Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G
Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use.
Full Text Available Relations between parent-child emotion talk and children’s emotion understanding were examined in 63 Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.35 months, SD = 3.86 and 6-year-old (M = 76.62 months, SD = 3.91 children. Parent-child emotion talk was analyzed during two storytelling tasks: a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences. Children’s emotion understanding was assessed twice through a standardized test of emotion comprehension (TEC; Pons, Harris, & de Rosnay, 2004, once before one of the two parent-child storytelling sessions and again six months later. Mothers’ use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task predicted children’s emotion understanding after controlling for children’s previous emotion understanding. Whereas fathers’ use of emotion labels during the play-related storytelling task was correlated with children’s emotion understanding, it did not predict children’s emotion understanding after controlling for previous emotion understanding. Implications of these findings for future research on children’s socioemotional development are discussed.
Solis, Jessica M; Shadur, Julia M; Burns, Alison R; Hussong, Andrea M
In this review, we consider the potential service needs of children of substance abusing parents based on what we know about the risk outcomes faced by these children and the parenting deficits often present in these families. Importantly, our review does not address the etiological role of parental substance abuse in children's negative outcomes but instead we discuss the complex inter-related risk factors that often co-occur with and exacerbate risk associated with parental alcohol and drug use. We first review studies showing the elevated risk that children of substance abusing parents face in general for poorer academic functioning; emotional, behavioral, and social problems; and an earlier onset of substance use, faster acceleration in substance use patterns, and higher rates of alcohol and drug use disorders. We then review studies showing contextual risk factors for children of substance abusing parents, including parenting deficits (less warmth, responsiveness, and physical and verbal engagement as well as harsher and more over-involved interaction styles), greater risk for child maltreatment, and less secure attachment patterns. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for research and guidelines for professionals working with children and their families where parental substance abuse is present.
Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R
Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.
Szechter, Lisa E.; Liben, Lynn S.
This research was designed to examine the quality of children's aesthetic understanding of photographs, observe social interactions between parents and children in this aesthetic domain, and study whether qualitatively different dyadic interactions were associated with children's own aesthetic understanding. Parents and children (7-13 years; 40…
Solomon, G E; Johnson, S C; Zaitchik, D; Carey, S
4 studies investigated the broad claim that preschoolers understand biological inheritance. In Study 1, 4-7-year-old children were told a story in which a boy was born to one man and adopted by another. The biological father was described as having one set of features (e.g., green eyes) and the adoptive father as having another (e.g., brown eyes). Subjects were asked which man the boy would resemble when he grew up. Preschoolers showed little understanding that selective chains of processes mediate resemblance to parents. It was not until age 7 that children substantially associated the boy with his biological father on physical features and his adoptive father on beliefs. That is, it was not until age 7 that children demonstrated that they understood birth as part of a process selectively mediating the acquisition of physical traits and learning or nurturance as mediating the acquisition of beliefs. In Study 2, subjects were asked whether, as a boy grew up, various of his features could change. Children generally shared our adult intuitions, indicating that their failure in Study 1 was not due to their having a different sense of what features can change. Studies 3 and 4 replicated Study 1, with stories involving mothers instead of fathers and with lessened task demands. Taken together, the results of the 4 studies refute the claim that preschoolers understand biological inheritance. The findings are discussed in terms of whether children understand biology as an autonomous cognitive domain.
Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Pyle, Angela; Villeneuve, Michelle; Dods, Jennifer; Dalton, C. J.; Minnes, Patricia
Research has shown the benefits of parent involvement for student participation in education. Parent advocacy is a critical form of involvement by parents for children who are young, have disabilities, and are making transitions. Studies have classified forms of parent advocacy but have not illuminated the components necessary for effective parent…
DePouw, Christin; Matias, Cheryl
Parenting is often discussed in the field of education, but frequently in terms of family or community deficiency, rather than strengths (Bonilla Silva, 2006; Few, 2007), particularly when communities of color are being examined. In this conceptual article, we advocate for the use of critical race theory (CRT) in discussions of parenting and…
Allers, Robert D.
Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)
O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.
Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their…
The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…
... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia Print A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...
... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia A A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...
Ma, Fengling; Evans, Angela D.; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xianming; Xu, Fen
Prior studies have demonstrated that social-cognitive factors such as children's false-belief understanding and parenting style are related to children's lie-telling behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate how earlier forms of theory-of-mind understanding contribute to children's lie-telling as well as how parenting practices are related…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also expect that divorce involving young children is more accepted in countries where enrolment in child care is high. METHODS Our sample consists of 37,975 individuals from 22 countries, obtained from the European Social Survey (2006. We conduct multilevel regression analyses including individual-level and country-level variables. RESULTS Findings confirm our main hypotheses: the lower the poverty rate among single parents and the higher enrolment in childcare, the lower the disapproval of divorce when young children are involved. These findings remain when taking into account the crude divorce rate and secularisation at the country level, and when controlling for differences in the composition of populations with regard to individual characteristics that are associated with divorce attitudes. Additionally, cross-level interactions indicate that poverty among single parents has the strongest impact on mothers' divorce attitudes. CONCLUSIONS Divorce attitudes appear to be related to people's assessment of the consequences of divorce for the children involved. Cross-European differences in attitudes towards divorce involving young children are associated with two aspects of welfare states that are indicative of the consequences of divorce for children and the parent that takes care of them: poverty among single parents and child care.
Arieke Rijken; Aart Liefbroer
OBJECTIVE We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also expect that divorce involving young children is more accepted in countries where enrolment in child care is high. METHODS Our sample consists of 37,975 individuals from 22 countries, obtained from the Eu...
Melzer, Dawn K; Claxton, Laura J
Studies on pretense mental state understanding in young children have produced inconsistent findings. These findings could potentially emerge from the confounding influences of action manipulation or the failure to examine possible influences on individual children's performances. To address these issues, we created a task in which 68 3- and 4-year-olds viewed two actors, side by side, on a monitor. Children were told that one actor was knowledgeable about a specific animal, whereas the other actor was not. The actors performed identical movements that were either related or unrelated to the animal they were mimicking or engaged in different behaviors contradictory to their knowledge. Saliency of action was also manipulated by presenting either dynamic images or a paused frame of the actors' behavior (i.e., the static condition). Children performed similarly on the dynamic and static conditions. Children selected the knowledgeable actor more often in the unrelated and related trials but were not as successful at selecting the knowledgeable actor when the actor's knowledge contradicted the actor's behavior. Therefore, by 3 years of age, some children may understand that pretend play involves mental representations and appreciate that the mind influences a pretender's behavior. To investigate the observed individual differences, we also examined children and parents as they engaged in reading and pretense activities prior to data collection. The frequency of parents' cognitive mental state utterances strongly predicted performance on the mental state task. Individual differences in performance as a result of parental language and executive functioning abilities are discussed.
Full Text Available The article presents the first part of the work devoted to the study of ordinary representations of parents and teachers about information security of children and adolescents. It is about addressing the problem of information security of children and adolescents, discuss the effects of observing violence in the mass media on the subsequent behaviour of viewers, refers to directing television roles on the example of transfer schemes by S. Milgram in the context of television game (experiment J. L. Beauvois with colleagues. This paper examines the impact on users has the Internet, discusses the main directions of action in relation to ensuring information security of children and adolescents, focusing on psychological aspects of the concept of information security of children, demonstrates the importance of studying "naive theories" that govern the actions aimed at ensuring information security of children. The authors explain the prospect of studying problems of information security of children in the framework of the theory of social representations.
Tracy R. G. Gladstone
Full Text Available We evaluated predictors and moderators of differential response to two family-based depression prevention programs for families with a depressed parent: a clinician-facilitated intervention and a lecture group intervention. Individual and family level variables were examined using regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. For the outcome of child understanding of depression, parental changes in child-related behaviors and attitudes predicted greater child understanding (p<0.001. For the parent outcome of behavior and attitude change, across intervention conditions, younger parent age (p<0.05, female parent gender (p<0.01, more chronic and severe parental depression history (p<0.05, lower SES (p<0.05, and single-parent status (p<0.05 were associated with better outcomes across conditions. Effect sizes were moderate, ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 SD. Family and marital functioning were not found to be predictors of any outcomes. When both parents were depressed at baseline, there was no difference in the clinician- versus lecture-based approach, and when only the father was depressed, families reported more changes with the clinician condition than with the lecture condition (p<0.05. Findings from this study can help identify intervention strategies that are appropriate for different types of at-risk individuals and families.
Rijken, A.J.; Liefbroer, A.C.
OBJECTIVE We examine differences across Europe in attitudes towards divorce involving children under the age of 12. We hypothesize that these attitudes are less favourable in countries where poverty among single parent households is common than in countries where such poverty is rare. We also expect
Graham, Angie Geertsen
Many factors influence preschool children's expectations for parental discipline. Parent characteristics such as personality, values, social class, and disciplinary methods can affect the expectations children have for parental discipline. Children's ability to understand and interpret parental messages can also influence how they will respond. All of these factors need to be taken into consideration in order for effective communication between parents and children to occur. In this study,...
Today more and mere young men say that their parents don’t understand them well. They think their parents are very striet with them and don't give them enough space to do their own things which they like to. They even think their parents are out of touch with modern life. So,generally speaking, they don' t want to talk with their parents, they don' t tell everything, especially their secret to their parents. It seems there is a gap between the parents and their children.
... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... voice is a sign that his voice is changing and will become deeper. Dark, coarse, curly hair ...
Samia, Pauline; Donald, Kirsten A; Schlegel, Birgit; Wilmshurst, Jo M
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder with multisystem involvement that poses significant challenges to the affected child and family. Caregiver knowledge in the South African population has not previously been reported. A prospective study of the parents of 21 children with tuberous sclerosis complex was undertaken. Median parental age was 38 (interquartile range 34.5-45) years. Parents were randomly allocated to receive written information about the condition, or to receive verbal counseling already established in clinic. A significant difference (P = .001) was observed in the change in the mean knowledge scores for the parent group that received written information (34.2 at baseline, 51.7 at the second visit. This impact was higher in parents with an education level of at least grade 8 (P = .003). Parental understanding of tuberous sclerosis complex can be improved by provision of written information and should be routinely available in a readily understandable format.
Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.
This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…
This phenomenological research investigated what fifteen preschool educators have come to know about children's self-regulation and emotion regulation development, and how we can better enable them to communicate with parents about their children's development. The data sources included over 100 pages of transcripts, field notes and journal…
Results of two experiments indicated that preschoolers expected adopted babies to share physical properties, but not preferences with their biological parents; and recognized that a baby who looks like and lives with a woman but who grew inside another woman's body is not the first woman's baby. (BC)
Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta
This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis...
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel
The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…
Grineski, Sara E; Hernández, Alma A; Ramos, Vicky
Children and parents' daily lives are rarely highlighted in coverage of drug wars. Using 16 interviews with parents in the Mexican border city of Juárez in 2010, we examine how drug violence impacts families with a focus on intersections of gender and social class. Related to mobility (the first emergent theme), fathers had increased mobility as compared to mothers, which caused different stresses. Material hardships heightened mothers' isolation within the home, and mothers more often had to enforce children's mobility restrictions, which children resisted. Related to employment (the second emergent theme), fathers took on dangerous jobs to provide for the family while mothers had fewer options for informal employment due to violence. In sum, men and women faced different challenges, which were intensified due to class-based material disadvantages. Conformity with traditional gender expectations for behavior was common for men and women, illustrating the normalization of gender inequality within this context.
Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.
Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo" project, a…
Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin
We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.
A.E. Baker; B. van den Bogaerde
Deaf children with Deaf parents usually grow up in the Deaf community, that is if their parents offer them a sign language and are active members of the community. These Deaf children are similar to other children of linguistic and cultural minorities in many ways. They are also different in that th
Tisak, Marie S.
Examines children's conceptions of parental authority. A total of 120 children were interviewed and asked to evaluate social events (stealing, family chores, friendship choice) pertaining to restraint of behavior and maintenance of parental rule systems. Results suggest that children's notions of authority are heterogeneous with respect to the…
Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer
School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…
Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand childrens subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Childrens well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.
Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J
This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride.
Thousands of ostomies are performed on children every year to treat a variety of acquired conditions and congenital anomalies. The parents of children with ostomies are faced with the challenge of successfully living with and managing their child's ostomy. These families need practical information and support, both from the professional community and from parents who have shared the responsibility of a child with an ostomy. A parental support network has been developed throughout the country to address some of the needs of these families. This article provides current information about the status of these networks: what they have to offer and how they can be accessed. These groups, which continue to evolve, demonstrate a trend within this unique population. The parents of a child with an ostomy no longer need to feel alone in their experience.
Lansford, Jennifer E
This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.
Parents who love their children sometimes harm them. They harm them by physically or sexually abusing them and by failing to provide the nurturance that children have the right to expect. They neglect and abuse their children because they lack the necessary combination of knowledge, patience, empathy, and problem-solving capabilities. Intervening…
Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.
This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…
Hewitt, Allison M; Stephens, Christine
This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 - 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted intentions, which, in turn, predicted self-reported dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not increase the model's explanatory power. Results support the application of the TPB to the prediction of food choice-related intention and behaviour among children; however, the role of parental influence requires further examination.
Lopez, Nanette V; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Corder, Kirsten; Eisenberg, Christina M; Zive, Michelle M; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P
Consumption of sugary beverages has been identified as a contributor to childhood obesity. Studies have established the importance of specific parenting practices to children's beverage consumption; however, no study has examined multiple operationalizations of parenting to better understand where to focus future interventions. The present study examined the relationship between children's sugary beverage consumption and a parenting model that included household food rules, parent modeling of food rules, parent-mediated behaviors, and parent support. Baseline data from Project MOVE/me Muevo were used. Participants included 541 children, aged 5 to 8 years old, and their parents. Parents completed a 45-minute self-administered survey in Spanish or English, providing information about their child's dietary intake, as well as their parenting practices. Children's sugary beverage consumption included nondiet soda, noncarbonated sugary drinks, and sport drinks. Household food rules and parent modeling of food rules were assessed with seven items each. Parent-mediated behaviors consisted of four behaviors. Parent support was assessed with five items. Parent support and parent-mediated behaviors, including total screen time and eating at fast-food restaurants at least weekly, were associated with greater consumption of sugary beverages in children. No other parenting variables were significant. Encouraging caregivers to promote healthy dietary behaviors and provide healthy choices, limiting children's television and computer use, and reducing fast-food consumption can contribute to reductions in sugary beverage consumption among children.
Yahirun, Jenjira J; Sheehan, Connor M; Hayward, Mark D
This article asks how adult children's education influences older parents' physical health in Mexico, a context where older adults often lack access to institutional resources and rely on kin, primarily children, as a main source of support. Using logistic and negative binomial regression models and data from the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (N = 9,661), we find that parents whose children all completed high school are less likely to report any functional limitations as well as fewer limitations compared to parents with no children who completed high school. This association remains significant even after accounting for parent and offspring-level characteristics, including parents' income that accounts for children's financial transfers to parents. Future research should aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the association between adult children's education and changes to parents' health over time.
Fulbrook, Paul; Leisfield, Trish; Wiggins, Kay
There has been no research that has investigated the psychosocial impact on children whose parents have undergone a lung transplant. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe children's concerns and understandings of their parent's transplant surgery. Artwork was used as a creative medium to enable children to portray their experiences in a safe, non-threatening environment. This was used as a visual primer for follow-up interviews. All children expressed similar and complementary views about uncertainty and anxiety, separation, disruption to family life, their desire for normality, and the importance of social support. Differences were evident in the way that some children managed well by adapting to the changing situations, whereas others tended towards avoidance. The findings provide several themes that may be used as a framework for family support and counselling by nurses, social workers, and other healthcare professionals who are caring for patients and their families during the transplant process.
Hungerford, Anne; Ogle, Richard L; Clements, Caroline M
The current study examined the extent to which seventy-five 5- to 13-year-old children and their mothers agreed about whether children had been exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and the association between parent-child agreement and children's psychological adjustment. One type of disagreement (i.e., parents failed to report IPV exposure that children reported) was associated with children's perceptions of less positive family relationships. Parents of these children, however, reported fewer child adjustment problems than did parents who agreed with their children about children's IPV exposure. The findings suggest the importance of obtaining children's reports of their own exposure to IPV in addition to parental reports. Moreover, parent-child concordance with respect to children's IPV exposure may be an important variable to examine in understanding variations in children's adjustment.
Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.
Concerned with different types of parents and the forces that shape parenting, this volume, the first of five volumes on parenting, deals specifically with parent-child relationships throughout the lifespan and the parenting of children of different physical, behavioral, and intellectual needs. The volume consists of the following 14 chapters: (1)…
Presents general statistical findings of Internet use by children, discusses the recent Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), and summarizes online child safety considerations. Considers filtering and includes current resources for parents and children. (Author/LRW)
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.
This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…
Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…
Tompkins, Virginia; Logan, Jessica A R; Blosser, Daniel F; Duffy, Kaylin
Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion. Family income had a significant indirect effect on false belief understanding through children's vocabulary and parent discipline when examined independently, but only through children's vocabulary when using parallel multiple mediation. This study contributes to our knowledge of individual differences in false belief understanding.
Data Quality Campaign, 2016
The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) believes that when parents and educators have the right information to make decisions, students excel. Parents agree, according to a recent survey. DQC's Parent Poll, conducted online by Harris Poll in November 2015, surveyed 1,093 US parents with children ages 5-17 about their attitudes toward data collection and…
Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…
Jones, Cynthia Cavenaugh
Two motivational theories considered particularly useful in administering early childhood programs are discussed, and guidelines for motivating staff, parents, and children are provided. First, the two-factor theory of motivation within organizations, as outlined by Herzberg (1959), is described. Offered in this section are a list of motivators…
van Gulden, Holly; Bartels-Rabb, Lisa M.
Parenting an adopted child is, for the most part, the same as parenting any other child, but is different in some unique and critical ways related to the child's separation from birth parents and genetic roots. Understanding how a child interprets, understands, and feels about adoption, and why, can help the parent guide the adopted child…
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Kiff, Cara J; Fisher, Philip A
This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal slope, with a significant indirect effect through maternal negativity, suggesting that parenting practices might mediate an allostatic effect on stress physiology.
Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.
There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…
Golombok, Susan; Perry, Beth; Burston, Amanda; Murray, Clare; Mooney-Somers, Julid; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean
Examined the quality of parent-child relationships and the socioemotional and gender development of a community sample of 7-year-olds with lesbian parents, with two-parent heterosexual parents, or with single heterosexual mothers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Found no significant differences between lesbian mothers and…
There is little consensus among social science researchers about the effectiveness of alternative parenting strategies in producing desirable child outcomes. Some argue that parents should set strict limits on the activities of their adolescent children, while others believe that adolescents should be given relatively wide discretion. In this paper, I develop and estimate a model of parent-child interaction in order to better understand the relationship between parenting styles and the develo...
Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Zur, Hana
This study, guided by the Family Systems Theory, examines the direct effect of maternal use of corporal punishment on children's adjustment difficulties. Also, it explores whether corporal punishment serves as a mediating factor in the relationship between several maternal characteristics, marital relationships, and children's adjustment difficulties. A total of 2,447 Arab mothers completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaires. The use of corporal punishment was generally strongly supported by the Arab mothers in our sample. A greater likelihood of using corporal punishment was found among mothers of boys rather than girls, among mothers with lower perceived self-efficacy to discipline children, and among mothers with a lower perception of their husbands' participation in child-related labor. In addition, the higher a mother's reports on disagreement with her husband about discipline methods and the stronger her level of maternal stress, the more likely she was to use corporal punishment. Corporal punishment also mediated the association between the above mentioned factors and child adjustment difficulties. Furthermore, a husband's emotional support and family socioeconomic status were directly associated to children's adjustment difficulties. The results of the current study emphasize the need to observe children's development within the context of their family systems and to consider the mutual influences of different subsystems such as marital relationships and mother-child interactions. Prevention and intervention programs should raise parents' awareness concerning the harmful effects of corporal punishment and take into account the impact of dynamic transactions of parental conflicts and disagreements regarding discipline methods on child outcomes.
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.
This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal ...
Moser, Barbara Walsh
The three major sign language systems (American Sign Language, Pidgin Sign English, and Manual English) are compared in table form. A brief description of each language highlights salient points that parents of deaf children need to understand. (DB)
Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
Objective: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. Metho
Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Meijer, A.M.; Dekovic, M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
OBJECTIVE: The goals of the work described here were (1) to predict parenting stress and parenting from stressors, resources, and parental coping behaviors in parents of children with epilepsy, and (2) to determine whether parenting stress mediates the effects of these predictors on parenting. METHO
Chen, Shuang; Adams, Jennifer; Qu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Li
In the context of China's increasing rural-urban migration, few studies have investigated how parental migration affects children's experience in school. The high cost of schooling, taken together with the institutional barriers in destination cities, have compelled many rural parents in China to migrate without their children, leaving them in the care of their spouses, grandparents, relatives or other caregivers. Still other parents migrate with their children, many of whom then attend urban migrant schools in their destination city. Understanding the academic engagement of children of migrant workers is particularly salient because the poor qualities of migrant schools, a lack of parental support, and exposure to competing alternatives to schooling may render both migrant children in the cities and left-behind children in the rural villages vulnerable to disengagement, and ultimately school dropout. Using data collected in 2008 in the urban Haidian and Changping districts of Beijing and rural Henan and Shaanxi provinces, the authors of this paper investigate the association between parental migration status and two measures of academic engagement, academic aspirations and the odds of liking school, by comparing migrant children attending migrant schools and left-behind children with their rural counterparts who do not have migrant parents. The authors' findings show that migrant children attending migrant schools have lower academic engagement compared to rural children of non-migrant parents. The correlation between academic engagement and parental migration status can be accounted for in part by the support children receive from family and teachers. The association between certain measures of family and school support and academic engagement also varies by parental migration status: for example, high teacher turnover rates significantly reduce migrant children's odds of liking schools, but do not affect children of non-migrant parents.
Phillips, Catherine I.; Pexman, Penny M.
Purpose: The aims of the present research were to determine (a) the age at which children with typical development understand the concept of opposite, (b) whether this is related to other cognitive abilities or experiences, and (c) whether there is early implicit understanding of the concept. Method: Children (N = 204) between 3 and 5 years of age…
Ranning, Anne; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Thorup, Anne
analyses were performed assessing the risk of dissolution of the conjugal family. RESULTS: Children's living arrangements were characterized by fewer nuclear families and more single-parent-headed households when parents had serious mental illness (SMI). From birth, 15% to 20% of children lived...... with a single mother with SMI. Conjugal families were dissolved at higher rates if a parent had SMI, especially if the mother (incidence rate ratio 2.98; 95% CI 2.80-3.17) or the father (incidence rate ratio 2.60; 95% CI 2.47-2.74) had schizophrenia. Risks for family dissolution varied greatly with parents......' socioeconomic position in all diagnostic groups. CONCLUSION: Parents' SMI affects children's family living arrangements because fewer children live with both parents and more children live with a single parent or are separated from both parents. Family cohesion seems especially difficult to maintain when...
Pinzon, Jorge L; Jones, Veronnie F
Teen pregnancy and parenting remain an important public health issue in the United States and the world, and many children live with their adolescent parents alone or as part of an extended family. A significant proportion of teen parents reside with their family of origin, significantly affecting the multigenerational family structure. Repeated births to teen parents are also common. This clinical report updates a previous policy statement on care of the adolescent parent and their children and addresses medical and psychosocial risks specific to this population. Challenges unique to teen parents and their children are reviewed, along with suggestions for the pediatrician on models for intervention and care.
Kramer, Laurie; Baron, Lisa A.
Parental appraisals of their children's sibling relationships, and their standards for sibling relationships, were assessed. Although parents reported most concern about their children's Agonism and Rivalry/Competition, the largest discrepancies between parental standards and observations involved behaviors reflecting Warmth. Results endorse…
This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…
Chao, Ruth K.
Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…
Tahiroglu, Deniz; Moses, Louis J.; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Olofson, Eric L.; Sabbagh, Mark A.
Children's theory of mind (ToM) is typically measured with laboratory assessments of performance. Although these measures have generated a wealth of informative data concerning developmental progressions in ToM, they may be less useful as the sole source of information about individual differences in ToM and their relation to other facets of…
Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.
(Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also...... of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...... reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding...
Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…
Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Edelenbos, Merete
The inherent challenge of investigating food choice of new products for children is that more than one person is involved in the longterm decision-making. Parents decide in the purchase situation while children pass their verdict when they consume the meal. In this paper we suggest linking family...... decision-making and food choice, and reveal results from two empirical studies of vegetable-based food for children. One study discloses parents' preferences regarding different food concepts while the other looks into children's liking before and after tasting the products. Results show that parents know...... fairly well what children like. Sharing the meal experience with their children and having meal variation options are important benefits for parents. Parents are more concerned about health while children prefer products that look familiar. However, after tasting an unfamiliar product children are less...
This brief report describes harmonious parents and their children. The six preschool daughters whose parents were harmonious were outstandingly competent but the opposite was true of the two sons. (Author/WY)
Green, Kathryn F.; And Others
The aims of this sexual learning curriculum are to increase parents' emotional and intellectual understanding of human sexuality and to improve their ability to talk about sexuality with their children. Specifically, the curriculum attempts to increase parents' awareness that (1) sexuality includes lifestyle choices, body image, gender role,…
Silverman, Chloe; Brosco, Jeffrey P
Both primary care providers and subspecialists in pediatrics encounter families who are actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of their children. Parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder in particular are often aware of scientific issues, and their expertise and desire for a medical cure for autism sometimes put them at odds with the medical team. We investigated the role of parents and advocates in autism research and treatment over the last 50 years. Our review of scientific publications and archival sources documents how parents and advocacy groups have done the following: (1) organized research funding; (2) constructed clinical research networks; (3) suggested new avenues for research; (4) popularized empirically based therapies; and (5) anticipated paradigmatic shifts in the understanding of autism. We believe that this historical account will help pediatricians and researchers recognize that families can contribute to expert understanding of complex medical conditions such as autism and that the existence of partnerships with families of children with autism is a critical component of future research and treatment programs.
Stevens, Penelope K; Penprase, Barbara; Kepros, John P; Dunneback, James
Evaluation of current emergency department discharge instructions and parental recognition of symptomatology requiring further care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not well understood. A convenience sample of 105 parents of children aged 5 to 17 years who were seen and discharged from the pediatric emergency department with TBI was identified. Parents were surveyed by telephone 2 to 5 days after injury and a questionnaire was completed regarding identification of TBI symptoms. This study demonstrated that despite verbal and written discharge instructions, many parents with symptomatic children reported that their children were asymptomatic, and unable to identify postconcussive symptoms in their children.
Sealy, Yvette M
This article examines obesity among minority parents and children in the context of culture, socioeconomic status, and the parent-child dyad. Knowing parental attitudes about eating habits, food preparation, and dietary guidelines is crucial to addressing childhood obesity. Parents of African American, Caribbean, and Hispanic descent participated in focus groups to explore their attitudes and practices regarding the food choices they make for themselves and their 6- to 12-year-old children. Cultural identification and time constraints were identified as key themes that influence food choice decisions. Several recommendations are made for health care practitioners working with families to reduce the incidence of obesity.
Davies, Betty; Collins, John; Steele, Rose; Cook, Karen; Distler, Vivian; Brenner, Amy
The provision of some form of bereavement services is an integral part of any pediatric hospice program. The Canuck Place hospice program has offered bereavement services since it began in 1995. A mixed-method evaluation of the impact of the Canuck Place program on the families it served during its first two-and-a-half years of operation was conducted. The bereavement services reviewed included follow-up care for families, and bereavement support groups for children and their parents. Eight children were interviewed in the initial phase, and nine completed a survey questionnaire; 28 parents rated their level of satisfaction with various aspects of their experience with the parent support group. Findings indicated that the follow-up component of the program was well-received by family members. When assessing their group experiences, children and parents most appreciated the support and understanding they received, the freedom to express themselves, a diminished sense of isolation, and the normalization of their emotions. Practical considerations when offering bereavement support groups are discussed in this paper.
Strong, Kimberly; Kerridge, Ian; Little, Miles
Philosophy has long been concerned with 'moral status'. Discussions about the moral status of children, however, seem often to promote confusion rather than clarity. Using the creation of 'savior siblings' as an example, this paper provides a philosophical critique of the moral status of children and the moral relevance of parenting and the role that formative experience, regret and relational autonomy play in parental decisions. We suggest that parents make moral decisions that are guided by the moral significance they attach to children, to sick children and most importantly, to a specific sick child (theirs). This moral valorization is rarely made explicit and has generally been ignored by both philosophers and clinicians in previous critiques. Recognizing this, however, may transform not only the focus of bioethical discourse but also the policies and practices surrounding the care of children requiring bone marrow or cord blood transplantation by better understanding the values at stake behind parental decision making.
Oppenheimer, L.J.T.; Kuipers, I.
This study reports on 10-year-old Filipino children's understanding of peace, war, and strategies to attain peace. In total, 56 children were presented with a semistructured interview consisting of free associations to peace and questions pertaining to the definitions of peace and war and strategies
Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Alampay, Liane Peña; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat
Children's family obligations involve assistance and respect that children are expected to provide to immediate and extended family members and reflect beliefs related to family life that may differ across cultural groups. Mothers, fathers and children (N = 1432 families) in 13 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand and United States) reported on their expectations regarding children's family obligations and parenting attitudes and behaviours. Within families, mothers and fathers had more concordant expectations regarding children's family obligations than did parents and children. Parenting behaviours that were warmer, less neglectful and more controlling as well as parenting attitudes that were more authoritarian were related to higher expectations regarding children's family obligations between families within cultures as well as between cultures. These international findings advance understanding of children's family obligations by contextualising them both within families and across a number of diverse cultural groups in 9 countries.
Dr. Gita Movallali
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Despite the abundance of literature about deaf children, few works specifically address the concept and practice of difficulties in parenting hearing-impaired children. The first interactions of the child are with his parents, and parents have the most important role in child improvements during early intervention programs. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate different aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children.Methods: In this article, we reviewed all aspects of parenting hearing-impaired children in papers from 1984-2009 in Medline, Scopus and Proquest and relative textbooks. The semi-professional role of parents of hearing-impaired children make them feel under excessive stress and this usually affects their other roles as fathers and mothers. Many factors including child age, type of hearing loss and parents’ individual characteristics may influence the impact of child’s hearing loss on parents.Conclusion: Parenting a hearing-impaired child is both similar and different to parenting any other child. Where there are differences, there are usually challenges too. Taking support and advice from professionals and other parents are necessary and invaluable for parents of hearing-impaired children.
Children's TV viewing has been associated with increased sedentary behavior and poor eating habits. Positive intervention effects have been observed when addressing outcome expectations as a mediator in interventions targeting children's dietary behavior. Little is known about parental outcome expec...
Chao, R K
This study addresses a paradox in the literature involving the parenting style of Asians: Chinese parenting has often been described as "controlling" or "authoritarian". These styles of parenting have been found to be predictive of poor school achievement among European-Americans, and yet the Chinese are performing quite well in school. This study suggests that the concepts of authoritative and authoritarian are somewhat ethnocentric and do not capture the important features of Chinese child rearing, especially for explaining their school success. Immigrant Chinese and European-American mothers of preschool-aged children were administered standard measures of parental control and authoritative-authoritarian parenting style as well as Chinese child-rearing items involving the concept of "training." After controlling for their education, and their scores on the standard measures, the Chinese mothers were found to score significantly higher on the "training" ideologies. This "training" concept has important features, beyond the authoritarian concept, that may explain Chinese school success.
Ninety-five Japanese children (aged 6-12) were interviewed using hypothetical stories to examine their reasoning about parent-child conflicts. Participants were most likely to reject parental authority and to support child's discretion in conflict situations where the parent interfered in the child's personal choice and gave the child commands…
M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc)
textabstractMost children suffer from illnesses from time to time. In only a small part of these ill children parents decide to seek professional help. So, most child health care is carried out by parents. In general, this phenomenon is called the iceberg of symptoms. The part of the iceberg under t
... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- ... Year-Old Hearing Evaluation in Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Hearing Evaluation in Children A A A What's in this article? Causes ...
Cony, Steven R.
An effective camp marketing strategy should address both parents' and children's concerns that influence decisions about camp. Includes strategies for developing a targeted message through print media or video that addresses these concerns and persuades families to choose camp. Stresses the importance of following up with parents and children. (LP)
Salkind, N J
An adoption study was conducted to determine if cognitive tempo (as characterized by errors and latencies on the Matching Familiar Figures Test) is more similar between parents and their biological children or between parents and their adopted children. Zero-order correlations between parents and children were not significant (regardless of familial relationship), but the results of canonical correlations for mean of parents' scores with those of biological and adopted children respectively were consonant with hypothesized values, suggesting a degree of heritability exists. A slight trend for parents' latency to be consistently related to their biological children's latency was noted, but no such trend was present for errors. The heritability of latency versus errors in cognitive tempo is discussed.
I estimate how new information about children's cognitive abilities leads parents to adjust investment within and across children. I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth matched mother-child data to construct measures of both child cognitive ability and parental investment during childhood. I find that parents respond to improvements in a child's cognitive abilities by devoting more resources towards that child. Â I find that positive information about one child leads to compensating...
Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.
Previous research reveals that children and parents are not in complete agreement over which traits are most important for the mate of the child. Children tend to prefer traits that suggest genetic quality, whereas parents prefer characteristics that suggest high parental investment and cooperation
Novick, Kerry Kelly; Novick, Jack
The concept of "emotional muscle" arose from clinical work in relation to therapeutic impasse and as a criterion for moving toward a "good goodbye. "It was applied to work at Allen Creek Preschool, a non-profit psychoanalytic school in Ann Arbor, Michigan, dedicated to the emotional and cognitive growth of families and their children from 0-6 years of age. The idea of building emotional muscle makes immediate intuitive sense to parents, children, teachers, therapists, and patients. It is a bridge between the abstract concepts and findings of developmental researchers and the everyday practicalities of family life, school, and the consulting room. The concept of "emotional muscle" promotes multidisciplinary understanding of personality structure and growth and contributes to the use of multi-modal therapeutic techniques.
Music Therapy has consolidated it's position as an effective treatment approach for children with ASD. The use of MT way of thinking and MT-like techniques by the parents in everyday life, can contribute to improve their understanding of their child's needs, and help to cope with daily challanges....... The lecture will present a Parent Counseling approach upon an extensive clinical experience in working with parents of children with ASD, and will conclude examples from counseling sessions. This approach is now tested through research....
Garvin, Melissa C; Tarullo, Amanda R; Van Ryzin, Mark; Gunnar, Megan R
Children adopted from institutions (e.g., orphanages) overseas are at increased risk of disturbances in social relationships and social understanding. Not all postinstitutionalized children exhibit these problems, although factors like the severity of deprivation and duration of deprivation increase their risk. To date, few studies have examined whether postadoption parenting might moderate the impact of early adverse care. Three groups were studied: postinstitutionalized and foster care children both adopted internationally and nonadopted children reared in their families of origin. The Emotional Availability (EA) Scales were assessed at 18 months in parent-child dyads. Parent emotional availability was found to predict two aspects of social functioning shown in previous studies to be impaired in postinstitutionalized children. Specifically, EA positively correlated with emotion understanding at 36 months; in interaction with initiation of joint attention at 18 months and group, it predicted indiscriminate friendliness as scored from a parent attachment interview at 30 months. Among the postinstitutionalized children but not among the children in other groups, higher EA scores reduced the negative association between initiation of joint attention and indiscriminate friendliness, thus suggesting that parenting quality may moderate the effects of early institutional deprivation.
Deng, Liang-Yu F.
This study explored what Taiwanese parents would educate their children about peace and what children retained from parental teaching, as well as children's reported communication with parents about peace. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 parents and one of their children. Based on the perceptions of children, the most influential…
Paster, Angela; Brandwein, David; Walsh, Joanne
The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping strategies differ in parents of children with disabilities and parents of children without disabilities. Participants consisted of 112 parents, including 50 parents of children with disabilities and 62 parents of children without disabilities. It was hypothesized that coping strategies…
Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.
INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, knowledge on the psychosocial consequences of extremely preterm birth was requested. The Danish Paediatric Society therefore launched a prospective longitudinal study of all children born in Denmark in 1994-95 with a gestational age of ... of children and a group of children born at term were assessed at 5 years of age and the parents filled in a questionnaire. Quantitative data were analysed, qualitative data and impressions received through conversations with the parents were considered...... on the basis of a psychological understanding of loss and grief. RESULTS: During the first year of life, index children were more ill and were cared for in the home for a longer time than were reference children. From the 3rd year of life, differences in illness were minimal. Index parents received more...
Kariane Gomes Cezario
Full Text Available Objective: to understand the experiences of blind parents in care related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children. Methods: qualitative research with the participation of four blind mothers and five blind fathers. Home interviews were carried out to address the experience of feeding children in the context of blindness, categorized by the technique of thematic analysis. Results: three categories emerged: Breastfeeding and complementary feeding offered by blind mothers; Blind fathers and the feeding of children; and Care of the children and blindness: coping strategies, in which difficulties and alternatives developed to feed the children were highlighted. Conclusion: blind parents have difficulties similar to those seer parents but with specific demands associated with the handling of utensils in safe and satisfactory supply of food.
Aram, Dorit; Besser-Biron, Shira
The study aimed to deepen the understanding of parental sensitivity to their children's abilities and the nature of their scaffolding during writing tasks. We compared the parent-child writing interactions of three groups: precocious readers (PRs), same age preschoolers (SA), and older children with the same reading level (SRL) as the PRs. Each of…
Cameron, Paul; Cameron, Kirk
Referenced as both supporting and weakening the case for parenting by homosexuals, 57 life-story narratives of children with homosexual parents published by Rafkin in 1990 and Saffron in 1996 were subjected to content analysis. Children mentioned one or more problems or concerns in 48 (92%) of 52 families. Of the 213 scored problems, 201 (94%) were attributed to the homosexual parent(s). Older daughters in at least 8 (27%) of 30 families and older sons in at least 2 (20%) of 10 families described themselves as homosexual or bisexual. These findings are inconsistent with propositions that children of homosexuals do not differ appreciably from those who live with married parents or that children of homosexuals are not more apt to engage in homosexuality.
Greenberg, A S; Bailey, J M
As we learn more about the causes of sexual orientation, the likelihood increases that parents will one day be able to select the orientation of their children. This possibility (at least that of selecting for heterosexuality) has generated a great deal of concern among supporters of homosexual rights, with such selection being widely condemned as harmful and morally repugnant. Notwithstanding this widespread condemnation, and even assuming, as we do, that homosexuality is entirely acceptable morally, allowing parents, by means morally unproblematic in themselves, to select for heterosexuality would be morally acceptable. This is because allowing parents to select their children's sexual orientation would further parent's freedom to raise the sort of children they wish to raise and because selection for heterosexuality may benefit parents and children and is unlikely to cause significant harm.
Nolte, Lizette; Wren, Bernadette
This grounded theory study explored parents' experiences of responding to their children's need for understanding parental mental health concerns. Fifteen parents with severe and enduring mental health difficulties participated in the study. The findings suggest four main social processes that influence parents' talk with their children about parental mental health issues, namely "Protecting and being protected," "Responding to children's search for understanding," "Prioritizing family life," and "Relating to others." Implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are considered. In particular, the need for more family-orientated services where parents experience parental mental health problems is highlighted.
Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R
There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (Pparents-only group. In both groups, the parents' weight status did not change. Regression analysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.
Hunt, Tamara Jo-Lynne
The purpose of this study was to understand the conditions necessary to gain research access to parents of children with anorexia. In this study, I also examined and explored avenues parents have for sharing their story and their experiences of parenting a child with anorexia as well as whether gatekeepers have a role in connecting parents and…
Lieberman, Lauren J.; Volding, Lori; Winnick, Joseph P.
Deaf children of Deaf parents perform better academically (Ritter-Brinton & Stewart, 1992), linguistically (Courtin, 2000; M. Harris, 2001; Vaccari & Marschark, 1997), and socially (Hadadian & Rose, 1991; M. Harris, 2001) than Deaf children of hearing parents. Twenty-nine Deaf children in residential schools were assessed to determine if a…
This paper describes the care and social treatment for parent(s) and child with Asperger syndrome. The children with Asperger syndrome are not easily distinguished from children without Asperger syndrome. The diagnosis can be varied depending on perspectives. They are more likely to receive inappropriate intervention due to lack of understanding. They are more likely to develop emotional and conduct problems secondarily. Because their disorders cannot be seen clearly, their difficulties are not identified. It seems that parent(s) and child with Asperger syndrome are hurt by this problem. It is difficult to operate parents' association and self-help group. They should learn it about one's diagnosis. While having a difference, an effort to live together is demanded.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children, the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL, Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.
Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi
The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to Pabuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.
Sarant, Julia; Garrard, Philippa
Little attention has been focused on stress levels of parents of children with cochlear implants (CIs). This study examined the stress experience of 70 parents of children with CIs by comparing stress levels in this group of parents to those in parents of children without disabilities, identifying primary stressors, examining the relationship between parent stress and child language, and comparing stress in parents of children with bilateral and unilateral CIs. Parents completed a parent stress questionnaire, and the receptive vocabulary and language abilities of the children were evaluated. Results indicated that these parents had a higher incidence of stress than the normative population. Parent stress levels and child language outcomes were negatively correlated. Child behavior and lack of spousal and social support were the prime causes of parent stress. Parents of children with bilateral CIs were significantly less stressed than were parents of children with unilateral CIs.
By interacting with their child, parents build their own sense of competence as a parent. This parental self-efficacy relates to each parent’s representation of a “good parent”, an ideal parent-child relationship and the belief that he is doing a good job or not as a parent. What if the child is being difficult, non-compliant, aggressive or agitated? This dissertation presents an innovative parenting program called Confident Parents designed for parents of young children displaying difficult ...
Behrens, Timothy K.; Wegner, Rebekah L.; Miller, Daniel J.; Liebert, Mina L.; Smith, Jennifer Howard
After-school PA programs have been used as an outlet to help children increase PA levels. To attract children and their parents, it is important to understand perceptions about programs. With child and parent input, researchers and practitioners will better be able to increase PA with activities the children enjoy and encourage increased PA. A…
PACER Center, 2004
In the fall of 2003, PACER Center's Parent Partnership Project for Children's Mental Health conducted a survey to better understand what parents and families need from the children?s mental health system in Minnesota. The research team developed a survey questionnaire, a telephone interview, and a focus group session directed at learning what was…
Cherian, V I
This study investigated the academic achievement of 242 pupils whose parents were divorced and 713 pupils whose parents were neither divorced nor separated. The subjects were in the age range of 13 to 17 yr., with a mean age of 15.6 yr. and they were chosen at random from the total Standard 7 population of Transkei, South Africa. A questionnaire was administered to 1,021 pupils to identify the children of parents divorced or separated and neither divorced nor separated. Analysis of variance indicated that the academic achievement of children whose parents were divorced or separated was significantly lower than that of the children whose parents were neither divorced nor separated.
Chan, Lik Man; Lui, Brian
A questionnaire was administered to 42 Hong Kong Chinese deaf couples, their 70 hearing children, 41 hearing couples, and their 82 hearing children. No differences were found in the self-concepts of children of deaf parents compared to children of hearing parents, but deaf parents reported lower self-concepts than hearing parents. (Author/JDD)
Although most parents claim their children owe them obligations of gratitude, there has been no attempt to analyze gratitude as a basis for parental rights over children's religious upbringing. Parents' provision of benefits to their children in an altruistic fashion requires that children ought normally to honor parental requests that they…
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy and ... by a "bad" gene. continue Two Types of Gene Therapy The two forms of gene therapy are: Somatic ...
Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children partici
Intelligence explains some variance in students’ school achievement, but not all. Motivation and parenting have been well-documented as non-cognitive predictors and are crucial to students’ school achievement. Better performance of students under Eastern culture could be attributed to motivation and parenting. The present research is dedicated to exploring the associations among motivation and parenting, as well as their specific and joint predictive power for school achievement, independent ...
Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.
Bananas, Inc., Oakland, CA.
Written for residents of Alameda County, California, this guide to information, organizations, resources, and services related to parenting and children consists of numerous entries organized into four parts. Part 1 provides information to parents seeking child care. Part 2 suggests home learning and reading activities; lists libraries in the…
Hwang, Young Suk; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos
This study examined 32 Hispanic parents' perceptions of education, especially, (a) parent's motivation for their children's career choice, (b) their perceptions of education, and (c) informal means of education at home. The data were collected using openended questions and were analyzed using content analysis. Findings in this study provide…
Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H
Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.
Blake Lee Jones
Full Text Available Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs, and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥ 7 hours/night and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score. The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥ 10 hours/night, family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤ 2 hours/day of TV, video, DVD, and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.
Although much has been written about the role of therapists in children's recovery from child sexual abuse, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nonoffending parents. This study investigated the work of a team of therapists who sometimes included such parents in therapy sessions with children. The study sought to understand what factors were influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement and to understand what effect these patterns of parental involvement were having on the process and outcomes of therapy. The study successfully identified a range of factors influencing the patterns of parental involvement, but more research will be needed to understand the effect on outcomes.
Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann
Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.
The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper understanding of how small children learn an instrument in the presence of their parents. It is qualitative in nature and concerned six pre-school children (five years old) who were learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. All the children's homes were visited…
Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Amber; Abrar, Fariha; Hasan, Syed Akif
Background Psychological studies found that adopted children suffer from lack of attachment relationships in life. It is important for new parents to understand the underlying concepts before they begin to comprehend behavior issues arising out of different turbulent situations in an adopted child’s life. Attachment theory facilitates in comprehending the frame of mind of these children, when they come from emotionally turbulent backgrounds and how some, if not all behavior issues can be atte...
Cheryl A. Zecevic
Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.
Although Eastern European migration has increased greatly, the research on its impact on children and families has been limited. In this study I examined the impact of parental economic migration on children psychosocial and academic outcomes in Romania, one of largest Eastern European migrant sending country. Surveys were conducted with 382…
Rossiter, John R.; Robertson, Thomas S.
Examines parental control over children's television viewing, as reported by parents and as reported by the children themselves. Results showed a more general pattern of exaggeration by parents than was reported by children regarding television control by parents. (Author/DEP)
Dyb, Grete; Jensen, Tine K; Nygaard, Egil
This study examined the association between parents' and children's posttraumatic stress reactions after the tsunami disaster in Southeast Asia in 2004. Parents of 319 Norwegian children and adolescents aged 6-18 years reported on children's exposure to the tsunami and children's immediate subjective responses. The Child Stress Disorder Checklist was used to measure children's posttraumatic stress reactions 6-8 months after the tsunami, and the Impact of Event Scale Revised measured parental PTSD. Results indicated that parents' posttraumatic stress reactions significantly predicted PTSD reactions in their children. The strongest association was found for parental intrusive reactions and hyperarousal. Highly exposed children seemed to be more vulnerable to parental distress compared to children with lower levels of exposure. The study demonstrates that parental distress can endure and worsen the impact of a disaster in children. In assessments of trauma-related consequences and in therapeutic work with children clinicians need to expand the focus to include their parents and family.
Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah
Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…
Purtell, Kelly M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
Planning and preparing for life after high school is a central developmental task of American adolescents, and may be even more critical for low-income youth who are less likely to attend a four year college. This study investigates factors that led to the effects of the New Hope Project, a work-based, anti-poverty program directed at parents on…
Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M; Travers, Lea V
This cross-sectional study examined relations between affluent adolescent adjustment and culturally salient factors within parent-child relationship and extracurricular domain. Bootstrapping techniques evaluated mediated effects among parental perfectionism, perceived parental pressure, intensity of organized activity (OA) involvement, and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction) within a sample of 10th graders and their parents (n = 88 parent-child pairs) from four high schools in affluent communities. Findings indicated that adolescents with more perfectionistic parents perceived more parental pressure and experienced poorer adjustment. Results also demonstrated that affluent adolescents who perceived more parental pressure were more intensely involved in OAs, but that higher OA intensity was linked to better adjustment. Findings highlight the importance of considering parental perfectionism when understanding adolescent behaviors and psychological outcomes, confirm the negative direct effects of parental pressure on adjustment, and corroborate prior research dispelling that highly intense OA involvement is linked to adolescent maladjustment.
McClain, Lauren Rinelli
As cohabitation has risen dramatically in the past few decades among adults of all ages, it is possible that middle-and older-aged parents are “learning” cohabitation from their young adult children. The present study uses this theory as a guiding framework to determine if parents are more likely to cohabit themselves following the start of a young adult child’s cohabitation. Using three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 275), results show that union formation patterns are influenced by young adult children among parents who are single at their child’s 18th birthday. Parents are less likely to marry than remain single and are much more likely to cohabit than marry if they have a young adult child who cohabits. These results show support for the hypotheses.
Watanabe, Akiko; Nunes, Terezinha; de Abreu, Guida
In Japan, the practice of disclosing the diagnosis of cancer to young people varies between hospitals. Some hospitals respect parent's wishes and do not to tell young people about their diagnoses whereas others encourage parents to adopt their policy of informing patients. Unfortunately, there is no research about parents' adjustment to either course of action. This study examines parents' perspectives regarding this decision. Parents (55) and grand-parents (3) were interviewed about their experience of sharing or not sharing the diagnosis with their children. Analysis of the interviews reveals a complex picture in which parents struggle to balance their emotions, their representation of 'cancer as death', their views of their children's level of understanding as well as the positive and negative effects of disclosure on their children. We suggest that knowledge of parents' perspectives can be useful to health professionals who support parents living with this dilemma.
Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam
We explore the origins of the intergenerational association in entrepreneurship using Swedish adoption data that allow us to quantify the relative importance of prebirth and postbirth factors. We find that parental entrepreneurship increases the probability of children's entrepreneurship by about...... 60%. For adoptees, both biological and adoptive parents make significant contributions to this association. These contributions, however, are quite different in size. Postbirth factors account for twice as much as prebirth factors in our decomposition of the intergenerational association...
Parental social support, coping strategies, resilience factors, stress, anxiety and depression levels in parents of children with MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) or children with intellectual disabilities (ID).
Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Wraith, James Edmond; Jones, Simon; Mahon, Louise; Lomax, Michelle; Bigger, Brian; Hare, Dougal
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by a deficiency in one of four enzymes involved in the catabolism of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. It is a degenerative disorder, with a progressive decline in children's intellectual and physical functioning. There is currently no cure for the disorder. To date there is a paucity of research on how this disorder impacts parents psychological functioning. Specifically, research in the area has failed to employ adequate control groups to assess if the impact of this disorder on parents psychological functioning differs from parenting a child with intellectual disability (ID). The current study examined child behaviour and parental psychological functioning in 23 parents of children with MPS III and 23 parents of children with ID. Parents completed postal questionnaires about their child's behaviour and abilities and their own psychological functioning. Parents of children with MPS III reported fewer behavioural difficulties as their child aged, more severe level of intellectual disability, and similar levels of perceived social support, coping techniques, stress, anxiety and depression levels as parents of children with ID. Both groups of parents scored above the clinical cut off for anxiety and depression. Parents of children with MPS III rated themselves as significantly less future-orientated and goal directed than parents of children with ID. Services should develop support packages for parents of children with MPS III that incorporate an understanding of the unique stressors and current-difficulty approach of this population. Future research should examine gender differences between parental psychological functioning, using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches, and utilise matched developmental level and typically developing control groups.
Miller, Susan B.
This book was written for teenagers and older children who have abusive, alcoholic, or mentally ill parents. Emphasis is placed on young people in such situations using their intelligence, understanding that parents are fallible, viewing the future with optimism, facing reality, and seeing the good in other people rather than assuming everyone…
children gave various drug classes including analgesics, antihistamines , antipyretics, cough suppressants, expectorants, and decongestants. One hundred...FACEP,*Þ Vikhyat S. Bebarta, MD, FACEP, FACMT,*þ Rebecca L. Pitotti, MSN, RN,§ and Toni E. Vargas, PA-C§ Objectives: In August 2007, the Food and Drug ...CCM use in children younger than 2 years. Most thought CCMs were safe and effective. KeyWords: cough and cold medications, Food and Drug
Valdez, Carmen R; Shewakramani, Vansa; Goldberg, Simon; Padilla, Brian
Although it is widely accepted that parental depression is associated with problems with children's socioemotional adjustment, the pathways by which parental depression influences children's adjustment, particularly in low-income Latino children are not fully understood. In our investigation of 1,462 low-income Latino children in the first grade and their Spanish- and English-dominant parents, a factor analysis revealed three main pathways of possible influence of parent involvement in children's social development: emotional involvement and educational involvement at home and at school. The findings from multigroup structural equation modeling revealed that whereas the first two pathways mediated the effect of parental depression on child social competence for Spanish-dominant parents, only emotional involvement explained parental depression effects for English-dominant parents. Parent educational involvement at school did not mediate parental depression effects for either Spanish- or English-dominant Latino parents. Discussion and implications of findings with respect to research, practice, and policy with Latinos follow.
Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren
There are good theoretical reasons why transfers from parents are likely to be important around the time of the first home purchase. Transactions costs associated with trading houses make people with increasing income paths prefer to buy a house that is more expensive than what matches their curr......There are good theoretical reasons why transfers from parents are likely to be important around the time of the first home purchase. Transactions costs associated with trading houses make people with increasing income paths prefer to buy a house that is more expensive than what matches...... suggested that transfers from parents to children are significant exactly around the time where children buy their first home. Using a panel data set issued from Danish administrative registers with information about wealth of a sample of first-time homeowners and their parents, we document that child...... and parent resources, house value as well as financial resources are correlated. We then go on to test if there are direct parental transfers targeted to the purchase of the house, and in case of an unemployment spell during the years after the purchase where children typically hold little liquid assets. We...
The demographic problems do it necessary to scrutinize the deep psychological components of its. The humanity regenerates continuously as a spring in the children's family life. We examine the positive psychological effects of the children to their parents. 1.The child means a positive spontaneously induce fo love. 2 Our birth is the most ancestral experience of our personal life. It means a development for parent's personality. 3. The adventure of construct together is energy generator. 4. The child gives feedback for the unconscious of the parents. 5. In the love of their children the parents can relive a corrective development of the human development. 6. The forces of the collective unconscious flow into the family life through the child. 7. For the child the parents are the fore picture of God. The being of a child in a natural way produces same influences on the parent's personality as some basic effects of psychotherapies. In Hungary to make it more conscious and developing the culture of it would help significantly our endeavours of family support.
Lennox, C; Callias, M; Rutter, M
The parents of 15 autistic boys with a nonverbal IQ of at least 80 were compared with a matched group of parents of normal boys on the Goldstein-Scheerer Object Sorting Test and the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test of Thought Disorder. It was necessary to control for social class effects as abnormal scores on the thought disorder tests were more frequent in parents of manual social class. It was found that (a) there was a lack of agreement between the two tests of thought disorder, (b) the parents of autistic children showed thought disorder scores closely comparable to those of the parents of normals, and (c) there was no consistent association between thought disorder and anxiety. The methodological and substantive implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous investigations.
This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…
Lasser, Jon; Corley, Kristyn
Children with Asperger's Disorder present unique challenges due to their impairments in social functioning. In order to better understand the experiences of parents of children with Asperger's Disorder, interviews were conducted with 20 parents. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and coded using the systematic methods of Grounded Theory. The…
Deals with describing differences regarding life and death meanings between parents of so-called "children with problems" and of parents of children without such problems, and gaining some understanding and indication of the effect of a remedial, therapeutic program on the meaning of life and death. (Author)
PACER Center, 2004
In the fall of 2003, PACER Center's Parent Partnership Project for Children's Mental Health conducted a survey to better understand what parents and families need from the children's mental health system in Minnesota. The research team developed a survey questionnaire, a telephone interview, and a focus group session directed at learning what was…
PACER Center, 2004
In the fall of 2003, PACER Center's Parent Partnership Project for Children's Mental Health conducted a survey to better understand what parents and families need from the children's mental health system in Minnesota. The research team developed a survey questionnaire, a telephone interview, and a focus group session directed at learning what was…
Wardle, Jane; Carnell, Susan
Global increases in childhood obesity rates demand that we tackle the problem from many directions. One promising avenue is to explore the impact of parental feeding practices, particularly those related to parental control over children's intake. In this paper, we review studies of parent feeding and child adiposity covering a range of research methodologies (case-control studies, high risk studies, cross-sectional community studies and longitudinal cohort studies). We also present results from a cross-sectional community study of pre-schoolers (n = 439) and a longitudinal study of twins from ages of 4 to 7 years (n = 3175 pairs). We conclude that parents are more likely to encourage leaner than heavier children to eat, but relationships between adiposity and other parental feeding strategies are unclear. We suggest that future research should: (i) explore the impact of a comprehensive range of authoritative and authoritarian parental feeding behaviours, preferably using the same validated scales consistently across studies; (ii) test the generalisation of existing findings to diverse socio-economic and ethnic groups and (iii) utilise experimental, prospective and genetic methodologies to explore the causal relationships between parental feeding and child weight. We describe current projects in our own group that are designed to take forward these recommendations.
Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakci, Ayse Ferda
Effective parenting is vital for intellectual, physical, social, and emotional development of a child. This study examined the differences between the parenting dimensions of deaf children and healthy ones. The sample of the study consisted of 292 children and their parents (146 of them deaf children and 146 of them healthy ones). Dimensions of parenting (warmth, rejection, structure, chaos, autonomy, and coercion) were measured using the Parent as Social Context Questionnaire. The mean scores of the positive parenting dimensions of warmth and autonomy of deaf children were significantly lower; however, the mean scores of the negative dimensions of chaos and coercion of deaf children were significantly higher than those of healthy ones. Deaf children can become successful adults with the help of their parents. Our results regarding parenting dimensions will be a guide for future nursing interventions planned to develop the relationships between deaf children and their parents.
Huizinga, G.A.; Visser, Annemieke; van der Graaf, W.T.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.
Background: This study was designed to investigate: (i) parent-adolescent communication in families of cancer patients; (ii) relationships between parent-adolescent communication and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in adolescent children; and (iii) associations between parents' illness characte
Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojicic
Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the attitudes of parents of “normal” developing children toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream education in Macedonia. Specifically, the study was aimed to explore the similarities and differences in the attitudes of two groups of parents: a group of parents of preschool children and a group of parents of school age children. Participants included 88 parents. Generally, many of the parents accept inclusive education, but most of them still think the special school is better place for education of children with disability.
Rastogi, C. K.
SUMMARY Parents of 50 mentally retarded children were investigated for their attitudes towards their retarded children. Both the parents showed more negative attitudes toward their severely retarded child. In general mothers exhibited more negative attitude than the fathers.
A number of philosophical points of view that have guided parents' attempts to socialize their children are presented. Research findings and conclusions that explore the impact on children of parental disciplinary practices are discussed. (Author/AM)
... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Vaccines for Children: Information for Parents and Caregivers Share Tweet Linkedin ... to a healthy start. "Parents should know that vaccines protect children from many serious illnesses from infectious diseases. The ...
Weimer, Amy A.; Guajardo, Nicole R.
The present study investigated relationships among false belief, emotion understanding, and social skills with 60 3- to 5-year-olds (29 boys, 31 girls) from Head Start and two other preschools. Children completed language, false belief, and emotion understanding measures; parents and teachers evaluated children's social skills. Children's false…
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... children of unemployed parents. A State plan under title IV-A for payment of such aid must: (1) Include a... any child, whichever parent, in a home in which both parents of such child are living, earned...
Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; Magnusson, Kris C.; Witko, Kim D.
This research used the Comprehensive Career Needs Survey to assess the career planning needs of junior and senior high students in southern Alberta. This article examines parents' perceptions of how prepared parents believe their children are for career planning; the role parents play; how parents can help their children with career planning; and…
Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei
The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely…
YONG LI; CHENG-YE JI; JIONG QIN; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG
Objective To investigate the prevalence of parental anxiety associated with epileptic children, and to explore whether and how this specific condition affects children's quality of life (QOL), and what are the significant determinants for parental anxiety. Methods Three hundred and forty parents whose children were affected with known epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Questionnaires for quality of life in childhood epilepsy (QOLCE), and hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) of parents were used to collect demographic data of both children and their parents, as well as clinical manifestations of epilepsy and family status. Results Parental anxiety (of any severity) was observed in 191 subjects at interview, giving a prevalence rate of 56.2%. Of the 191 subjects, 18.5% reported mild anxiety, 24.4% moderate anxiety, and 13.2% severe anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety included frequency of seizure in children, average monthly income per person and parents' knowledge about epilepsy (P<0.05). Parental anxiety significantly (P=0.000) correlated with quality of life of children with epilepsy. Conclusion Parents of children with epilepsy are at high risk of having anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety originate both from children and from parents. Parental anxiety is significantly related with children's QOL. It is important for experts concerned to recognize such a relationship to improve the QOL of children and their parents.
P. Nikken (Peter)
textabstractA lecture given on the occasion of the public acceptance of the appointment as extraordinary professor of Children, Media, and Parental Mediation in the Department of Media and Communication at the Erasmus School of History, Culture, and Communication, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, on
Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael
Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…
Howard, Kimberly S.
Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…
Hannibal, Mary Anne
Presents research findings and suggestions on how children learn to categorize shapes. Discusses specific ways to present developmentally appropriate activities designed to enhance children's understanding of basic shapes. Contains 12 references. (ASK)
McDonald, Kristina L.; Baden, Rachel E.; Lochman, John E.
Although research has examined how parenting may influence children's social information processing, little research has examined how these factors may influence children's social goals. The current study examined how both parent- and child-reports of parenting behaviors were associated with regressed change in children's reported social goals…
Ho, Caroline; Bluestein, Deborah N.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.
Parent and teacher data for 14,990 children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used in multilevel analyses to examine the relationship between ethnicity, children's aggression and emotional problems, and parenting. Using parent and teacher report, relationships between ethnicity and child behavior were present but…
Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M.
This research examined the idea that children's parent-oriented motivation underlies the benefits of parents' involvement on children's engagement and ultimately achievement in school. Beginning in the fall of 7th grade, 825 American and Chinese children (mean age = 12.73 years) reported on their parents' involvement in their learning as well as…
Saranli, Adile Gülsah; Metin, Emine Nilgün
The purpose of this research is investigating effects of the SENG (Social Emotional Needs of Gifted Children) Parent Education Model on gifted children and their parents. The participants of this study were parents of 3rd, 4th and 5th grade gifted children attending Yasemin Karakaya Science and Art Center in Ankara, Turkey and the children…
Sarasa Urdiola, Sebastià; Billingsley, Sunnee
Using SHARE database the paper explores the factors conditioning personalcare giving from adult children to their parents. Frequency and intensity ofpersonal care is contrasted with the reciprocal expectations that children haveabout wealth inheritance from their parents and with the opportunity costs of helping, as well as with the capacity of parents of getting help from othersources of personal care. The results may help to understand how inequalitiesin accessing to formal services relate ...
Parental responsibility allows parents to exercise rights over their children and to make decisions on behalf of the child that are in the best interests of the welfare of the child. It is a crucial part of being a parent. In recognition of the changing demographic of the family resulting in more cohabiting couples and step families the law relating to parental responsibility was changed in 2003 and 2005. With the development of more effective assisted conception techniques and increased use of 'do-it-yourself ' insemination using semen purchased over the Internet it was necessary to amend the rules relating to parenthood as a result of assisted conception. This article considers the amendments relating to the recognition of parenthood introduced by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008.
Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan
The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.
This research presents an empirical study on metaphor based on numerous interviews with parents of young children. Contemporary metaphor theory is complemented by a well-articulated place for culture and the role metaphor plays in cultural understanding. I demonstrate that 1) parents understand learning to read as the acquisition of reading…
Marceau, Lisa D; Welch, Lisa C; Pemberton, Victoria L; Pearson, Gail D
A gap in information about pediatric clinical trials exists, and parents remain uncertain about what is involved in research studies involving children. We aimed to understand parent perspectives about pediatric clinical research after viewing the online Children and Clinical Studies (CaCS) program. Using a qualitative descriptive study design, we conducted focus groups with parents and phone interviews with physicians. Three themes emerged providing approaches to improve parent's understanding of clinical research by including strategies where parents (a) hear from parents like themselves to learn about pediatric research, (b) receive general clinical research information to complement study-specific details, and (c) are provided more information about the role of healthy child volunteers. Parents found the website a valuable tool that would help them make a decision about what it means to participate in research. This tool can assist parents, providers, and researchers by connecting general information with study-specific information.
Bonifacci, Paola; Montuschi, Martina; Lami, Laura; Snowling, Margaret J
Within a dimensional view of reading disorders, it is important to understand the role of environmental factors in determining individual differences in literacy outcome. In the present study, we compared a group of 40 parents of children with dyslexia (PDys) with a group of 40 parents of typically developing children. The two parent groups did not differ in socioeconomic status or nonverbal IQ. Participants were assessed on cognitive (IQ, digit span) and literacy (reading fluency and accuracy) tasks, phonological awareness and verbal fluency measures. Questionnaires addressed reading history, parental distress, family functioning, anxiety and depression. The PDys group performed worse in all literacy measures and more frequently reported a history of poor reading; they also showed more parental distress. There were no differences between the two groups in depression or family functioning and no differences between mothers and fathers. Findings indicate that PDys show a cognitive profile consistent with the broader phenotype of dyslexia (i.e. reading impairment and poor phonological awareness), whereas, considering the emotional profile, the impact of dyslexia on the family system is limited to parental distress associated with the perception of having a child with specific needs.
... important role model in her life. For some children, however, school may cause frustration and stress. Learning disabilities can interfere with the joy of learning. Poor study habits and/or a lack of motivation can create academic difficulties. Sometimes youngsters may have ...
Grusec, J E; Goodnow, J J; Kuczynski, L
Traditional theories of how children acquire values or standards of behavior have emphasized the importance of specific parenting techniques or styles and have acknowledged the importance of a responsive parent-child relationship, but they have failed to differentiate among forms of responsiveness, have stressed internalization of values as the desired outcome, and have limited their scope to a small set of parenting strategies or methods. This paper outlines new directions for research. It acknowledges the central importance of parents and argues for research that (1) demonstrates that parental understanding of a particular child's characteristics and situation rather than use of specific strategies or styles is the mark of effective parenting; (2) traces the differential impact of varieties of parent responsiveness; (3) assesses the conditions surrounding the fact that parents have goals other than internalization when socializing their children, and evaluates the impact of that fact; and (4) considers a wider range of parenting strategies.
Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C
The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged.
Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang
This study examined the mediating effect of parents' psychological aggression in the relationship between parenting stress and children's internalizing (anxiety/depression, withdrawal) and externalizing (aggression, delinquency) problem behaviors 1 year later. Using a sample of 311 intact 2-parent Chinese families with preschoolers, findings revealed that maternal parenting stress had direct effects on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and indirect effects through maternal psychological aggression. However, neither direct nor indirect effects of fathers' parenting stress on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were found. The findings highlight the importance of simultaneously studying the effects of both mothers' and fathers' parenting on their children within a family systems framework.
The main topic of this undergraduate dissertation is the disciplining of children in the family. The theoretical part provides deliberations on contemporary upbringing, definitions of different upbringing styles and the presentation of effects of particular upbringing styles on the development of a child. If just a couple of decades ago the authoritarian or the repressive upbringing style with the focus on an obedient individual was predominant, experts today warn about the expansion of anoth...
Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren
their current income. This together with a down-payment constraint make some first-time house owners borrow to the limit and run down liquid assets at purchase thereby making them vulnerable to adverse income shocks. Intergenerational transfers can alleviate these constraints. Moreover, previous papers have...... and parent resources, house value as well as financial resources are correlated. We then go on to test if there are direct parental transfers targeted to the purchase of the house, and in case of an unemployment spell during the years after the purchase where children typically hold little liquid assets. We...
Bauman, Dona C.
This purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of parents with children with disabilities towards their children and how Mexican society treats their children. Using a focus group with a translator four middle class parents were interviewed about their children with disabilities in Guadalajara, Mexico. At a later date two other parents…
Scrimgeour, Meghan B; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A
This study examined how aspects of the parenting and coparenting relationships relate to children's prosocial behavior in early childhood. Fifty-eight 2-parent families from a larger ongoing longitudinal study participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires that measured their use of inductive reasoning, as well as their children's prosocial behavior. Furthermore, parents and their children participated in 3 triadic interaction tasks that were coded to assess cooperative coparenting behavior. Results revealed that cooperative coparenting was positively associated with children's prosocial behavior. A significant interaction also emerged between maternal inductive reasoning and cooperative coparenting behavior. These findings underscore the important role of a cooperative coparenting subsystem in influencing children's emerging prosocial behavior, as well as highlight the association between positive parenting practices and children's prosocial development within the context of cooperative coparenting behaviors. This study demonstrates the utility of understanding family-level processes that contribute to children's prosocial development during early childhood.
The reading habits of parents of preschool children are very important for development of reading literacy. The role of parents in reading is very high. It is important that parents often read for themselves and for their children regardless of age, sex and education. With reading they are giving the children an example and attach great importance to reading. An important factor is the frequency of library visits and dealing with books. On the reading habits of parents have important influenc...
Plomin, R; DeFries, J C; Roberts, M K
Analyses of data obtained from 662 unwed couples whose children were relinquished for adoption reveal that biological parents of adopted children mate assortatively. For physical characters, assortative mating of unwed parents was similar to that of wed parents; for behavior characters, however, there was less assortative mating by the unwed parents. Because assortative mating inflates estimates of genetic parameters in adoption studies, future studies should collect information on both biological parents.
... events can leave people feeling overwhelmed and unsafe. Children may be especially vulnerable and require adults and caregivers to help them re-establish a sense of safety. Though recovering may take time, it is possible, ... Traumatic Stress in Children , to help. This guide describes the most common ...
Namkung, Eun Ha; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R; Floyd, Frank J
We prospectively examined the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities.
... Lung, and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...
Children's toothpastes with fluoride help to prevent decay, but parents should ask their dentist before giving fluoride supplements to children. Overdosage is harmful. Sugars eaten as part of a meal do less harm to teeth than those eaten frequently as snacks. Sugar-free infant drinks and children's confectionery are now on the market and are more "tooth friendly". Look out for the "happy tooth" symbol. Babies can be registered with NHS dentists as soon as the first teeth start to come through, and should be taken regularly to the dentist throughout childhood. Under the NHS scheme, dentists are paid a capitation fee to provide continuing preventive care and treatment for children free of charge.
RAISING children is a wordless book, its every page immersed with parents’ love. Young parents read it every day but find it more and more difficult to understand. China’s book of today’s children, entitled, The One-Child Family, is indeed hard to understand.
Robinson, Katherine M.; Dube, Adam K.
After the onset of formal schooling, little is known about the development of children's understanding of the arithmetic concepts of inversion and associativity. On problems of the form a+b-b (e.g., 3+26-26), if children understand the inversion concept (i.e., that addition and subtraction are inverse operations), then no calculations are needed…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family
Stadelmann, Stephanie; Perren, Sonja; Groeben, Maureen; von Klitzing, Kai
In this longitudinal study, we examine whether the effect of parental separation on kindergarten children's behavioral/emotional problems varies according to the level of family conflict, and children's parental representations. One hundred and eighty seven children were assessed at ages 5 and 6. Family conflict was assessed using parents' ratings. Children's parental representations were assessed using a story-stem task. A multiinformant approach (parent, teacher, child) was employed to assess children's behavioral/emotional problems. Bivariate results showed that separation, family conflict, and negative parental representations were associated with children's behavioral/emotional problems. However, in multivariate analyses, when controlling for gender and symptoms at age 5, we found that children of separated parents who showed negative parental representations had a significantly greater increase in conduct problems between 5 and 6 than all other children. In terms of emotional symptoms and hyperactivity, symptoms at 5 and (for hyperactivity only) gender were the only predictors for symptoms 1 year later. Our results suggest that kindergarten children's representations of parent-child relationships moderate the impact of parental separation on the development of conduct problems, and underline play and narration as a possible route to access the thoughts and feelings of young children faced with parental separation.
Taylor, Donald M.
The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to examine the impact that interactions with parents of children with disabilities might have on 10 graduate students (6 men and 4 women) between the ages of 22 and 32 years (M = 26.7 years, SD = 3.5) enrolled in a 3-week intensive music education course. Participants attended the course, 5 days a week,…
Koomanaee, Shahin; Tabrizi, Manijeh; Naderi, Novin; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Boloky Moghaddam, Kobra; Dalili, Setila
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between each parent's Body Mass Index (BMI) and maternal age with weight status of children. This was an analytic cross-sectional study which was conducted on 12-year-old students from different areas in Rasht, north part of Iran. The checklist included demographic characteristics such as age, maternal age during childbirth, student and maternal height and weight, child rank. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis, paired t-test and ANOVA test and chi-square in SPSS software 19.0. A P-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 200 adolescents participated in this study consisted of 106 (53%) boys. Results showed a significant correlation between students' BMI and parental BMI and father's weight. Also, there was a significant correlation between students' weight with parental BMI and father's weight, and birth rankIn conclusion, the role of the family in changing nutritional habits of children must be considered because through parental education and changing their perceptions we can prevent obesity.
Lai, Wei Wei; Goh, Tze Jui; Oei, Tian P.; Sung, Min
This study examined psychological well-being and coping in parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children. 73 parents of children with ASD and 63 parents of typically developing children completed a survey. Parents of children with ASD reported significantly more parenting stress symptoms (i.e., negative parental…
Kilgour, C; Fleming, V
An action research inquiry into a health visitor parenting programme for parents of pre-school children with behaviour problems Parent education programmes have recently been given a high profile in this country, such provision deemed necessary because of the commonality of children's behaviour problems and because of their potentially far-reaching effects on the child, the family and society. This action research study, undertaken in Scotland, aims to explore a health visitor parenting programme for parents of pre-school children with behaviour problems. Within this study, children with behaviour problems were identified as those whose parents perceived them to have such problems, the children eliciting a wide range of behaviours and to varying degrees. Critical social science is the chosen methodology, since it allows exploration of how people comprehend their social reality. Group interactions were recorded on audio-tape and themes associated with the methodology of enlightenment, empowerment and emancipation were identified. The results of the study demonstrate how a liberating, collaborative approach to parental education can empower mothers, by increasing understanding and raising self-esteem.
Maria Stella Epifanio
Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is a chronic disease which could stress patients and their family. Although, poor attention has been paid to the quality of life in CD children and to the functioning of families with CD children. The study aims to evaluate the parenting perception of the CD impact and the parenting distress level. A group of 74 parents of CD children compiled the Impact Childhood Illness Scale and the Parenting Stress Index which is also compiled by 74 parents of health children. The assessment does not reveal a significant impact of CD on patient’s personal life although some critical areas emerged. Results evidenced an higher level of parenting stress in parents of CD children than parents of healthy children. CD, if suitably managed, has not a critical impact on parenting perception. Although, CD certainly put parents through an higher risk of a distress related to parenting role than parents with health children. A early identification of parenting distress in a pediatric chronic illness could facilitate the adjustment to pathology.
Lin, Yen-Chun; Yawkey, Thomas D.
The purpose of the study was to examine parents' play beliefs and see whether their perceptions of play impact children's social competence. A total number of 142 Taiwanese parents with different social class backgrounds participated in the survey. Results revealed that most Taiwanese parents highly agreed that play contributes to children's…
Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis
This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... unemployed parents. (a) Requirements for State Plans. If a State wishes to provide AFDC for children of... which shall include any child of an unemployed parent (as defined by the State pursuant to paragraph...
Thwala, S'lungile K.; Ntinda, Kayi; Hlanze, Buyisile
Raising a child with disability is a challenge to most parents. The study explored the lived experiences of parents of children with disabilities in Swaziland. The specific objective was to determine the challenges which parents of children with disability encounter at home, school and community, which may hinder them to work collaboratively with…
Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy
The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In line with expectations, parental physical punishment…
Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects smokin
Parents' attitudes about their gifted children are examined and suggestions are given for parenting five types of gifted children: the perfectionist, the child/adult, the exception, the self-critic, and the well-integrated child. A. Maslow's hierarchy of social-emotional needs is applied to parenting. (CL)
Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Koziol, Natalie
This research investigated whether parent-teacher relationship quality mediated the relation between parents' motivational beliefs and children's adaptive functioning and externalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of kindergarten through third-grade children with behavioral concerns (N = 206). Parents reported on their motivational beliefs…
Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M; Kwon, Kyongboon; Koziol, Natalie
This research investigated whether parent-teacher relationship quality mediated the relation between parents' motivational beliefs and children's adaptive functioning and externalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of kindergarten through third-grade children with behavioral concerns (N=206). Parents reported on their motivational beliefs (i.e., role construction and efficacy), and teachers reported on the quality of their relationships with parents and children's adaptive functioning (i.e., social and adaptive skills) and externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that parents' motivational beliefs were related significantly and positively to children's adaptive functioning and negatively to children's externalizing behaviors. Parents' motivational beliefs were also significantly associated with enhanced parent-teacher relationship quality. There was a significant medium-sized indirect effect of parents' motivational beliefs on children's adaptive functioning through parent-teacher relationship quality (k(2)=.12) and a small indirect effect of parents' motivational beliefs on children's externalizing behaviors (k(2)=.05). This research suggests that parent-teacher relationship quality may be one mechanism by which the benefits of parents' motivational beliefs are transmitted to children.
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…
Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J
Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.
Full Text Available This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and commercials especially if this understanding is measured by non-verbal rather than verbal measure. However, the results based on verbal measures are not as conclusive. The findings also indicated that children age has substantial positive effect on the children understanding of TV advertising. This effect pronounced for verbal measure of comprehension intent for advertisements. Results also showed a small but significant negative effect of parental control of TV viewing, in which a high control of TV viewing result in a relatively low understanding of TV advertising.
Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A
Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability.
Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.
The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…
Bender, Patrick K; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L
Children's understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.
The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…
Lerner, Claire; Ciervo, Lynette
In the summer of 2009, ZERO TO THREE commissioned Hart Research Associates to conduct a survey among parents of children from birth to 36 months old. This survey of 1,615 parents provides insight on the experiences of parents today and the factors that influence their approach to parenting. The survey also explores those on whom they rely for…
Full Text Available In our study we investigated how children express their wishes for products advertised on television and how parents respond to their children's wishes. 133 parents of children between 3 and 9 years of age filled in three questionnaires: Questionnaire on children's and parents' response to television advertising, Parental control of children's television viewing (an adapted version and Family functioning scales. Results have shown that children usually tell their parents about their wishes or ask for a specific product several times. They rarely nag with the intention of getting a product. Parents react differently to their children's wishes: most of them usually explain to their children that they cannot get everything they want or they reconsider whether the child really needs a certain product. They rarely come up with excuses. We have found significant correlations between parents' purchasing styles and their reactions to children's requests. Those parents who tend to buy items which they were not planning to get, comply their children's wishes more often than those who stick to what they intended to purchase in the first place. Findings of the study were used to prepare a list of useful strategies for parents and teachers – how to discuss the effects of advertising with children.
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
The objective of this present is to test the effects of the parents' parenting patterns, education, jobs, and assistance to children in watching television on the children's aggressive behavior. This present research employed a quantitative approach with an ex-post factor design. The data were collected from 175 parents of which the children…
Ruser, Tilla F; Arin, Deborah; Dowd, Michael; Putnam, Sara; Winklosky, Brian; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Piven, Joseph; Tomblin, Bruce; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan
While the primary language deficit in autism has been thought to be pragmatic, and in specific language impairment (SLI) structural, recent research suggests phenomenological and possibly genetic overlap between the two syndromes. To compare communicative competence in parents of children with autism, SLI, and down syndrome (DS), we used a modified pragmatic rating scale (PRS-M). Videotapes of conversational interviews with 47 autism, 47 SLI, and 21 DS parents were scored blind to group membership. Autism and SLI parents had significantly lower communication abilities than DS parents. Fifteen percent of the autism and SLI parents showed severe deficits. Our results suggest that impaired communication is part of the broader autism phenotype and a broader SLI phenotype, especially among male family members.
Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…
Parents play a key role in children's academic success. In this article, the author describes a sample of India's middle- and working-class parents' involvement in children's academic activities and the nature of support they provide for their children. In each case, everyday activities at home, often replicating school-based activities, indicated…
Liu, Mathias; Morère, Jean-François; Vernois, Sylvie; Casassus, Philippe; Baubet, Thierry
In 2011, the Oncologie 93 health network set up support groups for children with a parent suffering from cancer. A psychologist and a health care manager give information to the children and listen to their difficulties. Then, parents and children can open up with each other helping them to overcome the ordeal of the disease.
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciccone, Anne; Wilson, Laura C.
Children with incarcerated parents, and mothers in particular, are at increased risk for academic failure and school dropout. In two studies, we examined teachers' experiences with children with incarcerated parents and their expectations for competence of children with incarcerated mothers. In Study 1, a descriptive, qualitative study, teachers…
Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo
The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…
Levine, Kathryn A.; Sutherland, Dawn
Parent involvement in children's education remains one of the most significant predictors for children's academic achievement. This finding generally holds across the range of social group categories including race, culture, class, and family structure. However, relatively little research has been conducted on parental involvement in children's…
Weber, Christine L.; Stanley, Laurel
The focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a series of free workshops for parents of gifted children. The parent education workshops provided research-based information as recognized by experts in the field of counseling gifted children. Content areas include the characteristics of gifted children, identification, appropriate…
Liu, Jianwei; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark
Career aspirations developed in childhood may impact on future career development in adolescence and adulthood. Family is an important context in which children develop their career aspirations. This study examined how parents influence children's career aspirations in mainland China from both the parents' and children's perspectives. Eight…
Using three waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study, I examined the association of parental divorce and remarriage with the odds that biological, adult children give personal care and financial assistance to their frail parents. The analysis included 5,099 adult children in the mother sample and 4,029 children in the father sample.…
... Challenges Faced by Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease Page Content The first thing most parents want ... common and expected. About Congenital Heart Defects Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth ...
Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John
Investigates second, fourth, and sixth graders' reasoning about interrelationships between parental authority, friendship, and sibling relations. Children's conceptions regarding legitimacy of and obedience to parental rules prohibiting friendship vary as a function of reasons given for rules. (Author/BB)
Edwards, Patricia A.; Simpson, Linda
Suggests how parents, as key participants, can use bibliotherapy as an effective tool in helping teenagers solve their problems. Reports attitudes toward bibliotherapy and the interactions among the parents and children of four families. (JK)
Tsai, Eva Hiu-Lun; Fung, Lena
This study examined the experiences of parents of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) as they sought inclusive sport participation for their children. To understand their experiences, in-depth interviews were conducted with 49 parents. Qualitative data analysis was conducted to identify common themes from the responses. The analysis showed…
The monograph on the counseling of Mexican-American parents of mentally retarded children begins with a discussion of Mexican-American culture, on the premise that a good knowledge of background, culture, customs, and mores is necessary to understand and counsel such parents. Treated are stereotyped images of each other held by Anglos and…
Crissman Halley P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical research on psychological aspects of disorders of sex development (DSD has focused on psychosexual differentiation with relatively little attention directed toward parents' experiences of early clinical management and their influence on patient and family psychosocial adaptation. Objectives To characterize parental experiences in the early clinical care of children born with DSD. Study Design Content analysis of interviews with parents (n = 41 of 28 children, newborn to 6 years, with DSD. Results Four major domains emerged as salient to parents: (1 the gender assignment process, (2 decisions regarding genital surgery, (3 disclosing information about their child's DSD, and (4 interacting with healthcare providers. Findings suggested discordance between scientific and parental understandings of the determinants of "sex" and "gender." Parents' expectations regarding the benefits of genital surgery appear largely met; however, parents still had concerns about their child's future physical, social and sexual development. Two areas experienced by many parents as particularly stressful were: (1 uncertainties regarding diagnosis and optimal management, and (2 conflicts between maintaining privacy versus disclosing the condition to access social support. Conclusions Parents' experiences and gaps in understanding can be used to inform the clinical care of patients with DSD and their families. Improving communication between parents and providers (and between parents and their support providers throughout the early clinical management process may be important in decreasing stress and improving outcomes for families of children with DSD.
Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.
Szczesniak, Rhonda D.; Zou, Yuanshu; Wetzel, J. Denise; Krause, Neal; Grossoehme, Daniel H.
Positive health outcomes are related to adults’ religious congregational participation. For parents of children with chronic disease, structured daily care routines and or strict infection-control precautions may limit participation. For this exploratory study, we examined the relationship between congregational support and religious coping by parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) compared to parents for whom child health issues were not significant stressors. CF parents reported high...
Anstett, R; Lewis, B
Families who have become separated from one of the parents by death or divorce face much stress and adjustment. In addition to carrying the extra burdens of parenting and running a household alone, the single parent may feel isolated from friends and family. Loneliness, depression, and confusion can manifest themselves in various physical and emotional ways. At the beginning of an office visit, the physician should try to ascertain whether any important changes have occurred in the patient's life and should record this information in the patient's chart. Once single parenthood is determined, the importance to the patient and the circumstances of the separation should be obtained. Children in different age-groups often demonstrate specific regressive disorders when a life crisis occurs, and a perceptive physician may spot such behavior and counsel both the parent and the child. Possibly the most effective treatment in such a situation is understanding, reassurance, and listening.
This paper is based on data collected from two different studies of parents (76 mothers and 14 fathers) whose children had been diagnosed with cancer. Although the goal of the first study, to describe parental experiences when their children have cancer, was different than the goal of the second study, to describe the home health care work done by parents whose children had cancer, the themes outlined here were reiterated from study to study. In both sets of data conflicts in the dynamics of power, authority and knowledge were pivotal to the dilemmas experienced by parents in their interactions with health care staff both during the time of diagnosis and later during the treatments when their children had cancer. The paper points to the significance of fundamental social processes such as power, authority and knowledge in understanding and ameliorating parental experiences when a child has cancer.
Ermisch, John; Francesconi, Marco
This paper presents the conditions under which a causal interpretation can be given to the association between childhood parental employment and subsequent education of children. In a model in which parental preferences are separable in own consumption and children's well-being, estimation is complicated by endowment heterogeneity and by the fact that parents may compensate or reinforce children's endowments relevant to education attainment. A sibling difference estimatation strategy is gener...
Plug, Erik; Van der Klaauw, Bas; Ziegler, Lennart
This paper examines whether children are better off if their parents have stronger social networks. Using data on high-school friendships of parents, we analyze whether the number and characteristics of friends affect the labor-market outcomes of children. While parental friendships formed in high school appear long lasting, we find no significant impact on their children's occupational choices and earnings prospects. These results do not change when we account for network endogeneity, networ...
Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca
The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…
Kurtts, Stephanie A.; Gavigan, Karen W.
The authors of this article examined how pre-service teachers can use children's and young adult literature about disabilities to enhance understanding of individual differences through a bibliotherapeutic approach. An introduction to bibliotherapy is provided along with related literature from the field. Strategies for using children's and young…
Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Patrick K. Bender
Full Text Available Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension, anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule, emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and attachment security (Security Scale. Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.
The study examined the role of different parental behaviors on children’s negative emotions. Parents of 152 Finnish first grade children (79 girls and 73 boys) filled in diary-formed questionnaires which measure parental behaviors including affection, behavioral control and psychological control. Children’s negative emotions are also measured by diary-formed questionnaires which are filled in by their parents. The results showed that parental affection was negatively related to children’s neg...
Moberg, Julie Yoon; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, N.
from the Civil Registration System without parental MS matched 8:1 to the MS offspring by sex and year of birth. Information about education was linked to the cohorts from nationwide educational registries. We included 4177 children of MS parents and 33,416 reference persons. Children of MS parents......Little is known about the impact of parental multiple sclerosis (MS) on offspring's educational attainment. The objective of the study was to examine educational achievements in offspring of parents with MS compared with matched children of parents without MS in a nationwide register-based cohort.......20). There was a trend toward more MS offspring attaining health-related educations (OR 1.10; 95 % CI 1.00-1.21; p = 0.06). In conclusion, children of MS parents showed a small advantage in grade point average in final examinations in basic school, and they more often tended toward health-related educations. This study...
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane
A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance.
Kumar, Prawin; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Mishra, Rajkishor; Singh, Varun; Mohan, Priyanka
Introduction Parental support is important in the habilitation/rehabilitation of children using cochlear implant devices. Hence, it is important for families to know the realistic expectations regarding outcomes from CIs. Objective The objective of the present study is to know the parents' expectation from children using CIs. Methods For this study, we recruited 23 parents of children using CIs. We administered 15 questions translated in to Hindi related to communication abilities, social skills, academic achievement, change in future life, rehabilitation demand, and stress due to hearing impairment. Results The response of the questions (5-point rating scale) related to communication abilities showed that parents were expecting children using CIs to use the telephone (95%), to be able to detect soft sounds (99%), to listen in crowds (86%), to be able to easily understand others (76%), and to show improvement in communication skills (78%). Similarly, for questions related to social skills showed 90% of the parents expecting that their children with CIs should be able to easily make friends with normal hearing peers, and 80% of the parents were expecting the children to achieve high standards in their reading and writing skills. Questions related to change in future life showed 86% of the parents expecting their children with CIs to act like normal hearing children. Further, 78% parents showed positive response regarding importance of intensive training. However, 70% of the parents reported stress in the family due to the existence of the hearing impaired child. Conclusion Overall, the existing questionnaire-based study showed that parents have high expectations from their children with cochlear implant.
Stokes, Jeffrey E
Parents and children are linked across the life course, and they share common experiences. This article focuses on the bereavement experience of adult children's loss of a first parent during adulthood and examines the downward influence of emotional closeness with a surviving parent on adult children's depressive symptoms following loss. Analyses are based on adult children who experienced the death of a first parent (N = 227), drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Generations, a study of three-and four-generation families from Southern California. Multilevel lagged dependent variable models indicate that an emotionally close relationship with a surviving parent is related with fewer post-bereavement depressive symptoms when a mother survives a father, but not vice versa. This analysis extends the theory of linked lives and highlights the mutual influence parents and children exert, as well as the complex role of gender in shaping family relationships.
Parent Guidelines for Helping Children after an Earthquake Being in an earthquake is very frightening, and the days, weeks, and months following are very stressful. Your children and family will recover ...
... Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH What causes pulmonary hypertension in children? I’ve ... of what I read is about adults with PH. What are the primary differences between PH in ...
van der Heijden, Franciëlla; Poortman, Anne Rigt; van der Lippe, Tanja
Although the rise in postdivorce joint physical custody has fueled scholarly interest in its impact on children, consequences for parents remain understudied. Because children's residence arrangements determine time and coordination demands associated with child care, this study investigated the rel
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL. Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1 describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2 describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3 explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4 try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and
Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia; Bond, D Kyle; Buttitta, Katherine V; DeMeules, Madeleine; Perrone, Laura; Welindt, Nicole; Rasmussen, Hannah F; West, Jessica L
Parental anxiety confers risk for the development of an anxiety disorder in children, and this risk may be transmitted through children's stress reactivity. Further, some children may be more vulnerable to reactivity in the presence of parent factors such as anxiety. In this study, we examined whether parents' anxiety symptoms prospectively predict school-aged children's physiological reactivity following stress, assessed through their electrodermal activity (galvanic skin response) during recovery from a performance challenge task, and whether this varies as a function of children's temperamental fearfulness. Parents and their children (N = 68) reported on their anxiety symptoms at Time 1 of data collection, and parents characterized the extent to which their children had fearful temperaments. At Time 2 children completed the performance challenge and two recovery tasks. Greater parental anxiety symptom severity at Time 1 predicted children's higher electrodermal response during both recovery tasks following the failure task. Further, these effects are specific to children with medium and high fearful temperament, whereas for children low in fearfulness, the association between parent anxiety and child reactivity is not significant. Findings provide additional evidence for the diathesis-stress hypothesis and are discussed in terms of their contribution to the literature on developmental psychopathology.
Full Text Available The current research aimed to explore Romanian parents’ social representations of vaccination in children and to identify how they fluctuate across gender and degree of reliance on information regarding this practice learned from media and, respectively, medical experts. The first study was conducted on a sample of 80 mothers and fathers of children who were supposed to receive the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV later that year. The analysis of the data gathered upon the completion of the Associative Network Task (de Rosa, 2002 revealed that the nucleus of the social representation of vaccination comprised the evocations health, conspiracy and immunization, revealing a positive valence of this representation. The second study was conducted on another sample of 80 parents with the same characteristics as the previous sample and revealed that fathers had significantly more positive social representations of vaccination as compared to mothers, and that participants who relied more on doctors as a source of information on vaccination were significantly more likely to have more positive representations as compared to those who did not. In addition to this, parents who relied more on media sources had more negative representations of vaccination. Results are discussed in the light of their contribution to the social representations theory and of their implications for comprehending Romanians’ motivations for adopting or rejecting this practice.
Fecteau, Stéphanie-M; Boivin, Louise; Trudel, Marcel; Corbett, Blythe A; Harrell, Frank E; Viau, Robert; Champagne, Noël; Picard, Frédéric
A significant portion of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report high levels of stress related to parenting responsibilities, which have been linked to abnormal cortisol patterns. This study seeks to better understand the parents' adaptation to caregiving demands and use of a service dog, by taking into account longitudinal variations in salivary cortisol and perception of parental stress. Salivary cortisol was collected one day per week for 15 weeks by 98 primary caregivers of children with ASD. Overall, parents perceived high levels of stress at baseline. Mean morning cortisol increase was below expected levels for healthy adults, and perception of stress predicted morning cortisol activity. Hypocorticolism related to chronic stress may be present in parents of children with ASD. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the presence of a service dog in the family had an effect on parenting stress, wakening and morning cortisol levels.
Clarke, Juanne; van Amerom, Gudrun
This paper reports on a content analysis of blogs written by people with Asperger's syndrome (AS), as well as people who are parents and caretakers of people with AS. The paper documents that the views of the two groups, based on 30 blogs from each perspective, are frequently oppositional to one another. Whereas the parents and caretakers usually accept the medical definition of the situation and seek assistance and a cure for their children, the Aspies argue against this pathologizing and medicalizing perspective. Those diagnosed with AS say they are happy with who they are and that any suffering they may have undergone has been the result of society and not inherent in their condition. The paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical, methodological, substantive, and practical implications of these findings.
Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Swaine, Jamie G.
Background: Understanding how financial well-being changes through the life course of caregiving parents of children with developmental disabilities is critically important. Methods: We analyse SIPP (U.S. Census Bureau) data to describe income poverty, asset poverty, income, net worth, and liquid assets of US parents (N = 753) of children with…
Binder, Per-Einar; Stige, Brynjulf
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most widely used children's mental health diagnosis today, but the validity of the diagnosis is controversial, for instance, because it might conceal relational and ecological dimensions of restlessness. We invited parents and professionals from one local community in western Norway to participate in cooperative group discussions on how to conceptualize and understand children's restlessness. We carried out a thematic and reflexive analysis of the cooperative group discussions on ADHD and children's restlessness, and present findings related to three ecological levels inspired by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems model. At the level of the individual, restlessness was discussed as individual trait, as the expectation to be seen and heard, and as a result of traumatization. At the level of dyad, group or family, restlessness was discussed as a relational phenomenon and as parents' problems. At the level of community, restlessness was discussed as lack of cooperation and lack of structures or resources. Our findings show how contextualized and cooperative reflexivity can contribute to more valid understandings of children's restlessness, and how cooperative inquiry can stimulate reflections about solidarity and sustainability in relation to adult's actions. PMID:26701898
This study was designed to better understand how children begin to make the transition from seeing the natural world to scientifically observing the natural world during shared family activity in an informal learning environment. Specifically, this study addressed research questions: (1) What is the effect of differences in parent conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observations of biological phenomena? (2) What is the relationship between parent disciplinary knowledge and conversational style to children's observations of biological phenomena? and (3) Can parents, regardless of knowledge, be trained to use a teaching strategy with their children that can be implemented in informal learning contexts? To address these questions, 79 parent-child dyads with children 6-10 years old participated in a controlled study in which half of the parents used their natural conversational style and the other half were trained to use particular conversational strategies during family observations of pollination in a botanical garden. Parents were also assigned to high and low knowledge groups according to their disciplinary knowledge of pollination. Data sources included video recordings of parent-child observations in a garden, pre-post child tasks, and parent surveys. Findings revealed that parents who received training used the conversational strategies more than parents who used their natural conversational style. Parents and children who knew more about pollination at the start of the study exhibited higher levels of disciplinary talk in the garden, which is to be expected. However, the use of the conversational strategies also increased the amount of disciplinary talk in the garden, independent of what families knew about pollination. The extent to which families engaged in disciplinary talk in the garden predicted significant variance in children's post-test scores. In addition to these findings, an Observation Framework (Eberbach & Crowley, 2009
Recent research has shown that the parents of well-educated children live longer than do other parents and that this association is only partly confounded by the parent's own socioeconomic position. However, the relationships between other aspects of children's socioeconomic position (e.g., occupational class and economic resources) and parental mortality have not been examined. Using the Swedish Multi-generation Register that connects parents to their children, this paper studies the associations of children's various socioeconomic resources (education, occupation, and income) and parents' mortality. The models are adjusted for a range of parental socioeconomic resources and include the resources of the parents' partners. In addition to all-cause mortality, five causes of death are analyzed separately (circulatory disease mortality, overall cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer). The results show net associations between all included indicators of children's socioeconomic position and parents' mortality risk, with the clearest association for education. Children's education is significantly associated with all of the examined causes of death except prostate cancer. Breast cancer mortality is negatively related to offspring's education but not the mothers' own education. To conclude, children's education seems to be a key factor compared with other dimensions of socioeconomic position in the offspring generation. This finding suggests that explanations linked to behavioral norms or knowledge are more plausible than those linked to access to material resources. However, it is possible that children's education - to a greater degree than class and income - captures unmeasured parental characteristics. The cause-specific analyses imply that future research should investigate whether offspring's socioeconomic position is linked to the likelihood of developing diseases and/or the chances of treating them. A broader family perspective in the description
The hypothesis was investigated that, in a structured interview, older children and children from divorced families would express more complex, abstract, and integrated reasoning about marriage and divorce than younger children and children in intact families. It was further hypothesized that children with divorced parents would reach a more…
Swick, Kevin J.
Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.
Hindt, Lauren A; Davis, Laurel; Schubert, Erin C; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Shlafer, Rebecca J
Approximately five million children in the United States have experienced a co-resident parent's incarceration in jail or prison. Parental incarceration is associated with multiple risk factors for maladjustment, which may contribute to the increased likelihood of behavioral problems in this population. Few studies have examined early predictors of maladjustment among children with incarcerated parents, limiting scholars' understanding about potential points for prevention and intervention. Emotion recognition skills may play a role in the development of maladjustment and may be amenable to intervention. The current study examined whether emotion recognition skills differed between 3- to 8-year-old children with and without jailed parents. We hypothesized that children with jailed parents would have a negative bias in processing emotions and less accuracy compared to children without incarcerated parents. Data were drawn from 128 families, including 75 children (53.3% male, M = 5.37 years) with jailed parents and 53 children (39.6% male, M = 5.02 years) without jailed parents. Caregivers in both samples provided demographic information. Children performed an emotion recognition task in which they were asked to produce a label for photos expressing six different emotions (i.e., happy, surprised, neutral, sad, angry, and fearful). For scoring, the number of positive and negative labels were totaled; the number of negative labels provided for neutral and positive stimuli were totaled (measuring negative bias/overextension of negative labels); and valence accuracy (i.e., positive, negative, and neutral) and label accuracy were calculated. Results indicated a main effect of parental incarceration on the number of positive labels provided; children with jailed parents presented significantly fewer positive emotions than the comparison group. There was also a main effect of parental incarceration on negative bias (the overextension of negative labels); children with
Xie, Qing; And Others
This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…
Witt, Susan D.
Analyzes the impact of parental influence on gender role development and suggests that an androgynous gender role orientation may be more beneficial to children than a strict adherence to traditional gender roles. Families with one or more androgynous parents typically score highest on measures of parental warmth and support. (RJM)
Bunnell, Peter Wayne
The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…
Pescud, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone; Henley, Nadine
Objective: To explore low socioeconomic parents' beliefs in relation to children's nutrition. Design: A qualitative, longitudinal study over 12 months involving 37 low socioeconomic parents. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Method: Parents' nutrition-related beliefs were explored via interviews, focus groups and…
Galloway, Briar; Porath, Marion
This study compared parent and teacher perceptions of 23 gifted children's (ages 6-12) social skills and the importance of different social skills. Teacher ratings of cooperation were significantly higher than parent ratings, and teachers valued cooperation highly. Parent ratings of assertion were significantly higher than teacher ratings, and…
Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.
This collection of learning units introduces parents to the role of nutrition in their young child's cognitive development. Designed to be easy to read and useful for families with limited resources, the materials help parents teach their young children good eating habits by offering information, feeding tips, creative activities for parents and…
Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa
Parental control is among the important factors influencing the psychological development of children. In addition to other questionnaires, a questionnaire of father and mother control was administered to adolescents in nine countries. The results showed that parental control differs across cultures. Parental control was higher in the eastern than…
Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Tolsma, J.
This study scrutinizes the long-term effects of parental television socialization activities on their children's weight status measured through body mass index (BMI-score). We address the question how parental television habits and parental television mediation in childhood relate to a person's weig
Barton, Erin E.; Lissman, Dana Cohen
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between group training using an abbreviated version of the Incredible Years parent training with family coaching and positive parenting practices. Two at-risk mothers and their young children with disabilities participated in the study. Both mothers were enrolled in a group parent training…
Background: This research investigated the impact that children with intellectual disability in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) may have on their families. Method: Sixty-three parents completed three scales related to parent stress, ways of coping, and parenting satisfaction. Results: There were significant relationships between emotional-focused…
Objectives. Studies have shown that a parental divorce has a negative effect on parent-child relations. This study examines how adult children’s divorce affects the amount of contact children have with older parents, making a distinction between the effects of being single on the one hand and the ef
Hussong, Andrea M.; Zucker, Robert A.; Wong, Maria M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Puttler, Leon I.
In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that children of alcoholic parents (COAs) show deficits in social competence that begin in early childhood and escalate through middle adolescence. Teachers, parents, and children reported on the social competence of COAs and matched controls in a community sample assessed from ages 6 to 15.…
Närvänen, Anna-Liisa; Markström, Ann-Marie
The aim of this article is to describe how parents and preschool teachers talk about children's interactional skills in parent-teacher conferences in the Swedish preschool and how this can be related to socialization processes. The analyses show that children's communicative skills, such as turn-taking in conversation and co-operation, are…
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…
Kuppens, Sofie; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Michiels, Daisy
The present study examined specialized associations between parental control and child aggression in a sample of 600 8- to 10-years old children. Parental control dimensions and aggression subtypes were assessed using multiple informants (i.e. children, mothers, fathers, peers, and teachers). In lin
Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny
This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…
Hearing parents of deaf children face stresses and demands related to parenting a deaf child, including difficult choices about language, technologies, education and identity for their children (Marschark, 1997). To date, few researchers have discussed the unique challenges faced by this group. Through a series of semistructured, in-depth…
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…
D.S. Sieh; A.M. Meijer; J.M. Visser-Meily
Objectives: To assess risk factors for stress in children 3 years after parental stroke. Participants: Questionnaires were filled in by 44 children aged 7-18 years, parents who suffered a stroke and healthy spouses from 29 families recruited in 9 participating rehabilitation centers across the Nethe
Chen, Shuang; Adams, Jennifer; Qu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Li
In the context of China's increasing rural-urban migration, few studies have investigated how parental migration affects children's experience in school. The high cost of schooling, taken together with the institutional barriers in destination cities, have compelled many rural parents in China to migrate without their children, leaving them in the…
White, Tonya; Ettner, Randi
It is a relatively uncommon event that children find themselves in a situation with a parent who undergoes a transition from one sex to another. Unlike situations of divorce or a parent with a medical or major psychiatric disorder, it is unlikely that the children will know of other children who encounter similar situations. There is very little literature that describes the adjustment of these children and the nature of their relationships with their parents and peers. Such information would be beneficial for clinicians assisting children and families in this situation. To better delineate the adjustment of these children, we interviewed 27 parents of 55 children. The interview took place on average 6 years after the gender transition. The measures obtained included the parent and child relationships at present and also at the time of the transition. We also inquired about academic function, peer relationships and social stigma. The results found that children who were younger at the time of the parent's transition tended to have better relationships and less adjustment difficulties. In addition, parental conflict that continues after the transition period tends to reflect greater family conflict between the transitioned parent and their child.
Full Text Available This study utilizes a qualitative method to explore the critical reflections of Hmong parents helping their children maintain their native language. Specifically, it examines parents thoughts, feelings and experiences related to Hmong language maintenance. Findings reveal that Hmong parents worry about their children losing their ability to speak their native language. They believe that maintaining the Hmong language provides advantages in achieving academic success, attaining careers, and continuing to serve as role models in the community. Parents stressed the need to use Hmong at home in order to help their children develop and maintain the language. They reported some successes in doing so, while acknowledging several challenges.
Jason, L A; Kurasaki, K S; Neuson, L; Garcia, C
Parents whose children were identified as being at-risk for academic difficulties following a transfer into a new school were involved in either a school-based tutoring program or a school-based tutoring program with a parent training component. When parents actively worked with their elementary school age children at home, the children evidenced better grades at the end of the school year. A variety of other social adjustment measures also indicated that when parents and school-based personnel worked together in the preventive effort, the outcomes were more favorable.
Matthews, Doris B.; Quinn, Jimmy L.
The goal of this study was to interpret patterns of consonance and dissonance between the parenting behaviors that parents report and those that their middle-school children expect them to report. A questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of middle-school children in grades 6-8 in Felton Laboratory School at South Carolina State…
Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.
Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children'
Babita Mahato; Arif Ali; Masroor Jahan; Verma, A. N.; Singh, Amool R.
Aim: Overall aim of the study was to see parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 alcoholic and 30 non-alcoholic parents and their children taken from Kanke Block of Ranchi district. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic data sheet and Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1978) were administered to the children. Results: In a child′s perception of fat...
Nowadays there is often a lack of understanding between our parents and us. Quite a few of us. complain that parents can't understand us while parents feel sorry that children seldom listen to them. Why?
Alonso-Geta, Petra María
The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.
Walsh, Tova B; Dayton, Carolyn J; Erwin, Michael S; Muzik, Maria; Busuito, Alexandra; Rosenblum, Katherine L
Although often eagerly anticipated, reunification after deployment poses challenges for families, including adjusting to the parent-soldier's return, re-establishing roles and routines, and the potentially necessary accommodation to combat-related injuries or psychological effects. Fourteen male service members, previously deployed to a combat zone, parent to at least one child under seven years of age, were interviewed about their relationships with their young children. Principles of grounded theory guided data analysis to identify key themes related to parenting young children after deployment. Participants reported significant levels of parenting stress and identified specific challenges, including difficulty reconnecting with children, adapting expectations from military to family life, and coparenting. Fathers acknowledged regret about missing an important period in their child's development and indicated a strong desire to improve their parenting skills. They described a need for support in expressing emotions, nurturing, and managing their tempers. Results affirm the need for support to military families during reintegration and demonstrate that military fathers are receptive to opportunities to engage in parenting interventions. Helping fathers understand their children's behavior in the context of age-typical responses to separation and reunion may help them to renew parent-child relationships and reengage in optimal parenting of their young children.
Jensen, J.F.; Tonnesen, L.L.; Söderström, Margareta
OBJECTIVE: The sale of paracetamol products for children is increasing, and more children are accidentally given overdoses, even though the use of paracetamol against fever is still under discussion. This study explores Danish parents' use of paracetamol for feverish children and their motives...... for this use. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey using structured interviews. Setting. Four general practices located in city, suburb, and rural area. SUBJECTS: A total of 100 Danish parents with at least one child under the age of 10 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of parents administering paracetamol...... to feverish children, situations triggering medication of a child, parental views regarding fever and effects of paracetamol, and sources of information on fever treatment. RESULTS: Three in four parents use paracetamol for feverish children, mainly to reduce temperature, to decrease pain, and to help...
Crace, Jodee S.; Ronco, Jennifer; Hossler, Tami
Parent-to-parent support is vital for parents of all children, but, of course, it is especially vital for parents who have deaf or hard of hearing children. Without the support of other parents, those with deaf and hard of hearing children can easily feel isolated, confused, and alone. Once they meet each other, however, those same parents feel…
Varela, R. Enrique; Niditch, Laura A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W.; Creveling, C. Christiane
A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n = 27) and non-clinical (n = 20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionna...
Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston
Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.
Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y
This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong.
Meltzer, Lisa J.
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have higher rates of depressive symptoms than parents of typically developing (TD) children or parents of children with other developmental disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent sleep as factors associated with depressive symptoms in parents of children with…
Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping up with their child′s condition. Aims: To document the parenting practices of parents having a child with newly diagnosed SpLD and to analyze their impact on parent-child relationships. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From May 2007 to January 2008, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parenting practices and parent-child relationships were measured by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parent Form (APQ-PF and the Parent Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation coefficients between subscales of APQ-PF and PCRQ were computed. Multiple regression analysis was carried out for statistical significance of the clinical and demographic variables. Results: Parents who were: (i "involved" in parenting had a good "personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (ii practicing "positive parenting" had good "warmth, personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (iii "poorly supervising" their child′s activities lacked "warmth and personal relationship," (iv practicing "inconsistent discipline′ had a higher "power assertion" and (v practicing "corporal punishment" lacked "warmth" and had a higher "power assertion and possessiveness" in their relationships with their child. Parent being poorly educated or currently ill and child having all three types of SpLD present concomitantly or a sibling or a sibling with a chronic disability or being in class standard IX to XI were variables that independently predicted a poor parenting or parent-child relationship subscale score. Conclusions: The present study has identified parenting practices that need to be encouraged or excluded for improving parent-child relationships. Initiating these measures would help in the
Vivian Eva M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Results Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84% of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01. The parents of these children (n = 29 were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65% of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069. Conclusions This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.
Bucher, Tamara; Siegrist, Michael
Beverages are among the first independent product choices that school-aged children will make and unhealthy choices can be a threat to children's health. The present study investigated which beverage attributes shape adults' and children's health perceptions. For this purpose, 100 children (fifty-two boys; mean age 8·8 (SD 1·1) years) and their parents were invited to independently perform a beverage-sorting task. Participants were asked to place twenty commonly consumed soft drinks in a line ranging from 'unhealthy' to 'healthy'. The sorting data were analysed using multidimensional scaling with property fitting and hierarchical clustering. Sugar content (βparents= - 0·78, βchildren= - 0·68; Phealth perceptions. Parents' and children's estimates were strongly related (rs 0·70 (SD 0·15)); both groups classified the beverages into similar clusters. However, compared with their parents, children perceived beverages such as fruit juices and grapefruit soda to be healthier. In conclusion, parents' and children's health perceptions were strongly related based on the same relevant attributes for evaluation. However, fruit content was considered a more important criterion by children, which might lead to differences in the health perception between children and their parents. Low fruit content and the belief of beverages being 'natural' could positively bias perceptions. Therefore, certain soft drinks such as squashes or fruit lemonades are problematic, and the consumer's awareness of their low nutritional quality should be raised.
Lauren A Hindt
Full Text Available Approximately five million children in the United States have experienced a co-resident parent’s incarceration in jail or prison. Parental incarceration is associated with multiple risk factors for maladjustment, which may contribute to the increased likelihood of behavioral problems in this population. Few studies have examined early predictors of maladjustment among children with incarcerated parents, limiting scholars’ understanding about potential points for prevention and intervention. Emotion recognition skills may play a role in the development of maladjustment and may be amenable to intervention. The current study examined whether emotion recognition skills differed between three- to eight-year-old children with and without jailed parents. We hypothesized that children with jailed parents would have a negative bias in processing emotions and less accuracy compared to children without incarcerated parents. Data were drawn from 128 families, including 75 children (53.3% male, M = 5.37 years with jailed parents and 53 children (39.6% male, M = 5.02 years without jailed parents. Caregivers in both samples provided demographic information. Children performed an emotion recognition task in which they were asked to produce a label for photos expressing six different emotions (i.e., happy, surprised, neutral, sad, angry, fearful. For scoring, the number of positive and negative labels were totaled; the number of negative labels provided for neutral and positive stimuli were totaled (measuring negative bias/overextension of negative labels; and valence accuracy (i.e., positive, negative, neutral and label accuracy were calculated. Results indicated a main effect of parental incarceration on the number of positive labels provided; children with jailed parents presented significantly fewer positive emotions than the comparison group. There was also a main effect of parental incarceration on negative bias (the overextension of negative labels
Multhauf, Bettina; Buschmann, Anke; Soellner, Renate
Parents of children with dyslexia experience more parenting stress and depressive symptoms than other parents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a cognitive-behavioral group-based program for parents of dyslexic children on parenting stress levels, parent-child homework interactions and parental competencies. 39 children…
Pasalich, Dave S; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J
Children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits manifest a range of deficits in their emotional functioning, and parents play a key role in socializing children's understanding, experience, expression, and regulation of emotions. However, research examining emotion-related parenting in families of children with CU traits is scarce. In two independent studies we examined emotion socialization styles in parents of children high on CU traits. In Study 1, we assessed parents' self-reported beliefs and feelings regarding their own and their child's emotions, in a sample of 111 clinic-referred and community children aged 7-12 years. In Study 2, we directly observed parents' responding to child emotion during an emotional reminiscing task, in a clinic sample of 59 conduct-problem children aged 3-9 years. Taken together, the results were consistent in suggesting that the mothers of children with higher levels of CU traits are more likely to have affective attitudes that are less accepting of emotion (Study 1), and emotion socialization practices that are more dismissing of child emotion (Study 2). Fathers' emotion socialization beliefs and practices were unrelated to levels of CU traits. Our findings provide initial evidence for a relationship between CU traits and parents' emotion socialization style, and have significant implications for the design of novel family-based interventions targeting CU traits and co-occurring conduct problems.
Matter, Darryl E.; Matter, Roxana Marie
Proposes children develop an understanding about death in an orderly sequence progressing from total unawareness in early childhood to the point of logical consideration in terms of cause and effect. Discusses implications for parents, teachers, and counselors for helping children deal with death. (RC)
Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research indicates that impaired hearing is one of the most stressful disabilities. The parenting stress involved could lead to family malfunction and improper parenting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive parenting programs on the parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children.Methods: The statistical population comprised mothers of all 7-12-year-old impaired hearing children in Tehran city. Thereafter, using the random sampling method, 24 individuals were shortlisted as research participants and were randomly assigned to two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was trained with a positive parenting program based on the Sanders program (1993 over eight sessions. The measurement instrument was the Abidin parenting stress questionnaire.Results: The mean score for grades in the experimental groups’ parent and child domains at the pre- and post-test stages had reduced more than that in the control group. In addition, the results of a multivariate covariance analysis indicated that positive parenting training was effective in the reduction of parenting stress scores, reinforcement, and child mood components in the child domain, and in the feelings of competence, relationships with the spouse, and role limitation components (p<0.05 in the parent domain.Conclusion : Considering the benefits of training parents for the reduction of parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children, this method is recommended in all learning centers for the deaf.
The BA thesis explores how parents influence the development of children's literacy, how much attention is paid to the development of children's reading development and in what way and to what extent the parents’ education impacts the children's reading development. The theoretical part of the thesis defines the concept of literacy, types of literacy and the principles and factors of promoting it. In doing so, I highlighted the role of parents, the impact of the environment and the importance...
Chen, Mengtong; 陈孟彤.
Parental absence is generally linked to poorer child well-being. In China, over 61 million rural children are left behind with other caregivers when one or both parents have to migrate to urban areas to work. A meta-analysis of 106 empirical studies reveals that left-behind children in rural China are generally more disadvantaged compared with non-left-behind children, in regard to psychological adjustment, behavioral health, school-related outcomes, child safety, and other protective outcome...
Lai, Fanglin Jasmine
Children with autism often place increased demands on their families due to the nature of their disorders. Research has repeatedly shown that parents of children with autism experience higher levels of stress and lower levels of overall well-being than parents of children with other disabilities, or parents of typical children. Compared to…
Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A
Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and
Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Pai, Tzu-Chi
The research goal is to ascertain the current beliefs of the parents of preschool children regarding art education in Taiwan. Background factors on the parents were tested to show the differences between the parents' beliefs regarding art education and the actual art achievements of the children. From there, relationships between the beliefs and…
Milkie, Melissa A.; Kendig, Sarah M.; Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Denny, Kathleen E.
Cultural imperatives for "good" parenting include spending time with children and ensuring that they do well in life. Knowledge of how these factors influence employed parents' work-family balance is limited. Analyses using time diary and survey data from the 2000 National Survey of Parents (N = 933) indicate that how time with children relates to…
Magdy M Zedan
Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are the recommended controller drug for asthma treatment. The aim of our study was to determine concerns and fears of parents of children with asthma towards the use of ICS. One hundred parents of asthmatic children were interviewed using structural questionnaire. Airway inflammation was reported by only 6% of interviewed parents, whereas airway narrowing was addressed by 34%. Interesting data, 71% of parents were concerned with the role of steroids in asthma treatment, but more than half (53% of them addressed fears from side effects. Apparent gaps were found in knowledge of parents of asthmatic children about ICS as controller asthma medication. So, physician and health providers should explain to asthmatic parents that airway inflammation is the core for asthma management. This may remove fears about ICS and thus improve adherence to treatment.
Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat
Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…
This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology," 2000, Vol. 76, pp.…
This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…
Mysore Narasimha Vranda
Full Text Available Purpose: This study explored parental attitudes towards children with specific learning disabilities.Method: The study sample comprised parents of 60 children (30 boys and30 girls with Specific Learning Disability (SLD who attend the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Out-Patient Department at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. The attitudes of parents were assessed using the Parental Attitude Scale.Results: The results revealed significant differences related to gender of the children on various domains of the scale.Conclusion: The study highlights the need to educate parents to lower their expectations for children with specific learning disabilities, and to strengthen the social support network of these children’s families.
Ansari, Arya; Gershoff, Elizabeth
The authors examined the extent to which parent involvement in Head Start programs predicted changes in both parent and child outcomes over time, using a nationally representative sample of 1,020 three-year-old children over 3 waves of the Family and Child Experiences Survey. Center policies that promote involvement predicted greater parent involvement, and parents who were more involved in Head Start centers demonstrated increased cognitive stimulation and decreased spanking and controlling behaviors. In turn, these changes in parenting behaviors were associated with gains in children's academic and behavioral skills. These findings suggest that Head Start programs should do even more to facilitate parent involvement because it can serve as an important means for promoting both parent and child outcomes.
Amato, P R
Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.
Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.
Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…
MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi
Full Text Available For a long time, in Albanian customary law, parental responsibilities were an exclusive competency of fathers. In positive law, especially with the reform of the legal system in the Republic of Kosovo, now both parents are fully equal in exercising parental responsibilities. Children are the future of any society, and therefore, their upraising, education and proper welfare of children is an objective and responsibility not only for the parents, but also of societal and state institutions. Although parent-child relations incorporate moral, biological and legal elements, the absolute power of parents must be shared between parents and proper social and educational policies, in the heart of which are always the best interests of the child. Kosovo has already adopted a complete legal framework, approximated to the standards of the European Union and international instruments which clearly provide on the rights of the child and responsibilities of parents and institutions in enjoying such rights. Within the range of this new legal framework, we make an effort of addressing parental responsibilities, which are exercised in terms of personality of children, and derive as a result of personal non-material relations. Our work is focused on a study of parental responsibilities in terms of giving a personal name, healthy development, education and upraising. We have also analysed several court rulings related to the rights of the child and responsibilities of parents in enjoying such rights, which we believe are to enrich and render the paper more interesting.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Bos, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley McCreery; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Engle, Patrice L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Gamer, Gary N.; Goldman, Philip; Groark, Christina J.; Greenberg, Aaron; Grotevant, Harold D.; Groza, Victor K.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Johnson, Dana E.; Juffer, Femmie; Kreppner, Jana M.; Le Mare, Lucy; McCall, Robert B.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Palacios, Jesus; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam; Tieman, Wendy; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vorria, Panayiota; Zeanah, Charles H.
This monograph reviews literature pertaining to children without permanent parents. Chapters review (1) the development of children while institutional residents; (2) the development of postinstitutionalized children transitioned to family environments (i.e., adoption); the effects of institutionalization on (3) attachment behaviors, (4) physical…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication, Bloomington, IN.
This book, one of a series, focuses on how stress affects children's learning. The message of the series urges parents and children to spend time together, talk about stories, and learn together. The first part of each book presents stories appropriate for varying grade levels, both younger children and those in grades three and four, and each…
Furstenberg, Frank F.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.
Compares children who experience divorce in childhood with those who were young adults when their parents divorced using data on British children (N=11,409) who participated in the National Child Development Study. Children's long-term welfare appears to be linked both to conditions preceding and following the divorce event. Results suggest…
Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca A.; Louie, Brian B.; Newschaffer, Craig J.
Past research has shown that children with autism and their families have compromised quality of life (QOL) in several domains. This study examined QOL and parental concerns in children with autism during early childhood, childhood, and adolescence compared to children with Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…
Gelman, Susan A; Ware, Elizabeth A; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M; Stilwell, Sarah M
Generics ("Dogs bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children's learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked to conceptual factors. For both children and parents, individual differences in rate of generic production were stable across time, contexts, and domains, and parents' generic usage significantly correlated with that of their own children. Furthermore, parents' essentialist beliefs correlated with their own and their children's rates of generic frequency. These results indicate that generic language use exhibits substantial stability and may reflect individual differences in speakers' conceptual attitudes toward categories.
Martins, Camilla Soccio; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Zahr, Nide Regina; Arone, Kátia Michelli Bertoldi; Roque, Eliana Mendes de Souza Teixeira
We sought, in this investigation, to understand the family dynamics in the view of parents and children involved in Domestic Violence against children and adolescents institutionalized in the Center of Assistance to the Victimized Child and Adolescent (CACAV), in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews applied to parents and children from six families involved in domestic violence. The data were analyzed through content analysis. Ecology of human development was used as theoretical reference. Domestic violence was reported, though it is understood as common practice for the families. We identified that the parents' view favors the denial of the violence perpetrated. The children, on the other hand, point that love ties and affection are more significant for their development than blood relations. We believe that the knowledge acquired as how violence is experienced, can contribute with intervention strategies capable of breaking the perverse cycle of violent family relationships.
Soole, David W; Lennon, Alexia; Haworth, Narelle
Pedestrian and cyclist injuries are significant public health issues, together accounting for 11-30% of road deaths in highly motorised countries. Children are particularly at risk. In Australia in 2009 11.4% of pedestrian deaths and 6.4% of cyclist deaths comprised children aged 0-16 years. Parental attitudes and level of supervision are important to children's road safety. Results from a telephone survey with parents of children 5-9 years (N = 147) are reported. Questions addressed beliefs about preventability of injury, appropriate ages for children to cross the road or cycle independently and the frequency of holding 5-9 year old children's hands while crossing the road. Results suggest that parents believe most injuries are preventable and that they personally can act to improve their own safety in the home, on the road, at work, as well as in or on the water. Most parents (68%) indicated children should be 10 years or older before crossing the road or cycling independently. Parents were more likely to report holding younger children's hands (5-6 years) when crossing the road and less likely to do so for 7- to 9-year olds. There was a small effect of child gender, with parents more likely to hold a boy's hand than that of a girl.
Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi
Full Text Available Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based on social learning models, is an effective and practical way for treatment of children with incongruent behavior. In this study, we evaluate parenting styles of ADHD children and normal children. Methods. This study was conducted in Zahedan in 2012. Subjects aged 7 to 12. They were divided into patient and normal groups. Parenting styles were evaluated with Baumrind’s questionnaire. The data were analyzed with SPSS ver.18. Results. The findings showed that the parents of ADHD children have lower permissive score than the normal group, but authoritarian score was lower in the normal group. The authoritative score has no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, age, gender, and parent’s education affected the parenting styles. Discussion. The present study indicates that parents with ADHD children have different parenting styles; and factors like gender and parents education are influential in parenting methods. This finding were also present in some past surveys. Many studies have shown that teaching-parenting styles to parents with ADHD children improves the inner family relationship. Conclusion . The results indicated that parents of children with ADHD are less permissive but more authoritarian in their parenting.
This research focused on the experiences and views of lesbian parents and adult children of lesbian parents. The experiences of the members of lesbian-parented families determined the main areas that were explored. The lack of international and Irish research on the lived experiences of lesbian parents and their children prompted this investigation. The study was conducted using qualitative, semi-structured interviews. The sample consisted of three lesbian parents and two adult children of le...
Patterson, Charlotte J
Legal and policy questions relevant to the lives of lesbian and gay parents and their children have recently been subjects of vigorous debate. Among the issues for which psychological research has been seen as particularly relevant are questions regarding child custody after divorce, same-sex marriage, adoption, and foster care. This article provides an overview of the current legal terrain for lesbian and gay parents and their children in the United States today, an overview of relevant social science research, and some commentary on the interface between the two. It is concluded that research findings on lesbian and gay parents and their children provide no warrant for legal discrimination against these families.
McNair, Jonda C.
This study examines how African American children--in grades kindergarten through 2--and their parents selected books within the context of a unique family literacy program entitled, "I Never Knew There Were So Many Books About Us!: Parents and Children Reading African American Children's Literature Together". This study is informed by research…
How can we understand the role of parents in children´s bullying in school? If we look into the international research literature, we find a field dominated by the perspective that bullies and victims of bullying have typical problems at home that can explain their behaviour. Parents´ strategies...... of child rearing, the way they relate to their children and the atmosphere at home, are viewed as the breeding ground for children´s behaviour as either bullies or victims in school. In my research into parental positions in children’s bullying, I have taken another departure point. By means of analyses...... of varied empirical material consisting, in part, of interviews with parents, schoolteachers and principals as well as of a range of public documents concerning bullying, parents’ responsibilities, the purpose of school, etc., this research project contributes to the field with new and different insights...
Francesca Romana Montecchi
Full Text Available In Western societies many immigrants live in difficult social and working conditions. Together with other factors, this state of affairs represents a risk for the well being of their children. This article will consider the principle risk factors for child psychopathology and/or distress, with a distinction between temporary and permanent factors and with a peculiar attention to the interplay between risk and protective factors. Risk factors can be ordered in cultural, social, familiar/parental and individual factors. Some of these are general risk factors, applying to child and adolescent psychopathology and distress independently from the status of immigrants’ offspring (among them there are some risk factors related to poor social conditions, independently from being an immigrant or a low-social-class Western citizen. Other factors are specific of migration, some of them being related to: a different ways of immigrated families to situate themselves within the host society (assimilation, separation, integration, marginality; b cultural/familiar attitudes in child’s nurture and education; c the family role of women as well as factors specific of the pregnancy period in immigrants; d the ability of the school system to enhance and support children’s abilities to integrate within the new society; e the political/bureaucratic facilitation/impediment to the regularization of VISA, with the consequent effect on the sense of identity/rejection within/from the host society.In conclusion, the programs for monitoring immigrants’ living and health conditions should also include: the assessment of parental skills, the dynamic indicators of risk and protection indexes, the assessment of living conditions and social school environment, with a careful attention to those early signs of discomfort that might precede possible later onset of psychopathology and/or social distress.
Portes, Alejandro; Vickstrom, Erik; Haller, William; Aparicio, Rosa
We examine determinants of educational and occupational aspirations and expectations among children of immigrants in Spain on the basis of a unique data set that includes statistically representative data for foreign-origin secondary students in Madrid and Barcelona plus a sample of one-fourth of their parents. Independently collected data for both generations allow us to establish effects of parental characteristics on children's orientations without the confounding potential inherent in children's reports about parents. We analyze first determinants of parental ambition and, through a series of step-wise regressions, the effects of these goals and other parental and family characteristics on children's aspirations and expectations. A structural equations model synthesizes results of the analysis. The model confirms predictions from the research literature, especially those based on the Wisconsin status attainment model, but rejects others, including the predicted significance of private vs. public school attendance. Parental ambition, knowledge of Spanish by parents and children, gender, and children's age are major determinants of youths' educational and occupational goals. These results have direct implications for policy; these are discussed in the conclusion.
Full Text Available Communication is a must and family communication enhances family ties. This study is design to discover whether quantity of time spent between parents and children have a direct impact on children misconduct activities. This is a quantitative study using a survey questionnaire. Data were gathered from 1163 respondents which comprised of 641 secondary school children and 522 parents and were analyzed using SPSS software. The data collection process took three months to be completed. The outcome showed that the children perceive the amount of time spent with their parents does have an impact towards their misconduct activities. However, it was not the same for the parents. It seems that parents did not perceive that the amount spent for communicating with their children will affect their childrenâs misconduct activities. Parents should pay more attention to the time that they spent with their children as their children value the time that they spent with their parentsâ. It is crucial for parents to allocate some time in their hectic schedule to communicate with the children so that the children would not feel neglected and left out by their own parents thus making them prone to unhealthy activities.
Francine C Jellesma
Full Text Available Past research shows that imaginary companions are a normal phenomenon in childhood and do not indicate risk for psychopathology. The aim of this study was to see if parents are nevertheless concerned about imaginary companions. Internet-forums were searched in English, German, and Dutch in order to answer this question. Parental messages about present imaginary companions were analysed. Analyses of 89 posts made on a diverse set of internet-forums for parents revealed that half the parents expressed concerns about imaginary companions, especially parents with children older than 4.5 years old. When the imaginary companion was older than the child, parents were more likely to be concerned. Almost all messages were about imaginary companions, which might indicate that parents are less concerned about personified objects. The results signify that parents need more information in order to ensure they know imaginary companions are a normal childhood-experience.
Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F
Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.
Full Text Available Background. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA is increasingly utilized to detect copy number variants among children and families affected with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, CMA is controversial due to possible ambiguous test findings, uncertain clinical implications, and other social and legal issues related to the test. Methods. Participants were parents of children with ASD residing in the North Eastern region of North Carolina, USA. We conducted individual, face-to-face interviews with 45 parents and inquired about their perceptions of CMA. Results. Three major themes dominated parents’ perceptions of CMA. None of the parents had ever heard of the test before and the majority of the parents postulated positive attitudes toward the test. Parents’ motivations in undergoing the test were attributed to finding a potential cause of ASD, to being better prepared for having another affected child, and to helping with future reproductive decisions. Perceived barriers included the cost of testing, risk/pain of CMA testing, and fear of test results. Conclusion. This study contributes to the understanding of psychosocial aspects and cultural influences towards adoption of genetic testing for ASD in clinical practice. Genetic education can aid informed decision-making related to CMA genetic testing among parents of children with ASD.
Kornrich, Sabino; Furstenberg, Frank
Parental spending on children is often presumed to be one of the main ways that parents invest in children and a main reason why children from wealthier households are advantaged. Yet, although research has tracked changes in the other main form of parental investment-namely, time-there is little research on spending. We use data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey to examine how spending changed from the early 1970s to the late 2000s, focusing particularly on inequality in parental investment in children. Parental spending increased, as did inequality of investment. We also investigate shifts in the composition of spending and linkages to children's characteristics. Investment in male and female children changed substantially: households with only female children spent significantly less than parents in households with only male children in the early 1970s; but by the 1990s, spending had equalized; and by the late 2000s, girls appeared to enjoy an advantage. Finally, the shape of parental investment over the course of children's lives changed. Prior to the 1990s, parents spent most on children in their teen years. After the 1990s, however, spending was greatest when children were under the age of 6 and in their mid-20s.
Bougher-Muckian, Hilary R.; Root, Amy E.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Floyd, Kimberly K.
Parents play a critical role in the development of children's emotional competence; however, little research examines parents' emotion socialisation practices among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, we compared the emotion socialisation practices of parents of children with ASD and to those of parents of children that…
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that affect academic achievement. The concept of family, attachment styles, different parent attitudes and reflection on children academic lifes of these attitudes are examined.
Kvrgić Svetlana T.
Full Text Available Introduction Health protection and health promotion are the primary goals of modern medicine. Since children's health is the cornerstone of adult's health, it must be in the center of all social and health care strategies. Vulnerability concept Vulnerability means exposure to harmful influences, risks or stress, which increases disease probability. The most vulnerable are categories that are exposed to influence of many harmful factors, which have minimal chances for survival and lowest quality of life. Vulnerability of children without parental care Vulnerability of children without parental care is caused by lack and/or inadequate family environment. These children are usually emotionally unstable; they frequently develop conduct disorders and have low self-esteem. As adolescents, these children have tendency to risky behavior, which greatly decreases their health potentials. Health status and quality of life All three components of health are endangered with children without parental care. These children present with physical, psycho-motoric and intellectual impairments. There are no studies about quality of life regarding these children, but we can assume that their quality of life is lower than in children who experience protective family environment, since quality of psychosocial factors and family environment are very important predictors of quality of life. Conclusion Children without parental care are an extremely vulnerable category, because they are subjected to various risk factors. Therefore, in order to improve health potentials and quality of life, special measures are required in health care, psychological care and social welfare.
Fargas Malet, Montserrat; McSherry, Dominic; Larkin, Emma; Kelly, Greg; Robinson, Clive; Schubotz, Dirk
While a wide range of literature exists on the experiences of children in foster care or adoption, much less is known about children who return home from care to their birth parents. This paper focuses on the perspectives of a small sample of birth parents of young children who returned home from care. It draws on findings from the Northern Ireland Care Pathways and Outcomes Study that has been following a population (n = 374) of children who were under 5 years and in care in Northern Ireland...
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this survey is to compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children with only one parent versus those from two-parent families. We analyzed behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency and socialization issues, as well as emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.Methods: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 10 of the 20 geographic regions covered by Imam Khomeini Charity were selected. Using systematic random sampling, 460 families with children aged 4-18 years were selected. All children were evaluated using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL to determine behavioral and emotional problems. Logistic regression tests were conducted to measure the effects variables, including age, gender, number of parents in the family, psychiatric history of each child and history of parental psychiatric treatment, on the internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL scores. A cut-off score of 64 was used to convert raw scores.Results: No differences were observed in CBCL subscales between single-parent children vs. children of two-parent families.Conclusion: Regarding the two-parent families among the study population, the results could not be generalized. As these families have qualified for assistance, the father cannot manage the family because of his disability, such as physical or mental problems. This minimizes the effect of having a father in a two-parent family, rendering them similar to single-parent families. Thus, differences were not observed between the two types of families. Further studies are necessary to compare single-parent families with two-parent families among the community.
Full Text Available This study evaluated uric acid concentrations in normotensive children of parents with hypertension. Eighty normotensive children from families with and without a history of essential hypertension were included. Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension without statistically significant difference (P>0.05. Uric acid concentrations were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension (4.61 versus 3.57 mg/dL, P10 years (P<0.01. Uric acid levels were significantly higher in all children with more pronounced difference after age 10 of years (P<0.001. Positive correlations were found between the level of serum uric acid and age, body weight, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the normotensive children of parents. The higher uric acid levels in the normotensive children of hypertensive parents suggest that uric acid may be a predeterminant of hypertension. Monitoring of uric acid levels in these children may allow for prevention or earlier treatment of future hypertension.
@@ It is natural for young people to be critical of their parents at times and to blame them for most of the misunderstandings between them. They have always complained, more or less justly, that their parents are out of touch with modern ways; that they are possessive and dominant; that they do not trust their children to deal with crisis; that they talk too much about certain problems-and that have no sense of humour, at least in parent-child relationships.
Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M
Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.
Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.
Past research has implicated the familial variables of parental nurturance and parental discipline in the development of global self-esteem in children. This study examined college students' levels of self-esteem as a function of their own versus their parents' appraisals of parental nurturance and parental authority. Subjects were 128 college…
Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Anicama, Catherine; Fernandez, Yenny; Brotman, Laurie Miller
This study examined the mental health and academic functioning of 442 4- and 5-year old children of Mexican (MA) and Dominican (DA) immigrant mothers using a cultural framework of Latino parenting. Data were collected on mothers' self-reported acculturative status, parenting practices and cultural socialization, and on children's behavioral functioning (mother- and teacher-report) and school readiness (child test). Results provide partial support for the validity of the framework in which mothers' acculturative status and socialization of respeto (a Latino cultural value of respect) and independence (a U.S. American cultural value) predict parenting practices. For both groups, English language competence was related to less socialization of respeto, and other domains of acculturative status (i.e., U.S. American/ethnic identity, and U.S. American/ethnic cultural competence) were related to more socialization of respeto and independence. Socialization of respeto was related to the use of authoritarian practices and socialization of independence was related to the use of authoritative practices. Socialization of respeto was also related to lower school readiness for DA children, whereas socialization of independence was related to higher school readiness for MA children. Independence was also related to higher teacher-rated externalizing problems for MA children. For both groups, authoritarian parenting was associated with more parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. The discussion focuses on ethnic subgroup differences and similarities to further understanding of Latino parenting from a cultural perspective.
Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…
Hussong, Andrea M.; Zucker, Robert A.; Wong, Maria M.; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.; Puttler, Leon I.
In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that children of alcoholic parents (COAs) show deficits in social competence that begin in early childhood and escalate through middle adolescence. Teachers, parents, and children reported on the social competence of COAs and matched controls in a community sample assessed from ages 6 to 15. Hierarchical linear growth models revealed different patterns of change in social competence across development as a function of the reporter of var...
Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.
The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…
Leana-Tascilar, Marilena Z.; Ozyaprak, Melodi; Yilmaz, Ozgur
Problem Statement: Turkey began studies of gifted education relatively recently in comparison with other countries and these studies are focused more to the education of gifted children and their teachers instead of parents. Guiding and educating the parents of gifted students has recently been put into practice in our country while no matter how…
Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Engvall, Gunn; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca
Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80-90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child's and the parent's view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents' experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents' suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2-16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people's lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child's suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process.
Nimnicht, Glen P.; Brown, Edna
On the assumption that parents can provide significant educational experiences for their preschool children, a Parent/Child course has been initiated in conjunction with the Toy Library at the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. (Authors/CB)
Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…
Lau, Eva Y. H.; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala
Background: The remarkable academic advancement of Asian students in cross-national studies has been attributed to numerous factors, including the value placed on education by Chinese parents. However, there is a dearth of research on how exactly Chinese parents are involved in children's early learning. Purpose: This study has two major research…
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Adapted from a series of 20 monthly columns which originally appeared in Highlights for Children, Inc.'s "Newsletter of Parenting," the material in this booklet explores: (1) ways in which television influences viewers; (2) what television teaches; and (3) some positive aspects of television. It also suggests activities for parents which…
Rescorla, Leslie A; Bochicchio, Lauren; Achenbach, Thomas M;
Parent-teacher cross-informant agreement, although usually modest, may provide important clinical information. Using data for 27,962 children from 21 societies, we asked the following: (a) Do parents report more problems than teachers, and does this vary by society, age, gender, or type of problem...
Inconsistency in parenting is a factor that may influence children's mental health. A questionnaire, measuring three parental inconsistencies (temporal, situational, and father-mother inconsistency) was administered to adolescents in nine countries to assess its association with adolescents' psychological disorders. The results show that parental…
Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…
Norlin, David; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Malin
International research indicates that children with disabilities are more exposed to negative parenting than their non-disabled peers. The mechanisms behind this increased risk are likely operating at the levels of the individual child, the family and the broader social context. The present study investigated harsh parenting practices using…
Full Text Available Aim: Overall aim of the study was to see parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 alcoholic and 30 non-alcoholic parents and their children taken from Kanke Block of Ranchi district. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic data sheet and Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1978 were administered to the children. Results: In a child′s perception of father in various domains of parent-child relationship, significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward in loving and neglecting, and in child′s perception of the mother. Significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, object punishment, indifferent and in neglecting. Conclusion: The result showed that the children of alcoholic parents tended to have more symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward loving and in neglecting than children of non alcoholic parents.
Mahato, Babita; Ali, Arif; Jahan, Masroor; Verma, A. N.; Singh, Amool R.
Aim: Overall aim of the study was to see parent-child relationship in children of alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 alcoholic and 30 non-alcoholic parents and their children taken from Kanke Block of Ranchi district. The sample was selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Socio-demographic data sheet and Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1978) were administered to the children. Results: In a child’s perception of father in various domains of parent-child relationship, significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward in loving and neglecting, and in child’s perception of the mother. Significant difference at P < 0.01 was found in the domain of symbolic punishment, rejecting, object punishment, indifferent and in neglecting. Conclusion: The result showed that the children of alcoholic parents tended to have more symbolic punishment, rejecting, objective punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward loving and in neglecting than children of non alcoholic parents. PMID:21234159
Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.
Full Text Available The family and its important role in the development of the child is the inspiration for many types of research that have the intention to emphasize certain aspects of family life and the consequences of the family relations in the development of the children. The issue of this research is to find out if there is a connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and self-concept in the children of early school age. The research is conducted on 30 children of single-parent families. The children of these single-parent families are children who have lived in families with conflicts and they have been direct or indirect participants in the conflict of the divorced parents. In the process of research, we applied projective techniques: Machover which consists of drawing a person’s figure, as well as a drawing a house and a tree-HTP (House-Tree-Person.The results are obtained through qualitative analysis and interpretation of each drawing particularly. During the investigation the relation between the variables, it is confirmed that there is a considerable connection between the conflict in the family, the divorce of the parents and the self-concept in children. It is confirmed, during the process that the children of divorced parents from negative self-concept. In children of single-parent families it is indicated that this group of children in relation to the psychological picture for themselves presented the following characteristics: lowered EGO, mechanisms for defense, feeling of insecurity, low self-confidence, aggressiveness, great virility, and caution.
Schymik, Frank A; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Voepel-Lewis, Terri
Tonsillectomy is a common and painful procedure often indicated for children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who are at risk for opioid-related toxicity. Whether parents whose children have OSA understand the risks of opioids is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parents whose children have OSA have greater opioid risk understanding and would be less likely to give an opioid to a child exhibiting oversedation compared to parents whose children do not have OSA. The study design was a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study. The study was conducted in a large academic, tertiary care children's hospital in the Midwest. 224 parents whose children with or without OSA underwent tonsillectomy with/without adenoidectomy were included. Parents were assessed for opioid adverse event understanding and then made decisions to give/withhold opioids for a child exhibiting adverse effects. After discharge, parents recorded all opioid doses they gave their child. There were no differences in opioid understanding between OSA and non-OSA groups, and nearly half in both would give an opioid to the child exhibiting oversedation. Similar amounts of opioids were given at home. OSA did not predict parents' opioid decisions; however, around-the-clock instruction predicted greater opioid use at home. Parents whose children had OSA had a similar understanding of opioid-related oversedation compared to other parents, and half would give a prescribed opioid when signs of oversedation were present, suggesting a need for improved understanding and recognition of this sign of toxicity, and of what to do should this symptom present.
Full Text Available The present study investigates whether the results of the study of Willinger and Eisenwort (2005 could also apply to a sample of preschool children not referred to a tertiary medical institution. Moreover, we were interested in the accuracy of maternal estimates of their children’s development regarding vocabulary for parenting stress, regarding behavioural problems, intellectual development, age and gender of the child. 108 children between the ages of three and six and their mothers were investigated by several diagnostic scales concerning child development with respect to language, motor and intellectual development as well as child behavioural problems and parenting stress concering child and parent characteristics. The mothers’ estimates regarding the children`s vocabulary were assessed by the same vocabulary test used for the children by presenting the test as questionnaire to the mothers. There was a significant trend towards an overestimation of a child’s developmental functioning regarding vocabulary. Group comparisons between groups of different levels of maternal overestimations (mild, moderate and severe overestimation of their child’s language development with respect to parenting stress levels considering age, sex, intellectual develoment and child behaviour problems showed the lowest parenting stress level regarding child characteristics in the group of severe overestimation and the highest level of parenting stress regarding parent characteristics in the group of mild overestimation. Significant influences of child behaviour and intellectual level on parenting stress were found. The results showed that mothers should not be used as only source of information about their children’s developmental status, especially with respect to their active vocabulary. However, maternal overestimation seems to have a positive impact on parenting stress regarding child characteristics, which could possibly be explained as a defense
Wood, Eileen; Petkovski, Marjan; De Pasquale, Domenica; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Savage, Robert S
Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad(TM) were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21-75.9 months). Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users). Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child's positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents' perceptions of their child's technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Provides guidelines to facilitate children's emotional adjustment to their parents' divorce. Suggestions include avoiding arguing in front of children, allowing children to spend quality time with both parents, keeping children's daily routines as normal as possible, avoiding putting children in the middle or in the "missing parent" role, allowing…
Breitenstein, Susan M; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis; Ridge, Alison; Garvey, Christine; Julion, Wrenetha; Tucker, Sharon
Data were merged from two prevention randomized trials testing 1-year outcomes of a parenting skills program, the Chicago Parent Program (CPP) and comparing its effects for African-American (n = 291) versus Latino (n = 213) parents and their preschool children. Compared to controls, intervention parents had improved self-efficacy, used less corporal punishment and more consistent discipline, and demonstrated more positive parenting. Intervention children had greater reductions in behavior problems based on parent-report, teacher-report, and observation. Although improvements from the CPP were evident for parents in both racial/ethnic groups, Latino parents reported greater improvements in their children's behavior and in parenting self-efficacy but exhibited greater decreases in praise. Findings support the efficacy of the CPP for African American and Latino parents and young children from low-income urban communities.
Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark
Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…
Ibinga, Euloge; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Olliac, Bertrand; Hounsossou, Cocou Hubert; Dalmay, François; Mouangue, Gertrude; Ategbo, Simon Jonas; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Druet-Cabanac, Michel
Children with epilepsy and their parents face many social and psychological difficulties that remain insufficiently studied in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim here was to assess the quality of life of children with epilepsy and their parents. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in two urban areas and four rural areas of Gabon. Children were screened through key informants, medical sources, and a door-to-door survey. They were clinically selected based on their medical history and a clinical exam conducted by the investigating physician. Electroencephalography had not been carried out because of a lack of material and financial resources. The quality of life of children and their parents was assessed by a structured interview of parents using a questionnaire. Of 317 suspected cases on screening, 83 children with epilepsy were identified. Their mean age was 11.9±4.4years. Twelve percent of the children had neurosensory abnormalities on clinical exam. Sixty-three percent of them attended school; factors associated with schooling were higher score on the sociability subscale, specialized medical advice, and antiepileptic drug treatment. Sociability difficulties, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and behavioral disorders were suspected in 39.8%, 45.8%, 49.4%, and 42.2% of children, respectively. A total of 48.2% of parents expressed a poor quality of life related to their children's illness. A higher score on the cognition subscale, urban residence, specialized medical advice, and a stable income in the household were predictive of poor parental quality of life. Epilepsy influences many aspects of a child's life and the life of the child's parents. Care should incorporate a cognitive assessment of the child and emphasize information for patients and their relatives.
Liechty, Janet M; Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Musaad, Salma M
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental health literacy and parent attitudes about weight control strategies for young children. Parental low health literacy has been associated with poor child health outcomes, yet little is known about its relationship to child weight control and weight-related health information-seeking preferences. Data were drawn from the STRONG Kids Study, a Midwest panel survey among parents of preschool aged children (n = 497). Parents endorsed an average of 4.3 (SD =2.8) weight loss strategies, 53% endorsed all three recommended weight loss strategies for children, and fewer than 1% of parents endorsed any unsafe strategies. Parents were most likely to seek child weight loss information from healthcare professionals but those with low (vs. adequate) health literacy were significantly less likely to use the Internet or books and more likely to use minister/clergy as sources. Poisson and logistic regressions showed that higher health literacy was associated with endorsement of more strategies overall, more recommended strategies, and greater odds of endorsing each specific recommended strategy for child weight control, after adjusting for parent age, education, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, weight concern, and child BMI percentile. Findings suggest that health literacy impacts parental views about child weight loss strategies and health information-seeking preferences. Pediatric weight loss advice to parents should include assessment of parent attitudes and prior knowledge about child weight control and facilitate parent access to reliable sources of evidence-informed child weight control information.
Tscholl, Michael; Lindgren, Robb
This research investigates the social learning affordances of a room-sized, immersive, and interactive augmented reality simulation environment designed to support children's understanding of basic physics concepts in a science center. Conversations between 97 parent-child pairs were analyzed in relation to categories of talk through which…
Youm, Hyun Kyung
The purpose of this study was to explore South Korean parents' understanding of and desires for music education for their children. Following a constructivist paradigm and qualitative research methodology, data collection involved in-depth interviews, observations, written questionnaires, family music materials, and the researcher's journals. The…
S. V. Asrieva
Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of becoming conscious of parenthood among young people. Young people thoughtlessly getting married and then tearing it doom their children to live in «partial» families. It affects their physical and psychological well-being, as well as intellectual development. The article raises the problems associated with the understanding of such phenomena as «conscious parenthood», which are components of the system of value orientations and parent plants, parental feelings, attitudes and positions, parental responsibility, etc. The results of research related to the study of the relationship of generations of children and parents to this phenomenon and the problems of its formation and development. The study sample included a variety of family, ie, respondents were children and their parents. The author focuses on the attitude of the respondents were from the early parenthood, the factors underlying the desire to have children, the understanding of "conscious parenthood" function of parents, family influence on the education of the future parents, the problem of psycho-pedagogical preparation of the future parents. The author examines the system of values and attitudes in young families; characterizes the orientation, relationships and attitudes of parents, evaluates their responsibility, its levels and the dynamics of development. This analyst is based on extensive empirical material. The paper draws conclusions regarding the functions of parenting in today'sRussia, their psychological and educational readiness for parenthood as an activity-respect and social importance of the problem. Presented in the article the results of socio-pedagogical research allow identifying trends in the socio-processes among young people, which is of particular practical significance for adult education teachers. Knowledge of the real attitudes of children and their parents in relation to parenting allows building the strategy and tactics
Schlomer, Gabriel L; Del Giudice, Marco; Ellis, Bruce J
Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within psychology: parent-offspring conflict theory (POCT). In the current article, we articulate POCT for psychological scientists, extend its scope by connecting it to the broader framework of life history theory, and draw out its implications for understanding conflict within human families. We specifically apply POCT to 2 instances of early mother-offspring interaction (prenatal conflict and weaning conflict); discuss the effects of genetic relatedness on behavioral conflict between parents, children, and their siblings; review the emerging literature on parent-offspring conflict over the choice of mates and spouses; and examine parent-offspring conflict from the perspective of imprinted genes. This review demonstrates the utility of POCT, not only for explaining what is known about conflict within families but also for generating novel hypotheses, suggesting new lines of research, and moving us toward the "big picture" by integrating across biological and psychological domains of knowledge.
Williams, Lauren Kendrea; Lamb, Karen Elaine; McCarthy, Maria Catherine
The aim of this study was to examine whether parenting behaviors are associated with child nutrition amongst pre-school children receiving treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to determine whether this association differs from that observed amongst a healthy population. Participants were 73 parents of children aged 2-6 years. The children were either a) receiving treatment for ALL (n = 43), or b) had no major medical history (n = 30). Participants completed psychometrically validated questionnaires that assessed parenting behaviors and child diet. Increased parental overprotection was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption for the control group but lower fruit and vegetable consumption for the ALL group. Parental overprotection, inconsistent discipline and emotional feeding were positively associated with non-core ("junk") food consumption for the ALL group, particularly those who had recently received steroid treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that certain parenting behaviors may be associated with poor nutrition during treatment for ALL. In light of these results, parenting interventions, specifically targeting parenting behaviors such as assertive discipline, may be a mechanism for nutrition promotion amongst this vulnerable group.
Full Text Available Insufficient knowledge about the impact of parental education on the development strategies of justice of children and adolescents in destabilizing the social conditions of modern society determines the relevance of the author's work. The study involved 64 subjects (39 women and 25 men aged 24 to 48 years, with minor children, including 30 subjects with a harmonious style of parenting and 34 - with disharmonious style. We used a questionnaire "Analysis of family relationships" (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitskis, a technique of studying legal awareness of J. Tapp and F. Levine, as well as specially designed questionnaires, aimed at studying the cognitive (knowledge of parents about legal socialization and behavioral (conversations on topics of law, reinforcement and punishment of right and wrong actions, monitoring of performance, personal example components of legal socialization. We obtained new empirical evidence on the relation between the features of legal socialization of children and parent-child relationship, clarified the role of the individual types of parental attitudes in the formation of the legal socialization of children, revealed the factors of parental attitudes that hinder and facilitate the process of legal socialization of children
Those contending for the 'normalcy' of homosexuality claim there are 800,000 to 7 million homosexual parents raising between 1 and 9 million children. The 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, a nationally representative sample of 12,321 ages 18 through 59 yr., reported about 416,000 parents-most of whom were married-living with children under the age of 17 yr. who reported same-sex "vaginal, oral, or anal sex" in the past 12 months. Two random-sample surveys suggested that there are fewer than half a million homosexual parents, and a total sample of 14,000 mothers in Avon suggests even fewer. Thus, it is likely that fewer than 500,000 homosexual parents live with fewer than 750,000 children under 18 yr.
Bedells, Ella; Bevan, Ann
This article reviews the literature on nurses' and parents' self-perceived roles when caring for hospitalised children, focusing on research conducted since the Department of Health published the National Service Framework for Children: Standard for Hospital Services in 2003. Three main themes emerge from the review: nurses' perceptions, parents' perceptions, and negotiation. Clarification of what nurses and parents consider to be their respective roles when caring for hospitalised children is a prerequisite for negotiation of those roles. The family's background, life experiences and circumstances influence the effectiveness of negotiation between nurses and parents. The article explores potential barriers to negotiation, including poor communication and failure to provide information. Limitations of the research and the implications for practice are considered.
Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine
This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…
Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.
Objective To investigate whether parental smoking was associated with smoking-related play behaviour in young children. Design Children were asked to pretend that they were grown-ups having dinner. They were invited to act out this situation in a play corner with a toy kitchen and a child-sized dini
Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte
This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
Being the parent of a disabled child is not easy, it is experienced as a situation marked by stress, crises and grief. As Vygotsky described eighty years ago, the development of children with disabilities and the culture do not fit as they do for non-disabled children. The development of a child...
Emotional problems and behavioral patterns of parents who have deaf blind children are described clinically and in short case studies. Deaf blind young children are said to be isolated from their families due to lack of sensory cues; to display behaviors such as back arching and fear of walking; and to experience frequent health crises such as…
Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching
The participation of parents-shared reading with children is a topic that has generated a lot of attention among many researchers in the world. For the use of picture story books, which have caused positive impact on the child's learning process, has also been recommended as the best strategies to develop children's aesthetic ability. The purpose…
A conservative estimate is that one in six children in school today has a parent dependent on or addicted to alcohol or other drugs. This places these students at high risk for social and emotional problems, as well as for school failure, drug use, and delinquency. Schools, however, are a logical place to reach them. Identifying children of those…
Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison
Development and achievement by children from single-parent families can be difficult. Various factors make divorce harder for children, but they can adjust, and teachers can help by keeping school from being one more problem (e.g,. being informed about what to expect in such circumstances and offering programs to relieve stress). (SM)
Johnston, Lynne; And Others
This pamphlet presents guidelines and tips for parents on setting limits for the behavior of young children. The need for limits and the goal of teaching children self-control are explained. Some general guidelines for limit setting are provided which include making the limits age-appropriate, recognizing the child's need for practice and…
Pituch, K.A.; Green, V.A.; Didden, H.C.M.; Lang, R.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Sigafoos, J.
We designed an Internet survey to identify the educational priorities that parents have for their children with autism spectrum disorders and to examine the relation between these priorities and the children's level of adaptive behavior functioning. The survey listed 54 skills/behaviors (e.g., toile
Full Text Available About 1 in 68 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years according to estimates from Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM (Baio, 2014. Not only undiscovered cause of autism is a source of stress for parents of autistic children, but the stress of raising a child with autism can lead to depression (Morgan, 1988, 263-280. In order to cope with this stressful situation, it is very important for parents of autistic children to find some explanation for their child‘s developmental disorder, and even to be supported by their family, institutions and society. Even though the pace of research has increased dramatically in recent years, a majority of studies on families with a child with autism collect information from the parents, but not from the other members of the family. This study examined the involvement of grandparents of autistic children. The study is based on a sample of 40 mothers of autistic children from Albania who completed a structured questionnaire. It was hypothesized that mothers of autistic children who live with other members of the family such as grandparents, perceive more social support compared to families of autistic children that consist only by the natural parents.
Lewis, Willie M.
Ten mothers of children 8-12 with adjustment difficulties received group training in behavioral strategies and communication skills. After six weekly six-hour sessions, ratings on the Child Behavior Rating Scale and Family Adjustment Test indicated that the parents' children's perceptions of family functions, behavior, and adjustment were…
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9-16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern, and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and attention problems. Results revealed that positive parenting, child monitoring, and avoidance of corporal punishment were associated with fewer child externalizing symptoms. Results also indicated that child male gender and single parenting had significant and positive association with child externalizing behaviors. This study extends international psychosocial knowledge on children and families. These findings can be used to design programs and foster dialogs about the role of family and social environments in the development of externalizing disorder among researchers, representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and mass media that work with child abuse prevention in Ukraine.
M. Hugenholtz; C. Bröer; R. van Daalen
Background: Children are more frequent users of out-of-hours primary care than other age groups, although their medical problems are less urgent. Aim: To gain insight into the health-seeking behaviour of parents who ask for immediate medical attention for their children. Design of study: Qualitative
Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Pras, E.; Visser, A.; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.
GOALS OF WORK: This study examined the quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients diagnosed 1-5 years previously and their spouses, with children 4-18 years living at home. Relationships between parents' QoL and the children's functioning were explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 166 cancer patients and th
Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra, H.J.; van der Graaf, W.T.A.; Pras, E.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.H.M.
Goals of work This study examined the quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients diagnosed 1-5 years previously and their spouses, with children 4-18 years living at home. Relationships between parents' QoL and the children's functioning were explored. Patients and methods 166 cancer patients and thei
Keenan, Belinda M.; Newman, Louise K.; Gray, Kylie M.; Rinehart, Nicole J.
There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with…
Full Text Available Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross - a sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics were enrolled. To investigate the general orientation of parents about their child sleep problem we asked them a global question at first regarding sleep of their child. After that, the Persian version of BEARS questionnaire was completed by them. Only 30 (9.9% parents reported sleep problems in their children in response to primary global question but by collecting the data from BEARS questionnaire it was revealed 45.18% (136/301 of children had one or more of sleep disorders at all. As mentioned 136 (45.18% children had slept problems of which the most frequent complaint (15.28% was related to bedtime problems. The second complaint (11.96% was awakening during the night children. A significant association between sleep problems and child gender was not found. Co-sleeping with parents was found in 55.48% of all children in this study. Despite the high prevalence and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the present study suggests that parents underreport sleep problems at consultation. We suggest children should be assessed for sleep disorders in monitoring and health screening visits.
Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Bagheri Hagh, Ali; Kolbadi Nejad, Mohammad; Amirsalari, Susan; Torkaman, Mohammad
Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross-sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics were enrolled. To investigate the general orientation of parents about their child sleep problem we asked them a global question at first regarding sleep of their child. After that, the Persian version of BEARS questionnaire was completed by them. Only 30 (9.9%) parents reported sleep problems in their children in response to primary global question but by collecting the data from BEARS questionnaire it was revealed 45.18% (136/301) of children had one or more of sleep disorders at all. As mentioned 136 (45.18%) children had slept problems of which the most frequent complaint (15.28%) was related to bedtime problems. The second complaint (11.96%) was awakening during the night children. A significant association between sleep problems and child gender was not found. Co-sleeping with parents was found in 55.48% of all children in this study. Despite the high prevalence and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the present study suggests that parents underreport sleep problems at consultation. We suggest children should be assessed for sleep disorders in monitoring and health screening visits.
The Children of Alcoholics Project (COAP) offers a preschool curriculum designed to increase the survival skills of children of alcoholics and help these children adjust to problems in an alcoholic home. The program goals address cognitive, social and emotional, and physical development. Children are selected for the program based on…
Full Text Available The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted in the three primary schools of Kottigepalya. 456 children were included in the study. A complete physical examination of the children was done and deviations from normal were recorded. A large number, 319 (69.96%, school children were found to be sick, in which 39 (12.23% children were belonging to SES lower middle (III, 239 (74.92% were to SES upper lower (IV and 41 (12.85% children were to SES lower (V. This results show that the SES of parents is truly affects the health of children.
Cerezo, M Angeles; Dasi, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan Carlos
This research presents an evaluation of the intervention dose-effect of the Parent-Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS). The PCPS is a universal community-based program to support parenting, during the first 18 months, and to promote protective adaptive systems in children through a schedule of quarterly office-based appointments, starting at 3 months of age. Generally children attend for six visits. When the Program opens in a particular area, parents of all children under 18 months are invited. The different ages of the children who are joining present a unique opportunity to obtain groups to evaluate the program dose-effect using a cohort-sequential design. This dose-effect on parent and infant outcomes was examined by: (1) self-report of parental sense of competence and factors negatively affecting their parenting and (2) the quality of the child's attachment, using Ainsworth's Strange Situation Test. The study was based on 594 families. Results showed dose effects for parental sense of competence, in the parental self-efficacy dimension. The proportion of securely attached children was significantly higher in groups with medium and high program dose. These results were obtained after considering the effect on the parent and child outcomes of two socio-demographic factors that showed differences among the groups under study: single parenthood and working at home. In the variables under study the PCPS, serving a socially deprived area, showed dose effects. The evaluation strategy can be useful for evaluators and planners working with universal programs that offer a longitudinal service.
Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske
This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…
Shahla Afsharpaiman; Ali Bagheri Hagh; Mohammad Kolbadi Nejad; Susan Amirsalari; Mohammad Torkaman
Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross - a sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics...
Full Text Available Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad™ were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to observe first-hand the supports and exchanges between parent and child (age range 46.21- 75.9 months. Results indicate that parents provide a great deal of support to their children while interacting with the touchscreen tablet device including verbal, emotional-verbal, physical and emotional-physical supports. The types of support offered did not differ as a function of parent gender or experience with mobile devices (users versus non-users. Overall, parents rated their own experience engaging with the touchscreen tablet and that of their child’s positively. Additional survey measures assessed parents’ perceptions of their child’s technology use and attitudes regarding optimal ages and conditions for introducing and using technology. Most parents indicated a preference for very early introduction to mobile technologies. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Jerves, Elena; López, Silvia; Castro, Cecilia; Ortiz, William; Palacios, María; Rober, Peter; Enzlin, Paul
Parents' contribution to sex education is increasingly receiving research attention. This growing interest stems from recognition of the influence that parental attitudes may have both on young people's sexual attitudes and behaviour, and on school-based sex education. Studies regarding parental attitudes towards sexuality are, however, still rare. The two main objectives of this study were to explore parental views about sexuality and to understand parental attitudes towards sex education. F...
Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Andersen, Anette;
of 22 weeks. Text messages and questionnaire data were linked at the individual level, leaving 2,269 child-parent pairs in the analysis, corresponding to 27% of the eligible sample. RESULTS: The agreement between children's and parents' reports of illness-related absenteeism was good, with high absolute...... parent of each child were invited to participate in the Hi Five baseline study. The response rate for children answering a questionnaire was 89% (n = 7,525), and 36% of the parents (n = 3,008) participated in a weekly illness registration study using text messages (short message service) over a period......OBJECTIVES: To examine the agreement between children's and parents' reporting of illness-related absenteeism from school and to examine predictors for disagreement between children and parents. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 8,438 schoolchildren aged from 5 to 15 years (grade 0-8) and one...
Mian, Nicholas D; Godoy, Leandra; Eisenhower, Abbey S; Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S
Dissemination of prevention programs targeting young children is impeded by challenges with parent engagement. Matching program characteristics to parent preferences is associated with increased retention in clinical/intervention settings, but little is known about the types of prevention programs that interest parents. The objectives of this study were to better understand parents' preferences for services designed to prevent externalizing and anxiety disorders and to identify factors associated with preferences. Ethnically diverse, low-income caregivers (n = 485) of young children (11-60 months) completed surveys on child anxiety and externalizing symptoms, parental worry about their children, parent anxiety symptoms, and preferences for prevention group topics. Parents were more likely to prefer a group targeting externalizing behaviors compared to anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of children: low symptoms, moderate anxiety-low externalizing, moderate externalizing-low anxiety, and high anxiety and externalizing. Parents' preferences varied according to co-occurrence of child anxiety and externalizing symptoms; interest in a program targeting externalizing problems was associated with elevated externalizing problems (regardless of anxiety symptom level), parent anxiety symptoms, and parent worry about their child. Only parent anxiety symptoms predicted parents' interest in an anxiety-focused program, and preference for an anxiety-focused program was actually reduced if children had co-occurring anxiety and externalizing symptoms versus only anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that parents' interest in a program to prevent externalizing problems was well-aligned with the presenting problem, whereas preferences for anxiety programming suggest a more complex interplay among factors. Parent preferences for targeted programming are discussed within a broader framework of parent engagement.
Roberts, Kevin J.
Parents need to be aware of the dangers and the opportunities the cyber world offers. Video games are being used in the classroom. Commerce is increasingly taking place online and computers are indispensable in the workplace. A cyber-oriented child possesses some great advantages. The author urges parents to become experts in the cyber world so…
Birch Leann L; Ventura Alison K
Abstract Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess ...
Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Brunsø, Karen
Children today are gaining an increasing level of influence in family decision-making during food buying, and they assist their parents in carrying out various tasks during food buying. However, involving several active participants in decision-making is not always a walk in the park. The purpose...... of this paper is to broaden up the understanding of barriers experienced in the interaction between parents and children during family food buying. Assumptions are explored in a qualitative empirical study of 12 Danish tweens and their parents combining participant observation with semi-structured interviews...... other to make healthy food choices; and that food marketing should further develop points-of-purchase and food packaging initiatives in order to lower the barriers experienced among families with children....
Full Text Available While there is a strong evidence base for behavioral parent training in the treatment of child conduct problems, the clinical impact is less well known. Metaanalyses report effect sizes in the medium range, but the common practice of reporting “small,” “medium,” and “large” effects can be misleading and difficult to understand for practitioners and clients. There is a need for more research addressing the clinical significance of behavioral parent training, which would help to bridge the gap between research and practice. In the first part of this report, a reanalysis in terms of clinical significance of two outcome studies published by the authors was conducted. In the second part, the results from the first part were compared to six outcome studies published by other authors. The median number needed to treat across studies was five, which means that for every five treated children, one shows reliable change and moves from the dysfunctional to the functional population.
Rodday, Angie Mae; Pedowitz, Elizabeth J; Mayer, Deborah K; Ratichek, Sara J; Given, Charles W; Parsons, Susan K
Using the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA), we assessed positive reactions and burdens of the caregiving experience among parental caregivers (n = 189) of children scheduled to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Although widely used in non-parental caregivers, the CRA has not been used in parents of pediatric patients. Reliability (Cronbach's alpha: .72-.81 vs. .63) and concurrent validity (correlation: .41-.61 vs. .28) were higher for negatively framed than positively framed subscales. Results indicate that the caregiving experience is complex. The parents experienced high caregiver's esteem and moderate family support, but also negative impacts on finances and schedule, and to a lesser degree, health. Compared to non-parental caregivers, parental caregivers experienced higher esteem and more impact on finances and schedule.
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H
The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation.
DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.
Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…
Little, Linda F.
Gestalt therapy respects parents' perceptions of their children and does not attempt to train parents to become therapists for their children. To examine the impact of Gestalt group psychotherapy on parents' perceptions of children identified as problematic, an experimental group of 10 parents participated in 10 2-hour Gestalt sessions. A group of…
Buchbinder, Eli; Bareqet-Moshe, Orit
This qualitative study focused on research into the impact on parents of children's out-of-home placement. Twelve couples (24 parents) were interviewed. Three major themes emerged: (a) parents' perception of out-of-home placement as necessary because of children's destructive behavior and parents' victimhood; (b) parents' acknowledgment of…
Lei He; Qiu-Yan Liao; You-Qi Huang; Shuo Feng; Xiao-Ming Zhuang
:The modified HBM provided a good theoretical basic for understanding factors associated with parents' decisions on their children's vaccination against seasonal influenza.
Cabus, Sofie; Ariës, Roel
Theory and evidence indicate that, if family size grows, the younger children will get less parental involvement than the older children. These differences in parental involvement through birth order may impact academic achievement if, and only if, parental involvement is an important determinant of
Terrett, Gill; White, Roxanne; Spreckley, Michele
The purpose of this study was to assess changes in children's language skills and parenting stress following participation in the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program (PCMGP). The intervention group consisted of 29 parents (age range 24 to 43 years, "M" = 33.5, SD = 4.1) and 30 children (18 females and 12 males) with ages ranging from 1 to 46 months…
Salehi, Somaieh; Patel, Ahmed; Taghavi, Mona; Pooravari, Minoo
Objectives The present study aimed to recognize bullying behavior in the students in Iran and analyze the perception of school teachers and parents in this regard. Materials and Methods Several semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted with four teachers and eight parents of children involved in bully/victim problems and the analysis was interpreted through established comparative evaluation methods. Results Iranian teachers and the parents perceived bullying mainly as physical and verbal attacks with little understanding of the psychological factors. They emphasized that the underlying influence of religious beliefs should also be considered in the context of bullying among Iranian society due to the strict conformance applied by parents upon their child. Conclusions Based on the outcomes of the study, it is recommended that the teachers participate in anti-bullying programs orientated to prevent bullying behaviors and develop strong supportive relationship with parents to reduce this behavior through personal contacts and interactive workshops. PMID:27822274
Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita
Culturally and developmentally appropriate parental HIV disclosure (i.e., parents disclose their HIV infection to children) has been shown to be closely related with the well-being of both HIV-infected parents and their children. However, current practices and effects of parental HIV disclosure remain poorly understood in low and middle-income countries including China. Quantitative data from 626 children affected by parental HIV (orphans and vulnerable children) in Henan, China, were collect...
van Dongen N
Full Text Available Nadine van Dongen,1 Ad A Kaptein21Patient Intelligence Panel Health Ltd, London, United Kingdom; 2Section Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: We evaluated the opinions of parents in The Netherlands concerning treatment of their children with growth hormone, and examined beliefs and perceptions about treatment and quality of health care communication and support.Methods: An Internet survey was completed by 69 parents who had children prescribed growth hormone and were part of the Patient Intelligence Panel. Acceptance of the diagnosis and treatment was investigated with reference to four topics, ie, search and quality of information, involvement in decision-making process, operational aspects, and emotional problems and support.Results: Among the parents surveyed, 48% reported a lack of freedom to choose the type of growth hormone device that best suited their needs, 92% believed that their children (and they themselves would benefit if the children self-administered growth hormone, and 65% believed training to support self-administration would be helpful. According to 79%, the availability of support from another parent with experience of treating their own child with growth hormone, alongside their doctor, would be valuable. Thirty-seven percent of the parents indicated that their children felt anxious about administration of growth hormone, and 83% of parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome their anxiety. An increase in reluctance to receive treatment with growth hormone was observed by 40% of parents after the children reached puberty, and 57% of these parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome this reluctance.Conclusion: Understanding how growth hormone treatments and their implications are perceived by parents is a first step towards addressing quality of growth hormone treatment, which may be instrumental in improving adherence. The data show a need for
Swartling, U; Helgesson, G; Hansson, M G; Ludvigsson, J
Based on extensive questionnaire data, this paper focuses on parents' views about children's right to decide about participation in research. The data originates from 4000 families participating in a longitudinal prospective screening as 1997. Although current regulations and recommendations underline that children should have influence over their participation, many parents in this study disagree. Most (66%) were positive providing information to the child about relevant aspects of the study. However, responding parents were split about whether or not children should at some point be allowed decisional authority when participating in research: 41.6% of the parents reported being against or unsure. Those who responded positively believed that children should be allowed to decide about blood-sampling procedures (70%), but to a less extent about participation (48.5%), analyses of samples (19.7%) and biological bank storage (15.4%). That as many as possible should remain in the study, and that children do not have the competence to understand the consequences for research was strongly stressed by respondents who do not think children should have a right to decide. When asked what interests they consider most important in paediatric research, child autonomy and decision-making was ranked lowest. We discuss the implications of these findings.
Walker, Janet; Crawford, Karin; Taylor, Francesca
This paper reports on the experiences and views of children and young people of single-parent families, as findings from a European Union-funded research project undertaken in England, Greece and Cyprus. The objectives of the research project were to investigate how children and young people of single-parent families understand and experience their worlds as members of these families: whether and to what extent they experience poverty and social exclusion and how they cope with the challenges that this confronts them with. Methodology was replicated in each of the countries; however, this paper draws on the English experiences. Semistructured interviews (40) and focus groups (four) were undertaken with children of single parents. In addition, focus groups were undertaken with children of two-parent families (four), focus groups with single parents, focus groups with two-parent families (four) and individual interviews with key professionals. Detailed discussion guides were followed, with open-ended questions to allow participants to express their feelings and ideas in their own words. The research sample included children from single-parent and two-parent families, aged 6 years to 16 years, balanced in terms of age, gender and geographical location. Findings demonstrate the children's and young people's understanding of the impact of poverty and social exclusion on their family life and their everyday experiences. The positive benefits of being in a single-parent family are highlighted, with 'time poverty' raised as a significant issue. Children and young people are aware of their poverty and how it influences exclusion from friendships, play, leisure and community activities. Policy needs to take account of the systematic reality of children's experiences; alliances with adults that support meaningful involvement and participation by children and young people will make a significant contribution to this.
Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk
This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders are at risk of elevated allostatic load relative to control parents and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. In all, 38 parents of children with developmental disorders and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and positive affect: parents of children with developmental disorders had lower allostatic load when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such association was evident for comparison parents. The findings suggest that promoting greater positive affect may lower health risks among parents of children with developmental disorders.
The parental acceptance-rejection factor was considered by Rohner as one of the major parental factors influencing children's mental health. The "Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire PARQ" was administered to adolescents in nine countries. The results show that parental acceptance-rejection differs across countries. Fathers were more…
Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Schneider, Brian W.
Objective/Method: Statistically significant and clinically meaningful effects of behavioral parent training on parental functioning were examined for 20 children with ADHD and their parents who had successfully completed a psychosocial treatment for ADHD. Results/Conclusion: Findings suggest that behavioral parent training resulted in…
Hollander, E.; d'Haenens, L.; Beentjes, J.
This article describes the views of parents, children, and teachers concerning media use by Indonesian children. Survey data of parents (N = 462), children (N = 589), and teachers (N = 104) show that children see themselves as more advanced users of new media than their parents. Their perception of
Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.
We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…
Nurani Kamaruddin; Siti Zobidah Omar; Salleh Hassan; Musa Abu Hassan; Arnida Ayu Che Mee; Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva
Communication is a must and family communication enhances family ties. This study is design to discover whether quantity of time spent between parents and children have a direct impact on children misconduct activities. This is a quantitative study using a survey questionnaire. Data were gathered from 1163 respondents which comprised of 641 secondary school children and 522 parents and were analyzed using SPSS software. The data collection process took three months to be completed. The outcom...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To identify dietary patterns in children up to thirty months of age and verify whether they are associated with parental dietary patterns, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a population-based study composed of 1,085 households from a representative sample of a metropolitan region in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The children's food intake was evaluated by two 24-hour recalls, and the dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis stratified into two groups according to the children's age: 6 to 17 months; and 18 to 30 months. The explanatory variables collected by a structured questionnaire were socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, age at introduction of complementary foods, and parental dietary pattern. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to assess parental dietary pattern, which was determined by principal component analysis. Multivariate linear regression estimated the effect of each explanatory variable on the children's dietary patterns. Results Three dietary patterns were identified in children aged 6-17 months (basic-mixed; mixed-plus; and milk-flours and two dietary patterns were identified in children aged 18-30 months: basic-mixed and mixed-plus. Multivariate linear regression showed that complementary feeding (b=0.108; p=0.004 was positively associated with the basic-mixed dietary pattern, and family income (b=0.002; p£0.01, with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. A negative association was found between the traditional parental dietary pattern and children's mixed-plus pattern in children aged 6-17 months (b=0.152; p=0.006 and in children aged 18-30 months (b=0.152; p=0.016. In children aged up to 18 months, parental education level (b=0.368; p£0.01 was positively associated with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. Conclusion Family income, parental education level, and parental dietary patterns are
Full Text Available Abstract Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time
Johnson, Susan C.; Solomon, Gregg E. A.
Three studies used interspecies adoption stories to examine children's understanding of the role of birth in determining animal properties and species identity. Found that most 4- to 7-year olds could reliably judge that babies would be of the same species as birth parents, but were unable to attribute properties of adoptive parents. (Author/KB)
Rescorla, Leslie A; Bochicchio, Lauren; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Dobrean, Anca; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S S; Lambert, Michael C; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Xianchen; Marković, Ivica; Markovic, Jasminka; Minaei, Asghar; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Roussos, Alexandra; Rudan, Vlasta; Simsek, Zeynep; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Woo, Bernardine; Weiss, Bahr; Weisz, John; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C
Parent-teacher cross-informant agreement, although usually modest, may provide important clinical information. Using data for 27,962 children from 21 societies, we asked the following: (a) Do parents report more problems than teachers, and does this vary by society, age, gender, or type of problem? (b) Does parent-teacher agreement vary across different problem scales or across societies? (c) How well do parents and teachers in different societies agree on problem item ratings? (d) How much do parent-teacher dyads in different societies vary in within-dyad agreement on problem items? (e) How well do parents and teachers in 21 societies agree on whether the child's problem level exceeds a deviance threshold? We used five methods to test agreement for Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) ratings. CBCL scores were higher than TRF scores on most scales, but the informant differences varied in magnitude across the societies studied. Cross-informant correlations for problem scale scores varied moderately across societies studied and were significantly higher for Externalizing than Internalizing problems. Parents and teachers tended to rate the same items as low, medium, or high, but within-dyad item agreement varied widely in every society studied. In all societies studied, both parental noncorroboration of teacher-reported deviance and teacher noncorroboration of parent-reported deviance were common. Our findings underscore the importance of obtaining information from parents and teachers when evaluating and treating children, highlight the need to use multiple methods of quantifying cross-informant agreement, and provide comprehensive baselines for patterns of parent-teacher agreement across 21 societies.
Axinn, W G; Thornton, A
We investigate the influence of parents' martial dissolutions on their children's attitudes toward several dimensions of family formation. Hypotheses focus on the role of patients' attitudes as a mechanism linking parents' behavior to their children's attitudes. We test these hypotheses using intergenerational panel data that include measures of children's attitudes taken directly from children. Results demonstrate strong effects of parental divorce, remarriage, and widowhood on children's attitudes toward premarital sex, cohabitation, marriage, childbearing, and divorce. The results also show that parents' own attitudes link their behavior to their children's attitudes, although substantial effects of parental behavior remain after controlling for parents' attitudes.
Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.
Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care
Estes, Annette; Vismara, Laurie; Mercado, Carla; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Elder, Lauren; Greenson, Jessica; Lord, Catherine; Munson, Jeffrey; Winter, Jamie; Young, Gregory; Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally
This study investigated the impact of a parent-coaching intervention based on the Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) on parenting-related stress and sense of competence. This was part of a multisite, randomized trial comparing P-ESDM (n = 49) with community intervention (n = 49) for children aged 12 and 24 months. The P-ESDM group reported no…
Full Text Available Abused parents are the forgotten victims of family violence. This paper reports on the victimisation of 50 parents who are members of a lay support group, "Parents of Rebellious Children" (PORCH. Although it was not the aim of this study to investigate the role that TS could possibly play, it was a serendipity finding that TS may be a contributing factor in the rebelliousness exhibited by some children. These parents did not only experience severe verbal and physical abuse but also suffered serious damage to property at the hands of their violent children. They were often blamed if they spoke of their plight and received little moral support. Abused parents need to be recognized and treated as victims of violence. Eleven rebellious children who were treated for TS with psychotropic drugs, showed dramatic behavioural changes and the implications of such treatment are also indicated.
Clark, Julia E; Frick, Paul J
The current study tested the associations of both positive (i.e., warm and responsive) and negative (i.e., harsh and inconsistent) aspects of parenting with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems. Caregivers and teachers of 92 ethnically diverse (33% African American) kindergarten students (61% female) were recruited to complete a series of survey measures. Students' average age was 6.2 (SD = 0.42) years. Parent report of positive parenting practices, but not negative parenting practices, was associated with teacher report of conduct problems. Further, positive parenting interacted with CU traits in their association with conduct problems. Parental use of positive reinforcement was more strongly negatively related to conduct problems for youth with high levels of CU traits, whereas parent-child cooperation was positively related to conduct problems only for youth with low levels of CU traits. Finally, only parental warmth was negatively correlated with CU traits after controlling for level of conduct problems. Results were generally not moderated by the child's gender or ethnicity. These findings highlight the importance of positive parenting practices for understanding CU traits and as potential targets in clinical interventions to treat children who show elevated levels of these traits.
Karlsson, Katarina; Englund, Ann-Charlotte Dalheim; Enskär, Karin; Rydström, Ingela
When children endure needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs), different emotions arise for the child and his/her parents. Despite the parents' own feelings, they have a key role in supporting their child through these procedures. The aim of this study is to describe the meanings of supporting children during NRMPs from the perspective of the parents. Twenty-one parents participated in this study. A reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach was used and phenomenological analysis was applied. The essential meaning of the phenomenon-supporting children during an NRMP-is characterized as "keeping the child under the protection of one's wings," sometimes very close and sometimes a little further out under the wingtips. The essential meaning is additionally described through its constituents: paying attention to the child's way of expressing itself, striving to maintain control, facilitating the child's understanding, focusing the child's attention, seeking additional support, and rewarding the child. The conclusion is that parents' ability to be supportive can be affected when seeing their child undergo an NRMP. To regain the role as the child's protector and to be able to keep the child "under the protection of one's wings," parents need support from the staff.
Mash, Eric J.; Johnston, Charlotte
Examined parental perceptions of child behavior, parenting self-esteem, and mothers' reported stress for younger and older hyperactive and normal children. Parenting self-esteem was lower in parents of hyperactives than in parents of normal children. Self-esteem related to skill/knowledge as a parent was age related. (Author/RC)
felt from his father’s death.3 Lauretta Bender is a psychoanalyst noted for her studies of homicide by children and adolescents. Many of her case...Quarterly 45, no. 1 (1971): 65-69. 3 Freud, 222-42. Lauretta Bender , "Children and Adolescents Who Have Killed," American Journal of Psychiatry 116 (1959...Victims. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978. Bender , Lauretta . "Children and Adolescents Who Have Killed." American Journal of Psychiatry 116
Cohodes, Emily; Hagan, Melissa; Narayan, Angela; Lieberman, Alicia
Parents' childhood experiences of trauma may influence their reports of their children's behavior, and this may be particularly true when children are also traumatized. The present study proposed and tested a matched trauma hypothesis, positing that compared to parents without a childhood history of witnessing domestic violence (DV), parents with a childhood history of witnessing DV may report their children's trauma-related symptomatology differently following children's exposure to DV. Of 137 included parents (M age = 32 years; 93% mothers), 81 reported witnessing childhood DV (matched group), whereas 56 reported no childhood DV exposure (nonmatched comparison group). All parents reported on their 3- to 6-year-old children's dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following children's DV exposure. An analysis of covariance controlling for parental life stress, dissociation symptoms, and other childhood traumatic events revealed that parents who witnessed childhood DV reported significantly fewer child dissociation symptoms than comparison parents. No difference was found for parents' reports of children's posttraumatic stress symptoms. Exploratory analyses on a subsample of children with teacher reports of child dissociation symptoms (n = 75) revealed that the strength of the association between parent and teacher reports of dissociation symptoms was moderated by matched versus nonmatched group membership. Findings suggest the importance of considering a parent's history of trauma when using parents as informants for children's trauma symptoms.
The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…
Friedrich, Paola; Steinfield, Elizabeth; Kim, Francis; Hays, Mary Margaret; Lehmann, Leslie; Sprinz, Philippa
Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only cure for sickle cell disease (SCD), but only a fraction of eligible children proceed to transplantation. We aimed to understand parental awareness and perceptions as a contributor. Purpose: To discuss HSCT with parents of children with SCD and assess their awareness…
Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A
Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.
Zysberg, Leehu; Lang, Tally; Zisberg, Anna
We hypothesized that parents' emotional intelligence associates with their children's type I diabetes outcomes. Eighty-one parents, the main caregivers of their diabetic children, filled out two measures of emotional intelligence and a demographic questionnaire. Three indicators of diabetes management were collected from the patients' files: hemoglobin A1c, mean blood tests per day, and mean blood glucose levels. Emotional intelligence associated with all glycemic management indices, though differences were found between the two measures. Of the demographic factors, income level showed some association with the outcome measures. The results are discussed in light of existing theories and models.
In an earlier paper entitled Harm is all you need?, I used an analysis of English law to claim that the harm threshold was an unsuitable mediator of the best interests test when deciding if parental decisions should be overruled. In this paper I respond to a number of commentaries of that paper, and extend my discussion to consider the claim that the harm threshold gives appropriate normative weight to the interests of parents. While I accept that parents have some rights over their children, I argue these are dependent on parents' duties to benefit their children. While many such benefits are understood pluralistically, and are thus within parents' ambit to decide, I claim that health benefits are ordinally different, because they play a foundational role in the flourishing of an individual. In the light of this, clinicians have the moral authority to override parental refusals, although in some cases abstaining from exercising this authority may be a pragmatic way to maintain parental engagement and ensure our ability to benefit the child in future.
Exploring children's image of God and parents has invited interest among program preparers for children's spirituality in the Philippines. This research seeks to find out the fundamental orientation of children's image of God as well as their perceptions of father and mother from 241 fifth graders in three selected government primary schools in…
This study explores how children's perceptions of stress factors and coping strategies are constructed over time. Children were interviewed before and after they made the transition from preschool to primary school. This study also explores teachers' and parental strategies in helping children to cope with stress at school. The sample included 53…
Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.
Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…
Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn
The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…
Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.
We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…
Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Swanson, Jodi
Background: We examined children's coping and involuntary stress responses as mediators of the relations between parenting or children's effortful control (EC) and adjustment. Method: Two hundred and forty primarily Mexican American 7- to 12-year-old children reported on their EC, coping, involuntary stress responses, and problem behaviors.…
Siller, Michael; Reyes, Nuri; Hotez, Emily; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian
The aim of this study was to identify child characteristics, family demographics, and parent cognitions that may affect access to early intervention, special education, and related services. The sample included 70 families of young children with autism spectrum disorders. All parents were enrolled in a short education program, providing them with basic information and resources on advocating for a young child with autism spectrum disorders (Parent Advocacy Coaching). Longitudinal change in children's intervention program in the community was evaluated over a period of about 27 months, starting 12 months prior to enrollment in Parent Advocacy Coaching. Results revealed large individual differences in the intensity of children's individual and school-based services. Despite this variability, only two child characteristics (age, gender) emerged as independent predictors. In contrast, the intensity of children's intervention programs was independently predicted by a broad range of demographic characteristics, including parental education, child ethnicity and race, and family composition. Finally, even after child characteristics and family demographics were statistically controlled, results revealed associations between specific parental cognitions (parenting efficacy, understanding of child development) and the subsequent rate of change in the intensity of children's intervention programs. Implications for improving educational programs that aim to enhance parent advocacy are discussed.
Lahatte, Agénor; Le Pape, Marie-Clémence
This article aims to investigate parental influence on high-risk behavior by young people. Although research on the topic of perception of risk demonstrates that it is socially constructed, the role of the family in this construction has rarely been studied. Using a French national survey of more than 1,200 young drivers between the ages of 18 and 25, and their parents, we attempt to understand the transmission of risk within families. Our econometric study shows that parents influence both the practices and representations of their children. When parental norms and values are transmitted, they are by no means accepted in a wholly passive way. Indeed, the parental model is in competition with other models that originate from both inside the family (brothers and sisters) and outside it (instructors). Furthermore, parental influence decreases over time as young people become more experienced drivers and construct their own identity with regard to risk.
Wessels, Margreet M S; Vriezinga, Sabine L; Koletzko, Sybille; Werkstetter, Katharina; Castillejo-De Villasante, Gemma; Shamir, Raanan; Hartman, Corina; Putter, Hein; van der Pal, Sylvia M; Wijmenga, Cisca; Bravi, Enzo; Mearin, M Luisa
Due to the association of coeliac disease and HLA-specificities DQ2 and DQ8, HLA-typing can be used for risk determination of the disease. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge of parents from coeliac families regarding HLA-typing and the impact of HLA-typing on the perception of the health of their children. A structured questionnaire was sent to the Dutch, Spanish and German parents participating with their child in the European PreventCD study on disease prevention in high-risk families, addressing parents' understanding of and attitude towards HLA-typing, distress related to HLA-typing and perceived health and health-related quality of life of their children. Sixty-eight percent of parents of 515 children returned the questionnaires, with 85% of children being DQ2/DQ8 positive. The majority of all parents answered the questions on knowledge correctly. Forty-eight percent of parents of DQ2/DQ8-negative children thought their child could develop coeliac disease. More distress was reported by parents of DQ2/DQ8-positive children (Pparents showed few regrets and would repeat HLA-typing in future children. Perceived health and health-related quality of life were similar. In conclusion, we can say that misinterpretation of DQ2/DQ8-negative results by parents is frequent. DQ2/DQ8-positive results do not affect perceived health and health-related quality of life of children but may cause temporary negative feelings among parents. Parents of coeliac families seem to support HLA-typing.
Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean
The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.
Young, Bridget; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Findlay, Michelle; Heney, David
Much research on the experiences of parents of children with cancer has been conducted within a discourse of psycho-pathology, or has tended to see parents mostly as a proxy source of information on the well-being of their children. Using empirical data from semi-structured interviews with 20 mothers of a child with cancer, in one area of the UK, we draw on sociological literatures on motherhood, childhood, caring, and chronic illness to suggest a more helpful and informative way of understanding their experiences. We suggest that mothers, although not ill themselves, experience many of the consequences of chronic illness. Biographical disruption begins for them when they first notice something wrong with their child, and intensifies with diagnosis, altering their sense of self and their social identity. The diagnosis brings with it a set of new responsibilities and role expectations, including an obligation of 'proximity'-being physically close to their child at all times to provide 'comfort' and 'keep-watch'. For mothers, caring evokes an intense emotional interdependence with their sick child, and involves a range of technical tasks and emotional work, including acting as 'brokers' of information for their child and managing their cooperation with treatment. Managing these obligations was achieved at high cost to the mothers themselves, and resulted in severe role strain by compromising their ability to function in other roles, including their role as the mother of their other children. Against the backdrop of a severe and life-threatening illness, everyday concerns about their child's diet or appropriate discipline take on a new significance and carry a heightened potential for generating conflict and distress for mothers. In presenting their accounts, mothers draw on prevailing cultural discourses about motherhood, childhood and cancer, and these clearly influence the context in which they care for their child, and shape their reflexive constructions of their
Rouhani, Shada A.; Scott, Jennifer; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Hacker, Michele R.; Kuwert, Philipp; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Since armed conflict began in 1996, widespread sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has resulted in many sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). However, there are limited data on the relationships between mothers and their children from sexual violence. This study aimed to evaluate the nature and determinants of these maternal–child relationships. METHODS Using respondent-driven sampling, 757 women raising children from SVRPs in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. A parenting index was created from questions assessing the maternal–child relationship. The influences of social stigma, family and community acceptance, and maternal mental health on the parenting index were assessed in univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS The majority of mothers reported positive attitudes toward their children from SVRPs. Prevalence of perceived family or community stigma toward the women or their children ranged from 31.8% to 42.9%, and prevalence of perceived family or community acceptance ranged from 45.2% to 73.5%. In multivariable analyses, stigma toward the child, as well as maternal anxiety and depression, were associated with lower parenting indexes, whereas acceptance of the mother or child and presence of a spouse were associated with higher parenting indexes (all P ≤ .01). CONCLUSIONS In this study with a large sample size, stigma and mental health disorders negatively influenced parenting attitudes, whereas family and community acceptance were associated with adaptive parenting attitudes. Interventions to reduce stigmatization, augment acceptance, and improve maternal mental health may improve the long-term well-being of mothers and children from SVRPs. PMID:26438704
Lindquist, M.J.; Sol, J.; van Praag, M.
We explore the origins of the intergenerational association in entrepreneurship using Swedish adoption data that allow us to quantify the relative importance of pre-birth and post-birth factors. We find that parental entrepreneurship increases the probability of children’s entrepreneurship by about
Lindquist, M.; Sol, J.; van Praag, M.
Parental entrepreneurship is a strong, probably the strongest, determinant of own entrepreneurship. We explore the origins of this intergenerational association in entrepreneurship. In particular, we identify the separate effects of pre- and post-birth factors (nature and nurture), by using a unique
THE Newspaper of Chinese Junior High SchoolStudents recently organized a discussion--"Childrenfrom single-parent families speak out."Hundreds of letterscame to the newspaper from across the country,notcomplaining or disdaining the unfairness of fate,butexpressing sentiments that touched the editors.
Williamson, Laurie L.
Describes a family intervention and support program which uses counseling, behavior management, and skills-development. The program provides support for parents, addressing their emotional needs and helping them learn and then teach problem-solving skills. Discusses techniques, such as active listening skills, team training procedures, and…
... children with disabilities enrolled by their parents in private, including religious, schools or facilities... Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools § 300.130 Definition of parentally-placed...
Full Text Available In this paper we present a second part of the study on information security of children and adolescents according to parents and teachers. This part of the study focuses at empirical research results aimed in studying the so-called "naive theories" about information security. 136 people (aged 21 to 62 years attended the study. We based on the following hypotheses : 1 the group of parents and teachers understand similarly the issue of information threat for children and adolescents, yet they have different understandings of the dangerous effects of information on children and adolescents: parents underestimate the seriousness of the effects compared with teachers; 2 according to parents and teachers, the formers are primarily responsible for information security of children; while teachers expect parents to monitor, prohibit, restrict the access to information for children and adolescents. Parents, in turn, expect teachers to train children and teenagers to observe the safety procedures, as well as use Internet safely. Our assumptions are confirmed partly, and study results are discussed in terms of the theory of social representations.
Cherian, V I
This study concerned the relationship between parental aspiration and academic achievement of Xhosa pupils (369 boys and 652 girls) whose ages ranged from 13 to 17 years (mean age, 15.3 yr.). Children were chosen at random from the Standard 7/Year 9 population of Transkei. A questionnaire administered to parents or parent surrogates identified 242 children of parents divorced or separated and 713 from intact homes and obtained parental aspiration for the education of children. Analysis of variance showed significant effects of parental aspiration on academic achievement of children whether the children were from broken or intact homes.
Bofferding, Laura; Kastberg, Signe; Hoffman, Andrew
Providing preservice teachers with opportunities to engage with parents and begin to see them as collaborators in their children's education is a persistent challenge in mathematics methods courses and teacher preparation programs more broadly. We describe the use of family mathematics nights as a model for engaging parents and preservice…
Screen media (television, computers, and videogames) use has been linked to multiple child outcomes, including obesity. Parents can be an important influence on children's screen use. There has been an increase in the number of instruments available to assess parenting in feeding and physical activi...
Blackman, Stacey; Mahon, Erin
Parental involvement has been defined in various ways by researchers and is reported to have many advantages for children's education. The research utilises a case study strategy to investigate teachers' perspectives of parental involvement at four case sites in Barbados. In-depth interviews were done with teachers and analysis utilised content…
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Teasing and Bullying of Obese and Overweight Children: How Parents Can ... Parents & Children Should Respond to This Type of Bullying: Tell an adult. Stay in a group. As ...
Ten Tips for Parents To Help Their Children Avoid Teen Pregnancy Ten Tips for Parents To Help Their Children Avoid ... variety of committed and caring adults. Seven in ten teens agree it would be much easier for ...
Ana Lilia Rodríguez-Ventura
Full Text Available Introduction. There are not enough studies about the barriers to lose weight from the perspective of children and their parents. Methods. Children and adolescents diagnosed with overweight/obesity in the Department of Endocrinology and their parents were invited to participate in a series of focus group discussions (FGD. Twenty-nine children 10–16 years old and 22 parents participated in 7 focus groups; 2 mothers and 2 adolescents participated in depth interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through grounded theory. Results. Parents went to the hospital only when their children presented any obesity complication; for them, overweight was not a health problem. Parents referred to lack of time to supervise about a healthy diet and exercise; besides, the same parents, relatives, friends, and the mass media encourage the consumption of junk food. Children accepted eating a lot, not doing exercise, skipping meals, and not understanding overweight consequences. Both, parents and children, demanded support to do the time recommended for exercise inside the schools. They also suggested getting information from schools and mass media (TV about overweight consequences, exercise, and healthy food by health workers; they recommended prohibiting announcements about junk food and its sale. Conclusions. The barriers detected were lack of perception of being overweight, its identification as a disease and its consequences, lack of time to supervise a healthy lifestyle, and a big social influence to eat junk food.
Rodríguez-Ventura, Ana Lilia; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris; Sámano-Sámano, Reyna; Jimenez-Gutierrez, Carlos; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos
Introduction. There are not enough studies about the barriers to lose weight from the perspective of children and their parents. Methods. Children and adolescents diagnosed with overweight/obesity in the Department of Endocrinology and their parents were invited to participate in a series of focus group discussions (FGD). Twenty-nine children 10–16 years old and 22 parents participated in 7 focus groups; 2 mothers and 2 adolescents participated in depth interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through grounded theory. Results. Parents went to the hospital only when their children presented any obesity complication; for them, overweight was not a health problem. Parents referred to lack of time to supervise about a healthy diet and exercise; besides, the same parents, relatives, friends, and the mass media encourage the consumption of junk food. Children accepted eating a lot, not doing exercise, skipping meals, and not understanding overweight consequences. Both, parents and children, demanded support to do the time recommended for exercise inside the schools. They also suggested getting information from schools and mass media (TV) about overweight consequences, exercise, and healthy food by health workers; they recommended prohibiting announcements about junk food and its sale. Conclusions. The barriers detected were lack of perception of being overweight, its identification as a disease and its consequences, lack of time to supervise a healthy lifestyle, and a big social influence to eat junk food. PMID:25371816
Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro
Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Tamm, Leanne; Holden, George W; Nakonezny, Paul A; Swart, Sarah; Hughes, Carroll W
The aim of the study is to investigate metaparenting (effortful, deliberate cognition about parenting) in parents of children at risk for ADHD including predictors, correlates, and intervention outcomes. Parents (n = 68) of children with significant ADHD symptoms (i.e., ≥ 6 inattentive or hyperactive/impulsive symptoms with impairment in ≥ 2 settings, mostly un-medicated) provided ratings of metaparenting, parenting stress and practices, and child ADHD symptoms before and after parent training. Parents were predominantly Caucasian, in their upper thirties, and most had schooling beyond high school. We investigated the relation between metaparenting and baseline predictors, and whether metaparenting predicted (1) parenting behaviors at baseline, (2) attrition, and (3) parenting stress and parent/child behaviors at outcome. More educated mothers, with fewer people living in the home, and higher levels of parenting stress, reported more metaparenting. Parents with lower problem-solving and assessing scores reported more inconsistent parenting, and those with lower problem-solving scores were more likely to drop out of parent training. Higher problem-solving and reflecting scores at baseline were associated with more parental stress. Higher reflecting at baseline predicted child hyperactivity/impulsivity at outcome. Our findings indicate metaparenting is associated with parenting behaviors and decisions to complete parent training. Furthermore, metaparenting appears to be a complex, finely nuanced construct with both positive and negative associations with reports of parenting practices and stress.
Kvrgić Svetlana T.
Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.
Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura
Parenting stress was examined as a correlate of psychopathic traits, specifically narcissism, callous/unemotional traits, and impulsivity, among school-aged children while controlling for the variance explained by aggressive behavior. Participants included 212 children ranging from 6 to 12 years of age (M = 8.3 years) who were admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit for treatment. Parents completed standardized measures of aggression (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL), psychopathic traits (Antisocial Process Screening Device; APSD), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI) at the time of the child's admission. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high levels of the PSI dimension attachment difficulties were associated with high levels of narcissism and callous/unemotional traits among the children while statistically controlling for aggression. The PSI dimension role restriction was also found to be negatively related to narcissism. These findings suggest that specific aspects of parenting stress may be related to child psychopathic traits and might aid with conceptualizing and developing treatment approaches for childhood behavior problems.
Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, De Yun
The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...
Cleveland, Peggy H.; And Others
Assessed the attitudes of parents of homosexual children, primarily members of support groups for parents of lesbians/gays, were they to discover their child(ren) had Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Responses indicated devastation at the thought, with persistence of a bond between parent and child, though parents felt ambivalent…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Placement of children by parents when FAPE is at issue... Their Parents in Private Schools When Fape Is at Issue § 300.148 Placement of children by parents when... facility if that agency made FAPE available to the child and the parents elected to place the child in...
Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.
This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…
Sengsavang, Sonia; Krettenauer, Tobias
This study examined the role of aggressiveness and parenting in the development of children's moral self-concept. Participants were 198 elementary school children and their parents (M = 8.65 years, SD = 2.44). Participants completed a structured moral self puppet interview and a questionnaire about their relationship to parents. Parents completed…
Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.
This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…
Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela
Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)
van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses
Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy
Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…