Findings suggest that behavioral parent training resulted in…
This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…
Ellingsen, R.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.; Crnic, K.
Background: Given the great benefits of effective parenting to child development under normal circumstances, and the even greater benefits in the face of risk, it is important to understand why some parents manage to be effective in their interactions with their child despite facing formidable challenges. This study examined factors that promoted…
Full Text Available Abused parents are the forgotten victims of family violence. This paper reports on the victimisation of 50 parents who are members of a lay support group, "Parents of Rebellious Children" (PORCH. Although it was not the aim of this study to investigate the role that TS could possibly play, it was a serendipity finding that TS may be a contributing factor in the rebelliousness exhibited by some children. These parents did not only experience severe verbal and physical abuse but also suffered serious damage to property at the hands of their violent children. They were often blamed if they spoke of their plight and received little moral support. Abused parents need to be recognized and treated as victims of violence. Eleven rebellious children who were treated for TS with psychotropic drugs, showed dramatic behavioural changes and the implications of such treatment are also indicated.
Patterson, Charlotte J
Legal and policy questions relevant to the lives of lesbian and gay parents and their children have recently been subjects of vigorous debate. Among the issues for which psychological research has been seen as particularly relevant are questions regarding child custody after divorce, same-sex marriage, adoption, and foster care. This article provides an overview of the current legal terrain for lesbian and gay parents and their children in the United States today, an overview of relevant social science research, and some commentary on the interface between the two. It is concluded that research findings on lesbian and gay parents and their children provide no warrant for legal discrimination against these families. PMID:19899878
Cassidy, Jude; Poehlmann, Julie; Shaver, Phillip R
The United States now incarcerates more people than any other country in the world (Pew Charitable Trust, 2008), and most of these incarcerated individuals have one or more children 18 years of age or younger (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). Although the actual number is not known because the information is not systematically collected by jails, prisons, schools, child welfare agencies, or other organizations or institutions, a conservative estimate is that more than three million children are affected (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008; Western & Wildeman, 2009). In editing this special issue we had two major goals: (1) to introduce the many issues raised by parental incarceration to readers already grounded in attachment theory and research and (2) to highlight the importance of an attachment perspective to those who study and work with incarcerated parents. The contributors to this special issue present conceptual and empirical articles focusing on attachment issues related to incarcerated parents and their children. This introduction provides an overview of these contributions. PMID:20582841
Parer, Justine Penelope
This thesis examines and explores the issues around ADHD for parents of children with ADHD. Interviews with parents are analysed using qualitative methods, and supported by data from the Norwegian ADHD magazine. The first section gives a history of the development of ADHD, and an overview of the Norwegian ADHD Association. Next we consider sociological theories of medicalisation, deviance and the sick role; risk and expertise; and feminist work on ADHD. The method used is qualitative, ...
Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.R.; Jongmans, M.J.; Kleber, R.J.
Objective. To strengthen trauma-informed health care by exploring parents’ experiences of assisting their child after single-incident trauma (eg, violence, accidents, and sudden loss). Method. Semistructured interviews with parents (N = 33) of 25 exposed children (8-12 years). Results. Responsive parenting after trauma emerged as a core theme, consisting of (a) being aware of a child’s needs and (b) acting on these needs. The authors identified 14 strategies, such as comparing behavior with s...
Wilson, Anna C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Smith, Kimberly A.
Parenting is related to children's adjustment, but little research has examined the role of parenting in children's responses to disasters. This study describes parenting responses specific to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and examines pre-9/11 parenting, child temperament, and 9/11-specific parenting as predictors of children's posttraumatic stress…
Higa, Charmaine K.; Fernandez, Shantel N.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Daleiden, Eric L.
Validity and parent-child agreement of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children-Parent Report (SPAI-C-P) were examined in a racially diverse sample of 158 students in Grades 5 through 8 (87 girls; ages 10 to 14; M = 11.53) and their caregivers. Children completed the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), and…
Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline
Background: The origins of childhood obesity invariably need to be looked at within a family context and several reviews have concluded in favour of parental involvement in the treatment of paediatric obesity. However, there is little consensus on the format, and next to weight outcomes behavioural outcomes also merit more attention when assessing program effectiveness. Method: In this pilot study, a total of 50 families with overweight children (aged 6-12) were randomly allocated to a parent...
The following article reports on a small-scale, exploratory study of aggressive and "problem" behaviour in pre-school children. This project was conceived in the wider context of anxieties about childhood and New Labour's policy focus on "anti-social" behaviour in children. Based on interviews with nursery staff and parents in addition to…
Maconochie, Heloise; McNeill, Fiona
According to the National Service Framework, children have a right to participate in the development of healthcare services and yet research suggests that young children are at risk of exclusion from user involvement initiatives. This paper outlines the findings of a participatory action research project conducted with families attending a health visitors' parent-baby group. A combination of participatory research methods were used to ascertain the infants' perspectives of the service and this led to a number of changes in terms of professional attitudes, service provision and working practices. Changes in professional attitudes included acknowledging the importance of social interaction to the children, recognising young children's views as embodied and produced within social interactions, and respecting children as active contributors and not simply as passive recipients of healthcare services. Changes in service provision resulted in redistributing resources, structures and spaces to take account of children's perspectives. Finally, reciprocity and responsiveness were seen as key components in enhancing young children's participation. PMID:20722326
Saulue, Paul; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Laluque, Jean-François; d'Incau, Emmanuel
Screening for the various forms of bruxism in children and adolescents requires a sound knowledge of the physiopathology of this parafunction in addition to the etiologic and associated factors and comorbidities. The international literature contains various suggestions for suitable treatment. The optimal therapeutic approach often involves multidisciplinary management of these young patients. Sleep bruxism (SB) is a common sleep disorder which can cause serious problems to the stomatognathic system such as damaged teeth, headaches, muscle pain and TMD. Dental professionals are responsible for the detection and prevention of these harmful impacts on the patient's oral health. However, SB is much more than a question of worn teeth. Patients with SB consult for other medical comorbidities such as nighttime breathing problems, insomnia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, moodiness and gastroesophogeal reflux before any course of treatment is initiated. If a comorbidity is diagnosed, the treatment approach will be aimed in the first instance at the medical disorder, while concurrently managing the repercussions of SB. On the other hand, in as far as the majority of young bruxers cease to grind their teeth before adolescence or adulthood, it is feasible to adopt wait-and-see and non-interventionist strategies for young children. However, it is preferable to have a better understanding of SB, notably on account of its potential association with psychological disorders during childhood. Daytime bruxism is characterized by teeth clenching (TC). First-line treatment involves encouraging patients to monitor their harmful parafunctional behavior and, consequently, change and cease it. This protocol is not always easy to apply, particularly in younger children. In such cases, cognitive-behavioral treatments and biofeedback techniques can also be used in daytime bruxism. PMID:26608467
Mercer, Joyce Ann
Children's spirituality has become a significant for-profit enterprise in North American consumer culture. This article explores the marketing of children's spirituality as an aspect of the larger construction of children as consumers in the context of late globalized capitalism. Playing off of parental anxieties over the need to avail their…
This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample…
Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn
The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…
Cohodes, Emily; Hagan, Melissa; Narayan, Angela; Lieberman, Alicia
Parents' childhood experiences of trauma may influence their reports of their children's behavior, and this may be particularly true when children are also traumatized. The present study proposed and tested a matched trauma hypothesis, positing that compared to parents without a childhood history of witnessing domestic violence (DV), parents with a childhood history of witnessing DV may report their children's trauma-related symptomatology differently following children's exposure to DV. Of 137 included parents (M age = 32 years; 93% mothers), 81 reported witnessing childhood DV (matched group), whereas 56 reported no childhood DV exposure (nonmatched comparison group). All parents reported on their 3- to 6-year-old children's dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following children's DV exposure. An analysis of covariance controlling for parental life stress, dissociation symptoms, and other childhood traumatic events revealed that parents who witnessed childhood DV reported significantly fewer child dissociation symptoms than comparison parents. No difference was found for parents' reports of children's posttraumatic stress symptoms. Exploratory analyses on a subsample of children with teacher reports of child dissociation symptoms (n = 75) revealed that the strength of the association between parent and teacher reports of dissociation symptoms was moderated by matched versus nonmatched group membership. Findings suggest the importance of considering a parent's history of trauma when using parents as informants for children's trauma symptoms. PMID:26158778
Lemelin Lucie; Gallagher Frances; Haggerty Jeannie
Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do...
Full Text Available Abstract Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time
Powers, G W; Saskiewicz, J A
This study was conducted to determine if a difference exists in level of educational involvement between hearing parents of deaf children and hearing parents of hearing children. Participating parents were asked to complete a 23-question survey about their involvement in their children's education over the past year. Neither group of parents demonstrated a significantly higher level of involvement in their children's education. However, parents of deaf children observed their children in the classroom more than parents of hearing children; parents of hearing children volunteered in their child's classroom more than parents of deaf children. PMID:9557331
Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean
The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered. PMID:24682801
In an earlier paper entitled Harm is all you need?, I used an analysis of English law to claim that the harm threshold was an unsuitable mediator of the best interests test when deciding if parental decisions should be overruled. In this paper I respond to a number of commentaries of that paper, and extend my discussion to consider the claim that the harm threshold gives appropriate normative weight to the interests of parents. While I accept that parents have some rights over their children, I argue these are dependent on parents' duties to benefit their children. While many such benefits are understood pluralistically, and are thus within parents' ambit to decide, I claim that health benefits are ordinally different, because they play a foundational role in the flourishing of an individual. In the light of this, clinicians have the moral authority to override parental refusals, although in some cases abstaining from exercising this authority may be a pragmatic way to maintain parental engagement and ensure our ability to benefit the child in future. PMID:26733328
The Author has chosen the intellectual disability to be the topic of her divagations. Therefore she enumerates certain factors which make the process of growing up more difficult or sometimes even impossible for people with intellectual disability. The article involves the analysis of several interviews with parents of adult children with intellectual disability. The main subject of those conversations was the perception of their children's adulthood.
O'Claire-Esparza, Kelly J.
This study examined mothers', fathers ', preschool teachers', and kindergarten teachers' opinions regarding children's requisite kindergarten entry skills. Participants were 101 preschool teachers from eight counties in northern Utah, as well as 113 kindergarten teachers and 286 parents of kindergartners from five school districts in northern Utah. Questionnaires were administered to assess opinions regarding (a) the preschool teachers' role in preparing children for kindergarten, (b) the par...
Ermisch, John; Pronzato, Chiara
The paper shows that parents’ education is an important, but hardly exclusive part of the common family background that generates positive correlation between the educational attainments of siblings from the same family. But the correlation between the educational attainments of parents and those of their children overstates considerably the causal effect of parents’ education on the education of their children. Our estimates based on Norwegian twin-mothers indicate that an additional year of...
Baldassarre, Fabrizio; Campo, Raffaele; Falcone, Amedeo
During the last decades sociological changes have modified the role of children within families: participatory models have become more widespread, to the detriment of more authoritative ones: this change has had consequences also in reference to families’purchases. In scientific literature some scholars show that this influence is real and marketers try to take advantage of this through a communication style which attempts to “teach” children how top ester their parents: this is so-called na...
Sterling, Audra M.; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace
The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used a consistent, responsive style with both children, using the same degree of positive affect and warmth. Differences included using more behavior man...
Le Gouëz, Morgane; Alvarez, Luis; Rousseau, Véronique; Hubert, Philippe; Abadie, Véronique; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Kermorvant-Duchemin, Elsa
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate psychological stress in parents of children with esophageal atresia and to explore factors associated with the development of Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). Design Self-report questionnaires were administered to parents of children with EA. Domains included: (1) sociodemographic data, current personal difficulties, assessment scales for the quality of life and for the global health status of the child (2) French-validated versions of the Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress disorder Questionnaire and of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Associations between PTSD and severity of the neonatal course, presence of severe sequelae at 2 years of age, and quality of life and global health status of children according to their parents’ perception were studied. Setting A Tertiary care University Hospital Results Among 64 eligible families, 54 parents of 38 children (59%) participated to the study. PTSD was present in 32 (59%) parents; mothers were more frequently affected than fathers (69 vs 46%, p = 0.03). Four mothers (8%) had severe anxiety. PTSD was neither associated with neonatal severity nor with severe sequelae at 2 years. Parents with PTSD rated their child’s quality of life and global health status significantly lower (7.5 vs 8.6; p = 0.01 and 7.4 vs 8.3; p = 0.02 respectively). Conclusions PTSD is frequent in parents of children with esophageal atresia, independently of neonatal severity and presence of severe sequelae at 2 years of age. Our results highlight the need for a long-term psychological support of families. PMID:26953589
Rouhani, Shada A.; Scott, Jennifer; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Hacker, Michele R.; Kuwert, Philipp; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Since armed conflict began in 1996, widespread sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has resulted in many sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). However, there are limited data on the relationships between mothers and their children from sexual violence. This study aimed to evaluate the nature and determinants of these maternal–child relationships. METHODS Using respondent-driven sampling, 757 women raising children from SVRPs in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. A parenting index was created from questions assessing the maternal–child relationship. The influences of social stigma, family and community acceptance, and maternal mental health on the parenting index were assessed in univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS The majority of mothers reported positive attitudes toward their children from SVRPs. Prevalence of perceived family or community stigma toward the women or their children ranged from 31.8% to 42.9%, and prevalence of perceived family or community acceptance ranged from 45.2% to 73.5%. In multivariable analyses, stigma toward the child, as well as maternal anxiety and depression, were associated with lower parenting indexes, whereas acceptance of the mother or child and presence of a spouse were associated with higher parenting indexes (all P ≤ .01). CONCLUSIONS In this study with a large sample size, stigma and mental health disorders negatively influenced parenting attitudes, whereas family and community acceptance were associated with adaptive parenting attitudes. Interventions to reduce stigmatization, augment acceptance, and improve maternal mental health may improve the long-term well-being of mothers and children from SVRPs. PMID:26438704
... Parents Page Content Article Body Congratulations on the adoption of your child! As you begin your new life together, it ... with you, particularly ones you received before the child’s adoption.) Review risk factors from your child’s history . This ...
Full Text Available In this paper we present a second part of the study on information security of children and adolescents according to parents and teachers. This part of the study focuses at empirical research results aimed in studying the so-called "naive theories" about information security. 136 people (aged 21 to 62 years attended the study. We based on the following hypotheses : 1 the group of parents and teachers understand similarly the issue of information threat for children and adolescents, yet they have different understandings of the dangerous effects of information on children and adolescents: parents underestimate the seriousness of the effects compared with teachers; 2 according to parents and teachers, the formers are primarily responsible for information security of children; while teachers expect parents to monitor, prohibit, restrict the access to information for children and adolescents. Parents, in turn, expect teachers to train children and teenagers to observe the safety procedures, as well as use Internet safely. Our assumptions are confirmed partly, and study results are discussed in terms of the theory of social representations.
The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…
Conclusions: Any effort to promote children’s dietary intake needs considering the role of parents in the development of feeding patterns, and interest in children to consume healthy foods. Keywords: Children, Dietary intake, Parental behavior patterns, Kindergarten
Greet Lambrechts; Jarymke Maljaars; Hannah Boonen; Lotte van Esch; Karla Van Leeuwen; Ilse Noens
Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without AS...
Rodríguez-Ventura, Ana Lilia; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris; Sámano-Sámano, Reyna; Jimenez-Gutierrez, Carlos; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos
Introduction. There are not enough studies about the barriers to lose weight from the perspective of children and their parents. Methods. Children and adolescents diagnosed with overweight/obesity in the Department of Endocrinology and their parents were invited to participate in a series of focus group discussions (FGD). Twenty-nine children 10–16 years old and 22 parents participated in 7 focus groups; 2 mothers and 2 adolescents participated in depth interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through grounded theory. Results. Parents went to the hospital only when their children presented any obesity complication; for them, overweight was not a health problem. Parents referred to lack of time to supervise about a healthy diet and exercise; besides, the same parents, relatives, friends, and the mass media encourage the consumption of junk food. Children accepted eating a lot, not doing exercise, skipping meals, and not understanding overweight consequences. Both, parents and children, demanded support to do the time recommended for exercise inside the schools. They also suggested getting information from schools and mass media (TV) about overweight consequences, exercise, and healthy food by health workers; they recommended prohibiting announcements about junk food and its sale. Conclusions. The barriers detected were lack of perception of being overweight, its identification as a disease and its consequences, lack of time to supervise a healthy lifestyle, and a big social influence to eat junk food. PMID:25371816
Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro
Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25609675
The current research aimed to explore Romanian parents’ social representations of vaccination in children and to identify how they fluctuate across gender and degree of reliance on information regarding this practice learned from media and, respectively, medical experts. The first study was conducted on a sample of 80 mothers and fathers of children who were supposed to receive the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) later that year. The analysis of the data gathered upon the completion of the As...
Kvrgić Svetlana T.
Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.
Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Abramowicz, Paweł; Abramowicz, Magdalena
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine how pediatric patients and their parents perceive health care during hospital stays, what are their expectations of doctor behaviors, and which components of care do they consider to be the most important. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was carried out using the open interview technique. Twenty-six parents and 22 children undergoing hospital treatment participated. Results Our analysis identified two major themes: (1) doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors, which included informing and explaining, conversations on topics other than the illness, tone of voice and other behaviors; and (2) perceived strategies used by doctors. This category included claims of doctors' intentional use of medical jargon to avoid addressing parental questions directly. Parents admitted that they did not understand medical vocabulary, but they also thought they might understand more of the medical issues if the doctor spoke using terms comprehensible to them. Conlcusions Our study shows the importance of interpersonal relationship affecting patient perception of quality of pediatric care. Parents of pediatric patients perceive that doctors behave in ways that deflect parents' questions and avoid providing them with medical information. Such behaviors include doctors excusing themselves by saying they are busy and using medical jargon. Medical students and doctors should be trained to communicate effectively with patients and their parents and develop skills to convey information in a simple and comprehensible way. PMID:27008175
Halpenny, Ann Marie; Keogh, Anna Fiona; Gilligan, Robbie
Homelessness affects the lives of an increasing number of children in Dublin. Research by Focus Ireland indicated that 1,262 children were living with their parent(s) in Bed and Breakfast (B&B) emergency accommodation in 1999 (Houghton & Hickey, 2000). More recent figures from the Northern Area Health Board (NAHB) Homeless Service show that 20% of first time referrals to emergency accommodation in the past year were families with 827 children. Much of the available information on these child...
Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...
Ros, Rosmary; Hernandez, Jennifer; Graziano, Paulo A; Bagner, Daniel M
This study investigated the extent to which parental homework completion during behavioral parent training (BPT) for children with or at risk for developmental delay contributed to parenting and child outcomes. Parents of 48 children (Mage=44.17 months, SD=14.29; 73% male; 72% White) with developmental delay (IQhomework completion was measured using parental report of home practice of treatment skills collected weekly by therapists. Parents also reported on child externalizing behavior problems and levels of parenting stress, while parenting skills were observed during a 5-min child directed play and child compliance was observed during a 5-min cleanup situation. Results indicated that higher rates of parental homework completion predicted parenting outcomes (i.e., increased positive parenting skills and decreased levels of parenting stress) and child outcomes (i.e., lower levels of externalizing behavior problems). Additionally, although limited by temporal precedence, there was an indirect effect of reductions in parenting stress on the negative association between parental homework completion and child externalizing behavior problems. These findings highlight the importance of parents practicing skills learned during BPT for optimizing treatment outcome. Parenting stress was also identified as a potential mechanism by which high levels of parental homework completion contributed to reductions in child externalizing behavior problems. PMID:26763493
Chen, Jie; Liu, Yang; Cai, Qing-Qing; Liu, Yi-Min; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Wei-Qing; Huang, Hui
Abstract The aims were to access anxiety and type D personality (TDP) in parents of children with leukemia, and to determine the mediating effect of social support and coping style on the relationship between TDP and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 parents of children with leukemia and 261 parents of children with acute diseases in hospitals. Parents completed questionnaires on anxiety, TDP, social support, coping styles, children's clinical characteristics, and demog...
Farnoush Jarollahi; Hassan Ashayeri; Seyedeh Reyhaneh Amini; Mohammad Kamali
Background and Aim: Hearing-impaired children make a lot of stress for the parents. Providing the parents of these children with suitable consultation and rehabilitation services results in increased satisfaction and reduced anxiety level. In this study we investigated the relationship between audiology service satisfaction and level of anxiety in parents of hearing-impaired children.Methods: Seventy-five parents of hearing-impaired children, whose problem was diagnosed during the last year, ...
Weeks, Naomi; Peart, Kimber
Children sometimes experience the loss of someone they love or are close to, or may be suffering from a life-threatening illness themselves. This fact sheet provides a brief insight into how to help children cope with death.
Full Text Available Childrearing is a process through which parents follow, co-shape and guide their children on their path to personal maturity. Aim of our research is to outline the components of childrearing that 94 participants, members of three generations (28 adults without children, 35 parents and 31 grandparents define as important, both in positive and negative sense. The data was obtained through half-structured interviews with 12 questions on parenting, analysed according to the principles of initial and axial coding of the grounded theory. Results suggest thirty eight components, seventeen positive and eighteen negative, namely. Positive components combined in wider components: cooperation with a child, clear setting of boundaries for a child, acceptance of a child, giving the child possibility for expression, helping the child to get the psychological autonomy and positive parenting. Negative components combined in wider components: uninvolved parenting, psychological pressure on the child, punishing child, lack of trust in a child and negative parenting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache were reported by the children. Frequencies of victimization reported by different informants were compared by the marginal homogeneity test for paired ordinal data, concordance between informants by cross-tables and Spearman's rho, and associations of victimization with health symptoms were estimated by logistic regression. Results The concordance of peer victimization reported by children, teachers, and parents varied from complete agreement to complete discordance also for the highest frequency (weekly/daily of victimization. Children's self-reported frequency of victimization was strongly and positively associated with their reports of emotional and somatic symptoms. Frequency of victimization reported by teachers or parents showed similar but weaker associations with the children's health symptoms. Conclusion The agreement between children and significant adults in reporting peer victimization was low to moderate, and the associations of reported victimization with the children's self-reported health symptoms varied substantially between informants. It may be useful to assess prospectively the effects of employing different sources of information related to peer victimization.
Natasha CHICHEVSKA JOVANOVA
Full Text Available Parents’ reactions, in the moment when they find out that their child is with developmental disabilities, are absolutely individual. A lot of parents need months, while some of them need years to face the fact that their child is with developmental disabilities. The state and the crises that arise are very hard to be prevented, however they could be overcomed by a good professional help and support. The aim of this research is to examine the stress level that the parents of these children experience as well as the support that they receive by the family and the local community. Thirty one parents of children with intellectual disabilities, cerebral paralysis and visual impairment have been inquired. The questionnaire referred to the way of communication between professionals and parents, the stress level that they experienced because of their child and the support they received from their close family and other family members, their friends and the local community. For parents, the most stressful thing is the moment of finding out their child’s developmental disabilities. The biggest support they receive from their partners and parents.
Sengsavang, Sonia; Krettenauer, Tobias
This study examined the role of aggressiveness and parenting in the development of children's moral self-concept. Participants were 198 elementary school children and their parents (M = 8.65 years, SD = 2.44). Participants completed a structured moral self puppet interview and a questionnaire about their relationship to parents. Parents completed…
Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna; Helinski, Monica; Buchstein, Fred
In this research project we investigated the process of adoption of foster children by foster parents and the foster parents' ideas of how to help foster children going through the process of adoption or those who have been adopted. We sent questionnaires to 200 foster parents living in the Cleveland area, but just 23 foster parents replied.…
Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy
Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…
Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela
Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)
Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook
This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. PMID:27167763
Eddy, J. Mark, Ed.; Poehlmann, Julie, Ed.
For the nearly 2 million children in the United States whose parents are in prison, caretaking necessary for optimal development is disrupted. These vulnerable youth--a population that has shot up 80 percent in the last 20 years--are more likely to experience learning difficulties, poor health, and substance abuse, and eventually be incarcerated…
Parents of Cherokee children with disabilities encounter educational agencies from their child's birth to adulthood. Living rurally within the Cherokee Nation's jurisdictional boundaries, these indigenous families engage with a myriad of special education agencies and subsequent policies. This qualitative study explores parental…
Mason, Sally; Linsk, Nathan
The permanency planning needs of 28 HIV-affected relative foster parents were examined. Findings indicated that the HIV-affected caregivers' greatest need was a more adequate response from social workers and therapy services for the children; nonaffected caregivers needed financial assistance most. More HIV-affected caregivers were considering…
The effects on children of the increase in single parents is no longer much debated. They do less well in school, are less likely to graduate, and are more likely to be involved in crime, teen pregnancy, and other behaviors that make it harder to succeed in life. Research at the Brookings Institution shows that social mobility is much higher for…
Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin
The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…
Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.R.; Jongmans, M.J.; Kleber, R.J.
Objective. To strengthen trauma-informed health care by exploring parents’ experiences of assisting their child after single-incident trauma (eg, violence, accidents, and sudden loss). Method. Semistructured interviews with parents (N = 33) of 25 exposed children (8-12 years). Results. Responsive pa
Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul; Walters, David
This paper examines relationships between the resources available to immigrant families and the amount parents are willing and able to save for their children's post-secondary education (PSE). We use data from Statistics Canada's 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning to compare immigrant and native-born PSE saving. The results indicate…
The theory of emotional intelligence has elicited great interest both in the academic and the nonacademic world. Therapists, educators, and parents want to know what they can do to help children develop their emotional intelligence. However, most of the research in this field has investigated adults' emotional intelligence. This study reviews the…
Callard, Esther Dean, Comp.; Morin, Patricia E., Comp.
This report describes the Detroit, Michigan, Parents and Children Together (PACT) project which provides an intensive, home based intervention service to low-income families who have, or are at risk of having, a child placed in foster care. Part I of this report describes how staff members are selected and trained, how goals are formulated for…
Sterling, Audra; Barnum, Leah; Skinner, Debra; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace
The purpose of this study was to examine maternal parenting styles across age-matched siblings using a within-family design, in which one child has Fragile X syndrome. Thirteen families participated; children were aged 16 to 71 months. Mothers completed several videotaped activities with each child separately as well as an interview. Mothers used…
Gilliam, Brenda; Gerla, Jacqueline Parten; Wright, Gary
Since relevant research indicates that immersion in a literate environment is critical to academic success, the authors of this study designed a program, Project ROAR (Reach Out and Read), in cooperation with a predominately Hispanic elementary school. Project ROAR was planned to help interested parents of kindergarten children learn in-home…
Birch Leann L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1 to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2 to identify a set of promising strategies that target aspects of parenting, which can be further evaluated as possible components in childhood obesity prevention. Methods A literature review was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. Studies published before January 2007 that assessed the association between some combination of parenting, child eating and child weight variables were included. Results A total of 66 articles met the inclusion criteria. The preponderance of these studies focused on the association between parenting and child eating. Although there was substantial experimental evidence for the influence of parenting practices, such as pressure, restriction, modeling and availability, on child eating, the majority of the evidence for the association between parenting and child weight, or the mediation of this association by child eating, was cross-sectional. Conclusion To date, there is substantial causal evidence that parenting affects child eating and there is much correlational evidence that child eating and weight influence parenting. There are few studies, however, that have used appropriate meditational designs to provide causal evidence for the indirect effect of parenting on weight status via effects on child eating. A new approach is suggested for evaluating the
... aggressive or violent behavior Being the victim of physical abuse and/or sexual abuse Exposure to violence in ... and War: How to Talk to Children Sexual Abuse Physical Punishment Music and Music Videos Firearms and Children ...
Rege, Mari; Telle, Kjetil; Votruba, Mark
Abstract: Using Norwegian register data we estimate how children’s school performance is affected by their parents’ exposure to plant closure. Fathers’ exposure leads to a substantial decline in children’s graduation-year grade point average, but only in municipalities with mediocre-performing job markets. The negative effect does not appear to be driven by a reduction in father’s income and employment, an increase in parental divorce, or the trauma of relocating. In contrast, mothers’ exp...
Mayara Barbosa Sindeaux Lima
Full Text Available Abstract Stress and social support are relevant variables for understanding the impact of disability on the care relationship. Thus, this study investigates the association between the parental stress index, social support indicators, and the sociodemographic variables of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in a capital city of the Eastern Amazon. The following instruments were applied to 100 caregivers: the Sociodemographic Inventory, the Gross Motor Function Classification System, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used, in addition to techniques of multivariate analysis. It was found that most participants had high parental stress and a high perception of social support. Specific aspects of the perception of social support and sociodemographic indicators were associated with stress. This knowledge favors the design of more assertive interventions because it outlines the aspects of these variables that appear to have a more effective impact on parental stress.
Wismer Fries, Alison B.; Pollak, Seth D.
To examine the effects of early emotional neglect on children’s affective development, we assessed children who had experienced institutionalized care prior to adoption into family environments. One task required children to identify photographs of facial expressions of emotion. A second task required children to match facial expressions to an emotional situation. Internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children had difficulty identifying facial expressions of emotion. In addition, pos...
Full Text Available Ehab A Dayyat1,*, Karen Spruyt1,*, Dennis L Molfese2, David Gozal11Section of Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; 2Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: In the context of increasing awareness about the need for assessment of sleep duration in community and clinical settings, the use of questionnaire-based tools may be fraught with reporter bias. Conversely, actigraphy provides objective assessments of sleep patterns. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential discrepancies between parentally-based sleep logs and concurrent actigraphic recordings in children over a one-week period. Methods: We studied 327 children aged 3–10 years, and included otherwise healthy, nonsnoring children from the community who were reported by their parents to be nonsnorers and had normal polysomnography, habitually-snoring children from the community who completed the same protocol, and children with primary insomnia referred to the sleep clinic for evaluation in the absence of any known psychiatric illness. Actigraphy and parental sleep log were concomitantly recorded during one week. Results: Sleep logs displayed an average error in sleep onset after bedtime of about 30 minutes (P < 0.01 and of a few minutes before risetime in all groups. Furthermore, subjective parental reports were associated with an overestimated misperception of increased sleep duration of roughly one hour per night independent of group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The description of a child's sleep by the parent appears appropriate as far as symptoms are concerned, but does not result in a correct estimate of sleep onset or duration. We advocate combined parental and actigraphic assessments in the evaluation of sleep complaints, particularly to rule out misperceptions and
Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395
Full Text Available This study sets out to investigate the types of responses by children aged between 3 and 7 years in argumentative discussions relating to parental rules and prescriptions. The data corpus is composed of 132 argumentative discussions selected from 30 video-recorded meals of 10 middle to upper-middle-class Swiss and Italian families. Data are presented through discursive excerpts of argumentative discussions and analysed by the pragma-dialectical ideal model of critical discussion. The findings show that when parents advance context-bound arguments such as the arguments of quality (e.g., very good, salty, or not good and quantity (e.g., too little, quite enough, or too much of food, the arguments advanced by children mirror the same types of arguments previously used by parents. On the other hand, when parents advance more complex, elaborated, and context-unbound arguments such as the appeal to consistency's argument, the argument from authority and the argument from analogy, the children typically did not advance any argument, but their response is an expression of further doubt or a mere opposition without providing any argument. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the types of children's responses are strictly connected to the type of argument previously advanced by their parents. This aspect is particularly relevant in terms of children's capacities to engage in argumentative exchanges and to react in rational ways during the confrontation with the parents. Further research in this direction is needed in order to better understand specific potentialities of language in the everyday process of socialization within the family context.
Screen media (television, computers, and videogames) use has been linked to multiple child outcomes, including obesity. Parents can be an important influence on children's screen use. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to assess parenting in feeding and physical activi...
Applewhite, Larry W.; Mays, Robert A.
Claims that children of parents in the military services have adapted to parental separation as parents balance the demands of family and job responsibility. Compares the psychosocial functioning of children who have experienced extended maternal separation with that exhibited by children who have separated from their fathers. Addresses…
Kravetz, Shlomo; And Others
This study compared perceptions of parents of 19 children with Down's syndrome (DS) who had undergone plastic facial surgery with perceptions of parents of DS children who had not received surgery. The comparison found little evidence of positive impact of the surgery on parents' perceptions of their children's physical, personal, and social…
Rivard, Mélina; Terroux, Amélie; Parent-Boursier, Claudel; Mercier, Céline
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder are known to experience more stress than parents of children with any other conditions. The current study describes the parental stress of 118 fathers and 118 mothers at the onset of their children's Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention program. The objectives of the study were to compare…
Norizan, A.; Shamsuddin, K.
Background: Having children with intellectual disability can be stressful for most parents. Currently there are very few studies focusing on parenting stress among mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS) in Asia. The present study examined the level of parenting stress experienced by Malaysian mothers of children with DS and evaluated the…
Kalmijn, Matthijs; De Graaf, Paul M.
How do children's life course transitions affect the well-being of their parents? Using a large panel survey among parents with longitudinal information on 2 randomly chosen children, the authors analyzed the effects of children's union formation, parenthood, and union dissolution on changes in depressive symptoms of parents. Negative effects were…
Several research studies suggest a link between parents' emotion socialization and children's social competence and behavior problems. Parents contribute to their children's emotion socialization, more directly, through responses to their children's emotions. Early emotion socialization experiences with parents establish patterns of emotion…
Huizinga, GA; van der Graaf, WTA; Visser, A; Dijkstra, JS; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM
When cancer is diagnosed in a parent, this may also have consequences for the children. The purpose of this pilot study was to gain more insight into the psychosocial consequences for children of a parent with cancer, from the perspective of both the children and their parents. For this study, 14 fa
This study compared the psychosocial adjustment and social behavior of children from divorced or separated single-parent families with that of children from two-parent families. The theory of attachment was adopted as the conceptual framework for the study because of similarities between the behavioral response of children to parental separation…
Rodriguez, Christina M.
Although considerable research has investigated parenting stress and children's externalizing behavior problems, comparatively less has considered parenting stress in relation to children's internalizing difficulties. Even less research on parenting stress has incorporated children's report of their internalizing symptoms or the potential…
Hummel, Regina M.; Gross, Alan M.
Differences in rate and quality of parent-child communication in parents of socially anxious and normal children 9-12 years old were examined. Socially anxious children, like the control group, tended to mirror verbalizations of parents. In contrast, socially anxious children did not show the same similarities in responsiveness. (BF)
Xu, Tingting; Jones, Ithel
The purpose of the study was to examine the influences of age, family socio-economic status (SES), and parents' food knowledge on preschool, kindergarten, and second grade students' conceptual understanding of food and nutrition. Fifty-two parent-child dyads, consisting of 17 preschoolers, 17 kindergartners, and 18 second graders participated in…
van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172
Ezzat, Sameera; Saeedi, Osamah; Saleh, Doa'a A; Hamzeh, Hala; Hamid, Mohamed A; Crowell, Nancy; Boostrom, Camille; Loffredo, Christopher A; Jillson, Irene A
We assessed parental attitudes towards congenital cardiovascular malformations in their children in a cross-sectional study in Egypt. Parents face many problems related to concerns about their child's prognosis, but these associations with parental stress have never been evaluated in Egypt or examined in relation to religiosity in a predominantly Muslim society. Accordingly, we conducted interviews in Cairo with mothers of 99 sequential infants born with conotruncal heart malformations (cases) and 65 mothers of age-matched controls. The survey assessed healthcare access and usage, knowledge of congenital cardiovascular malformations, religiosity, the Locus of Control Scale, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results showed that 45% of the mothers of cases had correct knowledge about their child's diagnosis; 85% were satisfied with the clinical care; and 79% reported that the cost of care was burdensome. Compared with parents of cases, parents of controls were more likely to report stress overall and all its subscales. Regarding belief about locus of control over health, God as a determining factor was given the highest endorsement. Mothers in the congenital cardiovascular malformations group reported a higher level of parental locus of control than did those in the control group. The correlations between stress and locus of control were stronger in the control than in the case group. Religiosity was related neither to stress nor to locus of control. Future studies can explore the roles that personal, familial, and societal factors play in exacerbating or reducing stress levels among parents of sick children, particularly in developing countries where economic pressures are acute. PMID:26561359