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Sample records for children techniques potential

  1. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    Tricarico, Francesco; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Schoepf, U.J.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Nance, John W.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Cho, Young Jun; Spears, J.R.; Secchi, Francesco; Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Apfaltrer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  2. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    Tricarico, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Hlavacek, Anthony M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Ebersberger, Ullrich [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Heart Centre Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Nance, John W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Groningen/University of Groningen, Centre for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Cho, Young Jun [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Konyang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Spears, J.R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Secchi, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Milan School of Medicine IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  3. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children : Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    Tricarico, Francesco; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Nance, John W.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Cho, Young Jun; Spears, J. Reid; Secchi, Francesco; Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Apfaltrer, Paul

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose

  4. Psychodrama as a Counseling Technique with Children

    Lyons, Victoria M.

    1977-01-01

    Psychodrama is a viable technique in child counseling that increases in value as the counselor becomes more skilled in its use. It is a natural therapy for children because they have an innate ability to dramatize their experiences. (Author)

  5. Children's Preferences for Film Form and Technique.

    Cox, Carole

    1982-01-01

    Describes the methodology and results of a study of the preferences of fourth- and fifth-grade children for film form and technique. Indicates that children prefer narrative/live action films, followed by narrative/animation, nonnarrative/live action, and nonnarrative/animation. (HTH)

  6. MR enterography in children: Principles, technique, and clinical applications

    Chavhan, Govind B; Babyn, Paul S; Walters, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    MR enterography is a constantly advancing technique for assessment of bowel with newer technology and sequences. It is being increasingly used for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease and has almost replaced barium follow through examinations in many institutions. Its lack of radiation makes it an attractive alternative for bowel evaluation in children. It has been proved to be highly sensitive in the detection of Crohn disease in adults and children. It is also superior to barium studies in showing extra-enteric findings and detecting complications such as fistulas and abscesses. Even though at present it is almost exclusively used for the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease, it has the potential to be used in other conditions affecting the bowel. The principles, MR enterography technique pertinent to children, and its utility in the assessment of Crohn disease in children are discussed in this review

  7. Incorporating Behavioral Techniques into a Serious Videogame for Children.

    Thompson, Debbe

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about how to design serious videogames for children. The purpose of this article is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious videogame to help children consume more fruits and vegetables (FVs) and the extent to which these techniques were used by players. A secondary goal is to contribute to the body of scientific knowledge regarding how to design effective serious videogames for children. This research examines the gameplay data from an effective 10-episode online serious videogame promoting FV consumption to preadolescent children in the United States (roughly 9-11-year-olds). Children participated in the self-regulation components. Modifications to reduce potential cognitive overload and inform future game design were identified. This research provided suggestive evidence that behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation can be successfully integrated into a serious videogame for children without detracting from game appeal. It also emphasizes the importance of formative research to the design of an appealing game where children understand and can successfully perform the behavior change procedures.

  8. Introduction to cardiac imaging in infants and children: Techniques, potential, and role in the imaging work-up of various cardiac malformations and other pediatric heart conditions

    Bailliard, Frederique [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiothoracic Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); North Carolina Children' s Heart Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States); Hughes, Marina L. [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiothoracic Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiothoracic Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.taylor@ich.ucl.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    The increasing prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) can be attributed to major improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Although echocardiography is the most commonly used imaging modality for diagnosis and follow-up of subjects with CHD, the evolution of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and increasingly computed tomography (CT) does offer new ways to visualize the heart and the great vessels. The development of cardiovascular MR techniques allows for a comprehensive assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. This provides information about the long-term sequlae of the underlying complex anatomy, hemodynamic assessment of residual post-operative lesions and complications of surgery. As much of the functional data in CHD patients is usually acquired with invasive X-ray angiography, non-invasive alternatives such as cardiovascular MR (and CT) are desirable. This review evaluates the role of MR imaging in the management of subjects with CHD, particularly detailing recent developments in imaging techniques as they relate to the various CHD diagnoses we commonly encounter in our practice.

  9. Removing a tick: proper technique in children

    Susana Rueda Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is medical consensus on the need to remove the tick within 24 hours the mite parasites to the human host, to avoid possible complications. The preferred way is by gently traction the mite, aided by forceps without twisting or chokes with toxic agents, because of the possibility that the mite excretes bacteria mixed with substances. The average time of extraction is estimated between one or three minutes. In children parasitized by ticks this amount of time can be excessive when it’s necessary restraint without the consent of the minor. Using this technique we reduce the time to seconds and the damage caused to the skin is minimal.

  10. Potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology

    Riccabona, Michael E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To describe the potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology. Method: Ultrasound (US)--now being the primary imaging tool--has revolutionised imaging diagnostic in the urinary tract. Constant developments and technical refinements have secured the role of US in uroradiology. Colour Doppler Sonography (CDS) and innovative applications such as the transperineal approach or application of m-mode US to the urinary tract have helped to develop US from just a basic tool to a sophisticated and respected method. The ongoing introduction of new and even more sophisticated methods further enhance the sonographic potential, which shall be demonstrated by a more detailed discussion of these methods. Results: Harmonic imaging, extended field of view US, amplitude coded CDS, echo-enhanced US, and three-dimensional US as the most recent new sonographic techniques are successfully applicable to paediatric urinary tract disease. They improve sonographic diagnosis in many conditions, such as detection of vesico-ureteral reflux, renal parenchymal volume assessment, comprehensive visualisation of hydronephrosis and complex pathology, evaluation of renal perfusional disturbances or defects, superior documentation with improved comparability for follow-up, or simply by offering clearer tissue delineation and differentiation. Conclusion: Modern US techniques are successfully applicable to neonates, infants, and children, further boosting the value of US in the paediatric urinary tract. However, as handling became more sophisticated, and artefacts have to be considered, modern urosonography became not only a more powerful, but also a more demanding method, with the need for expert knowledge and dedicated training.

  11. Potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology

    Riccabona, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology. Method: Ultrasound (US)--now being the primary imaging tool--has revolutionised imaging diagnostic in the urinary tract. Constant developments and technical refinements have secured the role of US in uroradiology. Colour Doppler Sonography (CDS) and innovative applications such as the transperineal approach or application of m-mode US to the urinary tract have helped to develop US from just a basic tool to a sophisticated and respected method. The ongoing introduction of new and even more sophisticated methods further enhance the sonographic potential, which shall be demonstrated by a more detailed discussion of these methods. Results: Harmonic imaging, extended field of view US, amplitude coded CDS, echo-enhanced US, and three-dimensional US as the most recent new sonographic techniques are successfully applicable to paediatric urinary tract disease. They improve sonographic diagnosis in many conditions, such as detection of vesico-ureteral reflux, renal parenchymal volume assessment, comprehensive visualisation of hydronephrosis and complex pathology, evaluation of renal perfusional disturbances or defects, superior documentation with improved comparability for follow-up, or simply by offering clearer tissue delineation and differentiation. Conclusion: Modern US techniques are successfully applicable to neonates, infants, and children, further boosting the value of US in the paediatric urinary tract. However, as handling became more sophisticated, and artefacts have to be considered, modern urosonography became not only a more powerful, but also a more demanding method, with the need for expert knowledge and dedicated training

  12. Incorporating behavioral techniques into a serious video game for children

    Little is known about how to design serious video games for children. The purpose of this paper is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious video game to help children consume more fruit and vegetables, and the extent to which these techn...

  13. X-ray technique hip joints of children

    Imhaeuser, G.

    1982-01-01

    The author points out that the conventional X-ray technique used for adults is not suitable for children. In children of 2 to 8 years (or older) the leg can be rotated much further medially than laterally. Thus in children the middle rotation position is one in which the leg is positioned more medially than this would be in adults. This fact must be taken into consideration in carrying out X-rays of hip joints of children. Diagnostic errors resulting from the conventional X-ray technique can be largely avoided by positioning the leg according to the characteristic roatations of children; that is the leg can be rotated to the same extent both medially and laterally. (orig.)

  14. Second cancers in children treated with modern radiotherapy techniques

    Schneider, Uwe; Lomax, Antony; Timmermann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The scattered radiation from the treatment volume might be more significant for children than for adults and, as a consequence, modern radiotherapy treatment techniques such as IMRT and passive proton therapy could potentially increase the number of secondary cancers. In this report, secondary cancer risk resulting from new treatment technologies was estimated for an adult prostate patient and a child. Material and methods: The organ equivalent dose (OED) concept with a linear-exponential, a plateau and a linear dose-response curve was applied to dose distributions of an adult prostate patient and a child with a rhabdomyosarcoma of the prostate. Conformal radiotherapy, IMRT with 6 MV photons and proton therapy were planned. OED (cancer risk) was estimated for the whole body, the rectum and the bladder. In addition, relative cumulative risk was calculated. Results: Secondary cancer risk in the adult is not more than 15% it increased when IMRT or passive proton therapy was compared to conventional treatment planning. In the child, risk remains practically constant or was even reduced for proton therapy. The cumulative risk in the child relative to that in the adult can be as large as 10-15. Conclusions: By a comparison between an adult patient and a child treated for a disease of the prostate, it was shown that modern radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT and proton therapy (active and passive) do not increase the risk for secondary cancers

  15. Respiratory gated radiotherapy: current techniques and potential benefits

    Giraud, P.; Campana, F.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Reboul, F.; Garcia, R.; Clippe, S.; Carrie, C.; Dubray, B.

    2003-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart...) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily breath-hold. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. These techniques presently investigated in several medical centers worldwide. Although promising, the first results obtained in lung and liver cancer patients require confirmation. Physical, technical and physiological questions still remain to be answered. This paper describes the most frequently used gated techniques and the main published clinical reports on the use of respiration-gated radiotherapy in order to evaluate the impact of these techniques. (author)

  16. [Platelet rich plasma (PRP): potentialities and techniques of extraction].

    Pacifici, L; Casella, F; Maggiore, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the various techniques of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extraction codified in recent years and their use potential is evaluated. PRP is one of the techniques with which at the moment it is attempted to modulate and facilitate the cure of a wound. The use of PRP is based on the theoretical premise that by concentrating platelets the effects of the growth factors (PDGF, TGF-beta, IGF-I and -II) so released will be increased. Marx's original technique is described above all. This prescribes the sampling of a unit of blood (450-500 ml) and the use of a cell separator. We then analysed the technique of Marx and Hannon in which the quantity of blood sampled is reduced to 150 ml, and the two simplified techniques of the Sacchi and Bellanda group. Finally, a new PRP extraction technique is described. We conclude that platelet gel allows access to autologous growth factors which by definition are neither toxic nor immunogenic and are capable of accelerating the normal processes of bone regeneration. PRP can thus be considered a useful instrument for increasing the quality and final quantity of regenerated bone in oral and maxillo-facial surgery operations.

  17. Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Children: An Alternative Clinical Technique

    Nádia Carolina Teixeira Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete and partial removable dentures have been used successfully in numerous patients with oligodontia and/or anodontia. However, there is little information in the literature regarding the principles and guidelines to prosthetic rehabilitation for growing children. This case report describes the management of a young child with oligodontia as well as the treatment planning and the prosthetic rehabilitation technique.

  18. Feeding Techniques for Children Who Have Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    This pamphlet on feeding techniques for children who have cleft lip and palate emphasizes the role of the parent as part of a team involving many specialists. The pamphlet begins with explanations of complete and incomplete separations of the lip, unilateral and bilateral cleft lips, corrective surgical procedures, etc. The importance of weight…

  19. Application of Statistical Potential Techniques to Runaway Transport Studies

    Eguilior, S.; Castejon, F.; Parrondo, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A method is presented for computing runaway production rate based on techniques of noise-activated escape in a potential is presented in this work. A generalised potential in 2D momentum space is obtained from the deterministic or drift terms of Langevin equations. The diffusive or stochastic terms that arise directly from the stochastic nature of collisions, play the role of the noise that activates barrier crossings. The runaway electron source is given by the escape rate in such a potential which is obtained from an Arrenius-like relation. Runaway electrons are those skip the potential barrier due to the effect of stochastic collisions. In terms of computation time, this method allows one to quickly obtain the source term for a runway electron transport code.(Author) 11 refs

  20. Radiotracer technique to predict irritation potential of soap

    Castaneda, S.S.; Garcia, T.Y.; Santos, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    The application of a radiotracer technique using tritiated water to predict the irritation potentials of some soap products is demonstrated. Collagen films are treated with 0.5% and 1.0% soap solutions and tritiated water then incubated at 50 degrees centigrade for 24 hours. After incubation, the uptake of tritiated water by the collagen films was measured by liquid scintillation counting. (Auth.). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Cerebral blood flow measurement techniques in infants and children

    Kirsch, J.R.; Traystman, R.J.; Rogers, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The tremendous growth of interest in neurologic intensive care and in the pathophysiology of the cerebral circulation in the past few years has resulted in increasing numbers of studies that document alterations in cerebral flow during the course of various diseases or as a response to treatment of them. Before pediatricians come to conclusions based on these studies, it is important to have an understanding of the techniques involved. The techniques are complex and difficult but are based on understandable principles. They also have limitations and are subject to misinterpretations. Pediatricians should become knowledgeable about some of these techniques and their limitations because it is likely that they will be applied with increasing frequency in the next several years. We are on the threshold of exciting discoveries in abnormalities of cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolism not only in critically ill children but also in children with congenital and learning disorders

  2. Isotope technique in JPS dam surveillance: its potential

    Sabri Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Controlling seepage is one of the most important requirements for safe dams. Any leakage at an earth embankment may be potentially dangerous since rapid internal erosion may quickly enlarge an initially minor defect. Thus dam owners need to have thorough surveillance programs that can forewarn of impending problems from seepage or other factors influencing the safety of dams. In carrying out dam surveillance works, all possible efforts should be considered and foreseeing the potential of isotope technique, JPS (Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia) and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) participated actively in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA program under RAS/8/093 project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Through these activities, it was noted that the technique demonstrated very promising potentials such as in assisting dam site selections, site investigations, watershed studies, dam and reservoir design, leakage investigations and sediments related issues, the two latter ones being relatively critical during the operational life of the dam. Establishment of baseline isotopic characteristics (or fingerprint), hydrochemistry, electrical conductivity and temperature profiles is underway for all JPS dams to be later utilized in diagnosing seepage related issues it is suggested that application of this technique be extended to other dam owners nationwide. (Author)

  3. Potential drop technique for monitoring stress corrosion cracking growth

    Neves, Celia F.C.; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M.; Moreira, Pedro A.L.D.P.L.P.

    2002-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of most severe damage mechanisms influencing the lifetime of components in the operation of nuclear power plants. To assess the initiation stages and kinetics of crack growth as the main parameters coming to residual lifetime determination, the testing facility should allow active loading of specimens in the environment which is close to the real operation conditions of assessed component. Under cooperation of CDTN/CNEN and International Atomic Energy Agency a testing system has been developed by Nuclear Research Institute, Czech Republic, that will be used for the environmentally assisted cracking testing at CDTN/CNEN. The facility allows high temperature autoclave corrosion mechanical testing in well-defined LWR water chemistry using constant load, slow strain rate and rising displacement techniques. The facility consists of autoclave and refreshing water loop enabling testing at temperatures up to 330 deg C. Active loading system allows the maximum load on a specimen as high as 60 kN. The potential drop measurement is used to determine the instant crack length and its growth rate. The paper presents the facility and describes the potential drop technique, that is one of the most used techniques to monitor crack growth in specimens under corrosive environments. (author)

  4. Obesity prevention: Comparison of techniques and potential solution

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    Over the years, obesity prevention has been a broadly studied subject by both academicians and practitioners. It is one of the most serious public health issue as it can cause numerous chronic health and psychosocial problems. Research is needed to suggest a population-based strategy for obesity prevention. In the academic environment, the importance of obesity prevention has triggered various problem solving approaches. A good obesity prevention model, should comprehend and cater all complex and dynamics issues. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the qualitative and quantitative approaches on obesity prevention study and to provide an extensive literature review on various recent modelling techniques for obesity prevention. Based on these literatures, the comparison of both quantitative and qualitative approahes are highlighted and the justification on the used of system dynamics technique to solve the population of obesity is discussed. Lastly, a potential framework solution based on system dynamics modelling is proposed.

  5. A systematic review of persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television.

    Jenkin, G; Madhvani, N; Signal, L; Bowers, S

    2014-04-01

    The ubiquitous marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages is a key modifiable influence on childhood dietary patterns and obesity. Much of the research on television food advertising is focused on identifying and quantifying unhealthy food marketing with comparatively few studies examining persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy food to children. This review identifies the most frequently documented persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children via television. A systematic search of eight online databases using key search terms identified 267 unique articles. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed the most commonly reported persuasive techniques used on television to promote food to children. These were the use of premium offers, promotional characters, nutrition and health-related claims, the theme of taste, and the emotional appeal of fun. Identifying and documenting these commonly reported persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television is critical for the monitoring and evaluation of advertising codes and industry pledges and the development of further regulation in this area. This has a strong potential to curbing the international obesity epidemic besieging children throughout the world. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Angiocardiographic technique of congenital heart disease in children

    Zhu Ming; Zhai Hongyuan; Zhong Yumin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate different angiocardiographic techniques of congenital heart disease in children. Methods: 11045 pediatric patients with congenital heart disease were performed angiocardiography using cut film, cine film and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment. Different angiocardiographic techniques were used. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of cut film with conventional AP and lateral views was 80.5%, the diagnostic accuracy of cine film with angulated views was 90.0% and the diagnostic accuracy of DSA using non-ionic contrast medium with angulated views was 96.5%. Conclusion: Dynamic picture angiography with digital subtraction using non-ionic contrast medium under rapid injection is the key for claiming the high quality imaging diagnosis of congenital heart disease in children. (authors)

  7. Electromagnetic forming - a potentially viable technique for accelerator technology

    Rajawat, R.K.; Desai, S.V.; Kulkarni, M.R.; Dolly Rani; Nagesh, K.V.; Sethi, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Modern day accelerator development encompasses a myriad technologies required for their diverse needs. Whereas RF, high voltage, vacuum, cryogenics etc., technologies meet their functional requirements, high finish lapping processes, ceramic-metal joining, oven brazing, spark erosion or wire cutting etc., are a must to meet their fabrication requirements. Electromagnetic (EM) forming technique falls in the latter category and is developed as a special technology. It is currently catering to the development as a nuclear reactor technology, but has the potential to meet accelerator requirements too. This paper highlights the general principle of its working, simple design guidelines, advantages, and suggests some specific areas where this could benefit accelerator technologies

  8. Exploring the potential of children in crowdsourcing

    Manojlovic, S.; Gavrilo, K.; de Wit, J.; Markopoulos, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, companies and academia have turned to crowdsourcing to stimulate creativity and innovation. Although children's creative nature has been well documented in the design process in co-creation for new products and/or services, this has not yet extended to crowdsourcing. With this paper, we

  9. Identification of Potential Fishing Grounds Using Geospatial Technique

    Abdullah, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Fishery resources surveys using actual sampling and data collection methods require extensive ship time and sampling time. Informative data from satellite plays a vital role in fisheries application. Satellite Remote Sensing techniques can be used to detect fish aggregation just like visual fish identification ultimately these techniques can be used to predict the potential fishing zones by measuring the parameters which affect the distribution of fishes. Remote sensing is a time saving technique to locate fishery resources along the coast. Pakistan has a continental shelf area of 50,270 km2 and coastline length of 1,120 km. The total maritime zone of Pakistan is over 30 percent of the land area. Fishery plays an important role in the national economy. The marine fisheries sector is the main component, contributing about 57 percent in terms of production. Fishery is the most important economic activity in the villages and towns along the coast, and in most of the coastal villages and settlements it is the sole source of employment and income generation. Fishing by fishermen is done on the sole basis of repeated experiments and collection of information from other fishermen. Often they are in doubt about the location of potential fishing zones. This leads to waste of time and money, adversely affecting fishermen incomes and over or under-exploitation of fishing zones. The main purpose of this study was to map potential fishing grounds by identifying various environmental parameters which impact fish aggregation along the Pakistan coastline. The primary reason of this study is the fact that the fishing communities of Pakistan's coastal regions are extremely poor and lack knowledge of the modern tools and techniques that may be incorporated to enhance their yield and thus, improve their livelihood. Using geospatial techniques in order to accurately map the potential fishing zones based on sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll -a content, in conjunction with

  10. Can the attention training technique turn one marshmallow into two? Improving children's ability to delay gratification.

    Murray, Joanne; Theakston, Anna; Wells, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    The seminal Marshmallow Test (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) has reliably demonstrated that children who can delay gratification are more likely to be emotionally stable and successful later in life. However, this is not good news for those children who can't delay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether a metacognitive therapy technique, Attention Training (ATT: Wells, 1990) can improve young children's ability to delay gratification. One hundred children participated. Classes of 5-6 year olds were randomly allocated to either the ATT or a no-intervention condition and were tested pre and post-intervention on ability to delay gratification, verbal inhibition (executive control), and measures of mood. The ATT intervention significantly increased (2.64 times) delay of gratification compared to the no-intervention condition. After controlling for age and months in school, the ATT intervention and verbal inhibition task performance were significant independent predictors of delay of gratification. These results provide evidence that ATT can improve children's self-regulatory abilities with the implication that this might reduce psychological vulnerability later in life. The findings highlight the potential contribution that the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model could make to designing techniques to enhance children's self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Puzzling with potential: dynamic testing of analogical reasoning in children

    Stevenson, Claire Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Assessment procedures are frequent in children's school careers; however, measuring potential for learning has remained a puzzle. Dynamic testing is a method to assess cognitive potential that includes training in the assessment process. The goal of this thesis project was to develop a new dynamic test of analogical reasoning for school children. The main aims were to (1) investigate factors that influence children’s differences in performance and change during dynamic testing and (2) examine...

  12. Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Children With Potential Celiac Disease.

    Repo, Marleena; Lindfors, Katri; Mäki, Markku; Huhtala, Heini; Laurila, Kaija; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Saavalainen, Päivi; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle

    2017-01-01

    Active screening for celiac disease frequently detects seropositive children with normal villous morphology (potential celiac disease). It remains unclear whether these subjects should be treated. We here investigated the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in children with potential and mucosal atrophy celiac disease. The prospective study involved 19 children with potential disease, 67 with partial or subtotal villous atrophy (P/SVA), and 16 with total villous atrophy (TVA). Twenty-three healthy children comprised the control group. The groups were compared for various clinical, histological, and laboratory parameters and hepcidin. The prevalence of abnormal parameters was as follows (controls, potential celiac disease, P/SVA, and TVA, respectively): anemia 0%, 15%, 22%, and 63%; low iron 5%, 0%, 14%, and 50%; increased transferrin receptor 1 5%, 16%, 20%, and 47%; low ferritin 0%, 21%, 35%, and 87%; and low transferrin saturation 10%, 11%, 41%, and 71%. One subject had low folate and none had low vitamin B12. The median values for hemoglobin, total iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation were significantly lower and transferrin receptor 1 values higher in TVA group compared with other groups. After a median of 7 months on a gluten-free diet hemoglobin, total iron, ferritin, and albumin in children with P/SVA exceeded the baseline values in the potential celiac disease group. The development of anemia and iron deficiency in celiac disease is a continuum and may already be present in children with normal villous morphology, advocating an early diagnosis and possible dietary treatment of these patients.

  13. Lymphoscintigraphy (LS) in infants and children: techniques and scintigraphic patterns

    Somerville, J.; Parsons, G.; Howman-Giles, R.; Lewis, G.; Uren, R.; Mansberg, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclide imaging of the lymphatic system with intradermal injection of radiopharmaceutical is a rapid, safe and simple technique for the evaluation of lymphatic abnormalities in infants and children. 99 Tc m -antimony sulphide colloid is the agent of choice. The radiopharmaceutical (dose 5 mBq in 0.1 ml) is injected intradermally into both limbs being investigated. Emla cream is useful to reduce the initial discomfort of the injection. Imaging is performed immediately for approximately 30-60 min to assess the flow rate and lymph channels to the draining node fields. Further imaging at 2 and 4 h may be necessary. Normal LS in the lower limbs shows the tracer to pass into lymphatics almost immediately and channels are usually visualized within 5 min. In the lower limbs, symmetrical lymph flow to nodes are seen in the groin, iliac and paravertebral region with activity later seen in the liver. In 31 patients studied over the last 3 years, 17 studies were normal and 14 were abnormal: Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (n = 4) with delayed flow and dermal backflow; congenital lymph/vascular malformations (n = 6) with various delayed flow patterns and focal accumulations; congenital lymphoedema (n 3) and pulmonary lymphangiectasia (n = 1). Aplasia and hypoplasia of lymph systems are readily identified. In conclusion, LS is a valuable diagnostic technique to assess lymph flow and diagnose lymphatic malformations and the causes of lymphoedema in children

  14. Puzzling with potential : dynamic testing of analogical reasoning in children

    Stevenson, Claire Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Assessment procedures are frequent in children's school careers; however, measuring potential for learning has remained a puzzle. Dynamic testing is a method to assess cognitive potential that includes training in the assessment process. The goal of this thesis project was to develop a new dynamic

  15. Potential communicative acts in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Braddock, Barbara A; Pickett, Colleen; Ezzelgot, Jamie; Sheth, Shivani; Korte-Stroff, Emily; Loncke, Filip; Bock, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    To describe potential communicative acts in a sample of 17 children with autism spectrum disorders who produced few to no intelligible words (mean age = 32.82 months). Parents reported on children's potential communicative acts for 10 different communicative functions. A potential communicative act was defined as any behavior produced by an individual that may be interpreted by others to serve a communicative purpose. Significant associations were found between higher number of gesture types and increased scores on language comprehension, language expression, and non-verbal thinking measures. Relative to other types of potential communicative acts, parents reported that children used higher proportions of body movement. Number of body movement types was not related to child ability, while number of gesture types was related to receptive and expressive language. Findings underscore the link between language and gesture, and offer support for an ecological systems perspective of language learning.

  16. The Potential of AI Techniques for Remote Sensing

    Estes, J. E.; Sailer, C. T. (Principal Investigator); Tinney, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The current status of artificial intelligence AI technology is discussed along with imagery data management, database interrogation, and decision making. Techniques adapted from the field of artificial intelligence (AI) have significant, wide ranging impacts upon computer-assisted remote sensing analysis. AI based techniques offer a powerful and fundamentally different approach to many remote sensing tasks. In addition to computer assisted analysis, AI techniques can also aid onboard spacecraft data processing and analysis and database access and query.

  17. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  18. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  19. Total energy expenditure in burned children using the doubly labeled water technique

    Goran, M.I.; Peters, E.J.; Herndon, D.N.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in 15 burned children with the doubly labeled water technique. Application of the technique in burned children required evaluation of potential errors resulting from nutritional intake altering background enrichments during studies and from the high rate of water turnover relative to CO2 production. Five studies were discarded because of these potential problems. TEE was 1.33 +/- 0.27 times predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE), and in studies where resting energy expenditure (REE) was simultaneously measured, TEE was 1.18 +/- 0.17 times REE, which in turn was 1.16 +/- 0.10 times predicted BEE. TEE was significantly correlated with measured REE (r2 = 0.92) but not with predicted BEE. These studies substantiate the advantage of measuring REE to predict TEE in severely burned patients as opposed to relying on standardized equations. Therefore we recommend that optimal nutritional support will be achieved in convalescent burned children by multiplying REE by an activity factor of 1.2

  20. Creative Potential and Conceptual Tempo in Preschool Children.

    Broberg, Gayle Christensen; Moran, James D., III

    1988-01-01

    Individual stylistic variations of creative potential and conceptual tempo were investigated in 61 preschool children. No differences between reflective and impulsive preschoolers were found on the ideational fluency measure. Conceptual tempo scores revealed greater originality scores for the fast/accurate and slow/inaccurate groups compared to…

  1. Potential in-class strategies to increase children's vegetable consumption.

    Sharp, Gemma; Pettigrew, Simone; Wright, Shannon; Pratt, Iain S; Blane, Sally; Biagioni, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The Crunch&Sip programme is a school-based nutrition initiative designed to increase the fruit, vegetable and water intakes of primary-school children. In recognition of the notable deficits in children's vegetable consumption, the present study explored the receptivity of school staff to a realignment of the Crunch&Sip programme to feature a primary focus on vegetable consumption. This involved investigating school staff members' perceptions of relevant barriers, motivators and facilitators. A multi-method approach was adopted that involved four focus groups and a survey (administered in paper and online formats) containing a mixture of open- and closed-ended items. Western Australia. Staff from Western Australian schools participated in the focus groups (n 37) and survey (n 620). School staff were strongly supportive of modifying the Crunch&Sip programme to focus primarily on children's vegetable consumption and this was generally considered to be a feasible change to implement. Possible barriers identified included children's taste preferences and a perceived lack of parental support. Suggested strategies to overcome these barriers were education sessions for parents and children, teachers modelling vegetable consumption for their students and integrating vegetable-related topics into the school curriculum. School staff are likely to support the introduction of school-based nutrition programmes that specifically encourage the consumption of vegetables. Potential barriers may be overcome through strategies to engage parents and children.

  2. Optimum conditions for the determination of ionization potentials, appearance potentials and fine structure in ionization efficiency curves using edd technique

    Selim, Ezzat T.; El-Kholy, S.B.; Zahran, Nagwa F.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum conditions for determining ionization potentials as well as fine structure in electron impact ionization efficiency curves are studied using energy distribution difference technique. Applying these conditions to Ar + , Kr + , CO + 2 and N + from N 2 , very good agreement is obtained when compared with results determined by other techniques including UV spectroscopy. The merits and limitation of the technique are also discussed

  3. GIS-Based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    24

    This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely ... In the view of these weaknesses , there is a strong requirement for reassessment of .... Font color: Text 1, Not Expanded by / Condensed by , ...... West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-.

  4. Fast spin echo MRI techniques. Contrast characteristics and clinical potential

    Melki, P.; Mulkern, R.V.; Dacher, J.N.; Helenon, O.; Higuchi, N.; Oshio, K.; Jolesz, F.; Pourcelot, L.; Einstein, S.

    1993-01-01

    Based on partial RF echo planar principles, Fast Spin Echo techniques (FSE) were implemented on high field systems. These methods produce image quality and contrast which resemble to conventional spin echo (SE) techniques. By reducing acquisition times by factors between 1.4 and 16 over SE methods, FSE allows for several imaging options usually prohibitive with conventional spin echo (SE) sequences. These include fast scans (especially breathold acquisitions); improved T2 contrast with longer TR intervals; increased spatial resolution with the use of larger image matrices and/or smaller fields of view; and 3D volume imaging with a 3D multislab FSE technique. Contrast features of FSE techniques are directly comparable to those of multiple echo SE sequences using the same echo spacing than FSE methods. However, essential contrast differences existing between the FSE sequences and their routine asymmetric dual SE counterpart can be identified. Decreased magnetic susceptibility effects and increased fat signal present within T2 weighted images compared to conventional dual SE images are due to the use of shorter echo spacings employed in FSE sequences. Off-resonance irradiation inherent to the use of a large number of radio frequency pulses in shown to results in dramatic magnetization contrast transfer effects in FSE images acquired in multislice mode

  5. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  6. The use of different techniques for determination of pitting corrosion potential of austenitic stainless steel

    Eskelinen, P.; Forsen, O.; Onnela, J.; Ylaesaari, S.; Haenninen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Three different techniques for pitting corrosion potential measurement on austenitic stainless steel (Fe18Cr10Ni) were compared: conventional polarization method, a new Avesta electrochemical corrosion measurement cell and a scratch technique. Special attention was paid to the effects of crevice corrosion during pitting corrosion potential measurement and to their elimination. Development of a rapid test technique for reliable pitting corrosion potential determination was aimed at and resulted from comparison of the different techniques

  7. Potential applications of plasma science techniques for water treatment systems

    Pavlik, D.

    1994-01-01

    The historical evolution of water treatment techniques and their impact on man and his environment are presented. Ancient man recognized the relationship between good water and good health. However, it was not until the late 1800's that man's own contribution to the pollution of water via biological and chemical contamination of the water stream was recognized as having adverse affects on water quality. Since that time virtually every nation has adopted laws and regulations to ensure that safe sources of unpolluted water are available to its citizens. In the United States, water quality is governed by the Clean Water Act of 1972 administered at the federal level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Further, each state has established its equivalent agency which administers its own laws and regulations. Different biological and chemical biohazards present in the water system are discussed. Biological contaminants include various types of viruses, bacteria, fungii, molds, yeasts, algae, amoebas, and parasites. Chemical contaminates include elemental heavy metals and other organic and inorganic compounds which interfere with normal biological functions. Conventional water treatments for both consumption and sewage effluent commonly employ four different principals: mechanical filtration, quiescent gravity settling, biological oxidation, and chemical treatment. Although these techniques have greatly reduced the incidence of water-borne disease recent studies suggest that more effective means of eliminating biohazards are needed. Regulatory requirements for more aggressive treatment and elimination of residual contaminants present a significant opportunity for the application of various forms of electromagnetic radiation techniques. A comparison between conventional techniques and more advanced methods using various forms of electromagnetic radiation is discussed

  8. Visual evoked potentials of mildly mentally retarded and control children.

    Gasser, T; Pietz, J; Schellberg, D; Köhler, W

    1988-10-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from 25 10- to 13-year-old mildly mentally retarded children and compared with those from 31 control children of the same age-range. Correlations of VEPs with age were weak, but a relationship between VEPs and IQ was demonstrated for the control group. The retarded group had significantly longer latencies and higher amplitude peaks than the control group, with the differences occurring primarily over non-specific cortex and for secondary components. Analysis also showed that the retarded group were neurophysiologically heterogeneous. Since the same children had been analyzed earlier by quantitative EEG methods, comparisons are made with respect to these two methods of investigating brain function.

  9. The Random-Map Technique: Enhancing Mind-Mapping with a Conceptual Combination Technique to Foster Creative Potential

    Malycha, Charlotte P.; Maier, Günter W.

    2017-01-01

    Although creativity techniques are highly recommended in working environments, their effects have been scarcely investigated. Two cognitive processes are often considered to foster creative potential and are, therefore, taken as a basis for creativity techniques: knowledge activation and conceptual combination. In this study, both processes were…

  10. Automatic measurement for monitoring crack growth with electric potential technique

    Nakajima, Nobuya; Kikuchi, Masaaki; Shima, Seishi

    1981-10-01

    In the study of fracture mechanics, it is one of the most important problems to monitor the crack growth phenomena. Recently, many experimental methods have been developed. In this report, the Direct Current (DC) potential method is employed for measuring the crack growth length in the pressuried high temperature water. The objective of the current investigation is to develop an experimental method to quantify the sensitivity of this method in the air environment using the Compact Tension (CT) specimen. The main results obtained are as follows: 1) It is ignored that the electrical potential changes with plastic deformation at the crack tip of the specimen. 2) Using the Reversible Direct Current (RDC) Method, the measurement system gives no effect on the electrical stability for a long time. 3) For the fatigue and statical crack growth length, good relation is observed between the crack length-to-specimen width ratio (a/W) and potential ratio (Va/Vo). (author)

  11. Predicting Potential C Mineralization of Tundra Soils Using Spectroscopy Techniques

    The large amounts of organic matter stored in permafrost-region soils are preserved in a relatively undecomposed state by the cold and wet environmental conditions limiting decomposer activity. With pending climate changes and the potential for warming of Arctic soils, there is a need to better unde...

  12. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    Ali Haghizadeh

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... regions. This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven ... growth of these tools has also prepared another ..... Urban. 30467. 3. 0.06. 0.20. 0.74. 0.80. −0.64. Distance from road ..... and artificial neural networks for potential groundwater .... ping: A case study at Mehran region, Iran; Catena 137.

  13. [Visual evoked potentials in management of amblyopia in children].

    Gromová, M; Gerinec, A

    2010-11-01

    The authors want to point out the possibility of using the visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the diagnostic process of amblyopia, especially in preverbal children. We also researched the possibility of screening for amblyopia with VEP in young patients with anisometropia without strabismus being present, especially those who come from affected families. The authors followed changes in the course of an occlusion therapy and suggest that VEP could be used to predict a success of the amblyopia therapy. We analyzed group of 45 pediatric patients ages 2-10 years who were investigated in years 2006-2009 at Pediatric Ophthalmology Department of Children University Hospital in Bratislava with amblyopia. This group was compared with a control group of 25 healthy children. The cause of amblyopia in a majority of children (29 patients) was hyperopic anisometropia, 13 children had hyperopic isometropia, 3 patients had myopia over -3D. These causes in 22 children were combined with strabismus. The monocular pattern of VEP was evaluated in all patients. In cooperative children (25) we also evaluated binocular pattern of VEP. 18 patients with amblyopia had a second VEP evaluation done during the occlusion therapy, among those were 23 amblyopic eyes. The time frame from the first VEP evaluation to the second VEP evaluation was 1-11 months, average 5,1 months. The material was statistically evaluated. Our study showed statistically significant prolongation of the latency of both P and N2 waves (p = 0.01) in children with amblyopia.This can be used in diagnostic process of amblyopia in preverbal children as well as in the screening for amblyopia. We also followed changes during the occlusion therapy and we discovered persistent prolongation of the latency of the P wave and also changes in the amplitudes (p = 0.05) During repeated measurements and with applied therapy one can follow the dynamics of amblyopia, course of therapy by VEP changes. Results of our research suggest a great

  14. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...... quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques....

  15. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

    Yikmis, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

  16. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training.…

  17. Detection and sizing of cracks using potential drop techniques based on electromagnetic induction

    Sato, Yasumoto; Kim, Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The potential drop techniques based on electromagnetic induction are classified into induced current focused potential drop (ICFPD) technique and remotely induced current potential drop (RICPD) technique. The possibility of numerical simulation of the techniques is investigated and the applicability of these techniques to the measurement of defects in conductive materials is presented. Finite element analysis (FEA) for the RICPD measurements on the plate specimen containing back wall slits is performed and calculated results by FEA show good agreement with experimental results. Detection limit of the RICPD technique in depth of back wall slits can also be estimated by FEA. Detection and sizing of artificial defects in parent and welded materials are successfully performed by the ICFPD technique. Applicability of these techniques to detection of cracks in field components is investigated, and most of the cracks in the components investigated are successfully detected by the ICFPD and RICPD techniques. (author)

  18. Agroforestry techniques in tropical countries: potential and limitations

    Combe, J.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed scheme is proposed for classifying agroforestry systems on the basis of: the kinds of associated agricultural products (agrisilvicultural, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems); the major function of the forest component (productive or protective); the spatial distribution of the trees (regular or irregular); and the duration of the combination (temporary or permanent). Eight important tropical agroforestry systems are described and classified according to the scheme. The potential social, economic and ecological advantages of agroforestry systems are discussed and priorities for future research suggested. (Refs. 12).

  19. New technique for herniotomy in children: A clinical trial ...

    Objective This study aimed to assess the necessity of hernial sac ligation after its transection in herniotomy in children and to compare the recurrence and complication rates between two methods of hernial repair in children (the classic method with ligation of the hernial sac and a new method without sac ligation).

  20. Drainage-related ultrasonography (DRUS): a novel technique for discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive hydroureters in children.

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Aryan, Zahra; Ebadi, Maryam; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Elmi, Azadeh; Talab, Saman Shafaat; Sadeghi, Zhina

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in urologic imaging, the paucity of an optimal technique that accurately clarifies obstructive and nonobstructive hydroureter exists. This study was conducted to introduce a novel and modified ultrasonographic technique, known as drainage-related ultrasonography (DRUS), discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing hydroureter. A total of 358 children (mean age, 3.7 years) with 418 nonrefluxing hydroureter were included. These children were composed of two groups of obstructive nonrefluxing (141 children with 157 dilated ureters) and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing (217 children with 261 hydroureter). The definite diagnosis regarding the subtype of hydroureter was derived from appropriate investigation. The maximum diameter of the dilated ureter, which was observed on ultrasonography, was recorded before and after 3 h of catheterization, as D1 and D2, respectively. To assess the D ratio, a formula was developed, that is, [(|D1 - D2|)/D1] × 100. Values were recorded and cutoff points were set to discriminate between subtypes. Obstructive versus nonobstructive subtypes of nonrefluxing hydroureter were clarified with 78.5 % sensitivity and 83.4 % specificity, by setting a cutoff point of 22 % for the D ratio. Regardless of the cutoff point assigned to the reduction in D (D2 compared with D1), DRUS revealed 93.9 % sensitivity, 80.6 % specificity, 63.2 % positive predictive value, and 97.4 % negative predictive value in discriminating upper from lower obstruction. DRUS affords favorable results in terms of differentiating between obstructive and nonobstructive, nonrefluxing hydroureter, as well as between upper and lower obstruction in obstructive cases. It has the potential to become an efficient imaging modality in the diagnostic algorithm of hydroureter.

  1. Direct comparison of unloading compliance and potential drop techniques in J-integral testing

    McGowan, J.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Single-specimen J-integral testing is performed commonly with the unloading compliance technique. Use of modern instrumentation techniques and powerful desktop computers have made this technique a standard. However, this testing technique is slow and tedious, with the loading rate fixed at a slow quasi-static rate. For these reasons the dc potential drop technique was investigated for crack length measurement during a J-integral test. For direct comparison, both unloading compliance and potential drop were used simultaneously during a J-integral test. The results showed good agreement between the techniques. However, the potential drop technique showed an offset in crack length due to plastic blunting processes. Taking this offset into account, J/sub Ic/ values calculated by both techniques compared well

  2. Motivational techniques to improve self-care in hemophilia: the need to support autonomy in children.

    Bérubé, Sarah; Mouillard, Florine; Amesse, Claudine; Sultan, Serge

    2016-01-11

    In pediatric hemophilia, caregivers are facing unique challenges to adherence and self-care in children and adolescents with hemophilia. Hemophilia treatment requires adequate prophylaxis and on-demand treatment, as well as a clear behavioral strategy to limit risk-taking in terms of physical exercise and diet. Medication adherence rates of hemophilia patients have been reported to decrease during late childhood and adolescence. In the developing child, moving safely from parent-care to self-care is one of the greatest challenges of integrative care within this domain. There is a clear need for initiatives designed to increase an individual's motivation for treatment and self-care activities. Among motivational approaches, the self-determination perspective offers a useful framework to explain how the transition to self-care can be facilitated. We discuss how motivation regarding hemophilia treatment may be increased through parental autonomy support and we offer examples of applied communication techniques to facilitate autonomy-supportive caregiving. Although it has not yet been tested in the context of hemophilia, these communication techniques could potentially help caregivers promote adherence and self-care in children. Confronted by unique challenges to adherence and self-care, caregivers of children with hemophilia should move from an exclusive focus on illness-management education to an integrative strategy, including motivation-enhancing communication. The self-determination perspective provides important proximal objectives (e.g. autonomy support) to maintain optimal adherence in adolescents as they move from parent-care to self-care. Future research initiatives should address the practice of these communication techniques and evaluate them in the context of hemophilia.

  3. The extent of food advertising to children on Greek television: focus on foods potentially detrimental to oral health.

    Gatou, T; Mamai-Homata, E; Polychronopoulou, A; Koletsi-Kounari, H

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the extent and nature of food advertising to children on Greek television, focusing on the adverts for foods with potential harmful effects on oral health, and to examine the persuasive marketing techniques used to promote food products. Advertisements broadcast on six TV-channels during children's peak viewing times on two weekdays and two weekend days in the period May-June 2010 were recorded (166.7 hours). Each advertisement was coded according to: date, day, length, type of program in which the ad appeared, type of product advertised and promotional technique used. Food advertisements were subdivided according to their sugar and/or acid content as potentially harmful or non-harmful to teeth. Food advertisements had an average frequency of 8.0 per hour during children's peak viewing times with highest frequency (11.4 per hour) on weekends during child-focused programs. Of all advertisements, 1330 (26.7%) were for foods, and 595 (44.7%) of these deemed to be potentially harmful to teeth. The most commonly advertised food product during children's programs was confectionery, 80 (27.7%). Of food advertisements, 199 (15.0%) used at least one of the promotional techniques likely to appeal to children. Advertisements for foods potentially harmful for teeth were more likely to be shown during child-focused programs (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.04-4.16) and to promise a free gift with purchase (OR 35.43, 95% CI 10.83-115.88). Children in Greece are exposed to a large volume of advertisements for unhealthy foods and drinks, which intensively use persuasive techniques proved to affect children's food preferences and consumption. Our study provides evidence that could support advocacy and interventions for the regulation of food advertising.

  4. Hereditary spherocytosis and partial splenectomy in children: review of surgical technique and the role of imaging

    Hollingsworth, Caroline L.; Rice, Henry E.

    2010-01-01

    The risks associated with total splenectomy, including overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to an interest in the use of partial splenectomy as an alternative surgical option for children with congenital hemolytic anemias and hypersplenism. Partial splenectomy, a procedure designed to remove enough spleen to improve anemia and avoid complications of splenic sequestration while preserving splenic function, has shown promise in children. Radiologic imaging is essential for the preoperative evaluation and postoperative care for children undergoing partial splenectomy and offers a broad range of critical clinical information essential for care of these complex children. It is imperative for radiologists involved in the care of these children to be familiar with the surgical technique and imaging options for these procedures. This article reviews the surgical technique as well as the current status of various diagnostic imaging options used for children undergoing partial splenectomy, highlighting technical aspects and specific clinical information obtained by each modality. (orig.)

  5. Hereditary spherocytosis and partial splenectomy in children: review of surgical technique and the role of imaging

    Hollingsworth, Caroline L. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States); Rice, Henry E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Durham, NC (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The risks associated with total splenectomy, including overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to an interest in the use of partial splenectomy as an alternative surgical option for children with congenital hemolytic anemias and hypersplenism. Partial splenectomy, a procedure designed to remove enough spleen to improve anemia and avoid complications of splenic sequestration while preserving splenic function, has shown promise in children. Radiologic imaging is essential for the preoperative evaluation and postoperative care for children undergoing partial splenectomy and offers a broad range of critical clinical information essential for care of these complex children. It is imperative for radiologists involved in the care of these children to be familiar with the surgical technique and imaging options for these procedures. This article reviews the surgical technique as well as the current status of various diagnostic imaging options used for children undergoing partial splenectomy, highlighting technical aspects and specific clinical information obtained by each modality. (orig.)

  6. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita; Friis, Henrik; Kurpad, Anura; Wells, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique. We refined procedures for administration of isotope doses and collection of saliva. Furthermore, we established that equilibration time in local context is 3 h. These findings and the resulting standard operating procedures are important to improve data quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques.

  7. Cognitive potential and its predictors in children from a rural district of pakistan

    Gilani, I.

    2017-01-01

    Effective interventions are available to reduce cognitive deficit currently estimated to affect more than 200 million children under 5 years of age in developing countries. However, developing world's investment is negligible in this regard mainly because of non-existent global indicators to monitor progress with respect to the childhood cognitive development. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) or Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) is an indicator of the cognitive development. This study was designed to assess cognitive potential of 6-7 years old children from a rural district of Pakistan by calculating their FSIQ. Predictors of the FSIQ were also determined. Method: This cross-sectional research was carried out in 40 rural Union Councils (UCs) of 2 sub-districts in district Rawalpindi utilizing simple random sampling technique. Wechsler Pre-school and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-IV) was administered to 6-7 years old children (n=300) for measuring their FSIQ. Results: FSIQ of rural Pakistani children, relative to the normative sample, was found to be in the category of low-average. Findings of multiple regression analysis concluded grade/class of the child as the most influential predictor of the FSIQ followed by the level of mother's and then father's education. Conclusion: FSIQ of the rural Pakistani children, relative to the normative sample, was found to be in the category of low-average. Predictors of the FSIQ, seen in this research, were school grades and non-educated parents of the children warranting future research on the contribution of environmental influences to the variability in cognitive potential. (author)

  8. Airway resistance measurements in pre-school children with asthmatic symptoms : The interrupter technique

    Kooi, EMW; Schokker, S; van der Molen, T; Duiverman, EJ

    Measuring airway resistance in pre-school children with the interrupter technique has proven to be feasible and reliable in daily clinical practice and research settings. Whether it contributes to diagnosing asthma in pre-schoot children still remains uncertain. From the results of previous studies

  9. Kata Techniques Training Consistently Decreases Stereotypy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 14 weeks of Kata techniques training on stereotypic behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated. The study included 30 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a no-exercise control group (n = 15). Participants of…

  10. Art of persuasion: an analysis of techniques used to market foods to children.

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget

    2011-11-01

    Persuasive marketing techniques, such as promotional characters, influence children's food preferences and requests for foods. The aim of this research was to describe the techniques used to market unhealthy foods and beverages to children on Sydney free-to-air television. Marketing techniques designed to appeal to children were identified from international literature and summarised into a systematic coding tool. Using this tool, the marketing techniques used in a random sample of 100 unique food advertisements, broadcasted on Sydney free-to-air television, were coded. Frequency of marketing techniques was analysed overall and for use in advertisements marketing unhealthy foods, emotionally or verbally appealing to parents, or featuring child actors. Advertisers' use of persuasive techniques generally did not differ by type of food advertised. Marketing techniques with greater prominence in unhealthy food advertising were palatability (54% of unhealthy food advertisements), convenience (52%), fantasy/imagination (28%), fun/happiness (17%) and cartoon characters (9%). Advertisements emotionally appealing to parents (24%) were significantly more likely to make general health or nutrition statements (38% vs. 17%), and appealed to children concurrently through fun/happiness and fantasy/imagination appeals. Children were depicted in advertisements as eating with friends or family, situated within the home and frequently snacking on less healthy foods. Food and beverage advertisers use a range of visual, audio and emotive techniques to appeal to children and their parents that do not discriminate by the type of food advertised. The range and complexity of these techniques complicate the restriction of their use in food advertising to children. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Nosebleed in children. Background and techniques to stop the flow.

    McDonald, T J

    1987-01-01

    Nosebleed in children can result from dryness and picking of the resultant crust over the anterior part of the nasal septum, trauma to the nose, juvenile angiofibroma, or disorders of hemostatic mechanisms. In most cases it is not difficult to treat; often the primary care physician can assist a patient by giving instructions over the telephone to a parent. In the office or hospital, the usual measures are firm pressure, placement of a piece of cotton dipped in a cocaine-epinephrine solution, taking of a brief history, application of petrolatum, and taping of the nose. If bleeding persists, anterior nasal packing and, rarely, posterior packing should be performed. Maxillary artery ligation is done in cases of severe epistaxis. Special care must be taken with children who have a bleeding disorder or who are recovering from adenoidectomy.

  12. Changes of Transient Visual Evoked Potentials in Dyslexic Children

    Ka Yan Leung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP in dyslexics. Methods: Fourteen children, 7 dyslexics and 7 control, aged 7 to 8 years were recruited. All dyslexic subjects were diagnosed by clinical psychologist. All subjects are from mainstream primary schools in Hong Kong, using Chinese and Cantonese as their primary written and spoken language, having normal visual acuity and IQ. Children with reported emotional or behavioral problems or binocular vision problem were excluded. All the subjects participated in pattern-reversal VEP measurements binocularly with 1000msec recording time. Four conditions of stimulations (checkersize: 180 min of arc were applied. (15-Hz at 15% contrast (25-Hz at 1% contrast (315-Hz at 15% contrast (415-Hz at 1% contrast Results: At 15% contrast stimulus, dyslexic subjects showed smaller amplitudes in both frequencies compared with the control group, especially in higher frequency. At 1% contrast stimulus, dyslexic subjects also showed smaller amplitudes in both frequencies and obvious reduction was observed at the later part of the recording period. No observable difference was showed in the latency of both contrast conditions. Conclusion: The attenuated VEP responses in higher frequency at low contrast condition in dyslexic group showed the changes of the transient visual response and this implies an abnormality in magnocellular pathway in dyslexia.

  13. Simplified radioisotope technique for assessing gastroesophageal reflux in children

    Jona, J.Z.; Sty, J.R.; Glicklich, M.

    1981-01-01

    There were 125 children with a strong clinical suspicion of gastroesophageal reflux and/or aspiration evaluated with gastroesophageal scintigrams. Researchers found this examination to be more sensitive than the standard barium radiography and highly specific in detecting aspiration of gastric contents. This procedure is simple, safe and more physiologic than other available examinations. However, since gastroesophageal scintigraphy does not delineate anatomic changes as well as barium studies, structural abnormalities of the esophagus and stomach should be evaluated with barium esophagrams and upper GI series

  14. An exploratory study investigating children's perceptions of dental behavioural management techniques.

    Davies, E Bethan; Buchanan, Heather

    2013-07-01

    Behaviour management techniques (BMTs) are utilised by dentists to aid children's dental anxiety (DA). Children's perceptions of these have been underexplored, and their feedback could help inform paediatric dentistry. To explore children's acceptability and perceptions of dental communication and BMTs and to compare these by age, gender, and DA. A total of sixty-two 9- to 11-year-old school children participated in the study. Children's acceptability of BMTs was quantified using a newly developed Likert scale, alongside exploration of children's experiences and perceptions through interviews. anova and t-tests explored BMT acceptability ratings by age, gender, and DA. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interviews. Statistical analyses showed no effect of age, gender, or DA upon BMT acceptability. Children generally perceived the BMTs as acceptable or neutral; stop signals were the most acceptable, and voice control the least acceptable BMT. Beneficial experiences of distraction and positive reinforcement were common. Children described the positive nature of their dentist's communication and BMT utilisation. Dental anxiety did not affect children's perceptions of BMTs. Children were generally positive about dentist's communication and established BMTs. Children's coping styles may impact perceptions and effectiveness of BMTs and should be explored in future investigations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  15. Breaking Barriers with Collaborative Language Practices in a Multiethnic Classroom: A Potential Model for Immigrant Children

    Tarim, Seyda Deniz

    2018-01-01

    Children's spontaneous peer-group interactions were video-recorded and analyzed using techniques of ethnography and talk-in interaction. The examples illustrate how the children socialize novices to language practices and other culturally appropriate practices used in their peer-group communities. The children's translation work is a discursive…

  16. Behavior guidance techniques in Pediatric Dentistry: attitudes of parents of children with disabilities and without disabilities.

    de Castro, Alessandra Maia; de Oliveira, Fabiana Sodré; de Paiva Novaes, Myrian Stella; Araújo Ferreira, Danielly Cunha

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the parental acceptance of pediatric behavior guidance techniques (BGT). Forty parents of children without disabilities (Group A) and another 40 parents of children with disabilities (Group B) were selected. Each BGT was explained by a single examiner and it was presented together with a photograph album. After that parents evaluated the acceptance in: totally unacceptable, somewhat acceptable, acceptable, and totally acceptable. Results indicated that in Group A, the BGT based on communicative guidance was accepted by most participants. In Group B, just one mother considered totally unacceptable the voice control method and other two, tell-show-do. For both groups, the general anesthesia was the less accepted BGT. There was statistically significant difference in acceptance for protective stabilization with a restrictive device in Group B. Children's parents with and without disabilities accepted behavioral guidance techniques, but basic techniques showed higher rates of acceptance than advanced techniques. ©2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Surgical techniques for the treatment of ankyloglossia in children: a case series

    Marina Azevedo JUNQUEIRA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a series of clinical cases of ankyloglossia in children, which were approached by different techniques: frenotomy and frenectomy with the use of one hemostat, two hemostats, a groove director or laser. Information on the indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques was also presented. Children diagnosed with ankyloglossia were subjected to different surgical procedures. The choice of the techniques was based on the age of the patient, length of the frenulum and availability of the instruments and equipment. All the techniques presented are successful for the treatment of ankyloglossia and require a skilled professional. Laser may be considered a simple and safe alternative for children while reducing the amount of local anesthetics needed, the bleeding and the chances of infection, swelling and discomfort.

  18. Wound complications after chemo-port placement in children: Does closure technique matter?

    Muncie, Colin; Herman, Richard; Collier, Anderson; Berch, Barry; Blewett, Christopher; Sawaya, David

    2018-03-01

    Wound dehiscence after chemo-port placement is a rare but potentially significant complication. We hypothesize that by using a simple running skin closure technique during chemo-port placement the rate of wound dehiscence and overall wound complications can be significantly decreased. IRB approval was obtained and patients port from June 2012 to April 2016 were analyzed. Data collected on patients included patient demographics, skin closure type, and wound complications within 30days. Chi-square was performed to examine the univariate association with skin closure technique and wound dehiscence. Logistic regression was performed to examine the multivariable association between skin closure type and wound dehiscence and to compute odds ratios. There were 259 ports placed in this cohort: 125 used simple running skin closure technique, and 134 used the subcuticular skin closure. Patients were found to not have any difference in rate of dehiscence or overall wound complications based on gender, age, location of port, or use of steroids or chemotherapy within 1week of port placement. When compared, only 1 case (0.80%) in the simple running group vs 10 cases (7.46%) in the subcuticular group experienced a wound dehiscence [unadjusted OR=14.07 (1.69, 116.99) p=0.0144]. When comparing overall wound complications the simple running group had 3 (2.4%) versus 12 (8.96%) in the subcuticular group [unadjusted OR=4.78 (1.27, 17.94) p=0.0203]. When adjusting for port-number both dehiscence and overall wound complications remained statistically significant. We conclude that the simple running skin closure for chemo-port placement in children has superior outcomes in regards to prevention of dehiscence and overall wound related complications when compared to the subcuticular technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Somatosensory evoked potentials in children with autism | Azouz ...

    SSEPs) changesamong children with autism, and their relation to somatosensory manifestations and severity of autism. Subjects: Thirty children with autism aged 2–12 years were included in the study, all of them fulfilling criteria of the Diagnostic ...

  20. Pattern visual evoked potentials in dyslexic versus normal children

    Javad Heravian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sensitivity of PVEP has high validity to detect visual deficits in children with dyslexic problem. However, no significant difference was found between dyslexia and normal children using high contrast stimuli.

  1. Marketing techniques in television advertisements of food and drinks directed at children in Spain, 2012.

    León-Flández, Karimen; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Moya-Geromini, María Ángeles; Bosqued-Estefanía, María José; López-Jurado, Lázaro; Damián, Javier

    2018-07-01

    To analyse marketing techniques used in television advertisements of food and drinks (AFDs) directed to children, and their nutritional quality. This is a cross-sectional study of television AFDs directed to children in Spain over 7 days in 2012. Primary appeal, persuasive and nutritional marketing techniques, and links to Internet were registered. The foods were classified according to their nutritional quality using an international codification system and the UK nutrient profile model. Frequency of AFDs using marketing techniques and percentages for unhealthy products were calculated. Taste and fun were the main primary appeals used. Persuasive and nutritional marketing techniques and links to Internet were used in 61%, 68.5% and 65.2% of AFDs, respectively. These techniques were more common during weekdays, enhanced protection time slots and on channels with particular appeal to children. More than two-thirds of AFDs using these techniques were for unhealthy products, reaching 96.2% of AFDs with premium offers and gifts. There is an extensive use of marketing techniques in television AFDs directed to children in Spain. Most products advertised were unhealthy, so stronger governmental regulations are required.

  2. New Technique for the Treatment of Buried Penis in Children.

    Liu, Feng; Lin, Tao; He, Dawei; Wei, Guanghui; Liu, Junhong; Liu, Xing; Hua, Yi; Zhang, Deying; Lu, Peng; Wu, Shengde; Li, Xuliang

    2016-02-01

    To present our treatment experience of buried penis, which has no consensus therapeutic technique for all cases of buried penis, by using a new technique for the repair of this condition, in which the approach is through the ventral penile root. We performed a retrospective review of 153 patients (median age: 6.5 years) who underwent repair of a buried penis between March 2005 and March 2013. The technique involves the creation of a wedge-shaped cut of the ventral penile skin, followed by fixation of the subcutaneous penile skin at the base of the degloved penis to the Buck fascia at the 2- and 10-o'clock positions. The ventral outer preputial skin is split down the midline, and the dorsal inner preputial skin is cut with oblique incision. All patients were followed for an average of 12 months after repair. Other than 2 cases (1.3%) of trapped penis with a ring of scar tissue, which required subsequent excision, there were no complications and the cosmetic appearance was satisfactory. The described ventral penile approach is a simple and effective procedure with good cosmetic outcomes and few complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematical analysis of the dimensional scaling technique for the Schroedinger equation with power-law potentials

    Ding Zhonghai; Chen, Goong; Lin, Chang-Shou

    2010-01-01

    The dimensional scaling (D-scaling) technique is an innovative asymptotic expansion approach to study the multiparticle systems in molecular quantum mechanics. It enables the calculation of ground and excited state energies of quantum systems without having to solve the Schroedinger equation. In this paper, we present a mathematical analysis of the D-scaling technique for the Schroedinger equation with power-law potentials. By casting the D-scaling technique in an appropriate variational setting and studying the corresponding minimization problem, the D-scaling technique is justified rigorously. A new asymptotic dimensional expansion scheme is introduced to compute asymptotic expansions for ground state energies.

  4. Chest trauma in children: current imaging guidelines and techniques.

    Moore, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Given the heterogeneous nature of pediatric chest trauma, the optimal imaging approach is tailored to the specific patient. Chest radiography remains the most important imaging modality for initial triage. The decision to perform a chest computed tomography scan should be based on the nature of the trauma, the child\\'s clinical condition, and the initial radiographic findings, taking the age-related pretest probabilities of serious injury into account. The principles of as low as reasonably achievable and Image Gently should be followed. The epidemiology and pathophysiology, imaging techniques, characteristic findings, and evidence-based algorithms for pediatric chest trauma are discussed.

  5. Development of technique for diagnostics of social reserves of development of collective labour potential

    Голубєв, Станіслав Миколайович

    2015-01-01

    The problems of diagnostics of social reserves of the collective labour potential are considered in the article. The aim of this study is to develop diagnostic techniques of social reserves of the collective labour potential in the work and the essence of the concept of "social reserves" as a subject of study of economics and their features in the study of collective labour potential. The use of these reserves can increase the efficiency of the labour collective processes by improving coopera...

  6. Sweep visually evoked potentials and visual findings in children with West syndrome.

    de Freitas Dotto, Patrícia; Cavascan, Nívea Nunes; Berezovsky, Adriana; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Rocha, Daniel Martins; Pereira, Josenilson Martins; Salomão, Solange Rios

    2014-03-01

    West syndrome (WS) is a type of early childhood epilepsy characterized by progressive neurological development deterioration that includes vision. To demonstrate the clinical importance of grating visual acuity thresholds (GVA) measurement by sweep visually evoked potentials technique (sweep-VEP) as a reliable tool for evaluation of the visual cortex status in WS children. This is a retrospective study of the best-corrected binocular GVA and ophthalmological features of WS children referred for the Laboratory of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision of UNIFESP from 1998 to 2012 (Committee on Ethics in Research of UNIFESP n° 0349/08). The GVA deficit was calculated by subtracting binocular GVA score (logMAR units) of each patient from the median values of age norms from our own lab and classified as mild (0.1-0.39 logMAR), moderate (0.40-0.80 logMAR) or severe (>0.81 logMAR). Associated ophthalmological features were also described. Data from 30 WS children (age from 6 to 108 months, median = 14.5 months, mean ± SD = 22.0 ± 22.1 months; 19 male) were analyzed. The majority presented severe GVA deficit (0.15-1.44 logMAR; mean ± SD = 0.82 ± 0.32 logMAR; median = 0.82 logMAR), poor visual behavior, high prevalence of strabismus and great variability in ocular positioning. The GVA deficit did not vary according to gender (P = .8022), WS type (P = .908), birth age (P = .2881), perinatal oxygenation (P = .7692), visual behavior (P = .8789), ocular motility (P = .1821), nystagmus (P = .2868), risk of drug-induced retinopathy (P = .4632) and participation in early visual stimulation therapy (P = .9010). The sweep-VEP technique is a reliable tool to classify visual system impairment in WS children, in agreement with the poor visual behavior exhibited by them. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuous monitoring of back-wall stress corrosion cracking propagation by means of potential drop techniques

    Sato, Yasumoto; Atsumi, Takeo; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of the potential drop techniques to the continuous monitoring of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) propagation, SCC tests were performed in a sodium thiosulfate solution at room temperature using plate specimens with weldments. The SCC propagation was monitored using the techniques of direct current potential drop (DCPD), alternating current potential drop (ACPD) and modified induced current potential drop (MICPD) on the reverse side that on which the SCC existed and effectiveness of each technique for the continuous monitoring from the reverse side of SCC was compared from the viewpoints of sensitivity to the crack propagation and measurement stability. The MICPD and DCPD techniques permit continuous monitoring of the back-wall SCC propagation, which initiates from a fatigue pre-crack at a depth of about 4 mm, from which it propagates through more than 80% of the specimen thickness. The MICPD technique can decrease the effect of the current flowing in the direction of the crack length by focusing the induced current into the local area of measurement using induction coils, so that the sensitivity of the continuous monitoring of the back wall SCC propagation is higher than that of the DCPD and ACPD techniques. (author)

  8. The Effect of Karate Techniques Training on Communication Deficit of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Bahrami, Fatimah; Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Sorensen, Carl

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined the long term effect of Karate techniques training on communication of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty school aged children with ASD were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). Participants in the exercise group were engaged in 14 weeks of Karate techniques training. Communication deficit at baseline, post-intervention (week 14), and at 1 month follow up were evaluated. Exercise group showed significant reduction in communication deficit compared to control group. Moreover, reduction in communication deficit in the exercise group at one month follow up remained unchanged compared to post-intervention time. We concluded that teaching Karate techniques to children with ASD leads to significant reduction in their communication deficit.

  9. Biomarkers to assess potential developmental immunotoxicity in children

    Luster, Michael I.; Johnson, Victor J.; Yucesoy, Berran; Simeonova, Petia P.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical tests are readily available for assessing severe loss of immune function in children with diseases such as AIDS or primary immunodeficiency. However tests that could reliably identify subtle immune changes, as might be expected to result from exposure to developmental immunotoxic agents, are not readily available. A number of tests are described which we believe have potential applicability for epidemiological studies involving developmental immunotoxicity. Several of the tests, such as T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TRECs) and cytokine measurements, while highly relevant from a biological standpoint, may be precluded from use at the current time, for either technical issues or insufficient validation. Immunophenotyping and measurement of serum immunoglobulin levels, on the other hand, are well validated. Yet they may require extraordinary care in experimental design and technical performance in order to obtain data that would consistently detect subtle changes, as these tests are not generally considered highly sensitive. Quantification of the immune response to childhood vaccine, while up to the present used sparingly, may represent an excellent indicator for developmental immunotoxicity when conducted under appropriate conditions

  10. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential analysis (an example of Iran)

    Haghizadeh, Ali; Moghaddam, Davoud Davoudi; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater potential analysis prepares better comprehension of hydrological settings of different regions. This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely statistical index (SI) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) to analyze groundwater potential in Broujerd region of Iran. The research was done using 11 groundwater conditioning factors and 496 spring positions. Based on the ground water potential maps (GPMs) of SI and DST methods, 24.22% and 23.74% of the study area is covered by poor zone of groundwater potential, and 43.93% and 36.3% of Broujerd region is covered by good and very good potential zones, respectively. The validation of outcomes displayed that area under the curve (AUC) of SI and DST techniques are 81.23% and 79.41%, respectively, which shows SI method has slightly a better performance than the DST technique. Therefore, SI and DST methods are advantageous to analyze groundwater capacity and scrutinize the complicated relation between groundwater occurrence and groundwater conditioning factors, which permits investigation of both systemic and stochastic uncertainty. Finally, it can be realized that these techniques are very beneficial for groundwater potential analyzing and can be practical for water-resource management experts.

  11. PEDAGIGOCAL TECHNIQUE OF BUILDING THE CULTURE OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AT ART CLASSES

    Svetlana Vyacheslavovna Kahnovich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the pedagogical technique of building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at the local and modular level. Interpersonal relations are viewed as the module and art classes as the local level. The research is timely as it can assist in studying the problem of moral development of preschool children by building the culture of interpersonal relations by artistic education means. The study presents novelty concluding from the survey of scientific literature. The process of building the culture of interpersonal relations in children has not been properly studied by preschool pedagogy. The task of the present study is to elaborate a pedagogical technique to build the culture of interpersonal relations between children at art classes. The article discusses ‘technological’ criteria (term by G.K. Selevko and presents interactive principles of the pedagogical technique. Group activities alongside with individual ones were viewed as organizational forms of art classes. Building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at art classes is closely connected with the development of their personality, a child’s  consciousness, their motivational and conceptual spheres during their gradual moral development at various levels - emotional (attitude, axiological level, psychic (intentional cognitive processes, activity (artistic and interpersonal literacy. Graphic (projective methods were used to analyze age dynamics of ethical and moral development. The conclusion describes a set of pedagogical conditions for efficient building of the culture of interpersonal relations in children at art classes.  Goal. To elaborate a pedagogical technique for building the culture of interpersonal relations in preschool children at art classes. The technique can be applied at local and modular level.Methods and Methodology. The pedagogical technique is aimed at building the culture of interpersonal relations

  12. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  13. What do potential jurors know about police interrogation techniques and false confessions?

    Leo, Richard A; Liu, Brittany

    2009-01-01

    Psychological police interrogation methods in America inevitably involve some level of pressure and persuasion to achieve their goal of eliciting confessions of guilt from custodial suspects. In this article, we surveyed potential jurors about their perceptions of a range of psychological interrogation techniques, the likelihood that such techniques would elicit a true confession from guilty suspects, and the likelihood that such techniques could elicit a false confession from innocent suspects. Participants recognized that these interrogation techniques may be psychologically coercive and may elicit true confessions, but believed that psychologically coercive interrogation techniques are not likely to elicit false confessions. The findings from this survey study indicate that potential jurors believe that false confessions are both counter- intuitive and unlikely, even in response to psychologically coercive interrogation techniques that have been shown to lead to false confessions from the innocent. This study provides empirical support for the idea that expert witnesses may helpfully inform jurors about the social science research on psychologically coercive interrogation methods and how and why such interrogation techniques can lead to false confessions. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  15. The Optical Flow Technique on the Research of Solar Non-potentiality

    Liu, Ji-hong; Zhang, Hong-qi

    2010-06-01

    Several optical flow techniques, which have being applied to the researches of solar magnetic non-potentiality recently, have been summarized here. And a few new non-potential parameters which can be derived from them have been discussed, too. The main components of the work are presented as follows: (1) The optical flow techniques refers to a series of new image analyzing techniques arisen recently on the researches of solar magnetic non-potentiality. They mainly include LCT (local correlation tracking), ILCT (inductive equation combining with LCT), MEF (minimum energy effect), DAVE (differential affine velocity estimator) and NAVE (nonlinear affine velocity estimator). Their calculating and applying conditions, merits and deficiencies, all have been discussed detailedly in this work. (2) Benefit from the optical flow techniques, the transverse velocity fields of the magnetic features on the solar surface may be determined by a time sequence of high-quality images currently produced by high-resolution observations either from the ground or in space. Consequently, several new non-potential parameters may be acquired, such as the magnetic helicity flux, the induced electric field in the photosphere, the non-potential magnetic stress (whose area integration is the Lorentz force), etc. Then we can determine the energy flux across the photosphere, and subsequently evaluate the energy budget. Former works on them by small or special samples have shown that they are probably related closely to the erupting events, such as flare, filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections.

  16. Awareness of eSafety and Potential Online Dangers among Children and Teenagers

    Zilka, Gila Cohen

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Awareness of eSafety and potential online dangers for children and teenagers. Background: The study examined eSafety among children and teenagers from their own perspectives, through evaluations of their awareness level of eSafety and of potential online dangers. Methodology: This is a mixed-method study with both quantitative and…

  17. An effective bleaching technique for non-vital, discoloured teeth in children and adolescents.

    Leith, Rona

    2009-08-01

    Discolouration of a permanent incisor may have a significant social impact on children and adolescents. Intervention should be minimally destructive of tooth tissue and should not compromise future restorative options. This paper reviews the technique of inside\\/outside bleaching, and proposes it as an efficient, effective and acceptable method for use in the compliant younger patient with an unaesthetic non-vital tooth.

  18. Critique: Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games?

    Wright, Craig; Conlon, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critique on K. Amon and A. Campbell's "Can children with AD/HD learn relaxation and breathing techniques through biofeedback video games?". Amon and Campbell reported a successful trial of a commercially available biofeedback program, "The Wild Divine", in reducing symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)…

  19. Potential uses of remote handling and robotic techniques in the back end of the fuel cycle

    Reynolds, N.P.; Tabe, T.; Fenton, N.; Baumgartner, P.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is actively conducting research on used fuel immobilization, used fuel reprocessing, and nuclear fuel waste immobilization and disposal. This paper attempts to identify potential uses of robotics and remote handling techniques in these areas, where their adoption could lead to significant processing, economic and safety advantages

  20. Managing water resources in Malaysia: the use of isotope technique and its potential

    Keizrul Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    This keynote address discusses the following subjects; state of Malaysia water resources, water related problem i.e floods, water shortage (droughts), water quality, river sedimentation, water resources management and the ongoing and potential application of isotope techniques in river management

  1. Potentialities of some surface characterization techniques for the development of titanium biomedical alloys

    P.S. Vanzillotta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone formation around a metallic implant is a complex process that involves micro- and nanometric interactions. Several surface treatments, including coatings were developed in order to obtain faster osseointegration. To understand the role of these surface treatments on bone formation it is necessary to choose adequate characterization techniques. Among them, we have selected electron microscopy, profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS to describe them briefly. Examples of the potentialities of these techniques on the characterization of titanium for biomedical applications were also presented and discussed. Unfortunately more than one technique is usually necessary to describe conveniently the topography (scanning electron microsocopy, profilometry and/or AFM and the chemical state (XPS of the external layer of the material surface. The employment of the techniques above described can be useful especially for the development of new materials or products.

  2. Identification of organic acids as potential biomarkers in the urine of autistic children using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Żurawicz, Ewa; Struck, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał

    2014-09-01

    There is a need to identify metabolic phenotypes in autism as they might each require unique approaches to prevention. Biological markers can help define autism subtypes and reveal potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the study was to identify alterations of small molecular weight compounds and to find potential biomarkers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was employed to evaluate major metabolic changes in low molecular weight urine metabolites of 14 children with autism spectrum disorders vs. 10 non-autistic subjects. The results prove the usefulness of an identified set of 21 endogenous compounds (including 14 organic acids), whose levels are changed in diseased children. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method combined with multivariate statistical analysis techniques provide an efficient way of depicting metabolic perturbations of diseases, and may potentially be applicable as a novel strategy for the noninvasive diagnosis and treatment of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct magnification technique of radiographs of the hand in children with chronic renal insufficiency

    Ponhold, W.; Balzar, E.

    1984-04-01

    The characteristic changes of renal osteopathy in the hand are shown by the X-rays of seven children with end stage renal disease using the direct magnification technique. All children had pathologic conditions in the hands. Most frequently tunnelation, spiculae in the phalanges and metaphyseal translucent bands in the forearm were seen. Less constantly acroosteolyses and generalized osteoporosis could be observed. The X-rays of the hands using the direct magnification technique with rare earth film-screen system and a microfocus X-ray tube are sufficient to determine renal osteopathy. If clinical symptoms are present, X-rays of other parts of the skeleton are necessary. By using the above mentioned radiologic technique the radiographic diagnostic effort could be minimized.

  4. Direct magnification technique of radiographs of the hand in children with chronic renal insufficiency

    Ponhold, W.; Balzar, E.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic changes of renal osteopathy in the hand are shown by the X-rays of seven children with end stage renal disease using the direct magnification technique. All children had pathologic conditions in the hands. Most frequently tunnelation, spiculae in the phalanges and metaphyseal translucent bands in the forearm were seen. Less constantly acroosteolyses and generalized osteoporosis could be observed. The X-rays of the hands using the direct magnification technique with rare earth film-screen system and a microfocus X-ray tube are sufficient to determine renal osteopathy. If clinical symptoms are present, X-rays of other parts of the skeleton are necessary. By using the above mentioned radiologic technique the radiographic diagnostic effort could be minimized. (orig.) [de

  5. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Neurosurgery: A New Technique with Much Potential

    David Breuskin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical innovations in brain tumour diagnostic and therapy have led to significant improvements of patient outcome and recurrence free interval. The use of technical devices such as surgical microscopes as well as neuronavigational systems have helped localising tumours as much as fluorescent agents, such as 5-aminolaevulinic acid, have helped visualizing pathologically altered tissue. Nonetheless, intraoperative instantaneous frozen sections and histological diagnosis remain the only method of gaining certainty of the nature of the resected tissue. This technique is time consuming and does not provide close-to-real-time information. In gastroenterology, confocal endoscopy closed the gap between tissue resection and histological examination, providing an almost real-time histological diagnosis. The potential of this technique using a confocal laser endoscope EndoMAG1 by Karl Storz Company was evaluated by our group on pig brains, tumour tissue cell cultures, and fresh human tumour specimen. Here, the authors report for the first time on the results of applying this new technique and provide first confocal endoscopic images of various brain and tumour structures. In all, the technique harbours a very promising potential to provide almost real-time intraoperative diagnosis, but further studies are needed to provide evidence for the technique’s potential.

  6. A review of DTCA techniques: Appraising their success and potential impact on medication users.

    Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Siraj, Ashna Medina; Curley, Louise

    2018-03-01

    subsequent success in sales. However some techniques, although beneficial to pharmaceutical promotion, need to be monitored by policymakers and regulatory advisors, as they have the potential to negatively impact consumer health knowledge. Overall, through this review it is evident that there are a number if techniques that employed by pharmaceutical marketers to augment the success of pharmaceutical promotion. While these techniques may be beneficial to pharmaceutical companies and might increase awareness amongst consumers, it is important to be critical of them, as they have the potential to be exploited by pharmaceutical marketers. This review indicated that although some techniques are successful and appear to be satisfactory in providing information to consumers, other techniques need to be appraised more closely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient perspectives: Kundalini yoga meditation techniques for psycho-oncology and as potential therapies for cancer.

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David S

    2005-03-01

    The ancient system of Kundalini Yoga (KY) includes a vast array of meditation techniques. Some were discovered to be specific for treating psychiatric disorders and others are supposedly beneficial for treating cancers. To date, 2 clinical trials have been conducted for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The first was an open uncontrolled trial and the second a single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a KY protocol against the Relaxation Response and Mindfulness Meditation (RRMM) techniques combined. Both trials showed efficacy on all psychological scales using the KY protocol; however, the RCT showed no efficacy on any scale with the RRMM control group. The KY protocol employed an OCD-specific meditation technique combined with other techniques that are individually specific for anxiety, low energy, fear, anger, meeting mental challenges, and turning negative thoughts into positive thoughts. In addition to OCD symptoms, other symptoms, including anxiety and depression, were also significantly reduced. Elements of the KY protocol other than the OCD-specific technique also may have applications for psycho-oncology patients and are described here. Two depression-specific KY techniques are described that also help combat mental fatigue and low energy. A 7-part protocol is described that would be used in KY practice to affect the full spectrum of emotions and distress that complicate a cancer diagnosis. In addition, there are KY techniques that practitioners have used in treating cancer. These techniques have not yet been subjected to formal clinical trials but are described here as potential adjunctive therapies. A case history demonstrating rapid onset of acute relief of intense fear in a terminal breast cancer patient using a KY technique specific for fear is presented. A second case history is reported for a surviving male diagnosed in 1988 with terminal prostate cancer who has used KY therapy long term as part of a self

  8. A modified technique for craniospinal irradiation in children designed to reduce acute and late radiation toxicity

    Phillips, Claire; Sexton, Maree

    2004-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation is an important technique for the treatment of a number of paediatric malignancies. The conventional technique uses photons for all fields and does not exploit the benefits of CT and computer planning systems. The present paper describes a modification of the conventional technique in which both photons and electrons are used for the spinal field (mixed-beam technique). Computed tomography images and a planning computer are used for the selection of field junctions, electron beam energy and dosimetry. The intention of the technique is to reduce radiotherapy toxicity. A discussion of the potential benefits is presented Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  9. Persuasive techniques used in television advertisements to market foods to UK children.

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Kirkham, Tim C; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the nature and extent of use of persuasive marketing techniques in television advertisements (adverts) to promote foods to children. Popular UK commercial television channels broadcasting children's/family viewing were recorded for 2 days (6 am-10 pm) every month in 2008 and recordings were screened for adverts. Eighteen thousand eight hundred and eighty eight adverts were for food and these were coded for peak/non-peak children's viewing time and representation of core (healthy)/non-core (unhealthy)/miscellaneous foods. The analysis assessed use of persuasive appeals, premium offers, promotional characters (brand equity and licensed characters), celebrity endorsers and website promotion in food adverts. Promotional characters, celebrity endorsers and premium offers were used more frequently to promote non-core than core foods, even on dedicated children's channels. Brand equity characters featured on a greater proportion of food adverts than licensed characters. A food brand website was promoted in a third of food adverts (websites are not covered by the statutory regulation on food advertising). This extensive analysis of television adverts demonstrated that the use of persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy foods was extensive in broadcasting popular with children despite regulations. Further studies should incorporate an analysis of the content of websites promoted during food adverts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applied potential tomography. A new noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying

    Avill, R.; Mangnall, Y.F.; Bird, N.C.; Brown, B.H.; Barber, D.C.; Seagar, A.D.; Johnson, A.G.; Read, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Applied potential tomography is a new, noninvasive technique that yields sequential images of the resistivity of gastric contents after subjects have ingested a liquid or semisolid meal. This study validates the technique as a means of measuring gastric emptying. Experiments in vitro showed an excellent correlation between measurements of resistivity and either the square of the radius of a glass rod or the volume of water in a spherical balloon when both were placed in an oval tank containing saline. Altering the lateral position of the rod in the tank did not alter the values obtained. Images of abdominal resistivity were also directly correlated with the volume of air in a gastric balloon. Profiles of gastric emptying of liquid meals obtained using applied potential tomography were very similar to those obtained using scintigraphy or dye dilution techniques, provided that acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Profiles of emptying of a mashed potato meal using applied potential tomography were also very similar to those obtained by scintigraphy. Measurements of the emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach were reproducible if acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Thus, applied potential tomography is an accurate and reproducible method of measuring gastric emptying of liquids and particulate food. It is inexpensive, well tolerated, easy to use, and ideally suited for multiple studies in patients, even those who are pregnant

  11. Applied potential tomography. A new noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying

    Avill, R.; Mangnall, Y.F.; Bird, N.C.; Brown, B.H.; Barber, D.C.; Seagar, A.D.; Johnson, A.G.; Read, N.W.

    1987-04-01

    Applied potential tomography is a new, noninvasive technique that yields sequential images of the resistivity of gastric contents after subjects have ingested a liquid or semisolid meal. This study validates the technique as a means of measuring gastric emptying. Experiments in vitro showed an excellent correlation between measurements of resistivity and either the square of the radius of a glass rod or the volume of water in a spherical balloon when both were placed in an oval tank containing saline. Altering the lateral position of the rod in the tank did not alter the values obtained. Images of abdominal resistivity were also directly correlated with the volume of air in a gastric balloon. Profiles of gastric emptying of liquid meals obtained using applied potential tomography were very similar to those obtained using scintigraphy or dye dilution techniques, provided that acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Profiles of emptying of a mashed potato meal using applied potential tomography were also very similar to those obtained by scintigraphy. Measurements of the emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach were reproducible if acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Thus, applied potential tomography is an accurate and reproducible method of measuring gastric emptying of liquids and particulate food. It is inexpensive, well tolerated, easy to use, and ideally suited for multiple studies in patients, even those who are pregnant.

  12. The use of potential drop techniques for the evaluation of environment assisted cracking of austenitic alloys

    Lidar, P.; Hwang, I.S.; Ballinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The DC potential drop technique has been adapted for strain measurements. An AC potential drop technique has been developed for crack detection. It has been demonstrated that a DC with switched polarity can have a strain accuracy of ±0.12% after yielding and a multi-frequency AC system with up to 200 kHz frequency can have a sensitivity of 50 μm for crack detection. The techniques have been applied to environment assisted cracking tests of Ni-Cr-Fe alloys in 350 degrees C water and austenitic stainless steel in 288 degrees C water using both static and dynamic loading. Long term signal stability is maintained given: (1) rigid probe attachments; (2) local preamplification; and (3) adequate lead grounding and shielding. The AC potential drop technique is found to be more suitable for constant load than for dynamic loading and is also compatible with aggressive environments. During dynamic loading, sensitivity can be significantly reduced due to serrated yielding. An analytical model has been developed to predict the DC and AC potential drops in a round bar geometry. A sensitivity analysis has been made to determine test to test variation associated with variations in supplied current, specimen dimensions, and probe spacing. Multifrequency analysis shows that the measured data agrees with the prediction at frequencies up to about 100 kHz. Above 100 kHz induced signal in the probes results in increases in potential drop and phase angle. The induced signal is reproducible and therefore may be related to the crack mouth opening displacement

  13. The effect of drawing and writing technique on the anxiety level of children undergoing cancer treatment.

    Altay, Naime; Kilicarslan-Toruner, Ebru; Sari, Çigdem

    2017-06-01

    To determine the effect of the drawing and writing technique on the anxiety level of children undergoing cancer treatment in hospital. Research was conducted in the haematology-oncology clinic of a university hospital, using a quasi-experimental design (pre-and-post intervention evaluations of a single group). The sample comprised 30 hospitalised children aged 9-16 years. Data were collected with Socio-demographic form, clinical data form, and the State Anxiety Inventory. The institution gave written approval for the study and parents provided written consent. Drawing, writing and mutual story-telling techniques were used as part of a five-day programme. Children were asked to draw a picture of a hospitalised child and write a story about this drawing. After drawing and writing, mutual storytelling were used to more constructive story with positive feelings. The drawing, writing techniques was implemented on the first and third days of the programme and mutual storytelling was implemented on the second and fourth days. Data were reported as percentages and frequencies and the intervention effect analysed with the Wilcoxon test. The average age of children was 12.56 years ± 2.67 and 76.7% were girls. The mean age diagnosis and mean treatment duration were 11.26 years ± 3.17 and 16.56 months ± 20.75 respectively. Most of the children (50%) had leukaemia and were receiving chemotherapy (66.7%). In most cases (76.7%) the mother was the primary caregiver. Scores on the State Anxiety Inventory were lower-indicating lower anxiety-after the intervention (36.86 ± 4.12 than before it (40.46 ± 4.51) (p < 0.05). The therapeutic intervention reduced children's state anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An examination of marketing techniques used to promote children's vitamins in parenting magazines.

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Roberts, Katherine J; Ethan, Danna; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra

    2014-11-26

    More than a third of children and adolescents in the United States take vitamins even though professional medical organizations do not endorse their use in healthy children. Regardless of their efficacy, children's vitamin products are aggressively promoted. Therefore, the goal of this study was to describe and analyze advertisements related to vitamins in the following three popular parenting magazines, Parents, Parenting Early Years, and Parenting School Years. A total of 135 magazines across four years were reviewed.  There were 207 advertisements for children's vitamins, all in the form of chewy or gummy.  None of these advertisements included a dosage or a warning.  Almost all (92.3%) included a cartoon in the advertisement.  Almost a quarter (23.2%) of the advertisements promoted their product with the theme of prevention and more than half (51.2%) included the theme of peace of mind.  Parenting magazines are a popular medium for providing exposure to products geared towards children.  Companies that market children's vitamins in these magazines can increase awareness among parents of the risks by providing warning and dosage information in their advertisements.  Magazines can also play a role by encouraging responsible marketing and providing editorial content on children's vitamins and potential consequences of pediatric overdose.

  15. Food and beverage TV advertising to young children: Measuring exposure and potential impact.

    Harris, Jennifer L; Kalnova, Svetlana S

    2018-04-01

    Children of all ages are vulnerable to influence from exposure to unhealthy food advertisements, but experts raise additional concerns about children under 6 due to their more limited cognitive abilities. Most companies in the U.S. Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) industry self-regulatory program pledge to not direct any advertising to children under 6. However, young children also watch programming primarily directed to older children and thus may view food-related advertising despite companies' pledges. Research is required to understand the amount and potential impact of this exposure on preschool-age children. Study 1 uses Nielsen advertising exposure data to compare preschoolers' (2-5 years) and older children's (6-11 years) exposure to food advertising in 2015. Preschoolers viewed on average 3.2 food ads daily on children's programming, just 6% fewer compared to 6- to 11-year-olds; over 60% were placed by CFBAI-participating companies. Study 2 exposed young children (N = 49) in a child-care setting to child-directed food ads, measured their attitudes about the ads and advertised brands, and compared responses by 4- to 5-year-olds and 6- to 7-year olds. Most children indicated that they liked the child-directed ads, with media experience associated with greater liking for both age groups. Ad liking and previous consumption independently predicted brand liking for both age groups, although previous consumption was a stronger predictor for older children. Despite pledges by food companies to not direct advertising to children under age 6, preschoolers continue to view advertisements placed by these companies daily, including on children's programming. This advertising likely increases children's preferences for nutritionally poor advertised brands. Food companies and media companies airing children's programming should do more to protect young children from advertising that takes advantage of their vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2017

  16. High Involvement Mothers of High Achieving Children: Potential Theoretical Explanations

    Hunsaker, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    In American society, parents who have high aspirations for the achievements of their children are often viewed by others in a negative light. Various pejoratives such as "pushy parent," "helicopter parent," "stage mother," and "soccer mom" are used in the common vernacular to describe these parents. Multiple…

  17. P300 Event-Related Potentials in Children with Dyslexia

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A.; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the timing and the nature of neural disturbances in dyslexia and to further understand the topographical distribution of these, we examined entire brain regions employing the non-invasive auditory oddball P300 paradigm in children with dyslexia and neurotypical controls. Our findings revealed abnormalities for the dyslexia group in…

  18. Does Poor Handwriting Conceal Literacy Potential in Primary School Children?

    McCarney, Debra; Peters, Lynne; Jackson, Sarah; Thomas, Marie; Kirby, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a complex skill that, despite increasing use of computers, still plays a vital role in education. It is assumed that children will master letter formation at a relatively early stage in their school life, with handwriting fluency developing steadily until automaticity is attained. The capacity theory of writing suggests that as…

  19. Molecular profiling techniques as tools to detect potential unintended effects in genetically engineered maize

    Barros, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Profiling Techniques as Tools to Detect Potential Unintended Effects in Genetically Engineered Maize Eugenia Barros Introduction In the early stages of production and commercialization of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) plants... systems. In a recent paper published in Plant Biotechnology Journal,4 we compared two transgenic white maize lines with the non-transgenic counterpart to investigate two possible sources of variation: genetic engineering and environmental variation...

  20. Spatial Analysis for Potential Water Catchment Areas using GIS: Weighted Overlay Technique

    Awanda, Disyacitta; Anugrah Nurul, H.; Musfiroh, Zahrotul; Dinda Dwi, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The development of applied GIS is growing rapidly and has been widely applied in various fields. Preparation of a model to obtain information is one of the benefits of GIS. Obtaining information for water resources such as water catchment areas is one part of GIS modelling. Water catchment model can be utilized to see the distribution of potential and ability of a region in water absorbing. The use of overlay techniques with the weighting obtained from the literature from previous research is used to build the model. Model builder parameters are obtained through remote sensing interpretation techniques such as land use, landforms, and soil texture. Secondary data such as rock type maps are also used as water catchment model parameters. The location of this research is in the upstream part of the Opak river basin. The purpose of this research is to get information about potential distribution of water catchment area with overlay technique. The results of this study indicate the potential of water catchment areas with excellent category, good, medium, poor and very poor. These results may indicate that the Upper river basin is either good or in bad condition, so it can be used for better water resources management policy determination.

  1. Is the Clavicula Pro Humero Technique of Value for Reconstruction After Resection of the Proximal Humerus in Children?

    Barbier, Dominique; De Billy, Benoît; Gicquel, Philippe; Bourelle, Sophie; Journeau, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    There are several options for reconstruction of proximal humerus resections after wide resection for malignant tumors in children. The clavicula pro humero technique is a biologic option that has been used in the past, but there are only scant case reports and small series that comment on the results of the procedure. Because the longevity of children mandates a reconstruction with potential longevity not likely to be achieved by other techniques, the clavicula pro humero technique may be a potential option in selected patients. (1) How successful is the clavicula pro humero procedure in achieving local tumor control? (2) What is the frequency of nonunion? (3) What are the complications of the procedure? (4) What scores do patients achieve (on the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) after this procedure? Four university hospitals performed the clavicula pro humero technique in eight children aged 8 to 18 years between June 2006 and February 2014. During that period, general indications for this approach included all reconstructions of the proximal humerus for malignant tumors in children older than 8 years. All patients were followed for a mean of 40 months (range, 25-86 months); one patient was lost to followup before 2 years. The tumor resections removed the rotator cuff muscles in all patients, glenohumeral joint in five, and deltoid muscle in three. The median length of the bone defect after resection was 20 cm (range, 7-25 cm). It was reduced to 9 cm (range, 0-17 cm) or 27% (range, 0%-64%) of the total humerus length after clavicular rotation. Direct osteosynthesis (one patient), induced membrane technique (one patient), or vascularized fibular autograft (six patients) was used to complete the defect after rotation of the clavicle if necessary. Presence of union (defined as bone healing before 10 months, as assessed by disappearance of the osteotomy on AP and lateral view radiographs), and complications were

  2. Assessment and validation of bronchodilation using the interrupter technique in preschool children.

    Mele, Laura; Sly, Peter D; Calogero, Claudia; Bernardini, Roberto; Novembre, Elio; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio; Lombardi, Enrico

    2010-07-01

    To determine and validate a cut-off value for bronchodilation using the interrupter resistance (Rint) in preschool children. Rint was measured in 60 healthy children (age range 2.7-6.4 years) before and after salbutamol inhalation (200 microg). Four potential methods for assessing BDR were evaluated: percent change from baseline, percent change of predicted values, absolute change in Rint, and change in Z-score. These cut-off values, determined as the fifth percentile of the healthy group, were applied to children referred for the assessment of recurrent wheezing, classified on the basis of acute symptoms and/or abnormal chest examination into symptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.9-6.1 years) and asymptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.5-5.7 years) groups. The cut-off values for bronchodilation calculated in healthy children were: -32% baseline; -33% predicted; -0.26 kPa L(-1) sec; and -1.25 Z-scores. Assessing BDR in children with a history of wheezing by either a decrease in absolute Rint or a decrease in Z-score gave sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value all >80% for detecting children with current respiratory symptoms. Both a decrease in Rint > or =0.26 kPa L(-1) sec and a decrease in Z-score of > or =1.25 are appropriate for assessing BDR in preschool children with a history of recurrent wheezing. As Z-score is a more general solution, we recommend using a change in Z-score to determine BDR in preschool children. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine the clinical utility of measuring BDR in managing lung disease in such children.

  3. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Nour Eldin, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), free teraiodothyronine (FT 4 ), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  4. P300 event-related potentials in children with dyslexia.

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate the timing and the nature of neural disturbances in dyslexia and to further understand the topographical distribution of these, we examined entire brain regions employing the non-invasive auditory oddball P300 paradigm in children with dyslexia and neurotypical controls. Our findings revealed abnormalities for the dyslexia group in (i) P300 latency, globally, but greatest in frontal brain regions and (ii) decreased P300 amplitude confined to the central brain regions (Fig. 1). These findings reflect abnormalities associated with a diminished capacity to process mental workload as well as delayed processing of this information in children with dyslexia. Furthermore, the topographical distribution of these findings suggests a distinct spatial distribution for the observed P300 abnormalities. This information may be useful in future therapeutic or brain stimulation intervention trials.

  5. Reasoning Abilities and Potential Correlates Among Jordanian School Children.

    Almomani, Fidaa; Al-Momani, Murad O; Alsheyab, Nihayah; Al Mhdawi, Khader

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To investigate factors related to reasoning skills in 434 school children aged 5-9 years. Methods The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised was used to assess reasoning skills. Demographic, work and family income data, information on child's daily behavior and school academic achievement were provided by the participating children's parents. Results Reasoning scores increased by 4.56 points with increasing subject's age, 1.71 points with increasing level of father's occupation, 1.86 points with each increase in the subject's GPA, 1.13 points with consumption of breakfast at home and 1.81 points when child slept more hours. Having a father who smoked and living in a rural area decreased scores in reasoning. Conclusions for Practice Screening of reasoning and associated factors is essential for a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the child's abilities and limitations. Understanding the child's reasoning abilities is critical for establishing intervention goals and planning therapeutic activities.

  6. TONSILLITES IN CHILDREN: ISSUES OF PATHOGENESIS AND POTENTIAL OF PHYTOTHERAPY

    L. R. Selimzyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of palatine tonsils (acute and chronic tonsillitis is a pressing issue of pediatrics. Several pathogenetic links of chronictonsillitis development have not been identified yet despite high prevalence of the disease. The article presents current data onformation of biofilms at chronic tonsillites and immunological peculiarities of the Pirogoff-Waldeyer’s tonsillar ring’s lymphoid tissue in children. Authors emphasize the fact that prescription of antibacterial therapy at inflammation of palatine tonsils must be clearly justified due to the risk of development of microflora resistance, as well as of disturbed natural balance of mouth cavity microbiota. Differential diagnosis of tonsillitis and rare Marshall syndrome is important for determining appropriate management tactics. The authors demonstrated effectiveness of using a complex phytopreparation for acute and chronic tonsillites in children

  7. Rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children.

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Vertigo and imbalance are often underestimated in the pediatric population, due to limited communication abilities, atypical symptoms, and relatively quick adaptation and compensation in children. Moreover, examination and interpretation of vestibular tests are very challenging, because of difficulties with cooperation and maintenance of alertness, and because of the sometimes nauseatic reactions. Therefore, it is of great importance for each vestibular laboratory to implement a child-friendly test protocol with age-appropriate normative data. Because of the often masked appearance of vestibular problems in young children, the vestibular organ should be routinely examined in high-risk pediatric groups, such as children with a hearing impairment. Purposes of the present study were (1) to determine age-appropriate normative data for two child-friendly vestibular laboratory techniques (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP] test) in a group of children without auditory or vestibular complaints, and (2) to examine vestibular function in a group of children presenting with bilateral hearing impairment. Forty-eight typically developing children (mean age 8 years 0 months; range: 4 years 1 month to 12 years 11 months) without any auditory or vestibular complaints as well as 39 children (mean age 7 years 8 months; range: 3 years 8 months to 12 years 10 months) with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. All children underwent three sinusoidal rotations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 Hz at 50 degrees/s) and bilateral cVEMP testing. No significant age differences were found for the rotatory test, whereas a significant increase of N1 latency and a significant threshold decrease was noticeable for the cVEMP, resulting in age-appropriate normative data. Hearing-impaired children demonstrated significantly lower gain values at the 0.01 Hz rotation and a larger percentage of absent cVEMP responses compared with normal-hearing children

  8. Metacarpal lengthening in children: comparison of three different techniques in 15 consecutive cases.

    Dana, C; Aurégan, J-C; Salon, A; Guéro, S; Glorion, C; Pannier, S

    2016-09-22

    Metacarpal lengthening is a useful procedure to address hand deficiencies in children. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of three different techniques from one consecutive clinical series of hand deficiencies. A total of 15 metacarpal lengthenings have been performed in 12 children aged from 9 to 14 years. The callotasis technique was used in seven cases, the two-stage distraction-graft technique in four cases and the single-stage lengthening in four cases. All the metacarpals healed with bone. The lengthening obtained was a mean of 13 mm (range 8-21 mm), a mean of 22 mm (range 13-32 mm) and a mean of 12 mm (range 9-15 mm), respectively, in the three different techniques. The healing index was longer for callotasis (81 days/cm) compared with the other techniques (41 days/cm and 46 days/cm, respectively). We observed one case of fracture after callotasis and one after distraction-graft. One patient underwent tenolysis of the extensor mechanism after single-stage lengthening. In conclusion, distraction graft and single-stage lengthening may be valuable alternatives to callotasis. IV; therapeutic study; multi-case series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Embedding Repetition (Takrir Technique in Developing Al-Quran Memorizing Mobile Application for Autism Children

    Senan Norhalina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are various types of learning materials used in the process of teaching and learning of Al-Quran including the use of mobile application. However, the features of mobile application that are appropriate for the process of memorizing the Al-Quran, especially for the needs of children with autism is still limited. Thus, this paper proposes an interactive Al-Quran mobile application namely iHafaz to facilitate autism children recite and memorizing Al-Quran. A takrir (repetition technique in Islamic learning approach is embedded in this mobile application in order to assist autism children memorizing the Al-Quran easily. This mobile application consists of two main modules which are Hafaz (Memorize and Latihan (Exercise. Result from the user testing shows that 72.4% of respondents agree that the takrir technique embedded in the mobile application able to improve the usability of the mobile application in helping the autism children to recite and memorize the Al-Quran easily.

  10. Therapeutic techniques and their use for children with disabilities at school age

    KOLÁŘOVÁ, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis are therapheutical techniques and the way they are used in helping school-age children with disabilities. The theoretical part of this thesis defines the terms "therapy", "therapist" and ?comprehensive rehabilitation system?. Comprehensive rehabilitation system comprises not only occupational, social and pedagogical resources, but primarily also therapeutic resources that include (but are not limited to) therapies (e.g. ergotherapy, animal-assisted therapy, m...

  11. Patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages among adolescent school children in the Netherlands

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Boutkabout, C.; Levie, D.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of intake and patterns in consumption of potentially erosive beverages in school children in the Netherlands. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single centre study was performed among 502 school children in Rotterdam, in age varying between 12 and 19 years. Data on

  12. Identifying High Academic Potential in Australian Aboriginal Children Using Dynamic Testing

    Chaffey, Graham W.; Bailey, Stan B.; Vine, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dynamic testing as a method for identifying high academic potential in Australian Aboriginal children. The 79 participating Aboriginal children were drawn from Years 3-5 in rural schools in northern New South Wales. The dynamic testing method used in this study involved a…

  13. Event-related potentials during visual selective attention in children of alcoholics.

    van der Stelt, O.; Gunning, W.B.; Snel, J.; Kok, A.

    1998-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 50 7-18 yr old children of alcoholics (COAs) and 50 age- and sex-matched control children while they performed a visual selective attention task. The task was to attend selectively to stimuli with a specified color (red or blue) in an attempt to

  14. Novel Method for Sizing Metallic Bottom Crack Depth Using Multi-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop Technique

    Li Yuting; Gan Fangji; Wan Zhengjun; Liao Junbi; Li Wenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of s...

  15. Craniospinal radiotherapy in children: Electron- or photon-based technique of spinal irradiation

    Chojnacka, M.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.; Pedziwiatr, K.; Morawska-Kaczynska, M.; Zygmuntowicz-Pietka, A.; Semaniak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prone position and electron-based technique for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) have been standard in our department for many years. But this immobilization is difficult for the anaesthesiologist to gain airway access. The increasing number of children treated under anaesthesia led us to reconsider our technique. Aim: The purpose of this study is to report our new photon-based technique for CSI which could be applied in both the supine and the prone position and to compare this technique with our electron-based technique. Materials and methods: Between November 2007 and May 2008, 11 children with brain tumours were treated in the prone position with CSI. For 9 patients two treatment plans were created: the first one using photons and the second one using electron beams for spinal irradiation. We prepared seven 3D-conformal photon plans and four forward planned segmented field plans. We compared 20 treatment plans in terms of target dose homogeneity and sparing of organs at risk. Results: In segmented field plans better dose homogeneity in the thecal sac volume was achieved than in electron-based plans. Regarding doses in organs at risk, in photon-based plans we obtained a lower dose in the thyroid but a higher one in the heart and liver. Conclusions: Our technique can be applied in both the supine and prone position and it seems to be more feasible and precise than the electron technique. However, more homogeneous target coverage and higher precision of dose delivery for photons are obtained at the cost of slightly higher doses to the heart and liver. (authors)

  16. Asthma severity, child security, and child internalizing: using story stem techniques to assess the meaning children give to family and disease-specific events.

    Winter, Marcia A; Fiese, Barbara H; Spagnola, Mary; Anbar, Ran D

    2011-12-01

    Children with persistent asthma are at increased risk for mental health problems. Although mechanisms of effect are not yet known, it may be that children are less trusting of the family as a source of support and security when they have more severe asthma. This study tested whether asthma severity is related to children's perceptions of insecurity in the family, and whether insecurity is in turn associated with child adjustment. Children (N = 168; mean age = 8 years) completed story stems pertaining to routine family events (e.g., mealtimes) and ambiguous but potentially threatening asthma events such as tightness in the chest. Responses were evaluated for the extent to which appraisals portrayed the family as responding in cohesive, security-provoking ways. Asthma severity was assessed by both objective lung function testing and primary caregiver report. Caregivers reported child symptomatology. Beyond medication adherence, caregiver education, and child age and gender, greater asthma severity predicted more internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Greater asthma severity, assessed using spirometry (but not parent report), was related to less secure child narratives of the family, which in turn related to more child internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that asthma can take a considerable toll on children's feelings of security and mental health. Furthermore, given the difficulty in assessing young children's perceptions, this study helps demonstrate the potential of story stem techniques in assessing children's appraisals of illness threat and management in the family.

  17. An evaluation of children's metered-dose inhaler technique for asthma medications.

    Burkhart, Patricia V; Rayens, Mary Kay; Bowman, Roxanne K

    2005-03-01

    Regardless of the medication delivery system, health care providers need to teach accurate medication administration techniques to their patients, educate them about the particular nuances of the prescribed delivery system (eg, proper storage), and reinforce these issues at each health encounter. A single instruction session is not sufficient to maintain appropriate inhaler techniques for patients who require continued use. Providing written steps for the administration technique is helpful so that the patient can refer to them later when using the medication. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's "Practical Guide for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma" recommends that practitioners follow these steps for effective inhaler technique training when first prescribing an inhaler: 1. Teach patients the steps and give written instruction handouts. 2. Demonstrate how to use the inhaler step-by-step. 3. Ask patients to demonstrate how to use the inhaler. Let the patient refer to the handout on the first training. Then use the handout asa checklist to assess the patient's future technique. 4. Provide feedback to patients about what they did right and what they need to improve. Have patients demonstrate their technique again, if necessary. The last two steps should be performed (ie, demonstration and providing feedback on what patients did right and what they need to improve) at every subsequent visit. If the patient makes multiple errors, it is advisable to focus on improving one or two key steps at a time. With improvements in drug delivery come challenges, necessitating that practitioners stay current with new medication administration techniques. Teaching and reinforcing accurate technique at each health care encounter are critical to help ensure medication efficacy for patients with asthma. Since one fifth of children in the study performed incorrect medication technique even after education, checklists of steps for the correct use of inhalation devices

  18. Millennial children of immigrant parents: Transnationalism, disparities, policy, and potential.

    Yazykova, Ekaterina; McLeigh, Jill D

    2015-09-01

    At 11% of their generational cohort, second-generation millennials account for the larger number of children of immigrants than any other generation before them. Second-generation millennials belong to a cohort that comprises about 80 million people, the largest cohort of young people that the United States has ever seen. The "creators" of the millennial generation, Neil Howe and William Strauss, proposed seven core millennials' traits that are now overwhelmingly accepted as being factual: They are special, sheltered, confident, team-oriented, conventional, achieving, and pressured. In contemporary discourse, millennials have been described as tech savvy, open to change, compassionate, inclusive, and politically active, but also self-centered and lacking attachment or direction. Although it is true that many second-generation millennials fit these descriptions and are doing as well financially and educationally as their nonimmigrant peers, a significant proportion are struggling. The diverse outcomes raise questions about why some children of immigrant parents fare better than others. If these factors can be identified, efforts can be undertaken to promote the wellbeing of these young adults

  19. A Cultural Psychological Approach to Analyze Intercultural Learning: Potential and Limits of the Structure Formation Technique

    Doris Weidemann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the huge interest in sojourner adjustment, there is still a lack of qualitative as well as of longitudinal research that would offer more detailed insights into intercultural learning processes during overseas stays. The present study aims to partly fill that gap by documenting changes in knowledge structures and general living experiences of fifteen German sojourners in Taiwan in a longitudinal, cultural-psychological study. As part of a multimethod design a structure formation technique was used to document subjective theories on giving/losing face and their changes over time. In a second step results from this study are compared to knowledge-structures of seven long-term German residents in Taiwan, and implications for the conceptualization of intercultural learning will be proposed. Finally, results from both studies serve to discuss the potential and limits of structure formation techniques in the field of intercultural communication research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901435

  20. Recurrent potential pulse technique for improvement of glucose sensing ability of 3D polypyrrole

    Cysewska, Karolina; Karczewski, Jakub; Jasiński, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a new approach for using a 3D polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer as a sensing material for glucose detection is proposed. Polypyrrole is electrochemically polymerized on a platinum screen-printed electrode in an aqueous solution of lithium perchlorate and pyrrole. PPy exhibits a high electroactive surface area and high electrochemical stability, which results in it having excellent electrocatalytic properties. The studies show that using the recurrent potential pulse technique results in an increase in PPy sensing stability, compared to the amperometric approach. This is due to the fact that the technique, under certain parameters, allows the PPy redox properties to be fully utilized, whilst preventing its anodic degradation. Because of this, the 3D PPy presented here has become a very good candidate as a sensing material for glucose detection, and can work without any additional dopants, mediators or enzymes.

  1. Sandpits as a reservoir of potentially pathogenic fungi for children

    Anna Wójcik

    2016-09-01

    Potentially pathogenic fungi are present in the sand taken from sandpits in Łódź. This fact poses a significant threat to child health and therefore proper maintenance and periodic checking of sandpits are of great importance.

  2. Use of a novel laparoscopic gastrostomy technique in children with severe epidermolysis bullosa.

    Patel, Kamlesh; Wells, Jonathan; Jones, Rosie; Browne, Fiona; Moss, Celia; Parikh, Dakshesh

    2014-05-01

    Supplementing nutrition in children with severe epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is challenging because of skin and mucosal fragility. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is contraindicated in EB, whereas more invasive open surgical gastrostomy placement can be complicated by chronic leakage. The aim of the study was to review the efficacy and acceptability, in children with severe EB, of our modified 2-port laparoscopic approach using the Seldinger technique with serial dilatation and tube insertion through a peel-away sheath. Retrospective review of children with EB who underwent laparoscopic feeding gastrostomy at our centre since 2009. Seven children (6 severe generalised recessive dystrophic EB, 1 non-Herlitz junctional EB; 2 girls, 5 boys) underwent modified laparoscopic gastrostomy placement at median age 4.85 years (range 1.0-8.8), with fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux in 1 case, with follow-up for 0.3 to 3.9 years. The procedure was well tolerated with oral feeds usually given after 4 hours and whole protein gastrostomy feeds within 24 hours in 6 patients. Improved growth was reflected in mean weight and height z scores: -1.36 (range -2.6 to 0.5) to -0.61 (range -2.34 to 2.0) and -1.09 (range -2.42 to 1.0) to 0.71 (range -1.86 to 1.0), respectively. Postoperatively, 5 patients experienced minor local complications: minimal leakage without skin damage in 3 and transient peristomal granulation rapidly responsive to topical treatment in 2; this followed acute gastrostomy site infection in 1. There was no leakage after the immediate postoperative period. We conclude that our less-invasive laparoscopic gastrostomy technique is effective and better tolerated in children with severe EB, at least in the medium term, than open gastrostomy placement. Longer follow-up is required.

  3. Children's acceptance learning of New Nordic components and potential challenges

    Hartvig, Ditte Luise

    that repeated exposure as well as food engagement constitute efficient methods to enhance the acceptance of Nordic foods. Furthermore the importance of follow-up tests and initial liking was highlighted. Many different factors affect acceptance and acceptance learning of food products, some of those may even......It has been suggested that dietary recommendations should be tailored to regional conditions to bridge gastronomi, health and sustainability. The New Nordic diet (NND) has been defined as part of the OPUS project:”Optimal well-being, development and health of school children through a New Nordic......’s food preferences. In the first part of the project it was investigated how a five week intervention with Nordic foods and food engagement affected the acceptance of sea-buckthorn berry products, not included in the intervention. The effect of the intervention was compared to the effect of eight product...

  4. Contribution of radioimmunological techniques on the management of undernourished children in Senegal

    Mbodj, M.; Gassama, S.S.; Sow, H.T.; Ndoye, O.; Ndong, B.; Diarra, M.; Sarr, M.; Diagne, I.; Diouf, S.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition in children continues to be a major health burden in Senegal. The main objective of this study was to discuss the existence of a thyroid disease induced by the various deficiencies, among which iodine, in these children and to assess the effects of the treatment on the thyroid function. Materials and methods Sixty eight children divided in a random way in two groups according to the addition or not of marine algae Hypnea to the traditional nutritional supplementation were included in the study. To appreciate at the same time the nutritional and biological state and to follow the evolution under treatment, the anthropometric parameters were the ratios: weight/age, weight/size, and height/age. Radioimmunoassays of free T3, free T4 and immunoradiometric assays of TSH were carried out in undernourished children before and after supplementation enriched or not in algae. Other blood parameters were measured among them protides, magnesium, and hemoglobin. Results They showed two types of biological abnormalities: low T3 syndrome (8.6%), compensated functional hypothyroidism (9%). The treatment induced neither iodine overload, nor thyroid disease. Conclusion In the program of nutritional rehabilitation, the isotopic techniques allow us to establish the low prevalence (17.6%) of the disturbances of the thyroid function (low T3 syndrome and compensated functional hypothyroidism, thus providing the differential diagnosis), and to confirm the absence of any thyroid disease induced by the iodine supply of the marine algae Hypnea. (authors)

  5. Maternal perception of fever in children by tactile technique how valid it is

    Jalil, J.; Bashir, F.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the validity of tactile technique as a tool for fever assessment in children by mothers. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the department of Paediatrics, Combined Military Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, from September 2007 to September 2009. Patients and Methods: Convenient sampling technique was employed. Three hundred and ninety three children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years, brought to hospital by mothers with history of prolonged fever (7 days or more) perceived by tactile technique. Children were not supposed to be necessarily febrile at the time of enrollment. A six hourly temperature recording was done. Moreover, whenever mothers felt that their child is febrile by using tactile method of their choice, axillary thermometry was done irrespective of the number of recordings. Standard mercury thermometry by axillary technique (without adding a degree to measured value) was chosen. Reading of more than 99.50 Fahrenheit (37.50 centigrade) was labeled as fever. Cases that remained fever free for five days were labeled afebrile and discharged. Mothers were advised to watch for fever for one week at home and to report back immediately if they felt that their child has fever, confirmed by a single tactile measurement. Those who reported back were readmitted and subjected to the same method of monitoring and recording as was applied on first admission. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics were applied to calculate the frequencies, means and standard deviations. Results: Among the 392 children 58.4% were males and 41.4% were females. The mean age was 24.4 +-14.39 months. Majority had a history of fever of 5 to 24 days (70.2%). In only 184 (46.93%) patients fever was confirmed. In 208 (53.08%) patients no fever was recorded and were discharged. Twenty one patients reported back with fever. However, fever was confirmed in only 11 patients. In summary, a total of 195 (49

  6. Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 1. Theory, experimental techniques, and effects on separations.

    Kirby, Brian J; Hasselbrink, Ernest F

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes theory, experimental techniques, and the reported data pertaining to the zeta potential of silica and silicon with attention to use as microfluidic substrate materials, particularly for microchip chemical separations. Dependence on cation concentration, buffer and cation type, pH, cation valency, and temperature are discussed. The Debye-Hückel limit, which is often correctly treated as a good approximation for describing the ion concentration in the double layer, can lead to serious errors if it is extended to predict the dependence of zeta potential on the counterion concentration. For indifferent univalent electrolytes (e.g., sodium and potassium), two simple scalings for the dependence of zeta potential on counterion concentration can be derived in high- and low-zeta limits of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzman equation solution in the double layer. It is shown that for most situations relevant to microchip separations, the high-zeta limit is most applicable, leading to the conclusion that the zeta potential on silica substrates is approximately proportional to the logarithm of the molar counterion concentration. The zeta vs. pH dependence measurements from several experiments are compared by normalizing the zeta based on concentration.

  7. Heating and thermal control of brazing technique to break contamination path for potential Mars sample return

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Campos, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    The potential return of Mars sample material is of great interest to the planetary science community, as it would enable extensive analysis of samples with highly sensitive laboratory instruments. It is important to make sure such a mission concept would not bring any living microbes, which may possibly exist on Mars, back to Earth's environment. In order to ensure the isolation of Mars microbes from Earth's Atmosphere, a brazing sealing and sterilizing technique was proposed to break the Mars-to-Earth contamination path. Effectively, heating the brazing zone in high vacuum space and controlling the sample temperature for integrity are key challenges to the implementation of this technique. The break-thechain procedures for container configurations, which are being considered, were simulated by multi-physics finite element models. Different heating methods including induction and resistive/radiation were evaluated. The temperature profiles of Martian samples in a proposed container structure were predicted. The results show that the sealing and sterilizing process can be controlled such that the samples temperature is maintained below the level that may cause damage, and that the brazing technique is a feasible approach to breaking the contamination path.

  8. The Use of Structural-Acoustic Techniques to Assess Potential Structural Damage From Sonic Booms

    Garrelick, Joel; Martini, Kyle

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact of supersonic operations includes structural damage from the sonic boom overpressure. This paper describes a study of how structural-acoustic modeling and testing techniques may be used to assess the potential for such damage in the absence of actual flyovers. Procedures are described whereby transfer functions relating structural response to sonic boom signature may be obtained with a stationary acoustic source and appropriate data processing. Further, by invoking structural-acoustic reciprocity, these transfer functions may also be acquired by measuring the radiated sound from the structure under a mechanical drive. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption of linearity, both with regard to the (acoustic) propagation of the boom in the vicinity of the structure and to the structure's response. Practical issues revolve around acoustic far field and source directivity requirements. The technique was implemented on a specially fabricated test structure at Edwards AFB, CA with the support of Wyle Laboratories, Inc. Blank shots from a cannon served as our acoustic source and taps from an instrumented hammer generated the mechanical drive. Simulated response functions were constructed. Results of comparisons with corresponding measurements recorded during dedicated supersonic flyovers with F-15 aircraft are presented for a number of sensor placements.

  9. MR urography in children. Pt. 1. How we do the F0 technique

    Vivier, Pierre-Hugues; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, LITIS Laboratory EA 4108, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Dolores, Michael [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Taylor, Melissa [Ambroise Pare Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Boulogne Billancourt (France); Elbaz, Frederic; Liard, Agnes [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Rouen (France)

    2010-05-15

    MR urography (MRU) has been widely accepted as a substitute to intravenous urography for investigating children with a dilated urinary tract after preliminary assessment by US and voiding cystourethrography. Hydronephrosis is by far the main indication for MRU because upper tract dilatation is a frequent condition in infants and children. Recent advances in technology have allowed MR to go beyond morphology and to assess renal function parameters such as split renal function and drainage. In this article we report our routine practice of the F0 MRU technique. The main advantages of our protocol are no requirement for general anaesthesia, no bladder catheterization, use of low-dose gadolinium-based contrast agent (0.05-0.1 mmol/kg) and total acquisition time of 30 min or less. (orig.)

  10. Validity and reliability of instruments to assess potential mediators of children's physical activity: A systematic review

    Brown, H.; Hume, C.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aimed to (1) identify potential mediators reported in children's physical activity interventions; and (2) review the psychometric properties of measures of potential mediators included in such interventions. A systematic search of the literature was conducted and studies that reported

  11. 77 FR 11119 - Request for Nominations of Children's Healthcare Quality Measures for Potential Inclusion in the...

    2012-02-24

    ... Nominations of Children's Healthcare Quality Measures for Potential Inclusion in the CHIPRA 2013 Improved Core... quality for potential inclusion in the CHIPRA 2013 Improved Core Set of Health Care Quality Measures (the... inclusion, more information, including a copyright release (if applicable) and full measure specifications...

  12. Appraisals of Intervention: The Mother's versus the Culprit's Behavior as Determinants of Children's Evaluations of Discipline Techniques.

    Siegal, Michael; Cowen, Jan

    1984-01-01

    Twenty children in each of five groups (mean ages in years and months of 5-9, 8-9, 11-9, 14-7, and 17-8) were asked to evaluate the disciplinary techniques employed by mothers over a range of situations in which a culprit was described as having transgressed. Children's disciplinary preferences were examined, and ratings of different techniques…

  13. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  14. Comparison of different anesthesia techniques during esophagogastroduedenoscopy in children: a randomized trial.

    Patino, Mario; Glynn, Susan; Soberano, Mark; Putnam, Philip; Hossain, Md Monir; Hoffmann, Clifford; Samuels, Paul; Kibelbek, Michael J; Gunter, Joel

    2015-10-01

    Esophagogastroduedenoscopy (EGD) in children is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetic goals include minimization of airway complications while maximizing operating room (OR) efficiency. Currently, there is no consensus on which anesthetic technique best meets these goals. We performed a prospective randomized study comparing three different anesthetic techniques. To evaluate the incidence of respiratory complications (primary aim) and institutional efficiency (secondary aim) among three different anesthetic techniques in children undergoing EGD. Subjects received a standardized inhalation induction of anesthesia followed by randomization to one of the three groups: Group intubated, sevoflurane (IS), Group intubated, propofol (IP), and Group native airway, nonintubated, propofol (NA). Respiratory complications included minor desaturation (SpO2 between 94% and 85%), severe desaturation (SpO2 < 85%), apnea, airway obstruction/laryngospasm, aspiration, and/or inadequate anesthesia during the endoscopy. Evaluation of institutional efficiency was determined by examining the time spent during the different phases of care (anesthesia preparation, procedure, OR stay, recovery, and total perioperative care). One hundred and seventy-nine children aged 1-12 years (median 7 years; 4.0, 10.0) were enrolled (Group IS N = 60, Group IP N = 59, Group NA N = 61). The incidence of respiratory complications was higher in the Group NA (0.459) vs Group IS (0.033) or Group IP (0.086) (P < 0.0001). The most commonly observed complications were desaturation, inadequate anesthesia, and apnea. There were no differences in institutional efficiency among the three groups. Respiratory complications were more common in Group NA. The use of native airway with propofol maintenance during EGD does not offer advantages with respect to respiratory complications or institutional efficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Effect of Therapeutic Clowning on Handwashing Technique and Microbial Colonization in Preschool Children.

    Arıkan, Duygu; Gürarslan Baş, Nazan; Kurudirek, Fatma; Baştopcu, Ayşe; Uslu, Hakan

    2018-05-15

    This study aimed to determine the effect of therapeutic clowning on handwashing technique and microbial colonization in preschool children. This randomized controlled trial was conducted using pre-test and post-test experimental and control groups. The study was conducted between March and June 2016 in two kindergartens in eastern Turkey. The study was completed with a total of 195 students, including 90 students in the experimental group and 105 students in the control group. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire included sections about the subjects' descriptive characteristics and the results of the bacterial cultures of their hand swabs. For the collection of these swabs, the subjects were informed in advance, and samples were collected at predetermined times. The swabs were analyzed to determine the bacterial colonization of the subjects' hands. Clowns and video activities were used as intervention tools in the study. In the post-test, the microbial growth was ≤10 3 in 68.9% and >10 3 in 31.1% of the subjects in the experimental group. In contrast, the growth was ≤10 3 in 34.3% and >10 3 in 65.7% of the control group subjects. The difference in the post-test microbial growths of the two groups was statistically significant (p < .000). The hygienic handwashing technique taught in the therapeutic clowning and videos reduced the bacterial colonization on the preschool children's hands by 50%. Moreover, this method was effective in reducing the growth rate of coliform bacteria that indicate undesirable, poor hygiene of the hands. Considering these results, we recommend that pediatric healthcare professionals use entertaining methods such as those involving clowns to teach and guide children regarding hygienic handwashing techniques. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. The potential efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of siblings of children with special needs

    Mojca Petrič

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the empirical findings on psychosocial adjustment of siblings of children with special needs, as well as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT and its techniques as a potential treatment choice. We conclude that most siblings adjust rather well to having a brother/sister with special needs. Still, they are dealing with more challenges and difficulties than siblings of children with typical development, such as having a role of a caregiver, or experiencing stigmatizing interactions with their peers or others, some also develop psychological and/or adjustment problems. There have been some sibling support programs, but little research has been conducted to address their efficacy, and the current findings are contradictory. Considering the challenges the siblings are facing, we believe CBT is a reasonable treatment option.

  17. Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: The role of therapeutic techniques

    Gold, Christian; Wigram, Tony; Voracek, Martin

    2006-01-01

    and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware about a therapy method's specific strengths......  Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N = 75) were assessed before...

  18. Dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy, a novel technique to assess accommodation in children

    Mihir Kothari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe and compare dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy (DDDO with dynamic retinoscopy (DR in assessment of accommodation in children. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study had four components. Component 1: to understand the characteristic digital images of DDDO. Component 2: to compare DDDO with DR for detection of accommodative defects in children (1-16 years. Component 3: to compare DDDO with DR for the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in children (5-16 years and Component 4: to assess which one of the two techniques was more sensitive to detect onset of cycloplegia after instillation of 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results: Component 1: image analysis of DDDO on two subjects (7 years and 35 years demonstrated superior pupillary crescent that progressively disappeared with increasing accommodation. Concurrently an inferior crescent appeared that became bigger in size with increasing accommodation. Component 2: the prevalence of defects in accommodation was 3.3% (33/1000 children. Three had unilateral accommodation failure. Sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 99%, and clinical agreement (kappa 0.97. Component 3: in the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia (n=30, the sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 97%, negative predictive value 93% and kappa 0.9. DR had two false positives. DDDO had one false negative. Component 4: DDDO detected onset of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia 5 min earlier than DR (n=5. Conclusion: DDDO is a novel, simple, clinical and reliable method to assess accommodation in young children. This test can assess the accommodative response of both eyes simultaneously.

  19. Posttraumatic stress among young urban children exposed to family violence and other potentially traumatic events.

    Crusto, Cindy A; Whitson, Melissa L; Walling, Sherry M; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children's posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents and caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health or developmental services. By parent and caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. Posttraumatic stress was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence and trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence and trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence and trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. Uniaxial Magnetization Performance of Textured Fe Nanowire Arrays Electrodeposited by a Pulsed Potential Deposition Technique

    Neetzel, C.; Ohgai, T.; Yanai, T.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2017-11-01

    Textured ferromagnetic Fe nanowire arrays were electrodeposited using a rectangular-pulsed potential deposition technique into anodized aluminum oxide nanochannels. During the electrodeposition of Fe nanowire arrays at a cathodic potential of - 1.2 V, the growth rate of the nanowires was ca. 200 nm s-1. The aspect ratio of Fe nanowires with a diameter of 30 ± 5 nm reached ca. 2000. The long axis of Fe nanowires corresponded with the direction when a large overpotential during the on-time pulse was applied, whereas it orientated to the direction under the potentiostatic condition with a small overpotential. By shifting the on-time cathode potential up to - 1.8 V, the texture coefficient for the (200) plane, TC200, reached up to 1.94. Perpendicular magnetization performance was observed in Fe nanowire arrays. With increasing TC200, the squareness of Fe nanowire arrays increased up to 0.95 with the coercivity maintained at 1.4 kOe at room temperature. This research result has opened a novel possibility of Fe nanowire arrays that can be applied for a new permanent magnetic material without rare-earth metals.

  1. Advanced techniques in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with ADHD

    Pastura, Giuseppe; Mattos, Paulo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Araujo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz Campos

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects about 5% of school-aged child. Previous published works using different techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have demonstrated that there may be some differences between the brain of people with and without this condition. This review aims at providing neurologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists an update on the differences between the brain of children with and without ADHD using advanced techniques of magnetic resonance imaging such as diffusion tensor imaging, brain volumetry and cortical thickness, spectroscopy and functional MRI. Data was obtained by a comprehensive, non-systematic review of medical literature. The regions with a greater number of abnormalities are splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulated gyrus, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. The brain regions where abnormalities are observed in studies of diffusion tensor, volumetry, spectroscopy and cortical thickness are the same involved in neurobiological theories of ADHD coming from studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  2. Advanced techniques in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with ADHD

    Pastura, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Pediatria; Mattos, Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Psiquiatria; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Radiologia; Araujo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz Campos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Neuropediatria

    2011-04-15

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects about 5% of school-aged child. Previous published works using different techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have demonstrated that there may be some differences between the brain of people with and without this condition. This review aims at providing neurologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists an update on the differences between the brain of children with and without ADHD using advanced techniques of magnetic resonance imaging such as diffusion tensor imaging, brain volumetry and cortical thickness, spectroscopy and functional MRI. Data was obtained by a comprehensive, non-systematic review of medical literature. The regions with a greater number of abnormalities are splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulated gyrus, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. The brain regions where abnormalities are observed in studies of diffusion tensor, volumetry, spectroscopy and cortical thickness are the same involved in neurobiological theories of ADHD coming from studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  3. The potential for social media to educate farm families about health and safety for children.

    Gualtieri, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Social media has the potential to reach farm families to educate them about health and safety for children. It offers advantages over traditional approaches because of the shorter time between creation and distribution and because of the greater reach and engagement possible. Recommendations are provided for how government agencies and the private sector can learn about and use social media to promote health and safety for children as a supplement to traditional approaches.

  4. Assessing children's ultraviolet radiation exposure: the potential usefulness of a colorimeter.

    Eckhardt, L; Mayer, J A; Creech, L; Johnston, M R; Lui, K J; Sallis, J F; Elder, J P

    1996-12-01

    This study evaluated the colorimeter as an objective measure of children's ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. Fifty-eight children, ages 6 to 9 years, attended two summer measurement sessions, with 46 attending a subsequent winter session. Comparisons between summer sessions for the L* scale showed that only the upper arm significantly changed in the tanner direction, while b* scale values indicated significant tanning for all body sites. All exposed body sites changed significantly in the less tan direction between summer and winter measurements. Using colorimeters to objectively measure children's UV exposure has potential applications for skin cancer prevention programs.

  5. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques in identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    Bogaard, T. A.

    2003-04-01

    This paper’s objectives are twofold: to test the potential of cation exchange capacity (CEC) analysis for refinement of the knowledge of the hydrological system in landslide areas; and to examine two laboratory CEC analysis techniques on their applicability to partly weathered marls. The NH4Ac and NaCl laboratory techniques are tested. The geochemical results are compared with the core descriptions and interpreted with respect to their usefulness. Both analysis techniques give identical results for CEC, and are plausible on the basis of the available clay content information. The determination of the exchangeable cations was more difficult, since part of the marls dissolved. With the ammonium-acetate method more of the marls are dissolved than with the sodium-chloride method. This negatively affects the results of the exchangeable cations. Therefore, the NaCl method is to be preferred for the determination of the cation fractions at the complex, be it that this method has the disadvantage that the sodium fraction cannot be determined. To overcome this problem it is recommended to try and use another salt e.g. SrCl2 as displacement fluid. Both Alvera and Boulc-Mondorès examples show transitions in cation composition with depth. It was shown that the exchangeable cation fractions can be useful in locating boundaries between water types, especially the boundary between the superficial, rain fed hydrological system and the lower, regional ground water system. This information may be important for landslide interventions since the hydrological system and the origin of the water need to be known in detail. It is also plausible that long-term predictions of slope stability may be improved by knowledge of the hydrogeochemical evolution of clayey landslides. In the Boulc-Mondorès example the subsurface information that can be extracted from CEC analyses was presented. In the Boulc-Mondorès cores deviant intervals of CEC could be identified. These are interpreted as

  6. Electrical impedance scanning - application of this new technique for lymph node evaluation in children

    Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Malich, Ansgar; Freesmeyer, Martin; Boettcher, Joachim; Vogt, Susanna; Kaiser, Werner A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740 Jena (Germany); Kentouche, Karim; Gruhn, Bernd; Zintl, Felix [Department of Pediatrics, University of Jena, Jena (Germany); Schneider, Gerlind [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Jena, Jena (Germany); Anderson, Roselle [Siemens-Elema, Elema (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Precise assessment of lymph nodes is crucial to the choice of therapy and prediction of outcome in cases of malignancy. Electrical impedance scanning (EIS) is being experimentally investigated for potential use as a diagnostic tool for differentiation of malignant lesions. Malignancies show different electrical properties with changes in conductivity and capacitance that can be analysed by EIS. Using a TransScan TS-2000 (TransScan Medical, Migdal Ha'Emek, Israel, distributed by Siemens-Elema AB, Solna, Sweden), EIS has been used in various studies for the identification of breast cancer as well as for characterisation of superficial lesions. To evaluate the reliability of EIS for classifying lymph nodes in a pediatric population with sonographically suspicious lesions and to prove its accuracy. The study population consisted of 77 children (42 boys, 35 girls) aged 1.1-17.1 years. All EIS results were compared to either histopathological findings or long-term follow-up investigations. Sensitivity for malignancies using EIS was 75% and specificity was 87%. The negative predictive value was 93% and the positive predictive value was 60%. This study suggests the potential usefulness of EIS as an additional imaging modality for the differentiation of lymph-node diseases in children. The histopatholgical spectrum of malignant lymph node transformation in children compared to studies in adults, and the characteristic meltdown in inflammatory or granulomatous transformed nodes, pose challenges to differentiation based on sonographic evaluation, and also to EIS classification. (orig.)

  7. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review

    Jha, S.N.; Narsaiah, K.; Sharma, A.D.; Singh, M.; Bansal, S.; Kumar, R.

    2010-01-01

    The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

  8. Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer technique

    Litvinov, A.A.; Pinkenzon, D.B.; Makarov, M.S.; Vinarskij, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Potential study of bed filtration characteristics in impressed boreholes by radon tracer method is shown. Effects recorded by radon tracer result from gamma radiation of short-living radon decay daughter products. During filtration of tracer through punched holes, cement stone, and rocks the products are deposited and cause a local effect for 2-3 hours. There is a shortage of short-living products in filtrated radon liquid and for some time (which is necessary for production of notable quantity of new decay products) it is practically not a gamma emitter. It is shown that the feature of effect formation governs the technique for well logging as well as interpretation of the results obtained

  9. An automated technique to identify potential inappropriate traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions.

    Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Lin, Shen-Hsien; Huang, Chih-Wei; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2016-04-01

    Medication errors such as potential inappropriate prescriptions would induce serious adverse drug events to patients. Information technology has the ability to prevent medication errors; however, the pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is not as clear as in western medicine. The aim of this study was to apply the appropriateness of prescription (AOP) model to identify potential inappropriate TCM prescriptions. We used the association rule of mining techniques to analyze 14.5 million prescriptions from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The disease and TCM (DTCM) and traditional Chinese medicine-traditional Chinese medicine (TCMM) associations are computed by their co-occurrence, and the associations' strength was measured as Q-values, which often referred to as interestingness or life values. By considering the number of Q-values, the AOP model was applied to identify the inappropriate prescriptions. Afterwards, three traditional Chinese physicians evaluated 1920 prescriptions and validated the detected outcomes from the AOP model. Out of 1920 prescriptions, 97.1% of positive predictive value and 19.5% of negative predictive value were shown by the system as compared with those by experts. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the negative predictive value could improve up to 27.5% when the model's threshold changed to 0.4. We successfully applied the AOP model to automatically identify potential inappropriate TCM prescriptions. This model could be a potential TCM clinical decision support system in order to improve drug safety and quality of care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Strategic approaches and assessment techniques-Potential for knowledge brokerage towards sustainability

    Sheate, William R.; Partidario, Maria Rosario

    2010-01-01

    The role of science in policy and decision-making has been an issue of intensive debate over the past decade. The concept of knowledge brokerage has been developing in this context contemplating issues of communication, interaction, sharing of knowledge, contribution to common understandings, as well as to effective and efficient action. For environmental and sustainability policy and decision-making the discussion has addressed more the essence of the issue rather than the techniques that can be used to enable knowledge brokerage. This paper aims to contribute to covering this apparent gap in current discussion by selecting and examining empirical cases from Portugal and the United Kingdom that can help to explore how certain environmental and sustainability assessment approaches can contribute, if well applied, to strengthen the science-policy link. The cases show that strategic assessment approaches and techniques have the potential to promote knowledge brokerage, but a conscious effort will be required to design in genuine opportunities to facilitate knowledge exchange and transfer as part of assessment processes.

  11. Auditory evoked potentials: predicting speech therapy outcomes in children with phonological disorders

    Renata Aparecida Leite

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether neurophysiologic responses (auditory evoked potentials differ between typically developed children and children with phonological disorders and whether these responses are modified in children with phonological disorders after speech therapy. METHODS: The participants included 24 typically developing children (Control Group, mean age: eight years and ten months and 23 children clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (Study Group, mean age: eight years and eleven months. Additionally, 12 study group children were enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 1, and 11 were not enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 2. The subjects were submitted to the following procedures: conventional audiological, auditory brainstem response, auditory middle-latency response, and P300 assessments. All participants presented with normal hearing thresholds. The study group 1 subjects were reassessed after 12 speech therapy sessions, and the study group 2 subjects were reassessed 3 months after the initial assessment. Electrophysiological results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Latency differences were observed between the groups (the control and study groups regarding the auditory brainstem response and the P300 tests. Additionally, the P300 responses improved in the study group 1 children after speech therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that children with phonological disorders have impaired auditory brainstem and cortical region pathways that may benefit from speech therapy.

  12. Comparison of techniques to evaluate the quantification of Candida spp. in HIV-infected children.

    Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Soares, Rosangela Maria De Araujo; De Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to compare techniques used to make a quantified evaluation of Candida spp. in children infected with HIV. Twenty-four HIV-infected children (age 3 to 13) were selected. Three sterilized swabs were used for each child: one for the dorsum of the tongue, one for the hard palate mucosa, and one for the right jugal mucosa; each swab was rubbed for 10 seconds and transferred to sterilized test tubes containing 1 mL of 0.9% saline solution. Candida spp. growth was observed in 95.8% of all samples, including 95.7% of tongue samples (Group T), 87.0% of saliva samples, 56.6% of hard palate mucosa samples (Group P), and 47.8% of right jugal mucosa samples (Group J). There was no statistical difference in Candida spp. growth between saliva samples and Group T samples, although both had higher growth compared to Groups P and J (p < 0.05; chi(2)). Regarding the sensitivity of each site for positive Candida spp. growth, Group T samples showed 69.5%, while saliva samples showed 52.2%, Group P samples showed 21.7%, and Group J samples showed 13.04%, with no significant statistical difference between Group T and saliva; however, both were more sensitive than Groups J and P (p < 0.05, chi(2)). It was concluded that whole stimulated saliva and swabbing the tongue were considered satisfactory for measuring Candida spp. in HIV-infected children.

  13. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques for identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    Bogaard, T. A.; Buma, J. T.; Klawer, C. J. M.

    2004-03-01

    interventions since the hydrological system and the origin of the water need to be known in detail. It is also plausible that long-term predictions of slope stability may be improved by knowledge of the hydrogeochemical evolution of clayey landslides. From the analysis, it is concluded that geochemistry is a potentially valuable technique for landslide research, but it is recognized that a lot of work still has to be done before the technique can be applied in engineering practice.

  14. Runoff Potentiality of a Watershed through SCS and Functional Data Analysis Technique

    Adham, M. I.; Shirazi, S. M.; Othman, F.; Rahman, S.; Yusop, Z.; Ismail, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Runoff potentiality of a watershed was assessed based on identifying curve number (CN), soil conservation service (SCS), and functional data analysis (FDA) techniques. Daily discrete rainfall data were collected from weather stations in the study area and analyzed through lowess method for smoothing curve. As runoff data represents a periodic pattern in each watershed, Fourier series was introduced to fit the smooth curve of eight watersheds. Seven terms of Fourier series were introduced for the watersheds 5 and 8, while 8 terms of Fourier series were used for the rest of the watersheds for the best fit of data. Bootstrapping smooth curve analysis reveals that watersheds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 are with monthly mean runoffs of 29, 24, 22, 23, 26, and 27 mm, respectively, and these watersheds would likely contribute to surface runoff in the study area. The purpose of this study was to transform runoff data into a smooth curve for representing the surface runoff pattern and mean runoff of each watershed through statistical method. This study provides information of runoff potentiality of each watershed and also provides input data for hydrological modeling. PMID:25152911

  15. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  16. Runoff Potentiality of a Watershed through SCS and Functional Data Analysis Technique

    M. I. Adham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Runoff potentiality of a watershed was assessed based on identifying curve number (CN, soil conservation service (SCS, and functional data analysis (FDA techniques. Daily discrete rainfall data were collected from weather stations in the study area and analyzed through lowess method for smoothing curve. As runoff data represents a periodic pattern in each watershed, Fourier series was introduced to fit the smooth curve of eight watersheds. Seven terms of Fourier series were introduced for the watersheds 5 and 8, while 8 terms of Fourier series were used for the rest of the watersheds for the best fit of data. Bootstrapping smooth curve analysis reveals that watersheds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 are with monthly mean runoffs of 29, 24, 22, 23, 26, and 27 mm, respectively, and these watersheds would likely contribute to surface runoff in the study area. The purpose of this study was to transform runoff data into a smooth curve for representing the surface runoff pattern and mean runoff of each watershed through statistical method. This study provides information of runoff potentiality of each watershed and also provides input data for hydrological modeling.

  17. Determination of Potential Fishing Grounds of Rastrelliger kanagurta Using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS Technique

    Suhartono Nurdin; Muzzneena Ahmad Mustapha; Tukimat Lihan; Mazlan Abdul Ghaffar; Muzzneena Ahmad Mustapha; Nurdin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) improves our understanding on the variability and productivity of the marine environment, which is important for exploring fishery resources. Monthly level 3 and daily level 1 images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Satellite (MODIS) derived SST and chl-a from July 2002 to June 2011 around the archipelagic waters of Spermonde Indonesia were used to investigate the relationship between SST and chl-a and to forecast the potential fishing ground of Rastrelliger kanagurta. The results indicated that there was positive correlation between SST and chl-a (R=0.3, p<0.05). Positive correlation was also found between SST and chl-a with the catch of R. kanagurta (R=0.7, p<0.05). The potential fishing grounds of R. kanagurta were found located along the coast (at accuracy of 76.9 %). This study indicated that, with the integration of remote sensing technology, statistical modeling and geographic information systems (GIS) technique were able to determine the relationship between SST and chl-a and also able to forecast aggregation of R. kanagurta. This may contribute in decision making and reducing search hunting time and cost in fishing activities. (author)

  18. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR THE PHOTOSPHERIC DRIVING OF NON-POTENTIAL SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD SIMULATIONS

    Weinzierl, Marion; Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick, E-mail: marion.weinzierl@durham.ac.uk [Air Force Research Lab/Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

    2016-05-20

    In this paper, we develop a new technique for driving global non-potential simulations of the Sun’s coronal magnetic field solely from sequences of radial magnetic maps of the solar photosphere. A primary challenge to driving such global simulations is that the required horizontal electric field cannot be uniquely determined from such maps. We show that an “inductive” electric field solution similar to that used by previous authors successfully reproduces specific features of the coronal field evolution in both single and multiple bipole simulations. For these cases, the true solution is known because the electric field was generated from a surface flux-transport model. The match for these cases is further improved by including the non-inductive electric field contribution from surface differential rotation. Then, using this reconstruction method for the electric field, we show that a coronal non-potential simulation can be successfully driven from a sequence of ADAPT maps of the photospheric radial field, without including additional physical observations which are not routinely available.

  19. A simple technique investigating baseline heterogeneity helped to eliminate potential bias in meta-analyses.

    Hicks, Amy; Fairhurst, Caroline; Torgerson, David J

    2018-03-01

    To perform a worked example of an approach that can be used to identify and remove potentially biased trials from meta-analyses via the analysis of baseline variables. True randomisation produces treatment groups that differ only by chance; therefore, a meta-analysis of a baseline measurement should produce no overall difference and zero heterogeneity. A meta-analysis from the British Medical Journal, known to contain significant heterogeneity and imbalance in baseline age, was chosen. Meta-analyses of baseline variables were performed and trials systematically removed, starting with those with the largest t-statistic, until the I 2 measure of heterogeneity became 0%, then the outcome meta-analysis repeated with only the remaining trials as a sensitivity check. We argue that heterogeneity in a meta-analysis of baseline variables should not exist, and therefore removing trials which contribute to heterogeneity from a meta-analysis will produce a more valid result. In our example none of the overall outcomes changed when studies contributing to heterogeneity were removed. We recommend routine use of this technique, using age and a second baseline variable predictive of outcome for the particular study chosen, to help eliminate potential bias in meta-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Signal averaging technique for noninvasive recording of late potentials in patients with coronary artery disease

    Abboud, S.; Blatt, C. M.; Lown, B.; Graboys, T. B.; Sadeh, D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced non invasive signal averaging technique was used to detect late potentials in two groups of patients: Group A (24 patients) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and without sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and Group B (8 patients) with CAD and sustained VT. Recorded analog data were digitized and aligned using a cross correlation function with fast Fourier transform schema, averaged and band pass filtered between 60 and 200 Hz with a non-recursive digital filter. Averaged filtered waveforms were analyzed by computer program for 3 parameters: (1) filtered QRS (fQRS) duration (2) interval between the peak of the R wave peak and the end of fQRS (R-LP) (3) RMS value of last 40 msec of fQRS (RMS). Significant change was found between Groups A and B in fQRS (101 -/+ 13 msec vs 123 -/+ 15 msec; p < .0005) and in R-LP vs 52 -/+ 11 msec vs 71-/+18 msec, p <.002). We conclude that (1) the use of a cross correlation triggering method and non-recursive digital filter enables a reliable recording of late potentials from the body surface; (2) fQRS and R-LP durations are sensitive indicators of CAD patients susceptible to VT.

  1. Intracranial auditory detection and discrimination potentials as substrates of echoic memory in children.

    Liasis, A; Towell, A; Boyd, S

    1999-03-01

    In children, intracranial responses to auditory detection and discrimination processes have not been reported. We, therefore, recorded intracranial event-related potentials (ERPs) to both standard and deviant tones and/or syllables in 4 children undergoing pre-surgical evaluation for epilepsy. ERPs to detection (mean latency = 63 ms) and discrimination (mean latency = 334 ms) were highly localized to areas surrounding the Sylvian fissure (SF). These potentials reflect activation of different neuronal populations and are suggested to contribute to the scalp recorded auditory N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN).

  2. [Parents separation or divorce. Potential effects on children and recommendations to parents and pediatricians].

    Roizblatt S, Arturo; Leiva F, Valentina M; Maida S, Ana Margarita

    2018-04-01

    When divorce or separation of a couple occurs, children will no longer live with both parents at the same time. There may be multiple causes for divorce, and both literature and our own experien ce as child mental health providers, report some short- and long-term consequences for children, especially where the divorce has been conflictive. In these cases, increased risk of developing be havioral disorders, poor school performance, and substance abuse has been documented as well as consequences in adult life with higher risk of psychiatric pathologies or difficulties in interpersonal relationships, if an intervention that addresses some potentially traumatic situations for children is not done. Pediatricians are in a privileged relationship with children and their families in order to detect signs of parental discord and altered mental health in children. Children behaviors as a result of divorce and parental conflict will depend on the age of the child and stage of development, and it is important to recognize them in order to intervene properly. This article proposes some guidelines for parents. Good management of high conflict situations related to divorce may prevent some of the consequences that these can have on children.

  3. Searching Nearest Potential of Children with Intellectual Disability – Dynamic Assessment

    Kulesza Ewa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the issue of the diagnosis with the use of task-support-task procedure. A theoretical model of diagnosis based on the concepts by L. S. Vygotski, R. Case, and A. Bandura was described and developed. The model was tested on a group of non-disabled preschool children, and children with mild and moderate intellectual disability who were paired up accordingly to their mental age. Each pair was given a set of developmentally adapted tasks. The tool (44 tasks was reliable and valid. The task-support-task procedure significantly affected the level of the task performance in all the children and allowed to define the scope of potential abilities, especially in the children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. Most of the task they did fell into the zone of proximal development.

  4. Posttraumatic Stress among Young Urban Children Exposed to Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Events

    Crusto, Cindy A.; Whitson, Melissa L.; Walling, Sherry N.; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R.; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children’s posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents/caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health and/or developmental services. By parent/caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one-quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. PTS was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence/trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence/trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence/trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. PMID:21171132

  5. Improving the biocontrol potential of Steinernema feltiae against Delia radicum through dosage, application technique and timing.

    Beck, Bert; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Brusselman, Eva; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Nuyttens, David

    2014-05-01

    The potential of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Steinernema feltiae Filipjev as a biocontrol agent against the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.), was assessed in three field tests, focusing on EPN dosage, application technique and timing. Spraying cabbage plant trays with different doses of infective juveniles (IJs) (50,000, 100,000 and 200,000 per plant) generated a similar reduction of plant mortality. Spraying plant trays with 200,000 IJs of Steinernema feltiae per plant temporarily reduced the number of maggots around the plants' roots, while neither spraying a lower dose (50,000 IJs/plant) nor soil drenching with 200,000 or 50,000 IJs/plant) reduced maggot numbers. When applied as a plant tray spray, IJs of S. feltiae took 1-2 weeks to spread through the soil surrounding the roots. The pathogenicity of the EPNs, as evaluated by a Galleria mellonella bait test, was highest (up to 100% mortality) until up to five weeks after application, and declined to control levels after 4-7 weeks. Follow-up drench applications with EPNs, applied one and/or two weeks after the first EPN application, did not influence control of Delia radicum. Plant tray spraying provides better placement of Steinernema feltiae than soil drench treatments for control of Delia radicum. Plant mortality was not dose-dependent in the presented trials, unlike the reduction of maggot numbers. Further research into timing and application technique of follow-up treatments with S. feltiae is required to increase efficacy to commercial standards. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. If I shouldn't spank, what should I do? Behavioural techniques for disciplining children.

    Tidmarsh, L

    2000-05-01

    To provide family physicians with a guide for evaluating discipline problems, giving suggestions for parental guidance, and diagnosing problems when discipline guidance fails. A MEDLINE and PsycINFO search from 1990 to the present produced articles reviewing research on aspects of discipline. Case-control studies, expert opinion, and position statements published by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society were chosen as a basis for this article. In a special supplement in 1996, a pediatric journal reviewed the controversy of spanking as an effective disciplinary method, with comments by noted researchers and clinicians. Other authors reviewed research evaluating discipline techniques. Discipline problems require evaluation of children, parents, and parent-child relationships, including assessment of child development and evaluation of parenting skills and parental stressors. Parents can learn techniques more effective than spanking. Physicians can review discipline strategies and guide parents through difficult situations. Monitoring progress is important, and immediate reassessment of the situation if techniques are failing or referral to a specialist will increase the chances of a successful intervention. Discipline problems are complex and require careful assessment. Guiding parents during these types of problems requires close follow up and reevaluation when methods do not have the expected effect.

  7. Hunger in children in the United States: potential behavioral and emotional correlates.

    Kleinman, R E; Murphy, J M; Little, M; Pagano, M; Wehler, C A; Regal, K; Jellinek, M S

    1998-01-01

    Results from a recent series of surveys from 9 states and the District of Columbia by the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP) provide an estimate that 4 million American children experience prolonged periodic food insufficiency and hunger each year, 8% of the children under the age of 12 in this country. The same studies show that an additional 10 million children are at risk for hunger. The current study examined the relationship between hunger as defined by the CCHIP measure (food insufficiency attributable to constrained resources) and variables reflecting the psychosocial functioning of low-income, school-aged children. The study group included 328 parents and children from a CCHIP study of families with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years living in the city of Pittsburgh and the surrounding Allegheny County. A two-stage area probability sampling design with standard cluster techniques was used. All parents whose child was between the ages of 6 and 12 years at the time of interview were asked to complete a Pediatric Symptom Checklist, a brief parent-report questionnaire that assesses children's emotional and behavioral symptoms. Hunger status was defined by parent responses to the standard 8 food-insufficiency questions from the CCHIP survey that are used to classify households and children as "hungry," "at-risk for hunger," or "not hungry." In an area probability sample of low-income families, those defined as hungry on the CCHIP measure were significantly more likely to have clinical levels of psychosocial dysfunction on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist than children defined as at-risk for hunger or not hungry. Analysis of individual items and factor scores on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist showed that virtually all behavioral, emotional, and academic problems were more prevalent in hungry children, but that aggression and anxiety had the strongest degree of association with experiences of hunger. Children from families that

  8. The resource potential of social protection of children with disabilities and the efficiency of its use

    E. R. Kalimullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a long period of reforms, political, economic and social situation in the Russian Federation has changed significantly. Formed during transformation of the Russian economy, economic relations provoked a change in established patterns of socio-economic behavior of the population that determined the need for significant changes in the system of social security of citizens, especially in the social protection of families raising children with disabilities. Over the past five years has taken significant steps to improve the legislative norms regulating the situation of children with disabilities, which served as the preamble to the achievement of certain positive results, however, economic and social support for families raising children with disabilities, remains low. Equally important is the fact that the appearance of a fundamentally new for Russia, economic, social and institutional relations in this field has necessitated the study of various economic foundations of social protection of children with disabilities. To date this subject, though its importance was not considered in scientific research that determines the relevance of this dissertation work, its scientific and practical importance. The article discusses the conceptual basis of the resource potential of social protection of children with disabilities in the framework of the modern economic realities of the state policy on social-the shield of the population. A key aspect of the research was to determine the qualitative and quantitative level of resources, required to fully meet all the needs of potential customers, that is children with disabilities. The syllogism of the study is to identify criteria for the effectiveness of the services provided to children with disabilities the use of the resource potential of bodies of social protection.

  9. Long latency auditory evoked potentials in children with cochlear implants: systematic review.

    Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira; Matas, Carla Gentile; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho de

    2013-11-25

    The aim of this study was to analyze the findings on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with cochlear implant through a systematic literature review. After formulation of research question and search of studies in four data bases with the following descriptors: electrophysiology (eletrofisiologia), cochlear implantation (implante coclear), child (criança), neuronal plasticity (plasticidade neuronal) and audiology (audiologia), were selected articles (original and complete) published between 2002 and 2013 in Brazilian Portuguese or English. A total of 208 studies were found; however, only 13 contemplated the established criteria and were further analyzed; was made data extraction for analysis of methodology and content of the studies. The results described suggest rapid changes in P1 component of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with cochlear implants. Although there are few studies on the theme, cochlear implant has been shown to produce effective changes in central auditory path ways especially in children implanted before 3 years and 6 months of age.

  10. Crack monitoring method based on Cu coating sensor and electrical potential technique for metal structure

    Hou Bo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced crack monitoring technique is the cornerstone of aircraft structural health monitoring. To achieve real-time crack monitoring of aircraft metal structures in the course of service, a new crack monitoring method is proposed based on Cu coating sensor and electrical potential difference principle. Firstly, insulation treatment process was used to prepare a dielectric layer on structural substrate, such as an anodizing layer on 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate, and then a Cu coating crack monitoring sensor was deposited on the structure fatigue critical parts by pulsed bias arc ion plating technology. Secondly, the damage consistency of the Cu coating sensor and 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate was investigated by static tensile experiment and fatigue test. The results show that strain values of the coating sensor and the 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate measured by strain gauges are highly coincident in static tensile experiment and the sensor has excellent fatigue damage consistency with the substrate. Thirdly, the fatigue performance discrepancy between samples with the coating sensor and original samples was investigated. The result shows that there is no obvious negative influence on the fatigue performance of the 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy after preparing the Cu coating sensor on its surface. Finally, crack monitoring experiment was carried out with the Cu coating sensor. The experimental results indicate that the sensor is sensitive to crack, and crack origination and propagation can be monitored effectively through analyzing the change of electrical potential values of the coating sensor.

  11. Effects of Grammatical Categories on Children's Visual Language Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Hart, Laura J.; Spruill, John E., III

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how school-aged children process different grammatical categories. Event-related brain potentials elicited by words in visually presented sentences were analyzed according to seven grammatical categories with naturally varying characteristics of linguistic functions, semantic features, and quantitative attributes of length and…

  12. Purposeful Collections: Exploiting the Potential of Children's Literature in the Classroom

    Boyd, Maureen; Montgomery, Lydia; Paterson, Devon; Schrag, Jolene

    2006-01-01

    Purposefully selected collections of literature can extend, contrast or illuminate an experience or perspective to effectively exploit the potential of children's literature to shape curriculum and engage student learning. This paper offers a practical framework for creating purposeful collections of literature. As an illustration of this process,…

  13. Implicit Phonological and Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Jednorog, K.; Marchewka, A.; Tacikowski, P.; Grabowska, A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls.…

  14. It's Story Time!: Exploring the Potential of Multimodality in Oral Storytelling to Support Children's Vocabulary Learning

    Lwin, Soe Marlar

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have been done on the benefits of parent/teacher-child interactions during shared storybook reading or read'aloud sessions, very few have examined the potential of professional storytellers' oral discourse to support children's vocabulary learning. In those storytelling sessions conducted by professional storytellers, the…

  15. Sustainable Urban Forestry Potential Based Quantitative And Qualitative Measurement Using Geospatial Technique

    Rosli, A. Z.; Reba, M. N. M.; Roslan, N.; Room, M. H. M.

    2014-02-01

    In order to maintain the stability of natural ecosystems around urban areas, urban forestry will be the best initiative to maintain and control green space in our country. Integration between remote sensing (RS) and geospatial information system (GIS) serves as an effective tool for monitoring environmental changes and planning, managing and developing a sustainable urbanization. This paper aims to assess capability of the integration of RS and GIS to provide information for urban forest potential sites based on qualitative and quantitative by using priority parameter ranking in the new township of Nusajaya. SPOT image was used to provide high spatial accuracy while map of topography, landuse, soils group, hydrology, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil series data were applied to enhance the satellite image in detecting and locating present attributes and features on the ground. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique provides structural and pair wise quantification and comparison elements and criteria for priority ranking for urban forestry purpose. Slope, soil texture, drainage, spatial area, availability of natural resource, and vicinity of urban area are criteria considered in this study. This study highlighted the priority ranking MCDM is cost effective tool for decision-making in urban forestry planning and landscaping.

  16. Sustainable Urban Forestry Potential Based Quantitative And Qualitative Measurement Using Geospatial Technique

    Rosli, A Z; Reba, M N M; Roslan, N; Room, M H M

    2014-01-01

    In order to maintain the stability of natural ecosystems around urban areas, urban forestry will be the best initiative to maintain and control green space in our country. Integration between remote sensing (RS) and geospatial information system (GIS) serves as an effective tool for monitoring environmental changes and planning, managing and developing a sustainable urbanization. This paper aims to assess capability of the integration of RS and GIS to provide information for urban forest potential sites based on qualitative and quantitative by using priority parameter ranking in the new township of Nusajaya. SPOT image was used to provide high spatial accuracy while map of topography, landuse, soils group, hydrology, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil series data were applied to enhance the satellite image in detecting and locating present attributes and features on the ground. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique provides structural and pair wise quantification and comparison elements and criteria for priority ranking for urban forestry purpose. Slope, soil texture, drainage, spatial area, availability of natural resource, and vicinity of urban area are criteria considered in this study. This study highlighted the priority ranking MCDM is cost effective tool for decision-making in urban forestry planning and landscaping

  17. Influence of crack length on crack depth measurement by an alternating current potential drop technique

    Raja, Manoj K; Mahadevan, S; Rao, B P C; Behera, S P; Jayakumar, T; Raj, Baldev

    2010-01-01

    An alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique is used for sizing depth of surface cracks in metallic components. Crack depth estimations are prone to large deviations when ACPD measurements are made on very shallow and finite length cracks, especially in low conducting materials such as austenitic stainless steel (SS). Detailed studies have been carried out to investigate the influence of crack length and aspect ratio (length to depth) on depth estimation by performing measurements on electric discharge machined notches with the aspect ratio in the range of 1 to 40 in SS plates. In notches with finite length, an additional path for current to flow through the surface along the length is available causing the notch depths to be underestimated. The experimentally observed deviation in notch depth estimates is explained from a simple mathematical approach using the equivalent resistive circuit model based on the additional path available for the current to flow. A scheme is proposed to accurately measure the depth of cracks with finite lengths in SS components

  18. Evaluation of auditory perception development in neonates by event-related potential technique.

    Zhang, Qinfen; Li, Hongxin; Zheng, Aibin; Dong, Xuan; Tu, Wenjuan

    2017-08-01

    To investigate auditory perception development in neonates and correlate it with days after birth, left and right hemisphere development and sex using event-related potential (ERP) technique. Sixty full-term neonates, consisting of 32 males and 28 females, aged 2-28days were included in this study. An auditory oddball paradigm was used to elicit ERPs. N2 wave latencies and areas were recorded at different days after birth, to study on relationship between auditory perception and age, and comparison of left and right hemispheres, and males and females. Average wave forms of ERPs in neonates started from relatively irregular flat-bottomed troughs to relatively regular steep-sided ripples. A good linear relationship between ERPs and days after birth in neonates was observed. As days after birth increased, N2 latencies gradually and significantly shortened, and N2 areas gradually and significantly increased (both Pbrain were significantly greater, and N2 latencies in the central part were significantly shorter in the left hemisphere compared with the right, indicative of left hemisphere dominance (both Pdevelopment. In the days following birth, the auditory perception ability of neonates gradually increases. This occurs predominantly in the left hemisphere, with auditory perception ability appearing to develop earlier in female neonates than in males. ERP can be used as an objective index used to evaluate auditory perception development in neonates. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: the role of therapeutic techniques.

    Gold, Christian; Wigram, Tony; Voracek, Martin

    2007-12-01

    Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N=75) were assessed before and after participating in individual music therapy with 1 out of 15 music therapists in the Vienna region. Relationships between outcomes (as evaluated by parents) and therapy contents (as reported by therapists) were examined using general linear modelling. Results indicated that clients' symptoms and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware of a therapy method's specific strengths and limitations. More research on the indicated specific ingredients of music therapy intervention is needed.

  20. Potential impact of tsetse fly control involving the sterile insect technique

    Feldmann, U.; Dyck, V.A.; Mattioli, R.C.; Jannin, J.

    2005-01-01

    sterile insect technique (SIT), as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes to create tsetse-free zones, has been demonstrated in Zanzibar and other locations. This chapter (1) outlines the causal relationship between the T and T problem and food insecurity, malnutrition, poverty, and related disease and development constraints, (2) describes the impact of the problem on African rural communities and the overall economy, and (3) indicates the potential benefits of a reduced T and T burden, or even of its zonal elimination from selected priority areas in support of sustainable rural development. (author)

  1. Potential savings from redetermining disability among children receiving supplemental security income benefits.

    Pulcini, Christian D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Nozzolillo, Alixandra A; Perrin, James M

    2012-01-01

    To compare the costs of redetermining disability to potential savings in Supplemental Security Income payments associated with different strategies for implementing Continuing Disability Reviews (CDRs) among children potentially enrolled in SSI from 2012 to 2021. We reviewed publicly available reports from the Social Security Administration and Government Accountability Office to estimate costs and savings. We considered CDRs for children ages 1-17 years, excluding mandated low-birth weight and age 18 redeterminations that SSA routinely has performed. If in 2012 the Social Security Administration performs the same number of CDRs for children as in 2010 (16,677, 1% of eligibles) at a cessation rate of 15%, the agency would experience net savings of approximately $145 million in benefit payments. If CDR numbers increased to the greatest level ever (183,211, 22% of eligibles, in 1999) at the same cessation rate, the agency would save approximately $1.6 billion in benefit payments. Increasing the numbers of CDRs for children represents a considerable opportunity for savings. Recognizing the dynamic nature of disability, the agency could reassess the persistence of disability systematically; doing so could free up resources from children who are no longer eligible and help the agency better direct its benefits to recipients with ongoing disability and whose families need support to meet the extra costs associated with raising a child with a major disability. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical application of multifocal visual evoked potentials in children with epilepsy caused by intracranial disease

    Yukawa, Eiichi; Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kawasaki, Kensuke; Yoshii, Toshiaki; Hara, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether visual field defects could be objectively evaluated using multifocal visual evoked potential (m-VEP) in two children with epilepsy caused by intracranial disease in whom it was difficult to measure the visual field. To determine normal waves in m-VEP, recording was performed using a visual evoked response imaging system (VERIS) Junior Science program (Mayo, Aichi, Japan) in 20 healthy children (20 eyes) peak latency and amplitude were used for assessment. In the two children with epilepsy, m-VEPs were recorded, and compared with the results of static perimetry or the lesions observed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the 20 healthy children, there was no significant difference in the peak latency or amplitude among 4 quadrants by one-way analysis of variance. m-VEP in the children with epilepsy showed abnormal waves, corresponding to the visual field defects in the static perimetry or the lesions observed by MRI. Objective evaluation of visual field defects using m-VEP may be useful in children with epilepsy caused by intracranial disease in whom kinetic/static perimetry as a subjective examination is difficult. (author)

  3. Auditory event-related potentials in children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes.

    Tomé, David; Sampaio, Mafalda; Mendes-Ribeiro, José; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2014-12-01

    Benign focal epilepsy in childhood with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most common forms of idiopathic epilepsy, with onset from age 3 to 14 years. Although the prognosis for children with BECTS is excellent, some studies have revealed neuropsychological deficits in many domains, including language. Auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) reflect activation of different neuronal populations and are suggested to contribute to the evaluation of auditory discrimination (N1), attention allocation and phonological categorization (N2), and echoic memory (mismatch negativity--MMN). The scarce existing literature about this theme motivated the present study, which aims to investigate and document the existing AERP changes in a group of children with BECTS. AERPs were recorded, during the day, to pure and vocal tones and in a conventional auditory oddball paradigm in five children with BECTS (aged 8-12; mean=10 years; male=5) and in six gender and age-matched controls. Results revealed high amplitude of AERPs for the group of children with BECTS with a slight latency delay more pronounced in fronto-central electrodes. Children with BECTS may have abnormal central auditory processing, reflected by electrophysiological measures such as AERPs. In advance, AERPs seem a good tool to detect and reliably reveal cortical excitability in children with typical BECTS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The potential of folk tabletop games in the development of the intelligence and creativity of children

    Mariia Baisheva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern education is dominantly targeted at the left hemisphere. It draws insufficient attention to the harmonization of the functioning of both brain hemispheres. This has a negative impact on the development of the abilities of children and is especially detrimental to boys and those children who are brought up in the natural environment. In this regard, one of the solutions is folk tabletop games, but their potential in the development of the intelligence and creativity of children has been insufficiently explored. The goal of the research is to identify and substantiate the potential of the Sakha’s tabletop games for the development of the intellectual and creative abilities of children aged 5-7 years. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that the problem under study enriches the theoretical and methodological bases of using tabletop games in the intellectual development of children in preschool education. The study was carried out longitudinally. The following was studied: the influence of games on the development of intellectual, creative, and insight abilities of children aged 5-7 years, as well as their interconditionality. The obtained results are discussed from the point of view of their correspondence with both the data available in science and the hypothesis of the study. The discussion emphasizes that the tabletop games of the Sakha are the most meaningfully represented in the study as the functional space for the development of intellectual and creative abilities of children. In the conclusion, it is emphasized that folk tabletop games are the means for qualitative enrichment of all the basic factors of intelligence in operations, contents, and final products of thinking. The study has proven the idea of treating tabletop games as a substantial source of development of the harmonious activity of both brain hemispheres.

  5. Mansonella, including a Potential New Species, as Common Parasites in Children in Gabon.

    Gaël Mourembou

    Full Text Available Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing.DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7% children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%, which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8% and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6. Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged ≤ 5, 6-10 and 11-15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively. Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called "DEUX". Mansonella sp. "DEUX" was detected only in febrile children.Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. "DEUX" and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans.

  6. Potential Risk Estimation Drowning Index for Children (PREDIC): a pilot study from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Borse, N N; Hyder, A A; Bishai, D; Baker, T; Arifeen, S E

    2011-11-01

    Childhood drowning is a major public health problem that has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries. In Matlab, rural Bangladesh, more than 40% of child deaths aged 1-4 years are due to drowning. The main objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate a childhood drowning risk prediction index. A literature review was carried out to document risk factors identified for childhood drowning in Bangladesh. The Newacheck model for special health care needs for children was adapted and applied to construct a childhood drowning risk index called "Potential Risk Estimation Drowning Index for Children" (PREDIC). Finally, the proposed PREDIC Index was applied to childhood drowning deaths and compared with the comparison group from children living in Matlab, Bangladesh. This pilot study used t-tests and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the results. The PREDIC index was applied to 302 drowning deaths and 624 children 0-4 years old living in Matlab. The results of t-test indicate that the drowned children had a statistically (t=-8.58, p=0.0001) significant higher mean PREDIC score (6.01) than those in comparison group (5.26). Drowning cases had a PREDIC score of 6 or more for 68% of the children however, the comparison group had 43% of the children with score of 6 or more which was statistically significant (t=-7.36, p<0.001). The area under the curve for the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.662. Index score construction was scientifically plausible; and the index is relatively complete, fairly accurate, and practical. The risk index can help identify and target high risk children with drowning prevention programs. PREDIC index needs to be further tested for its accuracy, feasibility and effectiveness in drowning risk reduction in Bangladesh and other countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Minority mothers' healthcare beliefs, commonly used alternative healthcare practices, and potential complications for infants and children.

    Hannan, Jean

    2015-06-01

    Complementary and alternative healthcare practices have increased substantially in the United States especially with low-income ethnic minority mothers. These mothers often have provider mistrust, language barriers, differing health belief systems, and as a result are less likely to seek preventive health screening, access healthcare services, and use alternative remedies for their infants and children that are potentially harmful or lethal. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine healthcare beliefs, commonly used alternative healthcare practices, and their potential complications for infants and children. A search of CINAHL and PubMed (1980-2012) was conducted using the following terms: alternative healthcare practice, mothers' health beliefs, cultural health beliefs, folk remedies, and infant health practices. Given the changing U.S. population and an increasing immigrant population, examining alternative healthcare practices mothers use for their infants and children is especially important for providers in addressing healthcare for this group. The use of alternative healthcare practices is rarely discussed by parents with healthcare providers for fear of disapproval. When interviewing ethnic minority mothers and caregivers questions should include the use of alternative healthcare practices for infants and children and information regarding the potential dangers should be provided to them. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Techniques and problems in studying intestinal absorption with radioactive isotopes in children

    James, W.P.T.; Waterlow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes give substantial promise for assisting the study of gastrointestinal absorption in children in that they allow reduction or elimination of the collection of blood, urine and faeces specimens. These operations are particularly difficult and unreliable in infants, on whom greatest interest in paediatric gastroenterology is centred in the tropics. Here intestinal malabsorption is most commonly associated with malnutrition, lactose intolerance, gastroenteritis, parasitic infestation and iron-deficiency anaemia. Two general techniques that have been employed are whole-body counting and analyses of 14 CO 2 exhaled in the breath after the feeding of 14 C-labelled nutrients. The former is advantageous if radionuclides suitable for the test at hand exist; the latter may be hard to interpret because of problems in the distribution and metabolism of the nutrient and intermediary products. Proper selection and understanding of the tests is particularly important in paediatric work, where the use of radioactive tracer techniques is unacceptable merely for the convenience of the investigator. (author)

  9. Detection of EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coli by PCR technique in Children with Diarrhea

    v Aein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coliis one of the important agents of invasion to intestinal epithelial cells, damage and cell death which due to dysentery. The aim of this study wastoDetection of EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coli by PCR technique from Children’s Diarrheain yasuj. Methods:This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 stool samples taken from children with diarrhea in Yasuj. After initial identification of E.coli strains by culture and biochemical tests, EIEC gene such as ipaH detected by PCR technicque and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was evaluated by using disc diffusion (CLSI method. Results: Out of all examined samples, 16(8% EIEC were separated. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that the most susceptible antibiotic is ciprofloxacin for EIEC and also most resistant antibiotic is ceftizoxime. Conclusion: Results showed that EIEC strains have a moderate prevalence than other studies in our study area. Therefore, for importance of this strain to producing dysentery, hospital-wide surveillance using molecular techniques hase been proposed in other regions of country.

  10. Impact of the Z potential technique on reducing the sperm DNA fragmentation index, fertilization rate and embryo development.

    Duarte, Carlos; Núñez, Víctor; Wong, Yat; Vivar, Carlos; Benites, Elder; Rodriguez, Urso; Vergara, Carlos; Ponce, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    In assisted reproduction procedures, we need to develop and enhance new protocols to optimize sperm selection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the Z potential technique to select sperm with intact DNA in non-normospermic patients and evaluate the impact of this selection on embryonic development. We analyzed a total of 174 human seminal samples with at least one altered parameter. We measured basal, post density gradients, and post density gradients + Z potential DNA fragmentation index. To evaluate the impact of this technique on embryo development, 54 cases were selected. The embryo development parameters evaluated were fertilization rate, cleavage rate, top quality embryos at the third day and blastocysts rate. We found significant differences in the study groups when we compared the sperm fragmentation index by adding the Z potential technique to density gradient selection vs. density gradients alone. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the embryo development parameters between the low sperm fragmentation index group vs. the moderate and high sperm fragmentation index groups, when selecting sperms with this new technique. The Z potential technique is a very useful tool for sperm selection; it significantly reduces the DNA fragmentation index and improves the parameters of embryo development. This technique could be considered routine for its simplicity and low cost.

  11. Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers

    Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes

  12. Review of potential processing techniques for the encapsulation of wastes in thermoplastic polymers

    Patel, B.R.; Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.

    1995-08-01

    Thermoplastic encapsulation has been extensively studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) Environmental and Waste Technology Center (EWTC) as a waste encapsulation technology applicable to a wide range of waste types including radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. Encapsulation involves processing thermoplastic and waste materials into a waste form product by heating and mixing both materials into a homogeneous molten mixture. Cooling of the melt results in a solid monolithic waste form in which contaminants have been completely surrounded by a polymer matrix. Heating and mixing requirements for successful waste encapsulation can be met using proven technologies available in various types of commercial equipment. Processing techniques for thermoplastic materials, such as low density polyethylene (LDPE), are well established within the plastics industry. The majority of commercial polymer processing is accomplished using extruders, mixers or a combination of these technologies. Extruders and mixers are available in a broad range of designs and are used during the manufacture of consumer and commercial products as well as for compounding applications. Compounding which refers to mixing additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers, is analogous to thermoplastic encapsulation. Several processing technologies were investigated for their potential application in encapsulating residual sorbent waste in selected thermoplastic polymers, including single-screw extruders, twin-screw extruders, continuous mixers, batch mixers as well as other less conventional devices. Each was evaluated based on operational ease, quality control, waste handling capabilities as well as degree of waste pretreatment required. Based on literature review, this report provides a description of polymer processing technologies, a discussion of the merits and limitations of each and an evaluation of their applicability to the encapsulation of sorbent wastes.

  13. Potential application of microfocus X-ray techniques for quantitative analysis of bone structure

    Takahashi, Kenta

    2006-01-01

    With the progress of micro-focused X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), it has become possible to evaluate the bone structure quantitatively and three-dimensionally. The advantages of micro-CT are that sample preparations are not required and that it provides not only two-dimensional parameters but also three-dimensional stereological indices. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential application of the micro-focus X-ray techniques for quantitative analysis of the new bone produced inside of a hollow chamber of the experimental titanium miniature implant. Twenty-five male wistar rats (9-weeks of age) received experimental titanium miniature implant that had a hollow chamber inside in the left side of the femur. The rats were sacrificed, then the femurs were excised at 4 weeks or 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis was performed on the femur samples and the volume of the new bone induced in the hollow chamber of implant was calculated. Percentages of new bone area on the undecalcified histological slides were also measured, linear regression analysis was carried out. In order to evaluate the correlation between pixel numbers of undecalcified slide specimen and pixel numbers of micro-CT image. New bone formation occurred in experimental titanium miniature implant with a hollow chamber. The volume of new bone was measured by micro CT and the area percentage of new bone area against hollow chamber was calculated on the undecalcified slide. Linear regression analysis showed a high correlation between the pixel numbers of undecalcified slide specimen and pixel numbers of micro-CT image. Consequently, the new bone produced inside of the hollow chamber of the experimental titanium miniature implant could be quantified as three-dimensional stereological by micro-CT and its precision was supported by the high correlation between the measurement by micro-CT and conservative two-dimensional measurement of histological slide. (author)

  14. Awareness of eSafety and Potential Online Dangers among Children and Teenagers

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2017-09-01

    Background\tThe study examined eSafety among children and teenagers from their own perspectives, through evaluations of their awareness level of eSafety and of potential online dangers. Methodology: This is a mixed-method study with both quantitative and qualitative elements. The study includes questionnaires and interviews. A total of 345 participants from Israel completed questionnaires; 90 children and teenagers were interviewed from among the participants. Contribution: The study examined the awareness of children and youths of safe online surfing. It also examined the degree of exposure of children and youths to positive and negative aspects of the Internet. This study illustrates the dual potential of Internet use within the context of eSafety, as seen through the eyes of children and teenagers. Characteristics of use of the Internet are liable to increase the danger to and the bullying of youths and by youths in the digital domain. It also demonstrates the promises of using the Internet for productive learning and leisure activities. Findings: Findings show that the children and teenagers who participated in the study reported a medium-high level of awareness. Issues that participants were concerned about included avoiding contact with strangers and cyberbullying, not necessarily by strangers, but also by friends. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: It is important to examine how children perceive online events for the purpose of examining their statements regarding eSafety and the way they view problematic or dangerous online events, as well as how they believe they can cope with them. Recommendation for Researchers: The study recommends incorporating in future studies individual case studies and allowing participants to express how they perceive complex online situations. Impact on Society: This study illustrates the dual potential, positive and negative aspects, of Internet use within the context of eSafety, as seen through the eyes of children and

  15. Novel Method for Sizing Metallic Bottom Crack Depth Using Multi-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop Technique

    Li, Yuting; Gan, Fangji; Wan, Zhengjun; Liao, Junbi; Li, Wenqiang

    2015-10-01

    Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of shallow crack. This paper studied a novel method which utilized the slope of voltage ratio-frequency curve to solve bottom crack depth by using a simple mathematic equation based on finite element analysis. It is found that voltage ratio varies linearly with frequency in the range of 5-15 Hz; this range is slightly higher than the equivalent frequency and lower than semi-permeable frequency. Simulation and experiment show that the novel method can measure the bottom crack depth accurately.

  16. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation in children for chronic pancreatitis: indication, surgical techniques, postoperative management, and long-term outcomes.

    Chinnakotla, Srinath; Bellin, Melena D; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Radosevich, David M; Cook, Marie; Dunn, Ty B; Beilman, Gregory J; Freeman, Martin L; Balamurugan, A N; Wilhelm, Josh; Bland, Barbara; Jimenez-Vega, Jose M; Hering, Bernhard J; Vickers, Selwyn M; Pruett, Timothy L; Sutherland, David E R

    2014-07-01

    Describe the surgical technique, complications, and long-term outcomes of total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT) in a large series of pediatric patients. Surgical management of childhood pancreatitis is not clear; partial resection or drainage procedures often provide transient pain relief, but long-term recurrence is common due to the diffuse involvement of the pancreas. Total pancreatectomy (TP) removes the source of the pain, whereas islet autotransplantation (IAT) potentially can prevent or minimize TP-related diabetes. Retrospective review of 75 children undergoing TP-IAT for chronic pancreatitis who had failed medical, endoscopic, or surgical treatment between 1989 and 2012. Pancreatitis pain and the severity of pain statistically improved in 90% of patients after TP-IAT (P Puestow procedure (P = 0.018), lower body surface area (P = 0.048), higher islet equivalents (IEQ) per kilogram body weight (P = 0.001), and total IEQ (100,000) (P = 0.004) were associated with insulin independence. By multivariate analysis, 3 factors were associated with insulin independence after TP-IAT: (1) male sex, (2) lower body surface area, and (3) higher total IEQ per kilogram body weight. Total IEQ (100,000) was the single factor most strongly associated with insulin independence (odds ratio = 2.62; P < 0.001). Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation provides sustained pain relief and improved quality of life. The β-cell function is dependent on islet yield. Total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation is an effective therapy for children with painful pancreatitis that failed medical and/or endoscopic management.

  17. Food packaged with toys: an investigation on potential obesogenic effects in Indian children.

    Gregori, Dario; Gulati, Achal; Hochdorn, Alexander; Ballali, Simonetta; Paramesh, Haralappa; Kumar, Malathi; Baldi, Ileana

    2014-09-01

    To investigate, in a large pan Indian sample of school children, whether gadgets (toys) added to food increase food consumption, and if contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising is a further promoting factor. A total of 1,680 Indian children were first randomized to food exposure with or without toy and then to a five-level exposure to TV viewing and advertising according to a 2 × 5 full factorial ad libitum eating design study. The sample size was computed to detect a difference of 20 Kcal of caloric intake (assuming the same standard deviation of 20 Kcal in both groups) between "food with gadget" (Toy) and "food alone" (No Toy) groups in each level of the exposure to TV and advertising factor, given an alpha error equal to 0.05 and a power of 0.90. Mean caloric intake both in "Toy" and "No Toy" group was around 223 Kcal. When considering exposure to TV and advertising, mean values varied negligibly between 222 and 225 Kcal. According to linear models for the effect of gadget and exposure to TV and/or advertising on children's intake, no significant adjusted associations were found, neither as main effects nor as interactions. Food consumption by children is not influenced by the presence of added toys, even after adjustment for several potential confounding factors. The city where they live and age significantly influences Indian children's caloric intake.

  18. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  19. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures in children: is a simplified algorithm-based qualitative technique reliable?

    Adiotomre, E.; Summers, L.; Digby, M.; Allison, A.; Walters, S.J.; Broadley, P.; Lang, I.; Offiah, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of osteoporotic vertebral fractures allows treatment opportunity reducing future risk. There is no agreed standardised method for diagnosing paediatric vertebral fractures. To evaluate the precision of a modified adult algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) technique, applicable to children with primary or secondary osteoporosis. Three radiologists independently assessed lateral spine radiographs of 50 children with suspected reduction in bone mineral density using a modified ABQ scoring system and following simplification to include only clinically relevant parameters, a simplified ABQ score. A final consensus of all observers using simplified ABQ was performed as a reference standard for fracture characterisation. Kappa was calculated for interobserver agreement of the components of both scoring systems and intraobserver agreement of simplified ABQ based on a second read of 29 randomly selected images. Interobserver Kappa for modified ABQ scoring for fracture detection, severity and shape ranged from 0.34 to 0.49 Kappa for abnormal endplate and position assessment was 0.27 to 0.38. Inter- and intraobserver Kappa for simplified ABQ scoring for fracture detection and grade ranged from 0.37 to 0.46 and 0.45 to 0.56, respectively. Inter- and intraobserver Kappa for affected endplate ranged from 0.31 to 0.41 and 0.45 to 0.51, respectively. Subjectively, observers' felt simplified ABQ was easier and less time-consuming. Observer reliability of modified and simplified ABQ was similar, with slight to moderate agreement for fracture detection and grade/severity. Due to subjective preference for simplified ABQ, we suggest its use as a semi-objective measure of diagnosing paediatric vertebral fractures. (orig.)

  20. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures in children: is a simplified algorithm-based qualitative technique reliable?

    Adiotomre, E. [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust UK, Radiology Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Summers, L.; Digby, M. [University of Sheffield UK, Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Allison, A.; Walters, S.J. [University of Sheffield UK, School of Health and Related Research, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Broadley, P.; Lang, I. [Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Offiah, A.C. [Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield UK, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Identification of osteoporotic vertebral fractures allows treatment opportunity reducing future risk. There is no agreed standardised method for diagnosing paediatric vertebral fractures. To evaluate the precision of a modified adult algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) technique, applicable to children with primary or secondary osteoporosis. Three radiologists independently assessed lateral spine radiographs of 50 children with suspected reduction in bone mineral density using a modified ABQ scoring system and following simplification to include only clinically relevant parameters, a simplified ABQ score. A final consensus of all observers using simplified ABQ was performed as a reference standard for fracture characterisation. Kappa was calculated for interobserver agreement of the components of both scoring systems and intraobserver agreement of simplified ABQ based on a second read of 29 randomly selected images. Interobserver Kappa for modified ABQ scoring for fracture detection, severity and shape ranged from 0.34 to 0.49 Kappa for abnormal endplate and position assessment was 0.27 to 0.38. Inter- and intraobserver Kappa for simplified ABQ scoring for fracture detection and grade ranged from 0.37 to 0.46 and 0.45 to 0.56, respectively. Inter- and intraobserver Kappa for affected endplate ranged from 0.31 to 0.41 and 0.45 to 0.51, respectively. Subjectively, observers' felt simplified ABQ was easier and less time-consuming. Observer reliability of modified and simplified ABQ was similar, with slight to moderate agreement for fracture detection and grade/severity. Due to subjective preference for simplified ABQ, we suggest its use as a semi-objective measure of diagnosing paediatric vertebral fractures. (orig.)

  1. The potential of cell sheet technique on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in rat models.

    Alaa T Alshareeda

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is considered the 3rd leading cause of death by cancer worldwide with the majority of patients were diagnosed in the late stages. Currently, there is no effective therapy. The selection of an animal model that mimics human cancer is essential for the identification of prognostic/predictive markers, candidate genes underlying cancer induction and the examination of factors that may influence the response of cancers to therapeutic agents and regimens. In this study, we developed a HCC nude rat models using cell sheet and examined the effect of human stromal cells (SCs on the development of the HCC model and on different liver parameters such as albumin and urea.Transplanted cell sheet for HCC rat models was fabricated using thermo-responsive culture dishes. The effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs on the developed tumour was tested. Furthermore, development of tumour and detection of the liver parameter was studied. Additionally, angiogenesis assay was performed using Matrigel.HepG2 cells requires five days to form a complete cell sheet while HepG2 co-cultured with UC-MSCs or BM-MSCs took only three days. The tumour developed within 4 weeks after transplantation of the HCC sheet on the liver of nude rats. Both UC-MSCs and BM-MSCs improved the secretion of liver parameters by increasing the secretion of albumin and urea. Comparatively, the UC-MSCs were more effective than BM-MSCs, but unlike BM-MSCs, UC-MSCs prevented liver tumour formation and the tube formation of HCC.Since this is a novel study to induce liver tumour in rats using hepatocellular carcinoma sheet and stromal cells, the data obtained suggest that cell sheet is a fast and easy technique to develop HCC models as well as UC-MSCs have therapeutic potential for liver diseases. Additionally, the data procured indicates that stromal cells enhanced the fabrication of HepG2

  2. Technique of radiation polymerization in fine art conservation: a potentially new method of restoration and preservation

    Garnett, J.L.; Major, G.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of using radiation polymerization for the restoration and preservation of art treasures is considered. The processes discussed include both radiation grafting and rapid cure procedures, particularly reactions initiated by uv and eb. Representative examples where the technique has already been used are treated including typical applications with paintings, tapestries, leather and archival repair. The structure of the monomers and oligomers used in both grafting and rapid cure systems is outlined. The experimental conditions where grafting may occur during radiation rapid cure processing are discussed. Possible future developments of the technique are outlined. 1 figure, 8 tables

  3. Disciplinary style and child abuse potential: association with indicators of positive functioning in children with behavior problems.

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Eden, Ann M

    2008-06-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower dysfunctional disciplinary style and child abuse risk was associated with children's positive self-concept, adaptive attributional style, and hopefulness. Recruited from children undergoing treatment for disruptive behavior disorders, 69 mother-child dyads participated, with maternal caregivers reporting on their disciplinary style and abuse potential and children reporting independently on their positive functioning (adaptive attributional style, overall self-concept, and hopelessness). Findings supported the hypothesized association, with lower scores on mothers' dysfunctional discipline style and abuse potential significantly predicting children's reported positive functioning. Future research directions pertaining to more adaptive functioning in children with behavior problems are discussed.

  4. Healthcare Access for Iraqi Refugee Children in Texas: Persistent Barriers, Potential Solutions, and Policy Implications.

    Vermette, David; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Al Zuheiri, Haidar; Flores, Glenn

    2015-10-01

    To identify access barriers to healthcare and potential interventions to improve access for Iraqi refugee children. Four focus groups were conducted using consecutive sampling of Iraqi refugee parents residing in the US for 8 months to 5 years. Eight key-informant interviews also were conducted with employees of organizations serving Iraqi refugee families, recruited using snowball sampling. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and grounded theory. Iraqi refugees identified provider availability, Medicaid maintenance and renewal, language issues, and inadequate recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder as barriers to care for their children. Interviewees cited loss of case-management services and difficulties in understanding the Medicaid renewal process as barriers. Potential interventions to improve access include community-oriented efforts to educate parents on Medicaid renewal, obtaining services, and accessing specialists. Given the enduring nature of language and Medicaid renewal barriers, policies addressing eligibility alone are insufficient.

  5. Enhancing Peer Acceptance of Children with Learning Difficulties: Classroom Goal Orientation and Effects of a Storytelling Programme with Drama Techniques

    Law, Yin-kum; Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Tam, Zoe W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Peer acceptance is an important facilitator for the success of inclusive education. The aim of the current study is twofold: (1) to examine how classroom goal orientation is associated with children's acceptance of peers with learning difficulties; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of a storytelling programme with drama techniques on…

  6. Children's Negotiations of Visualization Skills during a Design-Based Learning Experience Using Nondigital and Digital Techniques

    Smith, Shaunna

    2018-01-01

    In the context of a 10-day summer camp makerspace experience that employed design-based learning (DBL) strategies, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to better understand the ways in which children use visualization skills to negotiate design as they move back and forth between the world of nondigital design techniques (i.e., drawing,…

  7. Conventional and Piecewise Growth Modeling Techniques: Applications and Implications for Investigating Head Start Children's Early Literacy Learning

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…

  8. Technique of radiotherapy of the neurocranium in children suffering from leucosis

    Thiel, H.J.

    1985-11-01

    By an irradiation of the neurocranium with doses from 12 to 30 Gy during the combined treatment of ALL in children, an essential reduction of the leukemic manifestation on the meninges as well as an improved curability have been achieved during the last few years. The precision of the irradiation technique is of vital importance, i.e. the occurrence of recurrences on the central nervous system during complete remission after skull irradiation are preponderantly due to a defective irradiation technique. The important factors are a daily reproducible positioning and fixation of the head in an irradiation mask and the adjustment within three dimensions by means of a laser light system. Only cobalt-60 gamma radiation or the ultrahard photons of a linear accelerator with an energy of 4 to 6 MV should be applied. The irradiation is performed with laterally opposite, coplanar and coaxial fields in an isocentric adjustment. The field shape is regulated by individual absorbers adjusted under visual control in a defined position to the patient on a plexiglas plate at the therapy simulator. In order to guarantee an homogeneic dose also to the meninges situated at the field borders and to prevent a ''geographic miss'', the field borders should exceed the cranial calotte by 1 to 2 cm at the frontal, vertical and occipital side. At the base of the skull, special consideration must be given to a sufficient irradiation of the retrobulbar spaces, the frontal meninges situated in the region of the lamina cribrosa and the temporal meninges situated in the region of the deep inner cranial fossae. The dose specification is made in the central ray in the center of the skull. Generally single doses of 2 Gy and weekly doses of 10 Gy are applied. The total dose depends on age, risk group, and treatment aim. (orig./WU).

  9. Technique of radiotherapy of the neurocranium in children suffering from leucosis

    Thiel, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    By an irradiation of the neurocranium with doses from 12 to 30 Gy during the combined treatment of ALL in children, an essential reduction of the leukemic manifestation on the meninges as well as an improved curability have been achieved during the last few years. The precision of the irradiation technique is of vital importance, i.e. the occurrence of recurrences on the central nervous system during complete remission after skull irradiation are preponderantly due to a defective irradiation technique. The important factors are a daily reproducible positioning and fixation of the head in an irradiation mask and the adjustment within three dimensions by means of a laser light system. Only cobalt-60 gamma radiation or the ultrahard photons of a linear accelerator with an energy of 4 to 6 MV should be applied. The irradiation is performed with laterally opposite, coplanar and coaxial fields in an isocentric adjustment. The field shape is regulated by individual absorbers adjusted under visual control in a defined position to the patient on a plexiglas plate at the therapy simulator. In order to guarantee an homogeneic dose also to the meninges situated at the field borders and to prevent a ''geographic miss'', the field borders should exceed the cranial calotte by 1 to 2 cm at the frontal, vertical and occipital side. At the base of the skull, special consideration must be given to a sufficient irradiation of the retrobulbar spaces, the frontal meninges situated in the region of the lamina cribrosa and the temporal meninges situated in the region of the deep inner cranial fossae. The dose specification is made in the central ray in the center of the skull. Generally single doses of 2 Gy and weekly doses of 10 Gy are applied. The total dose depends on age, risk group, and treatment aim. (orig./WU) [de

  10. Using self-potential housing technique to model water seepage at the UNHAS housing Antang area

    Syahruddin, Muhammad Hamzah

    2017-01-01

    The earth's surface has an electric potential that is known as self-potentiall (SP). One of the causes of the electrical potential at the earth's surface is water seepage into the ground. Electrical potential caused by water velocity seepage into the ground known as streaming potential. How to model water seepage into the ground at the housing Unhas Antang? This study was conducted to answer these questions. The self-potential measurements performed using a simple digital voltmeter Sanwa brand PC500 with a precision of 0.01 mV. While the coordinates of measurements points are self-potential using Global Positioning System. Mmeasurements results thus obtained are plotted using surfer image distribution self-potential housing Unhas Antang. The self-potential data housing Unhas Antang processed by Forward Modeling methods to get a model of water infiltration into the soil. Housing Unhas Antang self-potential has a value of 5 to 23 mV. Self-potential measurements carried out in the rainy season so it can be assumed that the measurement results caused by the velocity water seepage into the ground. The results of modeling the velocity water seepage from the surface to a depth of 3 meters was 2.4 cm/s to 0.2 cm /s. Modeling results showed that the velocity water seepage of the smaller with depth.

  11. Potential immediate hypersensitivity reactions following immunization in preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia.

    Baxter, C-M; Clothier, H J; Perrett, K P

    2018-04-06

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) are rare but potentially serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Surveillance of Adverse Events following Vaccination in the Community (SAEFVIC) is an enhanced passive surveillance system that collects, analyses and reports information about AEFI in Victoria, Australia. We describe the incidence, timing and type of potential IHR following vaccination in preschool children reported over an 8-year period. A total of 2110 AEFI were reported in 1620 children, of which 23.5% (496) were classified as potential IHR. Of these, 37.1% (184) were suspected to be IgE-mediated, (including anaphylaxis, angioedema and/or urticaria) and 83.5% (414) occurred within 15 minutes of vaccination. The incidence of potential IHR was 5.4 per 100,000 doses, with that of suspected IgE-mediated IHR being 2.0 per 100,000 doses. The incidence of anaphylaxis was extremely low (0.13 per 100,000 doses) and is consistent with other published studies. Potential IHR following immunization should be reported to appropriate local pharmacovigilance systems and patients reviewed by specialists able to evaluate, investigate and manage future vaccinations.

  12. Differences in attentional functioning between preterm and full-term children underline the importance of new neuropsychological detection techniques.

    Giordano, V; Fuiko, R; Leiss, U; Brandstetter, S; Hayde, M; Bartha-Doering, E; Klebermaß-Schrehof, K; Weiler, L J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate specific attentional components in preterm born children who had not yet started school. Between January and December 2011, we assessed 52 preterm and 52 full-term children aged between five years five months and six years two months, of comparable age and gender, at the Medical University of Vienna. Different attentional components were evaluated through selected subtests of the Test of Attentional Performance and the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Each child's behaviour was also evaluated using parental ratings and descriptive item-based evaluation during neuropsychological assessment. Children born preterm showed poor attentional performance in sustained attention, focused attention and distractibility, as well as reductions in processing speed in divided attention and flexibility tasks. Children born preterm also showed decreased volitional attention compared with automatic attention. No problems were detected in alertness or inhibition. In addition, a higher rate of aborted tests, decreased motivation and poorer parental ratings were detected among the preterm population compared with full-term born children. Our results highlighted differences in attentional functioning between preterm and full-term children, indicating the importance of new neuropsychological techniques for the detection of specific attentional disorders. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization in children with asthma and mite allergy: a double-blind study.

    Cantani, A; Ragno, V; Monteleone, M A; Lucenti, P; Businco, L

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of enzyme-potentiated desensitization (EPD) in children with asthma. Twenty asthmatic children (14 males and 6 females; median age: 8.5 years) were included in the study. They had positive skin tests to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt), no history of other allergy and had suffered from asthma for at least two years. The children were examined before starting the trial, at the first EPD dose, after 8 weeks, at the second EPD dose and 3 months after the second EPD dose. Blood samples for PRIST and RAST were drawn before the first and at the second EPD dose, and at the last follow-up. Conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) and skin test endpoint determinations were performed with dilutions of a freeze-dried Dpt extract (10-100,000 SQ-U/ml) at the start of the trial and at the last follow-up. Parents kept a diary record of the days with asthma and daily drug usage. The children were randomized to receive either two intradermal placebo injections or the active material with an 8-week interval (November 1991 and January 1992). Ten children received EPD and 10 children placebo. The intradermal injection of EPD (0.05 ml) contained 0.01 ml of beta-glucuronidase (40 Fishman units) and 0.04 ml of a mixture of inhalant allergens (1 Noon unit). The placebo injection consisted of buffer solution only. The EPD-treated children had significantly fewer days with asthma (p = 0.00000). In addition, the EPD-treated children used significantly less medication for the management of asthma attacks (p = 0.00000). At the start of the trial, three out of 10 children in the EPD group and two out of 10 in the placebo group reacted only to the highest dose of allergen used in the CPT (100,000 SQ/ml) (NS). At the last follow-up, the threshold dose in the CPT was 100,000 SQ/ml or more in nine out of 10 children in the EPD group and in four out of 10 children of the placebo group (p = 0.0349). At the last follow-up, one child in the

  14. Exploring the potential of data mining techniques for the analysis of accident patterns

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Galtzur, Ayelet

    2010-01-01

    Research in road safety faces major challenges: individuation of the most significant determinants of traffic accidents, recognition of the most recurrent accident patterns, and allocation of resources necessary to address the most relevant issues. This paper intends to comprehend which data mining...... and association rules) data mining techniques are implemented for the analysis of traffic accidents occurred in Israel between 2001 and 2004. Results show that descriptive techniques are useful to classify the large amount of analyzed accidents, even though introduce problems with respect to the clear...... importance of input and intermediate neurons, and the relative importance of hundreds of association rules. Further research should investigate whether limiting the analysis to fatal accidents would simplify the task of data mining techniques in recognizing accident patterns without the “noise” probably...

  15. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques

    Jager, D. H. J.; Vieira, A. M.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  16. Influence of beverage composition on the results of erosive potential measurement by different measurement techniques.

    Jager, D.H.; Vieira, A.M.; Ruben, J.L.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of beverage composition on the measurement of erosive potential is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether beverage composition influences the measurement of erosive potential and to evaluate the influence of exposure in small and large volumes. Eleven beverages were

  17. Evaluation of the nugget diameter in spot welded joints between two steel sheets by means of a potential drop technique

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Ikarashi, Hidetomo; Matsui, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Yuta; Obara, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    A potential drop technique which utilizes the electrical circuit used in resistance spot welding is reported. Spot welded samples comprising two steel sheets were inserted between the two Cu electrodes and a constant direct current was supplied between the electrodes. The potential drop between two points, one on each electrode, was determined by analysis for various values of nugget diameter and various values of the contact resistance between the Cu electrodes and the steel sheet sample. The nugget diameter of the spot welded joint could be quantitatively evaluated from the measured potential drop and the equation obtained from the analysis. (paper)

  18. Evaluation of the nugget diameter in spot welded joints between two steel sheets by means of a potential drop technique

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Ikarashi, Hidetomo; Matsui, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Yuta; Obara, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    A potential drop technique which utilizes the electrical circuit used in resistance spot welding is reported. Spot welded samples comprising two steel sheets were inserted between the two Cu electrodes and a constant direct current was supplied between the electrodes. The potential drop between two points, one on each electrode, was determined by analysis for various values of nugget diameter and various values of the contact resistance between the Cu electrodes and the steel sheet sample. The nugget diameter of the spot welded joint could be quantitatively evaluated from the measured potential drop and the equation obtained from the analysis.

  19. Potential utility of MRI in the evaluation of children at risk of renal scarring

    Chan Yuleung; Chan Kamwing; Roebuck, D.J.; Chu, W.C.W.; Metreweli, C.; Yeung Chungkwong; Lee Kimhung

    1999-01-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI has recently been employed in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Its potential utility in the diagnosis of renal scars in children is unknown. Objective. To evaluate the potential utility of MRI using fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) and post-gadolinium, short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences in detecting renal scarring by comparison with technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99 m Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy in children at risk of renal scarring. Materials and methods. A group of 24 children with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder or anorectal anomaly was studied. No patient had a history of acute pyelonephritis. Documented urinary tract infection (UTI) was present in 10 children (42 %). The remaining 14 (58 %) children had a history of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None had clinical signs or symptoms of acute UTI at the time of the study. 99 m Tc-DMSA and MRI were performed to detect renal scarring. 99 m Tc-DMSA scans were supplemented with pinhole imaging. MRI of the kidneys employed a fat-saturated T1-W sequence and a post-gadolinium STIR sequence employing a short echo time. Results. Of the kidneys studied, 33 % (n = 16) had evidence of a renal parenchymal defect suggestive of scarring on 99 m Tc-DMSA. The concordance in the detection of a scarred kidney by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 94 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 82 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 100 %. Using 99 m Tc-DMSA as the gold standard, MRI had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 78 % in the diagnosis of a scarred kidney. The concordance in the detection of a scarred zone by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 68 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and DMSA is 44 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 84 %. MRI had a sensitivity of 84 % and a specificity of 86 % in the diagnosis of a

  20. Participation of Children in Medical Decision-Making: Challenges and Potential Solutions.

    Jeremic, Vida; Sénécal, Karine; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Vears, Danya F

    2016-12-01

    Participation in healthcare decision-making is considered to be an important right of minors, and is highlighted in both international legislation and public policies. However, despite the legal recognition of children's rights to participation, and also the benefits that children experience by their involvement, there is evidence that legislation is not always translated into healthcare practice. There are a number of factors that may impact on the ability of the child to be involved in decisions regarding their medical care. Some of these factors relate to the child, including their capacity to be actively involved in these decisions. Others relate to the family situation, sociocultural context, or the underlying beliefs and practices of the healthcare provider involved. In spite of these challenges to including children in decisions regarding their clinical care, we argue that it is an important factor in their treatment. The extent to which children should participate in this process should be determined on a case-by-case basis, taking all of the potential barriers into account.

  1. Maternal buffering of fear-potentiated startle in children and adolescents with trauma exposure.

    van Rooij, Sanne J H; Cross, Dorthie; Stevens, Jennifer S; Vance, L Alexander; Kim, Ye Ji; Bradley, Bekh; Tottenham, Nim; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2017-02-01

    Parental availability influences fear expression and learning across species, but the effect of maternal buffering on fear learning in humans is unknown. Here we investigated the effect of maternal availability during fear conditioning in a group of children (ages 8-10) and adolescents (ages 11-13) from a low-income population with a range of trauma exposure. Acoustic startle response data were collected to measure fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in 104 participants. A total of 62 participants were tested with the mother available and 42 when the mother was not in the testing room. We observed that maternal availability during fear conditioning interacted with age to affect FPS discrimination between CS+ and CS-. In line with previous findings suggesting an absence of maternal buffering in adolescents, fear discrimination was affected by maternal availability only in children. Second, we observed that the effect of maternal buffering on FPS discrimination in children was not influenced by maternally reported warmth. In conclusion, we demonstrated that maternal availability improved discrimination in children, regardless of the quality of the relationship. Adolescents discriminated irrespective of maternal status, suggesting that childhood may be a sensitive period for environmental influences on key processes such as learning of danger and safety signals.

  2. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Opportunities and Barriers to Bioenergy Conversion Techniques and Their Potential Implementation on Swine Manure

    Mahmoud A. Sharara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article are to offer a comprehensive evaluation of the opportunities and barriers for swine manure conversion technologies and to shed light on the gaps that might require further investigation to improve the applicability of these technologies. The challenges of manure management have been propagated alongside the global growth of swine production. Various technologies that target the production of energy, fuels, and bioproducts from swine manure have been reported. These technologies include pretreatments, i.e., drying, and solid separation; biological techniques, i.e., composting, anaerobic digestion, and biodrying; and thermochemical techniques, i.e., combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and carbonization. The review highlights the yields and qualities of products, i.e., energy, gaseous fuel, liquid fuel, and solid fuel, of each technology. It exhibits that the choice of a conversion technology predominantly depends on the feedstock properties, the specifics of the conversion technique, the market values of the end products as well as the local regulations. The challenges associated with the presented techniques are discussed to ameliorate research and development in these areas. The notable finding of this paper is that there is a need for full-scale research in the area of thermochemical conversion of solid-separated swine manure.

  4. Maturation of long latency auditory evoked potentials in hearing children: systematic review.

    Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho de; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2017-05-15

    To analyze how Auditory Long Latency Evoked Potentials (LLAEP) change according to age in children population through a systematic literature review. After formulation of the research question, a bibliographic survey was done in five data bases with the following descriptors: Electrophysiology (Eletrofisiologia), Auditory Evoked Potentials (Potenciais Evocados Auditivos), Child (Criança), Neuronal Plasticity (Plasticidade Neuronal) and Audiology (Audiologia). Level 1 evidence articles, published between 1995 and 2015 in Brazilian Portuguese or English language. Aspects related to emergence, morphology and latency of P1, N1, P2 and N2 components were analyzed. A total of 388 studies were found; however, only 21 studies contemplated the established criteria. P1 component is characterized as the most frequent component in young children, being observed around 100-150 ms, which tends to decrease as chronological age increases. The N2 component was shown to be the second most commonly observed component in children, being observed around 200-250 ms.. The other N1 and P2 components are less frequent and begin to be seen and recorded throughout the maturational process. The maturation of LLAEP occurs gradually, and the emergence of P1, N1, P2 and N2 components as well as their latency values are variable in childhood. P1 and N2 components are the most observed and described in pediatric population. The diversity of protocols makes the comparison between studies difficult.

  5. Results of a bone splint technique for the treatment of lower limb deformities in children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta

    Dasheng Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI can suffer from frequent fractures and limb deformities, resulting in impaired ambulation. Osteopenia and thin cortices complicate orthopedic treatment in this group. This study evaluates the clinical results of a bone splint technique for the treatment of lower limb deformities in children with type I OI. The technique consists of internal plating combined with cortical strut allograft fixation. Materials and Methods: We prospectively followed nine children (five boys, four girls with lower limb deformities due to type I OI, who had been treated with the bone splint technique (11 femurs, four tibias between 2003 and 2006. The fracture healing time, deformity improvement, ambulation ability and complications were recorded to evaluate treatment effects. Results: At the time of surgery the average age in our study was 7.7 years (range 5-12 years. The average length of followup was 69 months (range 60-84 months. All patients had good fracture healing with an average healing time of 14 weeks (range 12-16 weeks and none experienced further fractures, deformity, or nonunion. The fixation remained stable throughout the procedure in all cases, with no evidence of loosening or breakage of screws and the deformity and mobility significantly improved after surgery. Of the two children confined to bed before surgery, one was able to walk on crutches and the other needed a wheelchair. The other seven patients could walk without walking aids or support like crutches. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the bone splint technique provides good mechanical support and increases the bone mass. It is an effective treatment for children with OI and lower limb deformities.

  6. The intra-individual reproducibility of flash-evoked potentials in a sample of children.

    Schellberg, D; Gasser, T; Köhler, W

    1987-07-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to flash stimuli were recorded twice from 26 children aged 10-13 years, with an intersession interval of about 10 months. Test-retest reliability was poor for recordings taken from scalp locations overlying non-specific cortex and somewhat better for specific cortex. The size of consistency coefficients (i.e. correlations within session) showed that noise and artefacts were not the decisive factors which lower reliability. A comparison with retest correlations of broad band parameters of the EEG at rest for the same sample showed, to our surprise, smaller retest reliability for VEP parameters. Variability of the VEP in children over time seems to be a substantial as its well-known inter-individual variability.

  7. Mass spectrometry techniques in the survey of steroid metabolites as potential disease biomarkers: a review.

    Gouveia, Maria João; Brindley, Paul J; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Correia da Costa, José Manuel; Gomes, Paula; Vale, Nuno

    2013-09-01

    Mass spectrometric approaches have been fundamental to the identification of metabolites associated with steroid hormones, yet this topic has not been reviewed in depth in recent years. To this end, and given the increasing relevance of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies on steroid hormones and their metabolites, the present review addresses this subject. This review provides a timely summary of the use of various mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques during the evaluation of steroidal biomarkers in a range of human disease settings. The sensitivity and specificity of these technologies are clearly providing valuable new insights into breast cancer and cardiovascular disease. We aim to contribute to an enhanced understanding of steroid metabolism and how it can be profiled by LC-MS techniques. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The potentialities of the complexation ultrafiltration technique for the decontamination of fission product contaminated aqueous effluents

    Thibert, V.

    1995-07-01

    Many nuclear researchers and industrial operators lay emphasis on improving the back end of the fuel cycle. A major problem concerns the liquid wastes generated by the reprocessing plant at La Hague, discharged into the sea after treatment in the Effluent Treatment Station (STE) 3), and which have become crucial matter. The activity of these wastes is well below the current legal limits, and is constantly decreasing these last years. To bring it close to zero, and ambitious goal, entails innovative new reprocessing techniques. We accordingly investigated the possibilities of complexation-ultrafiltration, a technique that uses water-soluble macromolecules to complex the target elements to be separated. We first achieved the strontium (II) separation with poly-acrylic and poly-sulfonic acids. The effects of pH and NaNO 3 concentration influence on Sr (II) complexation were studied. The Sr (II) complexation and concentration phases, followed by cation de-complexation to recover the polymer, were also taken into account. This research, combined with a potentiometric study of the polymers, offered a close understanding of the chemical systems involved, and of the operating conditions and limits of complexation-ultrafiltration. The laboratory results were also validated on a tangential ultrafiltration pilot plant. We then used complexation-ultrafiltration to treat a real effluent generated bu La Hague's STE 3 plant. This experiment demonstrated minimum 90 % decontamination of Sr (II) (with polyacrylate complexing agent), and also for 134-137 Cs (with simple ultrafiltration). The use of two polyamides allowed partial decontamination of the effluent for 60 Co and 106 Ru. This work therefore offers a global approach to complexation-ultrafiltration, from laboratory to pilot scale, on real and simulated effluents. The future of this technique relies chiefly on the ability to solve the problem of polymer recovery. In other respect, complexation-ultrafiltration clearly offers a

  9. Caring for children with physical disability in Kenya: potential links between caregiving and carers' physical health.

    Geere, J L; Gona, J; Omondi, F O; Kifalu, M K; Newton, C R; Hartley, S

    2013-05-01

    The health of a carer is a key factor which can affect the well-being of the child with disabilities for whom they care. In low-income countries, many carers of children with disabilities contend with poverty, limited public services and lack assistive devices. In these situations caregiving may require more physical work than in high-income countries and so carry greater risk of physical injury or health problems. There is some evidence that poverty and limited access to health care and equipment may affect the physical health of those who care for children with disabilities. This study seeks to understand this relationship more clearly. A mixed methods study design was used to identify the potential physical health effects of caring for a child with moderate-severe motor impairments in Kilifi, Kenya. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed and triangulated with data collected during structured physiotherapy assessment. Carers commonly reported chronic spinal pain of moderate to severe intensity, which affected essential activities. However, carers differed in how they perceived their physical health to be affected by caregiving, also reporting positive benefits or denying detrimental effects. Carers focussed on support in two key areas; the provision of simple equipment and support for their children to physically access and attend school. Carers of children with moderate-severe motor impairments live with their own physical health challenges. While routine assessments lead to diagnosis of simple musculoskeletal pain syndromes, the overall health status and situation of carers may be more complex. As a consequence, the role of rehabilitation therapists may need to be expanded to effectively evaluate and support carers' health needs. The provision of equipment to improve their child's mobility, respite care or transport to enable school attendance is likely to be helpful to carers and children alike. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Clinical definition of respiratory viral infections in young children and potential bronchiolitis misclassification.

    Megalaa, Rosemary; Perez, Geovanny F; Kilaikode-Cheruveettara, Sasikumar; Kotwal, Nidhi; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections are often grouped as a single respiratory syndrome named 'viral bronchiolitis', independently of the viral etiology or individual risk factors. Clinical trials and guidelines have used a more stringent definition of viral bronchiolitis, including only the first episode of wheezing in children less than 12 months of age without concomitant respiratory comorbidities. There is increasing evidence suggesting that this definition is not being followed by pediatric care providers, but it is unclear to what extent viral respiratory infections are currently misclassified as viral bronchiolitis using standard definitions. We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized young children (≤3 years) due to viral respiratory infections. Bronchiolitis was defined as the first wheezing episode less than 12 months of age. Demographic variables and comorbidities were obtained by electronic medical record review. The study comprised a total of 513 hospitalizations (n=453). Viral bronchiolitis was diagnosed in 144 admissions (28.1%). Notably, we identified that the majority of children diagnosed with bronchiolitis (63%) were misclassified as they had prior episodes of wheezing. Many children with bronchiolitis misclassification had significant comorbidities, including prematurity (51%), neuromuscular conditions (9.8%), and congenital heart disease (9.8%). Misclassification of bronchiolitis is a common problem that may lead to inappropriate management of viral respiratory infections in young children. A comprehensive approach that takes into consideration viral etiology and individual risk factors may lead to a more accurate clinical assessment of this condition and would potentially prevent bronchiolitis misclassification. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. A multi-technique investigation of copper and zinc distribution, speciation and potential bioavailability in biosolids

    Donner, E.; Ryan, C.G.; Howard, D.L.; Zarcinas, B.; Scheckel, K.G.; McGrath, S.P.; Jonge, M.D. de; Paterson, D.; Naidu, R.; Lombi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biosolids in agriculture continues to be debated, largely in relation to their metal contents. Our knowledge regarding the speciation and bioavailability of biosolids metals is still far from complete. In this study, a multi-technique approach was used to investigate copper and zinc speciation and partitioning in one contemporary and two historical biosolids used extensively in previous research and field trials. Using wet chemistry and synchrotron spectroscopy techniques it was shown that copper/zinc speciation in the biosolids was largely equivalent despite the biosolids being derived from different countries over a 50 year period. Furthermore, copper speciation was consistently dominated by sorption to organic matter whereas Zn partitioned mainly to iron oxides. These data suggest that the results of historical field trials are still relevant for modern biosolids and that further risk assessment studies should concentrate particularly on Cu as this metal is associated with the mineralisable biosolids fraction. - Highlights: ► Complementary techniques were used to investigate Cu and Zn speciation in biosolids. ► Historic and contemporary biosolids with differing metal contents were examined. ► Similarities in Cu/Zn speciation were observed irrespective of biosolids provenance. ► Key binding environments identified were organic matter for Cu and Fe oxides for Zn. ► Similarities show historic field trial results are still relevant for biosolids management. - Historic and contemporary biosolids show similarities in Cu/Zn speciation despite having very different total Zn/Cu contents.

  12. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    Ahlawat, Shivani [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fayad, Laura M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  13. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    Ahlawat, Shivani; Fayad, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Review of the Potential of the Ni/Cu Plating Technique for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Atteq ur Rehman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a better method for the metallization of silicon solar cells is integral part of realizing superior efficiency. Currently, contact realization using screen printing is the leading technology in the silicon based photovoltaic industry, as it is simple and fast. However, the problem with metallization of this kind is that it has a lower aspect ratio and higher contact resistance, which limits solar cell efficiency. The mounting cost of silver pastes and decreasing silicon wafer thicknesses encourages silicon solar cell manufacturers to develop fresh metallization techniques involving a lower quantity of silver usage and not relying pressing process of screen printing. In recent times nickel/copper (Ni/Cu based metal plating has emerged as a metallization method that may solve these issues. This paper offers a detailed review and understanding of a Ni/Cu based plating technique for silicon solar cells. The formation of a Ni seed layer by adopting various deposition techniques and a Cu conducting layer using a light induced plating (LIP process are appraised. Unlike screen-printed metallization, a step involving patterning is crucial for opening the masking layer. Consequently, experimental procedures involving patterning methods are also explicated. Lastly, the issues of adhesion, back ground plating, process complexity and reliability for industrial applications are also addressed.

  15. The potential of 3D techniques for cultural heritage object documentation

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Girelli, Valentina A.; Remondino, Fabio; Vittuari, Luca

    2007-01-01

    The generation of 3D models of objects has become an important research point in many fields of application like industrial inspection, robotics, navigation and body scanning. Recently the techniques for generating photo-textured 3D digital models have interested also the field of Cultural Heritage, due to their capability to combine high precision metrical information with a qualitative and photographic description of the objects. In fact this kind of product is a fundamental support for documentation, studying and restoration of works of art, until a production of replicas by fast prototyping techniques. Close-range photogrammetric techniques are nowadays more and more frequently used for the generation of precise 3D models. With the advent of automated procedures and fully digital products in the 1990s, it has become easier to use and cheaper, and nowadays a wide range of commercial software is available to calibrate, orient and reconstruct objects from images. This paper presents the complete process for the derivation of a photorealistic 3D model of an important basalt stela (about 70 x 60 x 25 cm) discovered in the archaeological site of Tilmen Höyük, in Turkey, dating back to 2nd mill. BC. We will report the modeling performed using passive and active sensors and the comparison of the achieved results.

  16. Surma eye cosmetic in Afghanistan: a potential source of lead toxicity in children.

    McMichael, J R; Stoff, B K

    2018-02-01

    Surma is a traditional eye cosmetic used as an eyeliner for infants in Afghanistan, as well as in many other countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Surma has been reported to contain lead and to be a potential source of lead toxicity in children, which can lead to permanent damage to multiple organ systems. To our knowledge, assessment for lead in surma found in Afghanistan has not been performed. We determined the quantitative lead content of a convenience sample of 10 surma products acquired in Afghanistan. Analysis revealed that 70% of surma samples contained high levels of lead (range 35-83%). The remaining samples contained low levels of lead (range 0.04-0.17%). The majority of surma samples contained very high levels of lead, a troubling finding that could potentially correlate with lead toxicity in Afghan children. Making available lead-free surma alternatives and providing health education, for both healthcare professionals and the general population, in locations where surma use is prevalent and for those involved in care of refugees and immigrants from Afghanistan, may be strategies to prevent lead poisoning in children. What is Known: • Surma is a traditional cosmetic used as an eyeliner for infants in Afghanistan as well as in many countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. • Surma has been reported to contain lead and to be a source of lead toxicity in children. What is New: • Assessment for lead content in surma found in Afghanistan has not been performed. • In this convenience sample of 10 surma products acquired in Afghanistan, 70% contained very high levels of lead.

  17. Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy of the left colon: a new technique for management of intractable constipation in children.

    Rawat, David J; Haddad, Munther; Geoghegan, Niamh; Clarke, Simon; Fell, John M

    2004-07-01

    The antegrade colonic enema is accepted as effective for management of intractable constipation in children when conventional bowel management has failed. This study describes experience with a new, minimally invasive technique, the distal antegrade colonic enema, which involves percutaneous endoscopic colostomy of the left colon. Fifteen children with refractory constipation and soiling who had radiographic evidence of megarectum and/or distal colonic delay were selected for the procedure. The junction of the descending and the sigmoid colon was identified colonoscopically, and the percutaneous endoscopic colostomy tube, through which antegrade distal colonic enema are administered, was inserted. Fourteen children underwent distal percutaneous endoscopic colostomy insertion. The median time required for the procedure was 30 minutes (20-50 minutes). Excluding one child (technical difficulties with percutaneous endoscopic colostomy placement), median post-procedural hospital stay was 4 days (2-27 days). Thirteen children were no longer soiling, and improvement in quality of life was reported at 2 months' follow-up. At 6 months' follow-up, 90% of children were clean during intervals between enemas. All children evaluated at 12 months' follow-up remained clean. Median duration of follow-up was 12.5 months (2-51 months). The distal percutaneous endoscopic colostomy is a simple alternative to established methods for delivery of antegrade enemas. It is less invasive and on reversal leaves only minor scarring.

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Celiac Disease: A Study Based on the Critical Incident Technique

    Carlo Catassi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is a chronic autoimmune disease triggered by dietary gluten. Gluten avoidance, which is the only available treatment for CD, could impact on quality of life of children with CD. We present the results of a qualitative study on the emotional impact of gluten free diet (GFD on the everyday life of children affected with CD. We investigated 76 celiac patients aged 2–18 years (average age: 9.5 years. By using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT, we defined emotions related to difficulties and awkward situations experienced by the patients. Written answers to open-ended questions from either children (older than 8 years and parents (children younger than 8 years were analyzed qualitatively. We found 80 dilemmas experienced in three different arenas (food situations at school, meals at home, meals outside and characterized lived experiences of children with CD in everyday life (specific emotions, difficulties in relationships and in management of daily life. Children with CD experience strong emotions related to the GFD, permeating several aspects of everyday life. These dilemmas may be missed by a conventional, questionnaire-based approach to the psycho-social consequences of CD treatment.

  19. [Reflections on maternal techniques and the rearing of infants and young children in the Ivory Coast].

    Dubois Le Bronnec, C; Ferrari, P

    1991-01-01

    The core hypothesis of the authors is that certain particularities of the traditional bringing up of infants and young children in Côte-d'Ivoire modify its affective experiencing and therefore its libidinal organization. Ivorian breast feeding is extremely permissive, subjected to the sole wish of the child, traditionally until the age of 2. It maintains a belated mother-infant fusion in the context of intense oral satisfaction. The end of this idyllic fusion state generally is brought about brutally. When it is contemporary to the ending of carrying the child on the back, this milk weaning constitutes a true traumatic experience. The authors suggest that it functions as an "organizor" in the sense of Spitz: interdiction is concerned with access to the maternal body. The child's renouncing of possession of the mother's body thus leads him through replacement to adhere to the socialized and socializing body of the group (age group, siblings group). The main anxiety would be of abandonment as we constantly see in psychiatric clinical experience. Carrying on the back is not only an easy means of transportation of the infants. The fabric pocket which berths the infant since it is born is a privileged place of comfort, of exchange, of maturing and the authors suggest that it functions as a structuring of the body-ego of the infant. They also suggest that so gratifying a technique of back-carrying could lead to a shifting of the erogeneous zone to the body, thus making it apt to express all the richesses of the affective life. Language education is traditionally not the task of the parents but of the grand-parents and of the child community. The latter contributes to the building of a social-ego and of an identity which is defined along ethnical criteria. The enema technique is equally of interest at it is administered since birth and thereon almost daily, thus focusing the infants' interest on an erogeneous zone which in other cultures is less intensely and less early

  20. Potential of extracellular microRNAs as biomarkers of acetaminophen toxicity in children

    Yang, Xi, E-mail: Xi.Yang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Salminen, William F., E-mail: Willie.Salminen@parexel.com [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Shi, Qiang, E-mail: Qiang.Shi@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Greenhaw, James, E-mail: James.Greenhaw@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Gill, Pritmohinder S., E-mail: PSGill@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa, E-mail: SBhattacharyya2@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Beger, Richard D., E-mail: Richard.Beger@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Mendrick, Donna L., E-mail: Donna.Mendrick@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); Mattes, William B., E-mail: William.Mattes@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Developing biomarkers for detecting acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity has been widely investigated. Recent studies of adults with APAP-induced liver injury have reported human serum microRNA-122 (miR-122) as a novel biomarker of APAP-induced liver injury. The goal of this study was to examine extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers for APAP liver injury in children. Global levels of serum and urine miRNAs were examined in three pediatric subgroups: 1) healthy children (n = 10), 2) hospitalized children receiving therapeutic doses of APAP (n = 10) and 3) children hospitalized for APAP overdose (n = 8). Out of 147 miRNAs detected in the APAP overdose group, eight showed significantly increased median levels in serum (miR-122, -375, -423-5p, -30d-5p, -125b-5p, -4732-5p, -204-5p, and -574-3p), compared to the other groups. Analysis of urine samples from the same patients had significantly increased median levels of four miRNAs (miR-375, -940, -9-3p and -302a) compared to the other groups. Importantly, correlation of peak serum APAP protein adduct levels (an indicator of the oxidation of APAP to the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-para-quinone imine) with peak miRNA levels showed that the highest correlation was observed for serum miR-122 (R = 0.94; p < 0.01) followed by miR-375 (R = 0.70; p = 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that miRNAs are increased in children with APAP toxicity and correlate with APAP protein adducts, suggesting a potential role as biomarkers of APAP toxicity. - Highlights: • Serum miR-122 and miR-375 levels were increased in children with APAP overdose. • Urine levels of miR-375 and miR-940 were increased in the APAP overdose group. • Peak serum miR-122 levels were correlated with peak serum APAP protein adducts.

  1. Current calibration, treatment, and treatment planning techniques among institutions participating in the Children's Oncology Group

    Urie, Marcia; FitzGerald, T.J.; Followill, David; Laurie, Fran; Marcus, Robert; Michalski, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To report current technology implementation, radiation therapy physics and treatment planning practices, and results of treatment planning exercises among 261 institutions belonging to the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Methods and Materials: The Radiation Therapy Committee of the newly formed COG mandated that each institution demonstrate basic physics and treatment planning abilities by satisfactorily completing a questionnaire and four treatment planning exercises designed by the Quality Assurance Review Center. The planning cases are (1) a maxillary sinus target volume (for two-dimensional planning), (2) a Hodgkin's disease mantle field (for irregular-field and off-axis dose calculations), (3) a central axis blocked case, and (4) a craniospinal irradiation case. The questionnaire and treatment plans were submitted (as of 1/30/02) by 243 institutions and completed satisfactorily by 233. Data from this questionnaire and analyses of the treatment plans with monitor unit calculations are presented. Results: Of the 243 clinics responding, 54% use multileaf collimators routinely, 94% use asymmetric jaws routinely, and 13% use dynamic wedges. Nearly all institutions calibrate their linear accelerators following American Association of Physicists in Medicine protocols, currently 16% with TG-51 and 81% with TG-21 protocol. Treatment planning systems are relied on very heavily for all calculations, including monitor units. Techniques and results of each of the treatment planning exercises are presented. Conclusions: Together, these data provide a unique compilation of current (2001) radiation therapy practices in institutions treating pediatric patients. Overall, the COG facilities have the equipment and the personnel to perform high-quality radiation therapy. With ongoing quality assurance review, radiation therapy compliance with COG protocols should be high

  2. Dysfunction in the fellow eyes of strabismic and anisometropic amblyopic children assessed by visually evoked potentials

    Eric Pinheiro Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate visual acuity and transient pattern reversal (PR visual evoked potentials (VEPs in the fellow eyes of children with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: Children diagnosed with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia were recruited for electrophysiological assessment by VEPs. Monocular grating and optotype acuity were measured using sweep-VEPs and an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, respectively. During the same visit, transient PR-VEPs of each eye were recorded using stimuli subtending with a visual angle of 60', 15', and 7.5'. Parameters of amplitude (in μV and latency (in ms were determined from VEP recordings. Results: A group of 40 strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopic children (22 females: 55%, mean age= 8.7 ± 2.2 years, median= 8 years was examined. A control group of 19 healthy children (13 females: 68.4%, mean age= 8.2 ± 2.6 years, median= 8 years was also included. The fellow eyes of all amblyopes had significantly worse optotype acuity (p=0.021 than the control group, regardless of whether they were strabismic (p=0.040 or anisometropic (p=0.048. Overall, grating acuity was significantly worse in the fellow eyes of amblyopes (p=0.016 than in healthy controls. Statistically prolonged latency for visual angles of 15' and 7.5' (p=0.018 and 0.002, respectively was found in the strabismic group when compared with the control group. For the smaller visual stimulus (7.5', statistically prolonged latency was found among all fellow eyes of amblyopic children (p<0.001. Conclusions: The fellow eyes of amblyopic children showed worse optotype and grating acuity, with subtle abnormalities in the PR-VEP detected as prolonged latencies for smaller size stimuli when compared with eyes of healthy children. These findings show the deleterious effects of amblyopia in several distinct visual functions, mainly those related to spatial vision.

  3. Success rate and risk factors of failure of the induced membrane technique in children: a systematic review.

    Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Bégué, Thierry; Rigoulot, Guillaume; Glorion, Christophe; Pannier, Stéphanie

    2016-12-01

    The induced membrane technique was designed by Masquelet et al. to address segmental bone defects of critical size in adults. It has been used after bone defects of traumatic, infectious and tumoral origin with satisfactory results. Recently, it has been used in children but, after an initial enthusiasm, several cases of failure have been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the success rate and the risk factors of failure of the induced membrane for children. We conducted a systematic review of all the studies reporting the results of the induced membrane technique to address bone defects of critical size in children. Our primary outcome was the success rate of the technique defined as a bone union before any iterative surgery. Our secondary outcomes were the complications and the risk factors of failure. We searched Medline via Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Twelve studies, including 69 patients, met the inclusion criteria. There were 41 boys and 28 girls. Mean age at surgery was 10 years. Mean size of resection was 12.38 cm and the mean time between the two stages was 5.86 months. Mean rate of bone union after the two stages of the induced membrane technique was 58% (40/69) but this rate increased to 87% after revision surgeries (60/69). Main complications were non-unions (19/69), lysis of the graft (6/69) and fractures of the bone graft (6/69). Only 1/69 deep infection was reported. Other non specific complications were regularly reported such limb length discrepancies, joint stiffness and protruding wires. Risk factor of failure that could be suspected comprised the resection of a malignant tumour, a bone defect located at the femur, a wide resection, a long time between the two stages, an unstable osteosynthesis and a bone graft associating autograft to other graft materials. The induced membrane technique is suitable for bone defects of critical size in children. It is a reliable technique with no need of micro vascular surgery

  4. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    Gang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. METHODS: Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. RESULTS: Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". CONCLUSIONS: Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  5. Understanding neighborhood environment related to Hong Kong children's physical activity: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y; Wong, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children's physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10-11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question "What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?" Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children's physical activity. Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children's physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included "Sufficient lighting", "Bridge or tunnel", "Few cars on roads", "Convenient transportation", "Subway station", "Recreation grounds", "Shopping malls with air conditioning", "Fresh air", "Interesting animals", and "Perfume shop". Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included "People who make me feel unsafe", "Crimes nearby", "Afraid of being taken or hurt at night", "Hard to find toilet in shopping mall", "Too much noise", and "Too many people in recreation grounds". Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities.

  6. Lead dust in broken hill homes--a potential hazard for young children?

    Boreland, F; Lyle, D M; Wlodarczyk, J; Balding, W A; Reddan, S

    2002-01-01

    To determine the potential hazard posed by indoor lead dust to young children in Broken Hill, a silver-lead-zinc mining town in outback Australia, and the degree to which lead flux is influenced by factors such as geographical location, house construction type and condition. 116 homes were selected and 93 (80%) studied from 10 localities in Broken Hill during the spring of 1995. Lead flux was measured using 85 mm diameter polystyrene petri dishes. Dishes were placed in four rooms of each house to collect dust over a six-to-eight-week period. Data on the location, condition and construction type of each house were recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to determine predictors of lead flux. Flux data were log transformed for the analysis. Average household lead flux varied nearly seven-fold across districts from a low of 166 (distant from the mines), to a high of 1,104 microg/m2/30-day period (adjacent to the mines). Houses that were 'adequately sealed' had 2.9 times the lead flux, and 'poorly sealed' houses 4.3 times the flux, of 'very well sealed' houses. Construction material did not significantly affect these flux levels, and no statistically significant interactions were found between house condition and location or house type. Many Broken Hill homes have high levels of lead flux that pose a potential risk to young children. Quantification of this hazard provides useful information for the community that can help focus efforts on actions required to minimise lead dust in the home. Household dust is a potential source of lead for young children in at-risk communities. Information on lead flux in homes can assist these communities and public health agencies to better understand and deal more effectively with the problem.

  7. The potential use of transmission tomographic techniques for the quality checking of cemented waste drums

    Huddleston, J.; Hutchinson, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the programme for the quality checking of encapsulated intermediate level waste, the possibilities of using transmission tomographic techniques for the determination of the physical properties of the drum are being considered. A literature survey has been undertaken and the possibilities of extracting data from video recordings of real time radiographs are considered. This work was carried out with financial support from British Nuclear Fuels plc and the UK Department of the Environment. In the DoE context, the results will be used in the formulation of Government Policy, but at this stage they do not necessarily represent Government Policy. (author)

  8. Potential applications of rapid/elementary nonparametric statistical techniques (NST) to electrochemical problems

    Fahidy, Thomas Z.

    2009-01-01

    A major advantage of NST lies in the unimportance of the probability distribution of observations. In this paper, the sign test, the rank-sum test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, the Friedman test, and the runs test illustrate the potential of certain rapid NST for the evaluation of electrochemical process performance.

  9. IMAGE-BASED MODELING TECHNIQUES FOR ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE 3D DIGITALIZATION: LIMITS AND POTENTIALITIES

    C. Santagati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction from images has undergone a revolution in the last few years. Computer vision techniques use photographs from data set collection to rapidly build detailed 3D models. The simultaneous applications of different algorithms (MVS, the different techniques of image matching, feature extracting and mesh optimization are inside an active field of research in computer vision. The results are promising: the obtained models are beginning to challenge the precision of laser-based reconstructions. Among all the possibilities we can mainly distinguish desktop and web-based packages. Those last ones offer the opportunity to exploit the power of cloud computing in order to carry out a semi-automatic data processing, thus allowing the user to fulfill other tasks on its computer; whereas desktop systems employ too much processing time and hard heavy approaches. Computer vision researchers have explored many applications to verify the visual accuracy of 3D model but the approaches to verify metric accuracy are few and no one is on Autodesk 123D Catch applied on Architectural Heritage Documentation. Our approach to this challenging problem is to compare the 3Dmodels by Autodesk 123D Catch and 3D models by terrestrial LIDAR considering different object size, from the detail (capitals, moldings, bases to large scale buildings for practitioner purpose.

  10. Exploration of the speleotherapeutic potential through the cellular and molecular biology techniques

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exploring the speleotherapy effects on morphology and physiology of dermal and pulmonary fibroblast obtained from Wistar rats tissue in normal conditions and after induction of experimental “astma” awareness with ovalbumin. Materials and methods: Before initiation of dermal and pulmonary fibroblast cultures, 60 of Wistar rats 75-100 g were divided into two groups: control and sensitized with ovalalbumin. 10 animals of each group were sent to Cacica and Dej salt mines and maintained in a speleotherapy regime. Another 10 animals in each group were monitored separately in INRMFB Biobase . Dermal and pulmonary fibroblast cultures were initiated by enzymatic techniques from appropriate tissue taken of each group Wistar rats. Morphological monitoring was done by phase contast microscopy; biochemical and molecular changes of cultures obtained from animals treated speleothropic compared to control, was experimental establised by electrophoresis and Western Blotting techniques.Results: Experimental data revealed the expression of several proteins after the speleotherapeutic treatment. These data were analysed compared with control, using a specific software.Conclusions: Speleotherapeutic treatment of Wistar rats caused significant differences in morphology and protein expression of dermal and pulmonary fibroblatst grown in the laboratory. These differences support the protective effects of speleotherapy compared with data obtained from animals untreated and sensitized with ovalbumin, having induced experimental asthma status.

  11. Image-Based Modeling Techniques for Architectural Heritage 3d Digitalization: Limits and Potentialities

    Santagati, C.; Inzerillo, L.; Di Paola, F.

    2013-07-01

    3D reconstruction from images has undergone a revolution in the last few years. Computer vision techniques use photographs from data set collection to rapidly build detailed 3D models. The simultaneous applications of different algorithms (MVS), the different techniques of image matching, feature extracting and mesh optimization are inside an active field of research in computer vision. The results are promising: the obtained models are beginning to challenge the precision of laser-based reconstructions. Among all the possibilities we can mainly distinguish desktop and web-based packages. Those last ones offer the opportunity to exploit the power of cloud computing in order to carry out a semi-automatic data processing, thus allowing the user to fulfill other tasks on its computer; whereas desktop systems employ too much processing time and hard heavy approaches. Computer vision researchers have explored many applications to verify the visual accuracy of 3D model but the approaches to verify metric accuracy are few and no one is on Autodesk 123D Catch applied on Architectural Heritage Documentation. Our approach to this challenging problem is to compare the 3Dmodels by Autodesk 123D Catch and 3D models by terrestrial LIDAR considering different object size, from the detail (capitals, moldings, bases) to large scale buildings for practitioner purpose.

  12. [Management of moderate to severe pediatric concealed penis in children by Devine's technique via incision between the penis and scrotum].

    Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Liu, Shi-Xiong; Xiang, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Wen-Gang; Tang, Da-Xing

    2014-04-01

    To search for a simple and effective surgical approach to the management of moderate to severe pediatric concealed penis in children. We used Devine's technique via incision between the penis and scrotum in the treatment of 68 cases of moderate to severe pediatric concealed penis. The patients were aged 3 -13 (mean 6.5) years, 30 with moderate and 38 with severe pediatric concealed penis. This strategy achieved good near- and long-term effects and satisfactory appearance of the penis, which was similar to that of circumcision. At 3 months after surgery, the penile length was 3 - 5.2 cm, averaging (2.35 +/- 0.35) cm. Devine's technique via incision between the penis and scrotum is a simple and effective surgical option for moderate to severe pediatric concealed penis in children.

  13. Radionuclide angiocardiography. Improved diagnosis and quantitation of left-to-right shunts using area ratio techniques in children

    Alderson, P.O.; Jost, R.G.; Strauss, A.W.; Boonvisut, S.; Markham, J.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison of several reported methods for detection and quantitation of left-to-right shunts by radionuclides was performed in 50 children. Count ratio (C2/C1) techniques were compared with the exponential extrapolation and gamma function area ratio techniques. C2/C1 ratios accurately detected shunts and could reliably separate shunts from normals, but there was a high rate of false positives in children with valvular heart disease. The area ratio methods provided more accurate shunt quantitation and a better separation of patients with valvular heart disease than did the C2/C1 ratio. The gamma function method showed a higher correlation with oximetry than the exponential method, but the difference was not statistically significant. For accurate shunt quantitation and a reliable separation of patients with valvular heart disease from those with shunts, area ratio calculations are preferable to the C2/C1 ratio

  14. Improved techniques in data analysis and interpretation of potential fields: examples of application in volcanic and seismically active areas

    G. Florio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Geopotential data may be interpreted by many different techniques, depending on the nature of the mathematical equations correlating specific unknown ground parameters to the measured data set. The investigation based on the study of the gravity and magnetic anomaly fields represents one of the most important geophysical approaches in the earth sciences. It has now evolved aimed both at improving of known methods and testing other new and reliable techniques. This paper outlines a general framework for several applications of recent techniques in the study of the potential methods for the earth sciences. Most of them are here described and significant case histories are shown to illustrate their reliability on active seismic and volcanic areas.

  15. Visualizing the transient electroosmotic flow and measuring the zeta potential of microchannels with a micro-PIV technique.

    Yan, Deguang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Yang, Chun; Huang, Xiaoyang

    2006-01-14

    We have demonstrated a transient micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique to measure the temporal development of electroosmotic flow in microchannels. Synchronization of different trigger signals for the laser, the CCD camera, and the high-voltage switch makes this measurement possible with a conventional micro-PIV setup. Using the transient micro-PIV technique, we have further proposed a method on the basis of inertial decoupling between the particle electrophoretic motion and the fluid electroosmotic flow to determine the electrophoretic component in the particle velocity and the zeta potential of the channel wall. It is shown that using the measured zeta potentials, the theoretical predictions agree well with the transient response of the electroosmotic velocities measured in this work.

  16. [Relationship between magnocellular function and reading skills in children: a study using visual evoked potentials].

    Kobayashi, Tomoka; Inagaki, Masumi; Yamazaki, Hiroko; Kita, Yosuke; Kaga, Makiko; Oka, Akira

    2014-11-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. The magnocellular deficit theory is one of several hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of DD. In this study, we investigated magnocellular system dysfunction in Japanese dyslexic children. Subjects were 19 dyslexic children (DD group) and 19 aged-matched healthy children (TD group). They were aged between 7 and 16 years. Reversed patterns of black and white sinusoidal gratings generated at a low spatial frequency, high reversal frequency of 7.5 Hz, and low contrasts were used specifically to stimulate the magnocellular system. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEP) from the occipital area and examined their relationship with reading and naming tasks, such as the time to read hiragana characters, rapid automatized naming of pictured objects, and phonological manipulation. Compared to the TD group, the DD group showed a significantly lower peak amplitude of VEPs through the complex demodulation method. Structural equation modeling showed that VEP peak amplitudes were related to the rapid automatized naming of pictured objects, and better rapid automatized naming resulted in higher reading skills. There was no correlation between VEP findings and the capacity for phonological manipulation. VEPs in response to the magnocellular system are useful for understanding the pathophysiology of DD. Single phonological deficit may not be sufficient to cause DD.

  17. Urinary fructose: a potential biomarker for dietary fructose intake in children.

    Johner, S A; Libuda, L; Shi, L; Retzlaff, A; Joslowski, G; Remer, T

    2010-11-01

    Recently, urinary fructose and sucrose excretion in 24-h urine have been established experimentally as new biomarkers for dietary sugar intake in adults. Our objective was to investigate 1) whether the fructose biomarker is also applicable in free-living children and 2) for what kind of sugar it is standing for. Intakes of added and total sugar (including additional sugar from fruit and fruit juices) were assessed by 3-day weighed dietary records in 114 healthy prepubertal children; corresponding 24-h urinary fructose excretion was measured photometrically. The associations between dietary sugar intakes and urinary fructose excretion were examined using linear regression models. To determine whether one of the two sugar variables may be better associated with the urinary biomarker, the statistical Pitman's test was used. Added and total sugar correlated significantly with urinary fructose, but the linear regression indicated a weak association between intake of added sugar and urinary log-fructose excretion (β=0.0026, R(2)=0.055, P=0.01). The association between total sugar intake and log-urinary fructose (β=0.0040, R(2)=0.181, Pestimation of total sugar intake than for the estimation of added dietary sugar intake in children. However, as excreted fructose stems almost exclusively from the diet (both from food-intrinsic and added intakes), it can be assumed that urinary fructose represents a potential biomarker for total dietary fructose intake, irrespective of its source.

  18. An approach to delineate groundwater recharge potential sites in Ambalantota, Sri Lanka using GIS techniques

    I.P. Senanayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for fresh water in Hambantota District, Sri Lanka is rapidly increasing with the enormous amount of ongoing development projects in the region. Nevertheless, the district experiences periodic water stress conditions due to seasonal precipitation patterns and scarcity of surface water resources. Therefore, management of available groundwater resources is critical, to fulfil potable water requirements in the area. However, exploitation of groundwater should be carried out together with artificial recharging in order to maintain the long term sustainability of water resources. In this study, a GIS approach was used to delineate potential artificial recharge sites in Ambalantota area within Hambantota. Influential thematic layers such as rainfall, lineament, slope, drainage, land use/land cover, lithology, geomorphology and soil characteristics were integrated by using a weighted linear combination method. Results of the study reveal high to moderate groundwater recharge potential in approximately 49% of Ambalantota area.

  19. Novel Method for Sizing Metallic Bottom Crack Depth Using Multi-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop Technique

    Li Yuting

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of shallow crack. This paper studied a novel method which utilized the slope of voltage ratio-frequency curve to solve bottom crack depth by using a simple mathematic equation based on finite element analysis. It is found that voltage ratio varies linearly with frequency in the range of 5-15 Hz; this range is slightly higher than the equivalent frequency and lower than semi-permeable frequency. Simulation and experiment show that the novel method can measure the bottom crack depth accurately.

  20. An Analytical Technique to Determine the Potential for Moisture Accumulation in Deactivated Structures

    MINICHAN, RL

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical technique developed to predict an order of magnitude volume of moisture accumulation in massive structures after deactivation. This work was done to support deactivation of a Department of Energy nuclear materials processing facility. The structure is a four-story, concrete building with a rectangular footprint that is approximately 250m long by 37m wide by 22m high. Its walls are 1.2m thick. The building will be supplied with unconditioned ventilation air after deactivation. The objective of the work was to provide a cost effective engineering evaluation to determine if the un-conditioned ventilation air would result in condensate accumulating inside the building under study. The analysis described is a simple representation of a complex problem. The modeling method is discussed in sufficient detail to allow its application to the study of similar structures

  1. Supporting the potential of quantitative ultrasonic techniques for the evaluation of platelet concentration

    Villamarín, J. A.; Jiménez, Y. M.; Molano, L. Tatiana; Gutierrez, W. Edgar; Londoño, L. Fernando; Gutierrez, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article describes the results obtained by making use of a non-destructive, non-invasive ultrasonic system for the acoustic characterization of bovine plasma rich in platelets using digital signal processing techniques. This study includes computational methods based on acoustic spectrometry estimation and experimental measurements of the speed of sound in blood plasma from different samples analyzed, using an ultrasonic field with resonance frequency of 5 MHz. The results showed that the measurements on ultrasonic signals can contribute to the hematological predictions based on the linear regression model applied to the relationship between experimental ultrasonic parameters calculated and platelet concentration, indicating a growth rate of 1 m/s for each 0.90 x103 platelet per mm3. On the other hand, the attenuation coefficient presented changes of 20% in the platelet concentration using a resolution of 0.057 dB/cm MHz.

  2. Palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar injection technique may not be potentially useful in periodontal procedures

    Pragathi Raghavendra Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar (P-ASA using WAND injection was reported to effectively provide a profound bilateral maxillary anesthesia of the soft tissue of anterior one-third of the palate and facial gingivae extending from canine to canine which lasted for more than an hour thus making it ideal for scaling root planing and minor periodontal procedures in the anterior maxilla. Our study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection is of very short duration and the extent of anesthesia was not profound and consistent. This has not been reported earlier in the literature. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five cases (20 males and 15 females, who underwent scaling, root planing and minor periodontal surgical procedures such as abscess drainage, gingivectomy, and frenectomy in the maxillary anterior region in the age range of 19–45 years was assessed for the efficacy of the P-ASA injection. After the administration of the P-ASA injection, the subjective and the objective symptoms were used to evaluate the extent and duration of the anesthesia at 10, 15, and 20 min. Results: This study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection technique does not provide anesthesia for more than 20 min. Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to compare the effect of anesthesia at the different time intervals and the results were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The conventional P-ASA injection technique is of very short duration and does not demonstrate effectiveness in periodontal surgery of the anterior maxilla.

  3. Television advertising of foodstuffs potentially detrimental to oral health--a content analysis and comparison of children's and primetime broadcasts.

    Chestnutt, I G; Ashraf, F J

    2002-06-01

    The study aimed to examine the nature, content and duration of advertisements broadcast during children's television; determine the proportion of advertisements promoting food; identify the potential of the food advertised to be detrimental to oral health; and to compare the nature and content of advertisements aimed at children with those transmitted during evening 'primetime' television. Children's and primetime television, broadcast on a main independent terrestrial channel in South Wales were video recorded, 237 and 42 hours being analysed in total. Analysis of the recording resulted in a total of 3,236 commercials, of which 2,345 were broadcast during children's television and 891 in primetime. During children's TV, 62.5% of advertising time was devoted to foodstuffs, significantly greater (Padvertising foods during primetime. Of the time spent advertising foods, during children's television 73.4% was devoted to products deemed potentially detrimental to oral health (primarily high in sugar), compared to 18.6% similarly categorised during evening television. Commercials for products which have the potential to adversely affect oral health constitute a large proportion of advertising time during children's television. Current codes of the Independent Television Commission governing advertising directed at children should be reviewed.

  4. Electrochemical noise measurements techniques and the reversing dc potential drop method applied to stress corrosion essays

    Aly, Omar Fernandes; Andrade, Arnaldo Paes de; MattarNeto, Miguel; Aoki, Idalina Vieira

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to collect information and to discuss the electrochemical noise measurements and the reversing dc potential drop method, applied to stress corrosion essays that can be used to evaluate the nucleation and the increase of stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 600 and/or Alloy 182 specimens from Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. Therefore we will pretend to establish a standard procedure to essays to be realized on the new autoclave equipment on the Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e Corrosao do Departamento de Engenharia Quimica da Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo - Electrochemical and Corrosion Laboratory of the Chemical Engineering Department of Polytechnical School of Sao Paulo University, Brazil. (author)

  5. Event-related potentials during visual selective attention in children of alcoholics.

    van der Stelt, O; Gunning, W B; Snel, J; Kok, A

    1998-12-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded from 7- to 18-year-old children of alcoholics (COAs, n = 50) and age- and sex-matched control children (n = 50) while they performed a visual selective attention task. The task was to attend selectively to stimuli with a specified color (red or blue) in an attempt to detect the occurrence of target stimuli. COAs manifested a smaller P3b amplitude to attended-target stimuli over the parietal and occipital scalp than did the controls. A more specific analysis indicated that both the attentional relevance and the target properties of the eliciting stimulus determined the observed P3b amplitude differences between COAs and controls. In contrast, no significant group differences were observed in attention-related earlier occurring event-related potential components, referred to as frontal selection positivity, selection negativity, and N2b. These results represent neurophysiological evidence that COAs suffer from deficits at a late (semantic) level of visual selective information processing that are unlikely a consequence of deficits at earlier (sensory) levels of selective processing. The findings support the notion that a reduced visual P3b amplitude in COAs represents a high-level processing dysfunction indicating their increased vulnerability to alcoholism.

  6. Weekday and weekend food advertising varies on children's television in the USA but persuasive techniques and unhealthy items still dominate.

    Vilaro, M J; Barnett, T E; Watson, A M; Merten, J W; Mathews, A E

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, food industry self-regulatory efforts aimed to balance the mix of food advertisements to limit children's exposure to unhealthy food products. An update to these efforts proposed to eliminate all unhealthy advertisements during peak child viewing times and implement uniform nutrition criteria by December, 2013. Marketing techniques are not currently addressed in self-regulatory efforts. The food industry's pledge prompted researchers to conduct a content analysis to assess nutritional quality and presence of persuasive marketing techniques in child-directed food and beverage advertisements. Content analysis. 32 h of children's television programming were recorded in February, 2013. Three independent coders assessed the nutritional content of food and beverage advertisements using the UK Nutrition Profiling System and assessed presence of persuasive techniques (PTs) using a rating form developed for this study. Overall, 13.75% of advertisements promoted a food or beverage product. Most food advertisements, 54.6%, represented unhealthy products and 95.48% of food advertisements contained at least one PT. The number of PTs was not significantly different for healthy (M = 4.98, SD = 2.07) and unhealthy food advertisements (M = 4.66, SD = 1.82) however food advertisements aimed at children used significantly more PTs (M = 5.5, SD = 1.43) than those targeting adults (M = 1.52, SD = 1.54), t (153) = 11.738, P food advertisements compared to weekday morning children's programming. While a majority of food-related advertisements represented unhealthy items, advertisements airing during Saturday morning programming featured fewer food advertisements overall and were more frequently for healthier items compared to weekdays. Industry self-regulation may not be effective for reducing overall unhealthy ad exposure but may play a role in reduced exposure on weekends. Despite policy efforts, additional changes are needed to improve ad exposure

  7. In situ vitrification - A potential remedial action technique for hazardous wastes

    Fitzpatrick, V.F.; Buelt, J.L.; Oma, K.H.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an innovative technology being developed as a potential method for stabilizing transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes in place. Although the process is being developed for TRU contaminated wastes, it is envisioned that the process could also be applied to hazardous chemical wastes. In situ vitrification (ISV) is the conversion of contaminated soil into a durable glass and crystalline wastes form through melting by joule heating. The technology for in situ vitrification is based upon electric melter technology developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste. In situ vitrification was initially tested by researchers at PNL in August, 1980 (U.S. Patent 4,376,598). Since then, ISV has grown from a concept to an emerging technology through a series of 21 engineering-scale (laboratory) tests and 7 pilot-scale (field) tests. A large-scale system is currently being fabricated for testing. The program has been sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office for potential application to Hanford TRU contaminated soil sites. A more detailed description outlining the power system design and the off-gas treatment system follows

  8. Density, temperature, and potential fluctuation measurements by the swept Langmuir probe technique in Wendelstein 7-AS

    Giannone, L.; Balbin, R.; Niedermeyer, H.; Endler, M.; Herre, G.; Hidalgo, C.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.; Verplanke, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1591 (1991)], current-voltage characteristics of the Langmuir probe at sweep frequencies in the range 400 kHz to 1 MHz were measured and it was found that the mean and fluctuation values of the ion saturation current, floating potential, and electron temperature were independent of the sweep frequency. A radial scan in the vicinity of the velocity shear layer was performed. The simultaneous sweeping of 3 probe tips showed a statistically significant spatial coherence of the fluctuations in the poloidal direction and a decrease in spatial coherence of the fluctuations with increasing tip separation could be demonstrated. The observation of a change in the propagation direction of fluctuations as the shear layer was crossed and a calculation of the transport spectrum show that the swept probe method is capable of reproducing known results. Apparent temperature fluctuations, due to variations of density and potential during a sweep, are shown by simulations to be only of importance at frequencies above half the Nyquist frequency

  9. From interatomic interaction potentials via Einstein field equation techniques to time dependent contact mechanics

    Schwarzer, N

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the principle differences between rheological or simple stress tests like the uniaxial tensile test to contact mechanical tests and the differences between quasistatic contact experiments and oscillatory ones, this study resorts to effective first principles. This study will show how relatively simple models simulating bond interactions in solids using effective potentials like Lennard-Jones and Morse can be used to investigate the effect of time dependent stress-induced softening or stiffening of these solids. The usefulness of the current study is in the possibility of deriving relatively simple dependences of the bulk-modulus B on time, shear and pressure P with time t. In cases where it is possible to describe, or at least partially describe a material by Lennard-Jones potential approaches, the above- mentioned dependences are even completely free of microscopic material parameters. Instead of bond energies and length, only specific integral parameters like Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are required. However, in the case of time dependent (viscose) material behavior the parameters are not constants anymore. They themselves depend on time and the actual stress field, especially the shear field. A body completely consisting of so called standard linear solid interacting particles will then phenomenologically show a completely different and usually much more complicated mechanical behavior. The influence of the time dependent pressure-shear-induced Young’s modulus change is discussed with respect to mechanical contact experiments and their analysis in the case of viscose materials. (papers)

  10. A Review of Techniques for Detection of Movement Intention Using Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    Aqsa Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement-related cortical potential (MRCP is a low-frequency negative shift in the electroencephalography (EEG recording that takes place about 2 seconds prior to voluntary movement production. MRCP replicates the cortical processes employed in planning and preparation of movement. In this study, we recapitulate the features such as signal’s acquisition, processing, and enhancement and different electrode montages used for EEG data recoding from different studies that used MRCPs to predict the upcoming real or imaginary movement. An authentic identification of human movement intention, accompanying the knowledge of the limb engaged in the performance and its direction of movement, has a potential implication in the control of external devices. This information could be helpful in development of a proficient patient-driven rehabilitation tool based on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs. Such a BCI paradigm with shorter response time appears more natural to the amputees and can also induce plasticity in brain. Along with different training schedules, this can lead to restoration of motor control in stroke patients.

  11. Analysis of Self-Potential Response beyond the Fixed Geometry Technique

    Mahardika, Harry

    2018-03-01

    The self-potential (SP) method is one of the oldest geophysical methods that are still available for today’s application. Since its early days SP data interpretation has been done qualitatively until the emerging of the fixed geometry analysis that was used to characterize the orientation and the electric-dipole properties of a mineral ore structure. Through the expansion of fundamental theories, computational methods, field-and-lab experiments in the last fifteen years, SP method has emerge from its low-class reputation to become more respectable. It became a complementary package alongside electric-resistivity tomography (ERT) for detecting groundwater flow in the subsurface, and extends to the hydrothermal flow in geothermal areas. As the analysis of SP data becomes more quantitative, its potential applications become more diverse. In this paper, we will show examples of our current SP studies such as the groundwater flow characterization inside a fault area. Lastly we will introduce the application of the "active" SP method - that is the seismoelectric method - which can be used for 4D real-time monitoring systems.

  12. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques

    N.S. Magesh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of remote sensing data and the geographical information system (GIS for the exploration of groundwater resources has become a breakthrough in the field of groundwater research, which assists in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources. In the present paper, various groundwater potential zones for the assessment of groundwater availability in Theni district have been delineated using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Survey of India toposheets and IRS-1C satellite imageries are used to prepare various thematic layers viz. lithology, slope, land-use, lineament, drainage, soil, and rainfall were transformed to raster data using feature to raster converter tool in ArcGIS. The raster maps of these factors are allocated a fixed score and weight computed from multi influencing factor (MIF technique. Moreover, each weighted thematic layer is statistically computed to get the groundwater potential zones. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into four categories, viz., very poor, poor, good, and very good zones. The result depicts the groundwater potential zones in the study area and found to be helpful in better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  13. Palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar injection technique may not be potentially useful in periodontal procedures.

    Bhat, Pragathi Raghavendra; Acharya, Anirudh Balakrishna; Thakur, Srinath Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    The palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar (P-ASA) using WAND injection was reported to effectively provide a profound bilateral maxillary anesthesia of the soft tissue of anterior one-third of the palate and facial gingivae extending from canine to canine which lasted for more than an hour thus making it ideal for scaling root planing and minor periodontal procedures in the anterior maxilla. Our study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection is of very short duration and the extent of anesthesia was not profound and consistent. This has not been reported earlier in the literature. Thirty-five cases (20 males and 15 females), who underwent scaling, root planing and minor periodontal surgical procedures such as abscess drainage, gingivectomy, and frenectomy in the maxillary anterior region in the age range of 19-45 years was assessed for the efficacy of the P-ASA injection. After the administration of the P-ASA injection, the subjective and the objective symptoms were used to evaluate the extent and duration of the anesthesia at 10, 15, and 20 min. This study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection technique does not provide anesthesia for more than 20 min. Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to compare the effect of anesthesia at the different time intervals and the results were found to be statistically significant ( P periodontal surgery of the anterior maxilla.

  14. Glyphosate detection with ammonium nitrate and humic acids as potential interfering substances by pulsed voltammetry technique.

    Martínez Gil, Pablo; Laguarda-Miro, Nicolas; Camino, Juan Soto; Peris, Rafael Masot

    2013-10-15

    Pulsed voltammetry has been used to detect and quantify glyphosate on buffered water in presence of ammonium nitrate and humic substances. Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide active ingredient in the world. It is a non-selective broad spectrum herbicide but some of its health and environmental effects are still being discussed. Nowadays, glyphosate pollution in water is being monitored but quantification techniques are slow and expensive. Glyphosate wastes are often detected in countryside water bodies where organic substances and fertilizers (commonly based on ammonium nitrate) may also be present. Glyphosate also forms complexes with humic acids so these compounds have also been taken into consideration. The objective of this research is to study the interference of these common pollutants in glyphosate measurements by pulsed voltammetry. The statistical treatment of the voltammetric data obtained lets us discriminate glyphosate from the other studied compounds and a mathematical model has been built to quantify glyphosate concentrations in a buffer despite the presence of humic substances and ammonium nitrate. In this model, the coefficient of determination (R(2)) is 0.977 and the RMSEP value is 2.96 × 10(-5) so the model is considered statistically valid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Investigation of the Design Potential of Thermochromic Home Textiles Used with Electric Heating Techniques

    Hung-Jen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic colorants have been developed since before the 1900s. There are a large number of patents in different applications of thermochromic textiles, but many innovations leave the field of aesthetic and functional textile design unexplored in the area of smart materials. This study aims to develop thermochromic home textiles that change colors and patterns by integrating thermochromic pigments and electric conductive yarns into textile structures. Stainless steel conductive yarns were sewed on textile substrates to enable heat generation to increase fabric temperature. The heat generation and temperature rise could be controlled by monitoring the voltage applied. The experiments of this study focused on analyzing electric resistance and heating properties of the conductive yarns and observing color changing time and color changing effects of the thermochromic textiles. By using the technique in this research, an image of “tai chi” was designed and implemented in a backlighting thermochromic fabric. It illustrates a range of opportunities for thermochromic textiles in new design research directions of Chinese calligraphy and traditional Chinese painting.

  16. A Novel Technique of Branchial Fistula Tract Delineation and Excision In Children Allergic To Dyes

    Swagatam Banerjee

    2015-08-01

    Surgical excision of branchial fistulas in children with allergy to dyes can be challenging. Insertion of a polypropylene thread into the fistula tract makes its subsequent dissection easy with minimal disruption of adjacent structures.

  17. Analysis of potential component cleaning techniques. Final report, July 6, 1992 - July 5, 1995

    Hess, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Elevated temperature, elevated pressure water, supercritical carbon dioxide and helical resonator plasmas were investigated for potential use in surface cleaning. A surface analysis system consisting of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy was used to evaluate surfaces exposed to water and supercritical carbon dioxide. Langmuir probe and silicon oxidation studies were used to evaluate the effect of oxygen plasmas on silicon surfaces. Silicon oxides were removed from silicon surfaces by water at temperatures above 260 degrees C and pressures above 2000 psi; silicon oxidation and simultaneous dissolution of the oxide grown occurred under these conditions. A new approach for in-situ monitoring of subcritical and supercritical fluid density was devised

  18. Potential of irradiation technique for development of convenience foods in India

    Bawa, A.S.; Vibhakara, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: One of the important applications of ionising radiation is in the processing and preservation of food articles. An enormous research effort has been directed towards biological testing of irradiated foods for the evaluation of their safety and wholesomeness. Food irradiation has demonstrated several safe technically and economically feasible applications. Radiation processing of foods has the potential to provide mankind with such benefits as elimination of toxic fumigants for insect disinfestation, extended shelf life for refrigerated products, elimination of food borne pathogens and parasites and to provide high quality packaged food with long shelf life at room temperature. Food irradiation has been legally permitted in India and regulation is in place for its commercialization and marketing of irradiated foods. Marked changes in the life style have significantly influenced the growth of convenience foods. Food irradiation is now considered as a safe process, so with increased demand for high quality convenience food, efforts are required to evaluate the effectiveness of irradiation in combination with other processing methods to enhance their safety and shelf life since convenience foods are here to stay and play an even more significant role in the market place in future. Notable progress has been made in many countries in the recent past in the application of low dose irradiation process as combination treatment, synergistically complimentarily. There is a great hope in accelerating the pace of progress in potential application of the irradiation processes to prevent food losses. In view of the sociological changes occurring at a fast pace in our society as well as increased industrialization there is an ample scope for the convenience and processed traditional foods. So with today's demand for high quality convenience foods it is high time that irradiation technology is considered evaluated and popularized for the same

  19. Modified atmosphere treatments as a potential disinfestation technique for arthropod pests in greenhouses.

    Held, D W; Potter, D A; Gates, R S; Anderson, R G

    2001-04-01

    Incidental transport of arthropods on plant material can be a significant mode of pest entry into greenhouses. We evaluated the use of controlled atmosphere treatments as a potential way to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules (i.e., cuttings or small rooted plants). Lethal exposures to CO2 or N2 were determined for common greenhouse pests including fungus gnat larvae, Bradysia sp.; green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia sp.; twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We also studied the effect of pest species, life stage, and presence or absence of plants on efficacy of modified atmosphere treatments. Finally, effects of modified atmospheres on plant quality were evaluated for several bedding plant species including begonia, Begonia semperflorens-cultorum Hort. 'Cocktail Series', chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., geranium, Pelargonium X hortorum L.H. Bailey, and impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook f., and among cultivars of geranium and chrysanthemum. Exposure for 12-18 h to >99% N2 or CO2 caused complete mortality of aphids, mites, thrips, and whiteflies. Fungus gnat larvae were more tolerant of hypoxic conditions. Adult mites and eggs were equally susceptible. For most pests, there was no difference in response to atmospheres modified by CO2 or N2. However, there was variation in response among plant species and cultivars, with effects ranging from delayed flowering to mortality. Despite the possibility of adverse effects on some plants, this work indicates that use of modified atmospheres has potential to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules before they are introduced into greenhouses.

  20. Potential utility of MRI in the evaluation of children at risk of renal scarring

    Chan Yuleung; Chan Kamwing; Roebuck, D.J.; Chu, W.C.W.; Metreweli, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Yeung Chungkwong; Lee Kimhung [Dept. of Surgery, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

    1999-11-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI has recently been employed in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Its potential utility in the diagnosis of renal scars in children is unknown. Objective. To evaluate the potential utility of MRI using fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) and post-gadolinium, short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences in detecting renal scarring by comparison with technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ({sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy in children at risk of renal scarring. Materials and methods. A group of 24 children with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder or anorectal anomaly was studied. No patient had a history of acute pyelonephritis. Documented urinary tract infection (UTI) was present in 10 children (42 %). The remaining 14 (58 %) children had a history of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None had clinical signs or symptoms of acute UTI at the time of the study. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA and MRI were performed to detect renal scarring. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA scans were supplemented with pinhole imaging. MRI of the kidneys employed a fat-saturated T1-W sequence and a post-gadolinium STIR sequence employing a short echo time. Results. Of the kidneys studied, 33 % (n = 16) had evidence of a renal parenchymal defect suggestive of scarring on {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA. The concordance in the detection of a scarred kidney by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 94 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 82 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 100 %. Using {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA as the gold standard, MRI had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 78 % in the diagnosis of a scarred kidney. The concordance in the detection of a scarred zone by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 68 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and DMSA is 44 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and {sup 99

  1. Time-lapse analysis of potential cellular responsiveness to Johrei, a Japanese healing technique

    Moore Dan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johrei is an alternative healing practice which involves the channeling of a purported universal healing energy to influence the health of another person. Despite little evidence to support the efficacy of such practices the use of such treatments is on the rise. Methods We assessed cultured human cancer cells for potential responsiveness to Johrei treatment from a short distance. Johrei treatment was delivered by practitioners who participated in teams of two, alternating every half hour for a total of four hours of treatment. The practitioners followed a defined set of mental procedures to minimize variability in mental states between experiments. An environmental chamber maintained optimal growth conditions for cells throughout the experiments. Computerized time-lapse microscopy allowed documentation of cancer cell proliferation and cell death before, during and after Johrei treatments. Results Comparing eight control experiments with eight Johrei intervention experiments, we found no evidence of a reproducible cellular response to Johrei treatment. Conclusion Cell death and proliferation rates of cultured human cancer cells do not appear responsive to Johrei treatment from a short distance.

  2. Solid-state fermentation as a potential technique for esterase/lipase production by halophilic archaea.

    Martin del Campo, Martha; Camacho, Rosa M; Mateos-Díaz, Juan C; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Córdova, Jesus; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2015-11-01

    Halophilic archaea are extremophiles, adapted to high-salt environments, showing a big biotechnological potential as enzyme, lipids and pigments producers. Four inert supports (perlite, vermiculite, polyurethane foam and glass fiber) were employed for solid-state fermentation (SSF) of the halophilic archaeon Natronococcus sp. TC6 to investigate biomass and esterase production. A very low esterase activity and high water activity were observed when perlite, vermiculite and polyurethane were used as supports. When glass fiber was employed, an important moisture loss was observed (8.6%). Moreover, moisture retention was improved by mixing polyurethane and glass fiber, resulting in maximal biomass and esterase production. Three halophilic archaea: Natronococcus sp. TC6, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 and Haloarcula marismortui were cultured by submerged fermentation (SmF) and by SSF; an improvement of 1.3- to 6.2-fold was observed in the biomass and esterase production when SSF was used. Growth was not homogeneous in the mixture, but was predominant in the glass fiber thus was probably because the glass fiber provides a holder to the cells, while the polyurethane acts as an impregnation medium reservoir. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first report on haloarchaea cultivation by SSF aiming biomass and esterase/lipase activity production.

  3. INTERPRETATION OF POTENTIAL INTERMITTENCE TITRATION TECHNIQUE EXPERIMENTS FOR VARIOUS Li-INTERCALATION ELECTRODES

    M.D.Levi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare two different approaches for the calculation of the enhancement factor Wi, based on its definition as the ratio of the chemical and the component diffusion coefficients for species in mixed-conduction electrodes, originated from the "dilute solution" or "lattice gas" models for the ion system. The former approach is only applicable for small changes of the ion concentration while the latter allows one to consider a broad range of intercalation levels. The component diffusion coefficient of lithium ions has been determined for a series of lithium intercalation anodes and cathodes. A new "enhancement factor" for the ion transport has been defined and its relations to the intercalation capacitance and the intercalation isotherm have been established. A correlation between the dependences of the differential capacitance and the partial ion conductivity on the potential has been observed. It is considered as a prove that the intercalation process is controlled by the availability of sites for Li-ion insertion rather than by the concurrent insertion of the counter-balancing electronic species.

  4. Unexploited potential of some biotechnological techniques for biofertilizer production and formulation.

    Vassilev, N; Vassileva, M; Lopez, A; Martos, V; Reyes, A; Maksimovic, I; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Malusà, E

    2015-06-01

    The massive application of chemical fertilizers to support crop production has resulted in soil, water, and air pollution at a global scale. In the same time, this situation escalated consumers' concerns regarding quality and safety of food production which, due to increase of fertilizer prices, have provoked corresponding price increase of food products. It is widely accepted that the only solution is to boost exploitation of plant-beneficial microorganisms which in conditions of undisturbed soils play a key role in increasing the availability of minerals that otherwise are inaccessible to plants. This review paper is focused on the employment of microbial inoculants and their production and formulation. Special attention is given to biotechniques that are not fully exploited as tools for biofertilizer manufacturing such as microbial co-cultivation and co-immobilization. Another emerging area includes biotechnological production and combined usage of microorganisms/active natural compounds (biostimulants) such as plant extracts and exudates, compost extracts, and products like strigolactones, which improve not only plant growth and development but also plant-microbial interactions. The most important potential and novel strategies in this field are presented as well as the tendencies that will be developed in the near future.

  5. [The application of the acupuncture techniques for the combined treatment of neurotic tics in the children].

    Polunina, V V; Polyaev, B A; Laisheva, O A; Lobov, A N; Pavlova, S V

    At present, the frequency of neurosis in the children is growing under the influence of the increasingly intensive stressful factors. The neurotic ticks are one of the manifestations of neurosis in the children characterized by involuntary movements; they are often accompanied by hyperactivity, deficit of attention, fatigue, and headaches. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture used for the treatment of neurotic tics in the children. The study was carried out at the basis of the department of children's rehabilitation of the Moscow city polyclinic #39. All the children were counselled by a neurologist, psychologist, and acupuncturist. An electroencephalogram was obtained from each patient and a questionnaire study involving the patients' parents was conducted. The patients were treated with the application of reflexotherapy and were given recommendations of a psychologist. A total of 30 children at the age from 6 to 12 years were available for the examination. The participants of the study were allocated to two groups depending on the strategy of the outpatient care. Group 1 was comprised of the patients (n=17) who were given 3 courses of reflexotherapy in addition to pharmacotherapy and psychologist's recommendations. The patients included in group 2 served as controls (n=13) and received only medications and psychotherapy without acupuncture. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the dynamics of the patients' complaints. The resullts of the study give evidence of the higher effectiveness of the treatment of the children suffering from neurotic ticks with the application of acupuncture therapy compared with the conventional approach. A few courses of reflexotherapy provided in the combination with pharmacotherapy and the compliance with the recommendations of a psychologist resulted in the more efficient elimination of the neurotic tics together with the associated hyperactivity, deficit of attention

  6. Analysed potential of big data and supervised machine learning techniques in effectively forecasting travel times from fused data

    Ivana Šemanjski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Travel time forecasting is an interesting topic for many ITS services. Increased availability of data collection sensors increases the availability of the predictor variables but also highlights the high processing issues related to this big data availability. In this paper we aimed to analyse the potential of big data and supervised machine learning techniques in effectively forecasting travel times. For this purpose we used fused data from three data sources (Global Positioning System vehicles tracks, road network infrastructure data and meteorological data and four machine learning techniques (k-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, boosting trees and random forest. To evaluate the forecasting results we compared them in-between different road classes in the context of absolute values, measured in minutes, and the mean squared percentage error. For the road classes with the high average speed and long road segments, machine learning techniques forecasted travel times with small relative error, while for the road classes with the small average speeds and segment lengths this was a more demanding task. All three data sources were proven itself to have a high impact on the travel time forecast accuracy and the best results (taking into account all road classes were achieved for the k-nearest neighbours and random forest techniques.

  7. Multi-technique quantitative analysis and socioeconomic considerations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in children's toys and toy jewelry.

    Hillyer, Margot M; Finch, Lauren E; Cerel, Alisha S; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Leopold, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    A wide spectrum and large number of children's toys and toy jewelry items were purchased from both bargain and retail vendors and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, and lead metal content using multiple analytical techniques, including flame and furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Particularly dangerous for young children, metal concentrations in toys/toy jewelry were assessed for compliance with current Consumer Safety Product Commission (CPSC) regulations (F963-11). A conservative metric involving multiple analytical techniques was used to categorize compliance: one technique confirmation of metal in excess of CPSC limits indicated a "suspect" item while confirmation on two different techniques warranted a non-compliant designation. Sample matrix-based standard addition provided additional confirmation of non-compliant and suspect products. Results suggest that origin of purchase, rather than cost, is a significant factor in the risk assessment of these materials with 57% of toys/toy jewelry items from bargain stores non-compliant or suspect compared to only 15% from retail outlets and 13% if only low cost items from the retail stores are compared. While jewelry was found to be the most problematic product (73% of non-compliant/suspect samples), lead (45%) and arsenic (76%) were the most dominant toxins found in non-compliant/suspect samples. Using the greater Richmond area as a model, the discrepancy between bargain and retail children's products, along with growing numbers of bargain stores in low-income and urban areas, exemplifies an emerging socioeconomic public health issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  9. A novel potential/viscous flow coupling technique for computing helicopter flow fields

    Summa, J. Michael; Strash, Daniel J.; Yoo, Sungyul

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new potential/viscous flow coupling procedure for reducing computational effort while maintaining solution accuracy. This closed-loop, overlapped velocity-coupling concept has been developed in a new two-dimensional code, ZAP2D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 2D), a three-dimensional code for wing analysis, ZAP3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program - 3D), and a three-dimensional code for isolated helicopter rotors in hover, ZAPR3D (Zonal Aerodynamics Program for Rotors - 3D). Comparisons with large domain ARC3D solutions and with experimental data for a NACA 0012 airfoil have shown that the required domain size can be reduced to a few tenths of a percent chord for the low Mach and low angle of attack cases and to less than 2-5 chords for the high Mach and high angle of attack cases while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. This represents CPU time reductions by a factor of 2-4 compared with ARC2D. The current ZAP3D calculation for a rectangular plan-form wing of aspect ratio 5 with an outer domain radius of about 1.2 chords represents a speed-up in CPU time over the ARC3D large domain calculation by about a factor of 2.5 while maintaining solution accuracies to within a few percent. A ZAPR3D simulation for a two-bladed rotor in hover with a reduced grid domain of about two chord lengths was able to capture the wake effects and compared accurately with the experimental pressure data. Further development is required in order to substantiate the promise of computational improvements due to the ZAPR3D coupling concept.

  10. [The new potentials of magneto-laser therapy and electrostimulation in children with cleft palate and upper lip].

    Gerasimenko, M Iu; Filatova, E V; Borisenko, O V; Levchenkova, V D; Grishina, N V; Spiridonova, N Z; Shevchenko, E Iu; Goncharenko, L L

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents rationale for design of new procedures of physiotherapy in children with expanded palate and upper lip; morphofunctional features of prenatal and early postnatal formation of central nervous system; a multilayer technique of magneto-laser radiation to the projection of the anterior central gyrus and the technique of electrostimulation by the system of the wink reflex which can influence central mechanisms of regulation and adaptation before and early after uranoplasty and cheiloplasty.

  11. Use of loud phonation as a voice therapy technique for children with vocal nodules

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Hirose, Hajime; Nishiyama, Koichiro

    2003-10-01

    For the treatment of vocal nodules, educational programs for vocal hygiene and voice training for acquisition of correct phonation are essential. In the case of children, special considerations are necessary as some of their vocal behaviors and reaction to voice disorders are different from those of adults. In this study, a voice therapy program for child vocal nodules were developed and good results were obtained for six children. They were four boys and two girls (Age: 4-11 yr) and bilateral nodules were found for all of them. In addition to a conventional vocal hygiene program for children, correct production of loud voice (so-called gBeltingh) was the major focus of the voice therapy as the visual inspection of the larynges and perceptual evaluations of the voice revealed inappropriate loud voice production with laryngeal constriction in all children. After 5-24 voice therapy sessions, disappearance of the nodules was found in five children and the reduction of the nodule sizes was found in one child. Improvement of the GRBAS scores, longer maximum phonation time, and extension of vocal ranges were found after the completion of the therapy programs.

  12. THE EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF THE FAMILY IN THE FORMATION OF MORAL QUALITIES IN CHILDREN (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE USA

    Lidiya Vladimirovna Osipova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the topic is stipulated by the importance of the problem of moral education of children in the family with the direct involvement of parents as the first educators of a child. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe the educational potential of a family in the moral development of a child (on the example of the USA. The results of the study showed that education of moral qualities of the child in the family by the parents will be effective if the following recommendations of teachers and psychologists are observed: – in the interpretation of meaning and social significance of moral concepts a parent should take into account the age level of intellectual development of the child; – a parent should use the educational power of personal positive example, observing moral standards that the child should learn; – a parent should involve all family members in a child’s life to maintain the homely atmosphere that will strengthen the concept of “home” in the child’s consciousness; – a parent should constantly engage a child in joint activities to provide the child in the future with happy family childhood memories; – a parent should give a competent assessment of the child’s behavior and direct educational impact of moral assessment in the formation of correct behavior of the child. The scope of the results of the study. The results of the study can be used in the process of developing new technologies, methods and techniques of psycho-pedagogical assistance to families in the matters of moral education of children.

  13. An event-related potential study of working memory in children

    LIU Rong; GUO Chunyan; JIANG Yang

    2006-01-01

    To examine the neural mechanisms of working memory in children, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from the 12―13 year-old while they performed a delayed match-to-sample task. The ERP results revealed that new and studied objects both evoked a late positive ERP component peaking around 350 ms during the working memory process. New objects evoke a more positive ERP waveform than the studied objects. The scalp distribution showed that the frontal-central electrode sites were associated with object working memory processes. When tracking new or studied targets among visual distracters, ERPs of targets and distracters revealed differential responses as early as 150 ms. The visual targets evoked larger and more positive ERP responses than the distracters. The typical old-new effect was observed between ERPs of studied and new distracters. However, ERPs of new and studied targets differed at about 250 ms, in which new targets evoked more positive-going and slightly earlier ERP responses. In addition, a P3a component was found for new targets only, and was absent in ERPs of studied targets at frontal and central sites. The present study results reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of neural mechanisms underlying working memory in children, some of which are distinct from those in adults.

  14. Early impairment of somatosensory evoked potentials in very young children with achondroplasia with foramen magnum stenosis.

    Fornarino, Stefania; Rossi, Daniela Paola; Severino, Mariasavina; Pistorio, Angela; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Martelli, Simona; Doria Lamba, Laura; Lanteri, Paola

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the contribution of somatosensory evoked potentials after median nerve (MN-SEPs) and posterior tibial nerve (PTN-SEPs) stimulation in functional assessment of cervical and lumbar spinal stenosis in children with achondroplasia. We reviewed MN-SEPs, PTN-SEPs, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed in 58 patients with achondroplasia (25 males, 33 females; age range 21d-16y 10mo; mean age 4y 3mo [SD 4y 1mo]). Patients were subdivided into four age categories: achondroplasia, the cortical component of PTN-SEPs is more sensitive than the cortical component and central conduction time of MN-SEPs in detection of cervical spinal cord compression at early ages. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  15. The Next Level of Research on Electronic Play: Potential Benefits and Contextual Influences for Children and Adolescents

    Dorothy E. Salonius-Pasternak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on electronic play has focused on its possible negative effects for children and adolescents, and contextual factors such as socioeconomic status (SES and culture are rarely considered. This article considers the potential benefits of electronic play from a psychological perspective, as well as individual and contextual factors that may shape the influence of electronic play for children and adolescents. Demographics of players and the games themselves are presented, and recommendations for research and policy are discussed.

  16. Reaction time, impulsivity, and attention in hyperactive children and controls: a video game technique.

    Mitchell, W G; Chavez, J M; Baker, S A; Guzman, B L; Azen, S P

    1990-07-01

    Maturation of sustained attention was studied in a group of 52 hyperactive elementary school children and 152 controls using a microcomputer-based test formatted to resemble a video game. In nonhyperactive children, both simple and complex reaction time decreased with age, as did variability of response time. Omission errors were extremely infrequent on simple reaction time and decreased with age on the more complex tasks. Commission errors had an inconsistent relationship with age. Hyperactive children were slower, more variable, and made more errors on all segments of the game than did controls. Both motor speed and calculated mental speed were slower in hyperactive children, with greater discrepancy for responses directed to the nondominant hand, suggesting that a selective right hemisphere deficit may be present in hyperactives. A summary score (number of individual game scores above the 95th percentile) of 4 or more detected 60% of hyperactive subjects with a false positive rate of 5%. Agreement with the Matching Familiar Figures Test was 75% in the hyperactive group.

  17. The impact of reconstruction techniques on observer performance for the detection and characterization of small pulmonary nodules in chest CT of children under 13 years

    Verhagen, Martijn V.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; van Schuppen, Joost; Deurloo, Eline E.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    To compare three different reconstruction techniques of CT data for the detection of pulmonary nodules in children under 13 years. Secondly to assess the prevalence of perifissural nodular opacities. The study consisted of chest CTs of 31 children (median age 6.9 years, range 2.1-12.7), of whom 17

  18. [Impact of hypoglycemic episodes on nerves conduction and auditory and visual evoked potentials in children with type 1 diabetes].

    Wysocka-Mincewicz, Marta; Trippenbach-Dulska, Hanna; Emeryk-Szajewska, Barbara; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Pańkowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is an acute disturbance of energy, especially impacting the central nervous system, but direct influence on peripheral nervous function is not detected. The aim of the study was to establish the influence of hypoglycemic moderate and severe episodes on the function of peripheral nerves, hearing and visual pathway. 97 children with type 1 diabetes (mean age 15.4+/-2.16 years, mean duration of diabetes 8.11+/-2.9 years, mean HbA1c 8,58+/-1.06%), at least 10 years old and with at least 3 years duration of diabetes, were included to study. Nerve conduction studies, visual (VEP) and auditory (ABR) evoked potentials were performed with standard surface stimulating and recording techniques. Moderate hypoglycemic episodes were defined as events of low glycemia requiring help of another person but without loss of consciousness and/or convulsions but recurrent frequently in at least one year. Severe hypoglycemia was defined as events with loss of consciousness and/or convulsions. Univariate ANOVA tests of significance or H Kruskal-Wallis test were used, depending on normality of distribution. The subgroups with a history of hypoglycemic episodes had significant delay in all conduction parameters in the sural nerve (amplitude pwave III latency and interval I-III in subgroups with episodes of hypoglycemia (pwave III and interval I-III. Frequent moderate hypoglycemic episodes were strong risk factors for damage of the peripheral and central nervous systems, comparable with impact of several severe hypoglycemias.

  19. Potential Selection Effects when Estimating Associations Between the Infancy Peak or Adiposity Rebound and Later Body Mass Index in Children

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Tornaritis, Michalis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:This study aims to evaluate a potential selection effect caused by exclusion of children with non-identifiable infancy peak (IP) and adiposity rebound (AR) when estimating associations between age and BMI at IP and AR and later weight status. Subjects and methods: In 4 744 children.......98). In the total study group, BMI values in infancy and childhood were positively associated with later BMI z-scores where associations increased with age. Associations between BMI velocities and later BMI z-scores were largest at ages 5 and 6. Results differed for children with non-identifiable IP and AR...

  20. Teaching young children a theory of nutrition: conceptual change and the potential for increased vegetable consumption.

    Gripshover, Sarah J; Markman, Ellen M

    2013-08-01

    In two experiments, we used a novel approach to educating young children about nutrition. Instead of teaching simple facts, we provided a rich conceptual framework that helped children understand the need to eat a variety of healthy foods. Using the insight that children's knowledge can be organized into coherent belief systems, or intuitive theories, we (a) analyzed the incipient knowledge that guides young children's reasoning about the food-body relationship, (b) identified the prerequisites that children need to conceptualize food as a source of nutrition, and (c) devised a strategy for teaching young children a coherent theory of food as a source of diverse nutrients. In these two experiments, we showed that children can learn and generalize this conceptual framework. Moreover, this learning led children to eat more vegetables at snack time. Our findings demonstrate that young children can benefit from an intervention that capitalizes on their developing intuitive theories about nutrition.

  1. Endocrinological Assessment Of Children With Significant Short Stature Using Radioimmunoassay Techniques

    Ghaly, Isis; Hafez, Mona; Shousha, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of clinical diagnosis in a group of children with significant short stature, height <-2.5 standard deviation below the mean for age and sex. Forty-nine children-l 8 female and 31 males-were included, mean age was 11.14 yr. (range 1.18 to 19 yr.). Clinical diagnosis, axiological measurements, thyroid profile, growth hormone, autoantibody screening for celiac disease were assessed. The patients were classified into 5 groups: Group I. familial short stature (FSS)and constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP), (12%); group II. growth hormone deficiency (GHD), 54%; group III. Laron type of dwarfism (LTD) (10%); group IV. growth hormone neurosecretory disorder (GHND, 16%); group V. celiac disease (GSE, 8%). From this study the group with short normal variant (FSS-CDGP), uncommonly presents with significant short stature. Cranial CT scan should performed in any child with the diagnosis of GHD to exclude organic causes of GHD. In the group of GHND, a normal GH values to provocative tests does not guarantee sufficient GH secretion and should not be used to exclude these children from hGH treatment. Further investigations by measurement of integrated GH and IGFI may aid in the diagnosis of this disorder. Celiac disease may present only by short stature, therefore antibody screening tests should be a routine investigation for all children presented with unexplained short stature. Patient with GHD showed significant improvement of their GV SDS during treatment with hGH (p=0.021). Also children with GSE showed significant catch up growth after gluten withdrawal from the diet (p=0.029). (Authors)

  2. Evaluation of J-R curve testing of nuclear piping materials using the direct current potential drop technique

    Hackett, E.M.; Kirk, M.T.; Hays, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    A method is described for developing J-R curves for nuclear piping materials using the DC Potential Drop (DCPD) technique. Experimental calibration curves were developed for both three point bend and compact specimen geometries using ASTM A106 steel, a type 304 stainless steel and a high strength aluminum alloy. These curves were fit with a power law expression over the range of crack extension encountered during J-R curve tests (0.6 a/W to 0.8 a/W). The calibration curves were insensitive to both material and sidegrooving and depended solely on specimen geometry and lead attachment points. Crack initiation in J-R curve tests using DCPD was determined by a deviation from a linear region on a plot of COD vs. DCPD. The validity of this criterion for ASTM A106 steel was determined by a series of multispecimen tests that bracketed the initiation region. A statistical differential slope procedure for determination of the crack initiation point is presented and discussed. J-R curve tests were performed on ASTM A106 steel and type 304 stainless steel using both the elastic compliance and DCPD techniques to assess R-curve comparability. J-R curves determined using the two approaches were found to be in good agreement for ASTM A106 steel. The applicability of the DCPD technique to type 304 stainless steel and high rate loading of ferromagnetic materials is discussed. 15 refs., 33 figs

  3. Comparison and validation of classical and modified techniques for studies of genotoxic potential of peptides used in radiopharmaceuticals production

    Ocampo, Ivette Zegarra

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro micronucleus frequency test (FMN) is one method of choice in the development of toxicological safety tests. For its development, this work carried out modifications of the conventional technique regarding the cultivation substrate of the cells and staining for microscopy evaluation. The cell cultures were grown directly on slides, and staining was performed with acridine orange (AO) instead of the classical Giemsa staining. Positive controls were used for potential clastogenic (mitomycin C, benzo [a] pyrene) and aneugenic (colchicine) effects, recommended by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). As test molecules, compounds were used whose association with radioactive isotopes make up radiopharmaceuticals produced by IPEN. DOTATATE and Ubiquicidine were tested at different concentrations proportional to the maximum concentrations used in adult patients. Therefore, corresponding to the concentrations dilutions were performed 0.1X, 1X and 10X cultures and CHO-KI cells were exposed to these concentrations for cytotoxicity assays and FMN. None of the concentrations induced significant cytotoxicity. For FMN analysis, it was recorded every mononuclear cells and multinucleated up to 1000 counts binucleated cells with or without micronuclei. In this way it was possible to analyze the frequency of micronuclei and the proliferation index (CBPI). The concentrations of the test drug (0.1X, 1X and 10X) did not induce aggression to cells. None of the concentrations showed cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, or any changes in cell cycle compared to controls, demonstrating their safety according to the parameters required by international standards. The results also showed good agreement between the comparison of readings by independent analysts, with minor discrepancies debatable, and good correlation comparing to classical staining technique. Thus the changes made in FMN technique showed potential to fulfill all requirements as preclinical

  4. Calibration and statistical techniques for building an interactive screen for learning of alphabets by children

    Riby Abraham Boby

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation details of a portable interactive device called Image-projective Desktop Varnamala Trainer. The device uses a projector to produce a virtual display on a flat surface. For enabling interaction, the information about a user’s hand movement is obtained from a single two-dimensional scanning laser range finder in contrast with a camera sensor used in many earlier applications. A generalized calibration process to obtain exact transformation from projected screen coordinate system to sensor coordinate system is proposed in this article and implemented for enabling interaction. This permits production of large interactive displays with minimal cost. Additionally, it makes the entire system portable, that is, display can be produced on any planar surface like floor, tabletop, and so on. The calibration and its performance have been evaluated by varying screen sizes and the number of points used for calibration. The device was successfully calibrated for different screens. A novel learning-based methodology for predicting a user’s behaviour was then realized to improve the system’s performance. This has been experimentally evaluated, and the overall accuracy of prediction was about 96%. An application was then designed for this set-up to improve the learning of alphabets by the children through an interactive audiovisual feedback system. It uses a game-based methodology to help students learn in a fun way. Currently, it has bilingual (Hindi and English user interface to enable learning of alphabets and elementary mathematics. A user survey was conducted after demonstrating it to school children. The survey results are very encouraging. Additionally, a study to ascertain the improvement in the learning outcome of the children was done. The results clearly indicate an improvement in the learning outcome of the children who used the device over those who did not.

  5. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty with a novel technique of JJ stenting in children.

    Yu, Jianhua; Wu, Zhonghua; Xu, Youming; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Jiansong; Qi, Fan; Chen, Xiang

    2011-09-01

    • To report our experience with retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty for pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction in children. • Between March 2007 and December 2009, 38 children with PUJ obstruction (mean age 8.3 years, range 3-14) underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty. • A ureteric catheter was inserted into the mid-ureter cystoscopically. During pyeloplasty, the proximal end of the ureteric catheter was extracorporeally sutured to the distal end of the JJ stent with silk. • The ureteric catheter was then pulled down and the stent was pulled antegrade into the ureter and bladder. • The approach was retroperitoneal in all patients except one who required open conversion. The overall mean operative time was 162 min (range 145-210 min) and this appeared to decrease with experience. Mean hospital stay was 4 days (range 3-7 days). • Mean follow-up was 20.2 months (range 6-32 months). Satisfactory drainage with decreased hydronephrosis was documented in all patients on ultrasonography and intravenous urography. • Our study shows that retroperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty is a feasible and effective alternative to open pyeloplasty with a relatively minimal complication rate in children 3 years of age and older, but it should be undertaken by experienced laparoscopic surgeons. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  6. Continuous monitoring of back wall stress corrosion cracking growth in sensitized type 304 stainless steel weldment by means of potential drop techniques

    SATO, Y; ATSUMI, T; SHOJI, T

    2007-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests on welded specimens of sensitized type 304SS with a thickness of 20 mm were performed in sodium thiosulphate solution at room temperature, with continuous monitoring of the SCC growth, using the techniques of modified induced current potential drop (MICPD), alternating current potential drop (ACPD) and direct current potential drop (DCPD). The MICPD and DCPD techniques permit continuous monitoring of the back wall SCC, which initiates from a fatigue pre-c...

  7. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S. - MEXICO BORDER

    The purpose of the Pesticides in Young Children - Border States Program is to assess the relationship between health status in children living along the United States and Mexico border and repeated pesticide exposures via multiple sources and pathways. Children's health has bee...

  8. Implementing Innovations in Global Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health: Realizing the Potential for Implementation Science.

    Peterson, Herbert B; Haidar, Joumana; Fixsen, Dean; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Weiner, Bryan J; Leatherman, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    The launch of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the new Secretary General's Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health are a window of opportunity for improving the health and well-being of women, children, and adolescents in the United States and around the world. Realizing the full potential of this historic moment will require that we improve our ability to successfully implement life-saving and life-enhancing innovations, particularly in low-resource settings. Implementation science, a new and rapidly evolving field that addresses the "how-to" component of providing sustainable quality services at scale, can make an important contribution on this front. A synthesis of the implementation science evidence indicates that three interrelated factors are required for successful, sustainable outcomes at scale: 1) effective innovations, 2) effective implementation, and 3) enabling contexts. Implementation science addresses the interaction among these factors to help make innovations more usable, to build ongoing capacity to assure the effective implementation of these innovations, and to ensure enabling contexts to sustain their full and effective use in practice. Improving access to quality services will require transforming health care systems and, therefore, much of the focus of implementation science in global health is on improving the ability of health systems to serve as enabling contexts. The field of implementation science is inherently interdisciplinary and academe will need to respond by facilitating collaboration among scientists from relevant disciplines, including evaluation, improvement, and systems sciences. Platforms and programs to facilitate collaborations among researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and funders are likewise essential.

  9. NMR studies of preimplantation embryo metabolism in human assisted reproductive techniques: a new biomarker for assessment of embryo implantation potential.

    Pudakalakatti, Shivanand M; Uppangala, Shubhashree; D'Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in understanding energy metabolism in human embryos generated using assisted reproductive techniques (ART) for improving the overall success rate of the method. Using NMR spectroscopy as a noninvasive tool, we studied human embryo metabolism to identify specific biomarkers to assess the quality of embryos for their implantation potential. The study was based on estimation of pyruvate, lactate and alanine levels in the growth medium, ISM1, used in the culture of embryos. An NMR study involving 127 embryos from 48 couples revealed that embryos transferred on Day 3 (after 72 h in vitro culture) with successful implantation (pregnancy) exhibited significantly (p < 10(-5) ) lower pyruvate/alanine ratios compared to those that failed to implant. Lactate levels in media were similar for all embryos. This implies that in addition to lactate production, successfully implanted embryos use pyruvate to produce alanine and other cellular functions. While pyruvate and alanine individually have been used as biomarkers, the present study highlights the potential of combining them to provide a single parameter that correlates strongly with implantation potential. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Vaccination technique, PPD reaction and BCG scarring in a cohort of children born in Guinea-Bissau 2000-2002

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Sodemann, Morten; Jensen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    and scarring in Guinea-Bissau. In a cohort of children born in suburban Bissau from March 2000 to July 2002, we assessed a Mantoux test with Purified protein derivative (PPD) (SSI, 2 T.U.) at 2 (2689 children), 6 (N=2148) and 12 months (N=1638) of age, and BCG scar was assessed at 2 (N=2698) and 6 months (N......=2225) of age. In a subgroup of the children the vaccination technique was monitored by direct observation of post-vaccination wheal and route of administration. Three different types of BCG vaccine supplied by the local Extended Programme on Immunization were used. At 6 months of age the rate of PPD...... reactors (>1mm) after BCG vaccination was 25% and the rate of scarring was 89%. One BCG strain was associated with fewer PPD reactors (OR=0.54 (0.31-0.91)) and BCG scars (OR=0.13 (0.05-0.37)) and larger post-vaccination wheals produced more PPD reactions (OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.43)) and BCG scars (OR 1...

  11. Russian Language Development Assessment as a Standardized Technique for Assessing Communicative Function in Children Aged 3–9 Years

    Prikhoda N.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the Russian Language Development Assessment, a standardized individual diagnostic tool for children aged from 3 to 9 that helps to assess the following components of a child’s communicative function: passive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, knowledge of semantic constructs with logical, temporal and spatial relations, passive perception and active use of syntactic and morphological features of words in a sentence, active and passive phonological awareness, active and passive knowledge of syntactic structures and categories. The article provides descriptions of content and diagnostic procedures for all 7 subtests included in the assessment (Passive Vocabulary, Active Vocabulary, Linguistic Operators, Sentence structure, Word Structure, Phonology, Sentence Repetition. Basing on the data collected in the study that involved 86 first- graders of a Moscow school, the article analyzes the internal consistency and construct validity of each subtest of the technique. It concludes that the Russian Language Development Assessment technique can be of much use both in terms of diagnostic purposes and in supporting children with ASD taking into account the lack of standardized tools for language and speech development assessment in Russian and the importance of this measure in general.

  12. Electromyographic evaluation in children orthodontically treated for skeletal Class II malocclusion: Comparison of two treatment techniques.

    Ortu, Eleonora; Pietropaoli, Davide; Adib, Fray; Masci, Chiara; Giannoni, Mario; Monaco, Annalisa

    2017-11-16

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of two techniques for fabricating a Bimler device by assessing the patient's surface electromyography (sEMG) activity at rest before treatment and six months after treatment. Methods Twenty-four patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study; 12 formed the test group and wore a Bimler device fabricated with a Myoprint impression using neuromuscular orthodontic technique and 12 formed the control group and were treated by traditional orthodontic technique with a wax bite in protrusion. The "rest" sEMG of each patient was recorded prior to treatment and six months after treatment. Results The neuromuscular-designed Bimler device was more comfortable and provided better treatment results than the traditional Bimler device. Conclusion This study suggests that the patient group subjected to neuromuscular orthodontic treatment had a treatment outcome with more relaxed masticatory muscles and better function versus the traditional orthodontic treatment.

  13. The Effective Use of Symbols in Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties: A Comparison of Word Alone, Integrated Picture Cueing and the Handle Technique.

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2002-01-01

    A comparison is made between a new technique (the Handle Technique), Integrated Picture Cueing, and a Word Alone Method. Results show using a new combination of teaching strategies enabled logographic symbols to be used effectively in teaching word recognition to 12 children with severe learning difficulties. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Auditory perception and attention as reflected by the brain event-related potentials in children with Asperger syndrome.

    Lepistö, T; Silokallio, S; Nieminen-von Wendt, T; Alku, P; Näätänen, R; Kujala, T

    2006-10-01

    Language development is delayed and deviant in individuals with autism, but proceeds quite normally in those with Asperger syndrome (AS). We investigated auditory-discrimination and orienting in children with AS using an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm that was previously applied to children with autism. ERPs were measured to pitch, duration, and phonetic changes in vowels and to corresponding changes in non-speech sounds. Active sound discrimination was evaluated with a sound-identification task. The mismatch negativity (MMN), indexing sound-discrimination accuracy, showed right-hemisphere dominance in the AS group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, the children with AS had diminished MMN-amplitudes and decreased hit rates for duration changes. In contrast, their MMN to speech pitch changes was parietally enhanced. The P3a, reflecting involuntary orienting to changes, was diminished in the children with AS for speech pitch and phoneme changes, but not for the corresponding non-speech changes. The children with AS differ from controls with respect to their sound-discrimination and orienting abilities. The results of the children with AS are relatively similar to those earlier obtained from children with autism using the same paradigm, although these clinical groups differ markedly in their language development.

  15. Errorless acquiescence training: a potential "keystone" approach to building peer interaction skills in children with severe problem behavior.

    Ducharme, Joseph M; Folino, Anthony; Derosie, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Errorless acquiescence training (EAT) was developed as a graduated, success-focused, and short-term intervention for building social skills. The approach focuses on building the skill of acquiescence (i.e., teaching children to be flexible with the needs and will of peers). The authors predict that acquiescence would serve as a keystone, that is, a skill that when trained produces widespread improvements in child behavior, including reductions in antisocial behavior. The authors provide EAT to eight children referred to a clinical classroom for severe antisocial behavior. Consistent with errorless paradigms, key intervention components present at the initiation of intervention are systematically faded at a slow enough rate to ensure continued prosocial interactions throughout and following treatment. Children demonstrate substantial increases in acquiescent responding and other prosocial behavior as well as covariant reductions in antisocial behaviors. Acquiescence is discussed in terms of its potential as a keystone for prosocial responding in children with antisocial behavior.

  16. Improving the biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against Mamestra brassicae: effect of spray application technique, adjuvants and an attractant.

    Beck, Bert; Brusselman, Eva; Nuyttens, David; Moens, Maurice; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), is a potential biological control agent for the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae L.). This research aimed to identify a suitable spray application technique, and to determine whether yeast extract added to an EPN spray has an attracting and/or a feeding stimulant effect on M. brassicae. The biological control capabilities of EPN against this pest were examined in the field. Good coverage of the underside of cauliflower leaves, the habitat of young instar larvae (L1-L4) of M. brassicae was obtained using different spray boom configurations with vertical extensions that carried underleaf spraying nozzles. One of the configurations was selected for field testing with an EPN spray. Brewer's yeast extract stimulated larval feeding on leaves, and increased the mortality of these larvae when exposed to EPN. The field trial showed that a spray application with S. carpocapsae, Addit and xanthan gum can effectively lower the numbers of cabbage heads damaged by M. brassicae. Brewer's yeast extract did not significantly increase this field performance of EPN. Steinernema carpocapsae, applied with an appropriate spray technique, can be used within biological control schemes as part of a resistance management programme for Bt. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success: disparities and state variations for children with special health care needs.

    Bethell, Christina; Forrest, Christopher B; Stumbo, Scott; Gombojav, Narangerel; Carle, Adam; Irwin, Charles E

    2012-04-01

    School success predicts many pathways for health and well-being across the life span. Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success are critical to understand for all children and for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), whose life course trajectories are already impacted by their chronic health problems. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used (1) to estimate national and state prevalence and within and across states disparities in factors promoting school success (engagement, participation, safety) or potentially impeding success (missing school, grade repetition, school identified problems) for all children and CSHCN and (2) to evaluate associations with CSHCN service need complexity and presence of emotional, behavioral or developmental problems (EBD) as well as with school case management policies in states. Among school age children, 60 % experienced all three factors promoting school success (49.3-73.8 % across states), dropping to 51.3 % for CSHCN (39.4-64.7 % across states) and to 36.2 % for the 40 % of all CSHCN who have both more complex service needs and EBD. CSHCN were more likely to experience factors potentially impeding school success. After accounting for child factors, CSHCN living in states requiring case management in schools for children with disabilities were less likely to experience grade repetition (OR 0.65). Within-state disparities between non-CSHCN and CSHCN varied across states. Threats to school success for US children are pervasive and are especially pronounced for CSHCN with more complex needs and EBD. Findings support broad, non-condition specific efforts to promote school success for CSHCN and consideration of state school policies, such as case management.

  18. Lateral decubitus HRCT: a simple technique to replace expiratory CT in children with air trapping

    Choi, Soo-Jung; Choi, Byeong-Kyoo; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Lee, Soo Hyun; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Sang Joon; Goo, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jin Seong; Yoon, Chong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of lateral decubitus high-resolution CT (HRCT) in detecting air trapping in children. Materials and methods: HRCT scans of 21 children with heterogeneous lung attenuation caused by air trapping (n=10) or with infiltrative lung disease (n=11) were reviewed retrospectively. The air-trapping disease included bronchiolitis obliterans (n=7), bronchial obstruction due to mediastinal lymphoma (n=1), endobronchial haemangioma (n=1) and foreign body aspiration (n=1). HRCT was performed in both lateral decubitus positions as well as the supine position. The attenuation (Hounsfield units; HU) was measured in both the hypo- and adjacent hyper-attenuating areas of the heterogeneous lung portion, and the difference of attenuation between these two areas was calculated in the supine and both lateral decubitus scans, respectively. The attenuation differences of the three scans were compared in each group. Results: The attenuation difference was larger in the ipsilateral decubitus (207.95±105.24 HU) scans than in the contralateral (121.25±90.05 HU) or supine (162±94.01 HU) scans in the air-trapping group (P 0.05). Conclusions: Lateral decubitus HRCT is an effective adjunct to standard HRCT in the evaluation of air trapping as a cause of mosaic lung attenuation in uncooperative paediatric patients. (orig.)

  19. The Potential of Digital Technologies for Transforming Informed Consent Practices with Children and Young People in Social Research

    Sarah Parsons

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How children and young people understand and exercise their autonomy, engagement and decision-making is fundamental to learning how to become active and engaged citizens, and to be socially included. Digital technologies are increasingly an integral part of children’s everyday lives and, therefore, valuable tools for supporting social inclusion. This paper discusses how digital technologies might positively support autonomy, engagement and decision-making through the lens of informed consent practices within social research. Current research practices are dominated by paper-based methods for obtaining informed consent which could be exclusionary for children and young people generally, and children with additional learning and support needs in particular. Digital technologies (laptops, PCs, tablet devices, smartphones offer the potential to support accessibility and understanding of ideas and activities, as well as engagement with and autonomy in decision-making and participation. This paper explores this potential as well as the challenges that researchers may face in this context.

  20. A neural basis for the visual sense of number and its development: A steady-state visual evoked potential study in children and adults

    Joonkoo Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While recent studies in adults have demonstrated the existence of a neural mechanism for a visual sense of number, little is known about its development and whether such a mechanism exists at young ages. In the current study, I introduce a novel steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP technique to objectively quantify early visual cortical sensitivity to numerical and non-numerical magnitudes of a dot array. I then examine this neural sensitivity to numerical magnitude in children between three and ten years of age and in college students. Children overall exhibit strong SSVEP sensitivity to numerical magnitude in the right occipital sites with negligible SSVEP sensitivity to non-numerical magnitudes, the pattern similar to what is observed in adults. However, a closer examination of age differences reveals that this selective neural sensitivity to numerical magnitude, which is close to absent in three-year-olds, increases steadily as a function of age, while there is virtually no neural sensitivity to other non-numerical magnitudes across these ages. These results demonstrate the emergence of a neural mechanism underlying direct perception of numerosity across early and middle childhood and provide a potential neural mechanistic explanation for the development of humans’ primitive, non-verbal ability to comprehend number. Keywords: Numerosity, Steady-state visual evoked potential, Child development, Visual cortex, Approximate number system

  1. Learning Potential Assessment and Adaptation to the Educational Context: The Usefulness of the ACFS for Assessing Immigrant Preschool Children

    Calero, M. Dolores; Mata, Sara; Carles, Rosario; Vives, Carmen; Lopez-Rubio, Sonia; Fernandez-Parra, Antonio; Navarro, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the usefulness of dynamic assessment for determining cognitive abilities such as classification, auditory and visual memory, pattern sequences, perspective taking, verbal planning, learning potential, and metacognition in immigrant preschool children with and without competence in the dominant language…

  2. ASSOCIATION OF POTENTIAL CELIAC DISEASE AND REFRACTORY IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS.

    Shahriari, Mahdi; Honar, Naser; Yousefi, Ali; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2018-01-01

    Celiac disease is an enteropathy caused by dietary gluten. The combination of serologic, genetic and histologic data has led to description of other categories of this disease. There are a number of patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) that do not respond to iron treatment and may be repeated for many times, Therefore, we aimed to investigate celiac disease in this group. In this cross sectional transverse prospective study from August 2011 to February 2013, in a Pediatric care clinic affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 184 children including 92 IDA patients who responded to treatment using iron supplement, 45 non-responding iron deficient patients, and 47 healthy individuals, with the maximum age of 18 years, with written consent from their parents, participated in serologic screening (with Anti-TTG antibody and anti-Endomysial antibody) for celiac disease. Patients with at least one positive serology test underwent multiple mucosal biopsy from bulb and duodenum. Among 184 participants, 19 (10.3%) subjects had positive serologic test for celiac disease, including 13 (28.9%) patients in the group with refractory IDA, 5 (5.4%) patients in the group with treated IDA, and 1 patient in the healthy group. The frequency of positive serologic test in the group with IDA resistant to treatment was prominently higher than the other two groups (Pceliac test who underwent endoscopy and biopsy, no histologic evidence of celiac disease was seen. They were diagnosed as potential celiac disease. Frequency of potential celiac disease in patients with refractory IDA was higher than control the subjects. Therefore, we recommend serologic screening for early detection and minimizing the complications of celiac disease and repeated iron therapy for this group.

  3. Sedation as a technique to aid in the supportive examination for children with special needs

    Risti Saptarini Primarti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Undergoing medical procedures often extremely distress people, especially patients with special needs. Supportive examinations, such as radiographic and laboratory examinations, as a part of medical procedure sometimes are impossible to be done in those patients, while we demand those tests for diagnostic and treatment reasons. A variety of techniques are available to the dental and medical professional to aid in the management of these patients regarding medical procedures, one of them is sedation. By eliminating patient’s fear and anxiety throughout sedation, all medical procedure including taking a supportive examination may be successfully completed. This paper will report the role of sedation as a technique to aid in the supportive examination for special needs child (Down’s syndrome in Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, West Java Indonesia.

  4. A modified surgical technique for neglected fracture of lateral humeral condyle in children.

    Sulaiman, Abdul Razak; Munajat, Ismail; Mohd, Emil Fazliq

    2011-11-01

    Operative treatment for neglected fracture of lateral humeral condyle (LHC) is difficult because of contracted muscle, fibrous tissue formation, and indistinct bony edges. Its success depends on the ability to preserve blood supply during the surgery. We retrospectively reviewed eight cases of neglected fracture of LHC in children treated with open reduction with selected multiple 'V' lengthening of common extensor muscle and internal fixation. The patients were between 3 and 8 years of age. The period of neglect was between 3 and 20 weeks. Four patients with displacement of more than 10 mm and neglect for 5 weeks or more required lengthening of common extensor muscle aponeurosis. The follow-up assessments were between 1 and 6.3 years with a mean of 4.4 years. All patients had union by 2 months. They gained improvement of flexion range of motion between 60° and 120° with a mean of 86.3°. Loss of final range of motion compared with the normal side was between 5° and 35° with a mean of 10°. No patient had limitation of activities or pain. Six cases had excellent and two cases had good Dillon functional score. All patients had lateral condyle prominent with different severities. There was one mild avascular necrosis and one fishtail deformity. Both of them had almost full range of motion. All patients had early physeal closure, except one, who had only 1 year follow-up. There was no case of progressive valgus deformity. Children with neglected fracture of LHC would benefit from anatomical reduction and internal fixation through a proper exposure and if indicated combined with multiple 'V' lengthening of common extensor muscle aponeurosis. This is a level IV study.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of the TEACCH Program in Different Settings: The Potential Benefits of Low Intensity Intervention in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    D'Elia, Lidia; Valeri, Giovanni; Sonnino, Fabiana; Fontana, Ilaria; Mammone, Alessia; Vicari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study of 30 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to evaluate the potential benefits of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH). Fifteen children following a low intensity TEACCH program were assessed four times for autism severity, adaptive…

  6. Working Memory and Reinforcement Schedule Jointly Determine Reinforcement Learning in Children: Potential Implications for Behavioral Parent Training

    Elien Segers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral Parent Training (BPT is often provided for childhood psychiatric disorders. These disorders have been shown to be associated with working memory impairments. BPT is based on operant learning principles, yet how operant principles shape behavior (through the partial reinforcement (PRF extinction effect, i.e., greater resistance to extinction that is created when behavior is reinforced partially rather than continuously and the potential role of working memory therein is scarcely studied in children. This study explored the PRF extinction effect and the role of working memory therein using experimental tasks in typically developing children.Methods: Ninety-seven children (age 6–10 completed a working memory task and an operant learning task, in which children acquired a response-sequence rule under either continuous or PRF (120 trials, followed by an extinction phase (80 trials. Data of 88 children were used for analysis.Results: The PRF extinction effect was confirmed: We observed slower acquisition and extinction in the PRF condition as compared to the continuous reinforcement (CRF condition. Working memory was negatively related to acquisition but not extinction performance.Conclusion: Both reinforcement contingencies and working memory relate to acquisition performance. Potential implications for BPT are that decreasing working memory load may enhance the chance of optimally learning through reinforcement.

  7. Potential determinants of obesity among children and adolescents in Germany: results from the cross-sectional KiGGS study

    Prinz-Langenohl Reinhild

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity among children and adolescents is a growing public health problem. The aim of the present paper is to identify potential determinants of obesity and risk groups among 3- to 17-year old children and adolescents to provide a basis for effective prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, a nationally representative and comprehensive data set on health behaviour and health status of German children and adolescents. Body height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI was classified according to IOTF cut-off points. Statistical analyses were conducted on 13,450 non-underweight children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years. The association between overweight, obesity and several potential determinants was analysed for this group as well as for three socio-economic status (SES groups. A multiple logistic regression model with obesity as the dependent variable was also calculated. Results The strongest association with obesity was observed for parental overweight and for low SES. Furthermore, a positive association with both overweight (including obesity and obesity was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy, high weight gain during pregnancy (only for mothers of normal weight, high birth weight, and high media consumption. In addition, high intakes of meat and sausages, total beverages, water and tea, total food and beverages, as well as energy-providing food and beverages were significantly associated with overweight as well as with obesity. Long sleep time was negatively associated with obesity among 3- to 10-year olds. Determinants of obesity occurred more often among children and adolescents with low SES. Conclusion Parental overweight and a low SES are major potential determinants of obesity. Families with these characteristics should be focused on in obesity prevention.

  8. Searching Nearest Potential of Children with Intellectual Disability--Dynamic Assessment

    Kulesza, Ewa Maria

    2015-01-01

    The article discussed the issue of the diagnosis with the use of task-support-task procedure. A theoretical model of diagnosis based on the concepts by L. S. Vygotski, R. Case, and A. Bandura was described and developed. The model was tested on a group of non-disabled preschool children, and children with mild and moderate intellectual disability…

  9. The Noise from Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children's Well-Being

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2011-01-01

    Research linking loud sounds to hearing loss in youngsters is now widespread, resulting in the issuance of warnings to protect children's hearing. However, studies attesting to the adverse effects of intrusive sounds and noise on children's overall mental and physical health and well-being have not received similar attention. This, despite the…

  10. Screening for pragmatic language impairment: The potential of the children's communication checklist

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.M.; Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the validity of the Dutch Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) for children in kindergarten in a community sample, in order to assess the feasibility of using it as a screening instrument in the general population. Teachers completed the CCC for a representative sample

  11. Working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities: abilities and training potential

    van der Molen, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The two main objectives of this thesis are a) to unravel working memory (WM) strengths and weaknesses in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID), and b) to investigate if WM can be trained effectively in these children. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the thesis and encompasses

  12. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their phy...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Blind Children: Very High Prevalence, Potentially Better Outlook

    Jure, Rubin; Pogonza, Ramón; Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders affected 19 of 38 unselected children at a school for the blind in Cordoba, Argentina. Autism was linked to total congenital blindness, not blindness' etiology, acquired or incomplete blindness, sex, overt brain damage, or socioeconomic status. Autism "recovery," had occurred in 4 verbal children. Congenital…

  14. Nonword repetition in children with cochlear implants: a potential clinical marker of poor language acquisition.

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Sansom, Emily; Twersky, Jill; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2014-11-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) can facilitate the acquisition of spoken language for deaf children, but challenges remain. Language skills dependent on phonological sensitivity are most at risk for these children, so having an effective way to diagnose problems at this level would be of value for school speech-language pathologists. The goal of this study was to assess whether a nonword repetition (NWR) task could serve that purpose. Participants were 104 second graders: 49 with normal hearing (NH) and 55 with CIs. In addition to NWR, children were tested on 10 measures involving phonological awareness and processing, serial recall of words, vocabulary, reading, and grammar. Children with CIs performed more poorly than children with NH on NWR, and sensitivity to phonological structure alone explained that performance for children in both groups. For children with CIs, 2 audiological factors positively influenced outcomes on NWR: being identified with hearing loss at a younger age and having experience with wearing a hearing aid on the unimplanted ear at the time of receiving a 1st CI. NWR scores were better able to rule out than to rule in such language deficits. Well-designed NWR tasks could have clinical utility in assessments of language acquisition for school-age children with CIs.

  15. Children of mothers being released from incarceration : Characteristics and potential targets for intervention

    Menting, Ankie T A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Incarcerated mothers and their children may face a multitude of problems. To identify possible targets for intervention, more clarity is needed about characteristics of these children and their mothers. This study examined children’s life events, behaviour problems and social cognitions and mothers’

  16. Potential Mediators of Adjustment for Preschool Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Living in a home where violence is present places young children at great risk for developing emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and health problems. While many studies have examined direct relationships between violence exposure and adjustment, fewer have considered how children's mental health problems may interact over time. The…

  17. Children's Attentional Biases and "5-HTTLPR" Genotype: Potential Mechanisms Linking Mother and Child Depression

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Benas, Jessica S.; Grassia, Marie; McGeary, John

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the roles of specific cognitive (attentional bias) and genetic ("5-HTTLPR") risk factors in the intergenerational transmission of depression. Focusing first on the link between maternal history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and children's attentional biases, we found that children of mothers with a history…

  18. Attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: evaluating the potential of computerised cognitive training

    Kirk, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Attention skills are strongly associated with academic attainment, social inclusion, peer relationships and mental health. Attention difficulties are commonly reported in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), consequently increasing the already heightened risk of cognitive difficulties, behavioural problems and learning impairments. Despite acknowledgement of the core deficits in attention that characterise children with IDD, limited research has attempted to stre...

  19. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Tian Weizhi; Cao Lei

    2001-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70 Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70 Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70 Zn and 68 Zn or 64 Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64 Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  20. Ultrathin Silicon Sheet in the Management of Unilateral Post-traumatic Temporo-Mandibuar Joint Ankylosis in Children: A Good Alternative to Conventional Techniques.

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Ankur, Bhatnagar; Jain, R K

    2015-09-01

    We have described a new technique of using ultra-thin silicon sheet (0.2 mm) between two transected bony ends for temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis in children with advantages of short operative time, minimal foreign material insertion and faster recovery time post-operatively which makes our technique a good alternative to conventional techniques. Our study is a non-randomized prospective study conducted on 10 children aged between 4 and 15 years who presented to our tertiary care institute with severe trismus after traumatic injury and were willing to undergo this new technique. The main outcome measure taken into consideration was difference between pre-operative, intra-operative (on table) and post-operative mouth opening (minimum 2 years follow-up). The pre-operative mouth opening in our cases varied from 1 to 5 mm. The intra-operative mouth opening achieved ranged from 2.8 to 3.2 cm. The mouth opening was about more than 2.7 cm in all our cases at 2 years of follow-up. Our technique is a good alternative to conventional techniques used for TMJ ankylosis in children but few more randomized controlled trials are required to assess its effectiveness in comparison to conventional techniques and for universal adoption of this technique.

  1. The p300 event-related potential technique for libido assessment in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    Vardi, Yoram; Sprecher, Elliot; Gruenwald, Ilan; Yarnitsky, David; Gartman, Irena; Granovsky, Yelena

    2009-06-01

    There is a need for an objective technique to assess the degree of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Recently, we described such a methodology (event-related potential technique [ERP]) based on recording of p300 electroencephalography (EEG) waves elicited by auditory stimuli during synchronous exposure to erotic films. To compare sexual interest of sexually healthy women to females with sexual dysfunction (FSD) using ERP, and to explore whether FSD women with and without HSDD would respond differently to two different types of erotic stimuli-films containing (I) or not containing (NI) sexual intercourse scenes. Twenty-two women with FSD, of which nine had HSDD only, and 30 sexually healthy women were assessed by the Female Sexual Functioning Index. ERP methodology was performed applying erotic NI or I films. Significant differences in percent of auditory p300 amplitude reduction (PR) in response to erotic stimuli within and between all three groups for each film type. PRs to each film type were similar in sexually healthy women (60.6% +/- 40.3 (NI) and 51.7% +/- 32.3 [I]), while in women with FSD, reduction was greater when viewing the NI vs. I erotic films (71.4% +/- 41.0 vs. 37.7% +/- 45.7; P = 0.0099). This difference was mainly due to the greater PR of the subgroup with HSDD in response to NI vs. I films (77.7% +/- 46.7 vs. 17.0% +/- 50.3) than in the FSD women without HSDD group or the sexually healthy women (67.5% +/- 38.7 vs. 50.4% +/- 39.4 respectively), P = 0.0084. For comparisons, we used the mixed-model one-way analysis of variance. Differences in neurophysiological response patterns between sexually healthy vs. sexually dysfunctional females may point to a specific inverse discrimination ability for sexually relevant information in the subgroup of women with HSDD. These findings suggest that the p300 ERP technique could be used as an objective quantitative tool for libido assessment in sexually dysfunctional women.

  2. Technique of ‘suture less’ appendicectomy by laparoscopy in children: Preliminary communication

    Bajpai, Minu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Objective of this study is to present our experience by harmonic scalpel enabled, single external port appendicectomy using extracorporeally inserted ‘pick and fix’ stitch in three cases. Materials and Methods: Of the eighteen appendicectomies performed with only the use of harmonic scalpel in the last 11 months, the last three were performed using a single external port with the second port accessed under the subcutaneous tissues. The procedure consists of anchoring the mesoappendix to anterior abdominal wall by an extracorporeally inserted ‘pick and fix’ stitch followed by dissection and division of mesoappendix and appendix only with harmonic scalpel. Results: There were three patients, one female and two males aged 5, 7, and 11 years, respectively. Two were elective and one was emergency appendicectomy. Mean operating time was 30 min without any surgical complications. All patients are in follow-up with no complications. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the combined virtue of single external port, use of harmonic scalpel, and ‘pick and fix’ suture in laparoscopic appendicectomy in children. This approach avoids the use of an additional port as well as endosuture; and is safe, efficient, cost-effective, and is associated with reduced surgical time. PMID:24604981

  3. Technique of ′suture less′ appendicectomy by laparoscopy in children: Preliminary communication

    Minu Bajpai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective of this study is to present our experience by harmonic scalpel enabled, single external port appendicectomy using extracorporeally inserted ′pick and fix′ stitch in three cases. Materials and Methods: Of the eighteen appendicectomies performed with only the use of harmonic scalpel in the last 11 months, the last three were performed using a single external port with the second port accessed under the subcutaneous tissues. The procedure consists of anchoring the mesoappendix to anterior abdominal wall by an extracorporeally inserted ′pick and fix′ stitch followed by dissection and division of mesoappendix and appendix only with harmonic scalpel. Results: There were three patients, one female and two males aged 5, 7, and 11 years, respectively. Two were elective and one was emergency appendicectomy. Mean operating time was 30 min without any surgical complications. All patients are in follow-up with no complications. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the combined virtue of single external port, use of harmonic scalpel, and ′pick and fix′ suture in laparoscopic appendicectomy in children. This approach avoids the use of an additional port as well as endosuture; and is safe, efficient, cost-effective, and is associated with reduced surgical time.

  4. Technique of 'suture less' appendicectomy by laparoscopy in children: Preliminary communication.

    Bajpai, Minu

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this study is to present our experience by harmonic scalpel enabled, single external port appendicectomy using extracorporeally inserted 'pick and fix' stitch in three cases. Of the eighteen appendicectomies performed with only the use of harmonic scalpel in the last 11 months, the last three were performed using a single external port with the second port accessed under the subcutaneous tissues. The procedure consists of anchoring the mesoappendix to anterior abdominal wall by an extracorporeally inserted 'pick and fix' stitch followed by dissection and division of mesoappendix and appendix only with harmonic scalpel. There were three patients, one female and two males aged 5, 7, and 11 years, respectively. Two were elective and one was emergency appendicectomy. Mean operating time was 30 min without any surgical complications. All patients are in follow-up with no complications. This study demonstrates the combined virtue of single external port, use of harmonic scalpel, and 'pick and fix' suture in laparoscopic appendicectomy in children. This approach avoids the use of an additional port as well as endosuture; and is safe, efficient, cost-effective, and is associated with reduced surgical time.

  5. Total Energy Expenditure in Obese Kuwaiti Primary School Children Assessed by the Doubly-Labeled Water Technique

    Lena Davidsson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to assess body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE in 35 obese 7–9 years old Kuwaiti children (18 girls and 17 boys. Total body water (TBW and TEE were assessed by doubly-labeled water technique. TBW was derived from the intercept of the elimination rate of deuterium and TEE from the difference in elimination rates of 18O and deuterium. TBW was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM, using hydration factors for different ages and gender. Fat mass (FM was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM. Body weight was not statistically different but TBW was significantly higher (p = 0.018 in boys (44.9% ± 3.3% than girls (42.4% ± 3.0%, while girls had significantly higher estimated FM (45.2 ± 3.9 weight % versus 41.6% ± 4.3%; p = 0.014. TEE was significantly higher in boys (2395 ± 349 kcal/day compared with girls (1978 ± 169 kcal/day; p = 0.001. Estimated physical activity level (PAL was significantly higher in boys; 1.61 ± 0.167 versus 1.51 ± 0.870; p = 0.034. Our results provide the first dataset of TEE in 7–9 years old obese Kuwaiti children and highlight important gender differences to be considered during the development of school based interventions targeted to combat childhood obesity.

  6. Improved abdominal MRI in non-breath-holding children using a radial k-space sampling technique

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Hyun Hae; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su Mi [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Radial k-space sampling techniques have been shown to reduce motion artifacts in adult abdominal MRI. To compare a T2-weighted radial k-space sampling MRI pulse sequence (BLADE) with standard respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) in pediatric abdominal imaging. Axial BLADE and respiratory-triggered turbo spin echo sequences were performed without fat suppression in 32 abdominal MR examinations in children. We retrospectively assessed overall image quality, the presence of respiratory, peristaltic and radial artifact, and lesion conspicuity. We evaluated signal uniformity of each sequence. BLADE showed improved overall image quality (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 2.59 ± 0.59, P < 0.001), reduced respiratory motion artifact (0.51 ± 0.56 vs. 1.89 ± 0.68, P < 0.001), and improved lesion conspicuity (3.54 ± 0.88 vs. 2.92 ± 0.77, P = 0.006) compared to respiratory triggering turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. The bowel motion artifact scores were similar for both sequences (1.65 ± 0.77 vs. 1.79 ± 0.74, P = 0.691). BLADE introduced a radial artifact that was not observed on the respiratory triggering-TSE images (1.10 ± 0.85 vs. 0, P < 0.001). BLADE was associated with diminished signal variation compared with respiratory triggering-TSE in the liver, spleen and air (P < 0.001). The radial k-space sampling technique improved the quality and reduced respiratory motion artifacts in young children compared with conventional respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo sequences. (orig.)

  7. Spatial Analysis of Potentially Preventable Pneumonia and Asthma Hospitalizations for Children in the Texas Coastal Bend Area

    Lin, Na

    Pneumonia and asthma, two common Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs), were two top reasons for the admission of children to the hospitals and emergency rooms in the United States in 2011. Pneumonia and asthma are potentially preventable if the child's environment is properly managed. Underlying vulnerabilities such as low socioeconomic status (SES) and proximity to air pollution play an important role in ACSCs hospitalization. Pneumonia and asthma are two common reasons for hospitalizations among children and missed school days in Texas Coastal Bend Area. This thesis examines the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, meteorological conditions and children ACSCs hospitalization, including pneumonia and asthma among children age 0-17 in this area. Hospital discharge data from 2007 to 2009 based on Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) were examined along with American Community Survey (ACS) data, air pollution data from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and temperature data from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Hotspot and Local Moran's I analyses were applied to identify the concentrations of the illnesses. Two regressions (OLS and GWR) were applied to identify factors that contribute the most to ACSCs hospitalization. Pearson's correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between meteorological condition and child hospitalization for asthma and pneumonia. A human subject survey was conducted to examine the relationships between neighborhood environment and children asthma cases. The main finding was that children from families with health insurance, children from single father families and children from poor families were more likely to visit hospital for ACSCs and pneumonia care. "Hispanic families" and especially "Hispanic families with father but no mother" also contributed most to child hospitalization for ACSCs and pneumonia, suggesting that family preventative health care education is needed for Hispanic

  8. Investigating Potential Artesian Aquifers in Rod-Kohi Area of DI Khan, NWFP using GIS and Geo-Processing Techniques

    Arshad Ashraf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The artesian aquifers provide economical and sustainable source of groundwater for irrigation and domestic use. GIS (Geographic Information System was used for development and integration of spatial databases, analysis and visualization of spatial data in two- and three-dimensional views. The aquifer system of Daraban Rod-Kohi area of DI Khan was analyzed to identify potential artesian aquifers using geological sections of the observation wells representing detail of subsurface lithology and strata encountered. According to an estimate, about 1,700 million m3 of extractable volume of groundwater exists in this part of rod-kohi area. Different profile sections were drawn to analyze the subsurface condition of the study area using Rockworks GIS-based software. The geo-processing technique of horizontal litho-blending was utilized for lithological modeling. Based on stratigraphic information of the area, three distinct aquifers were identified down to a depth of about 200 meters among which two are semi-confined to confined having prospects of artesian water. The 2D and 3D analysis show that characteristics of the confined aquifers vary spatially with the subsurface lithology and structural setup of the area. The depth range of confined layer-1 is found between 118 and 133 meters while of confined layer-2 between 182 and 195 meters. The output data indicated a close agreement with the observed data of the artesian wells. The study results can provide base for detail investigation of artesian resource and selection of potential sites for installation of artesian wells in the target area.

  9. PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AS POTENTIAL SOURCE OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHO-MOTOR DIFFICULTIES

    Elizabeta ZISOVSKA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Besides the great improvement of aostetrics and neanatal intensive care, certain percentage of new born children suffer from perinatal asphyxia (PA and that is one of the first reasons for hypoxic and ischemic brain damage which leads to neuro-developing handicap. In order to show how strong is the correaltion between PA and permanent sequele, an early, precise and prompt diagnosis of asphyxia and its influence on neonatal brain is neccessary.This study presents answers to the following issues.1.Which parameters define precisely the perinatal asphyxia?2.How great is the PA incidence on our material?3.What is the percentage of postasphyxic encephalopathy (PAE in the group of asphyxic new born children?4.Which of these children bear high risk for developmental psycho-motor difficulties?MaterialThe new born children delivered on time in the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics.Methods1.Early diagnosis of PA according to the score consisted of high specific, sensitivity and positive and predictive value2.Consequent neurological check-ups and PAE cathegori-zation for seven days3.Ultrasound examination of CNS through big fontanelle4.Lab analysesResults5.639 successive new born children delivered on time were examined. The included scouring system covers APGAR score at the 5th minute, cardiotocographic record, base deficit in ABS, meconium around the amniotic water. According to this system, 81 child passed the PA , i.e., 14,3/ 1.000 new born children delivered on time. Out of them, 54 have signs of PAE (9,5/1000 new born children delivered on time, i.e., 66,6% of all asphyxia new born children. Classification has been made according to the PAE grade: 34 children survived the first grade (62,9%, 11 children survived the second grade (20,4% and 9 new born children survived the third grade (16,7%. According to data in literature and long year studies of this issue, the children from the group who passed the second and the third grade of PAE have the risk

  10. Fast spin echo MRI techniques. Contrast characteristics and clinical potential. Techniques d'IRM en fast spin echo. Caracteristiques de contraste et potentiels cliniques

    Melki, P.; Mulkern, R.V.; Dacher, J.N.; Helenon, O.; Higuchi, N. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Oshio, K.; Jolesz, F. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Pourcelot, L. (Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)); Einstein, S. (General Electric Medical System, Milwaukee, WI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Based on partial RF echo planar principles, Fast Spin Echo techniques (FSE) were implemented on high field systems. These methods produce image quality and contrast which resemble to conventional spin echo (SE) techniques. By reducing acquisition times by factors between 1.4 and 16 over SE methods, FSE allows for several imaging options usually prohibitive with conventional spin echo (SE) sequences. These include fast scans (especially breathold acquisitions); improved T2 contrast with longer TR intervals; increased spatial resolution with the use of larger image matrices and/or smaller fields of view; and 3D volume imaging with a 3D multislab FSE technique. Contrast features of FSE techniques are directly comparable to those of multiple echo SE sequences using the same echo spacing than FSE methods. However, essential contrast differences existing between the FSE sequences and their routine asymmetric dual SE counterpart can be identified. Decreased magnetic susceptibility effects and increased fat signal present within T2 weighted images compared to conventional dual SE images are due to the use of shorter echo spacings employed in FSE sequences. Off-resonance irradiation inherent to the use of a large number of radio frequency pulses in shown to results in dramatic magnetization contrast transfer effects in FSE images acquired in multislice mode.

  11. An evaluation of nutritional status of children in Anganwadi Centre of Hyderabad district of Andhra Pradesh stateusing WHO z- score technique

    Shanawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India the nationwide Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS uses the I.A.P criteria to grade under nutrition. The current WHO recommendation is to use Z score or the standard deviation system to grade under nutrition. Although widely recommended the z scores have not been widely used in India, especially in community based studies. AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the socio-demographic profile of 0-72 months age group of children. 2. To find out the nutritional status of children using WHO z- score technique. METHODOLOGY A cross sectional, community-based was done in ICDS Anganwadi centers among the 400 ICDS children (0-6 years RESULTS There are (47.5% undernourished and (16.5% severely malnourished children according to WHO z score technique. Males (49.5% are comparatively more under nourished than females (45.5%. Female infants (31.2% are less undernourished when compared to male infants (50%. Literacy of mother had significance over the nutritional status of their children (p˂0.05. CONCLUSION The present study shows that there are still many children who are undernourished and severely malnourished in our country, even after 36 years of ICDS services. There is need to use WHO standards at the grass route levels to correctly identify the burden of under nutrition. Z score technique is simple to use, reliable and easy to understand at grass route level by health workers.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of lipoma and liposarcoma: potential of short tau inversion recovery as a technique of fat suppression

    Pang, A.K.K.; Hughes, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present limited retrospective study was performed to assess MR imaging of lipomatous tumours of the musculoskeletal system and to evaluate the potential of the T2 short tau inversion-recovery (STIR) technique for differentiating lipomas from liposarcomas. Magnetic resonance imaging of 12 patients with lipomatous tumours of the musculoskeletal system (eight benign lipomas, three well differentiated liposarcomas and one myxoid liposarcoma) were reviewed. Benign lipomas were usually superficial and showed homogeneity on T1- and T2-weighted spin echo sequences. Full suppression at T2-STIR was readily demonstrated. In contrast the liposarcomas in the present series were all deep-seated. Two well-differentiated liposarcomas showed homogeneity at long and short relaxation time (TR) but failed to show complete suppression at T2-STIR. One case of well-differentiated liposarcoma (dedifferentiated liposarcoma) and one of myxoid liposarcoma showed mild and moderate heterogeneity at T1 and T2, respectively and posed no difficulty in being diagnosed correctly. In conclusion, short and long TR in combination with T2 STIR show promise in differentiating benign from malignant lipomatous tumours of the musculoskeletal system, when taken in combination with the position of the tumour. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Mining potential biomarkers associated with space flight in Caenorhabditis elegans experienced Shenzhou-8 mission with multiple feature selection techniques

    Zhao, Lei; Gao, Ying; Mi, Dong; Sun, Yeqing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined algorithm is proposed to mine biomarkers of spaceflight in C. elegans. • This algorithm makes the feature selection more reliable and robust. • Apply this algorithm to predict 17 positive biomarkers to space environment stress. • The strategy can be used as a general method to select important features. - Abstract: To identify the potential biomarkers associated with space flight, a combined algorithm, which integrates the feature selection techniques, was used to deal with the microarray datasets of Caenorhabditis elegans obtained in the Shenzhou-8 mission. Compared with the ground control treatment, a total of 86 differentially expressed (DE) genes in responses to space synthetic environment or space radiation environment were identified by two filter methods. And then the top 30 ranking genes were selected by the random forest algorithm. Gene Ontology annotation and functional enrichment analyses showed that these genes were mainly associated with metabolism process. Furthermore, clustering analysis showed that 17 genes among these are positive, including 9 for space synthetic environment and 8 for space radiation environment only. These genes could be used as the biomarkers to reflect the space environment stresses. In addition, we also found that microgravity is the main stress factor to change the expression patterns of biomarkers for the short-duration spaceflight.

  14. Mining potential biomarkers associated with space flight in Caenorhabditis elegans experienced Shenzhou-8 mission with multiple feature selection techniques

    Zhao, Lei [Institute of Environmental Systems Biology, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Gao, Ying [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China); Mi, Dong, E-mail: mid@dlmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Sun, Yeqing, E-mail: yqsun@dlmu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Systems Biology, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A combined algorithm is proposed to mine biomarkers of spaceflight in C. elegans. • This algorithm makes the feature selection more reliable and robust. • Apply this algorithm to predict 17 positive biomarkers to space environment stress. • The strategy can be used as a general method to select important features. - Abstract: To identify the potential biomarkers associated with space flight, a combined algorithm, which integrates the feature selection techniques, was used to deal with the microarray datasets of Caenorhabditis elegans obtained in the Shenzhou-8 mission. Compared with the ground control treatment, a total of 86 differentially expressed (DE) genes in responses to space synthetic environment or space radiation environment were identified by two filter methods. And then the top 30 ranking genes were selected by the random forest algorithm. Gene Ontology annotation and functional enrichment analyses showed that these genes were mainly associated with metabolism process. Furthermore, clustering analysis showed that 17 genes among these are positive, including 9 for space synthetic environment and 8 for space radiation environment only. These genes could be used as the biomarkers to reflect the space environment stresses. In addition, we also found that microgravity is the main stress factor to change the expression patterns of biomarkers for the short-duration spaceflight.

  15. Potential for misclassification of micronutrient status in children participating in a Head Start program.

    Droke, Elizabeth A; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Hubbs-Tait, Laura

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate relations among measures of iron and zinc status, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes in low-income children participating in the Head Start program. Cross-sectional correlational study with samples collected at Head Start centers in May 2003. Forty-seven children (aged 3 to 5 years) attending Head Start centers in three rural communities. Zinc, ferritin, CRP, and complete blood count were analyzed in nonfasting blood samples. Correlations were computed among leukocyte levels, CRP levels, and measures of micronutrient status. Children having two abnormal measures (ie, leukocytes and CRP) were compared by univariate analysis of variance with children having zero or one abnormal measure. Most (72%) of the children had elevated CRP levels. Four percent were anemic (hemoglobinreference value that accounts for the presence of infection was used (serum ferritinChildren with two measures that indicated infection had higher serum ferritin and lower plasma zinc levels than children with zero or one indicator of infection. The link between measures of infection and serum ferritin levels suggests low-income preschool children with low iron stores are not identified by the children. Thus, in this population, the presence of infection (as indicated by CRP levels and leukocyte counts) should be determined to assess micronutrient status.

  16. An Auditory Go/No-Go Study of Event-Related Potentials in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 14......:7years): one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 12) and a control group of children of same age whose mothers abstained from alcohol or drank minimally during pregnancy (n = 11). The children were instructed to push a button in response to the Go stimulus...... trials, suggesting a less efficient early classification of the stimulus. P3 showed larger amplitudes to No-Go vs. Go in both groups. The study has provided new evidence for inhibition deficits in FAS/PFAS subjects identified by ERPs....

  17. Developing an eye-tracking algorithm as a potential tool for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in children.

    Natalia I Vargas-Cuentas

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD currently affects nearly 1 in 160 children worldwide. In over two-thirds of evaluations, no validated diagnostics are used and gold standard diagnostic tools are used in less than 5% of evaluations. Currently, the diagnosis of ASD requires lengthy and expensive tests, in addition to clinical confirmation. Therefore, fast, cheap, portable, and easy-to-administer screening instruments for ASD are required. Several studies have shown that children with ASD have a lower preference for social scenes compared with children without ASD. Based on this, eye-tracking and measurement of gaze preference for social scenes has been used as a screening tool for ASD. Currently available eye-tracking software requires intensive calibration, training, or holding of the head to prevent interference with gaze recognition limiting its use in children with ASD.In this study, we designed a simple eye-tracking algorithm that does not require calibration or head holding, as a platform for future validation of a cost-effective ASD potential screening instrument. This system operates on a portable and inexpensive tablet to measure gaze preference of children for social compared to abstract scenes. A child watches a one-minute stimulus video composed of a social scene projected on the left side and an abstract scene projected on the right side of the tablet's screen. We designed five stimulus videos by changing the social/abstract scenes. Every child observed all the five videos in random order. We developed an eye-tracking algorithm that calculates the child's gaze preference for the social and abstract scenes, estimated as the percentage of the accumulated time that the child observes the left or right side of the screen, respectively. Twenty-three children without a prior history of ASD and 8 children with a clinical diagnosis of ASD were evaluated. The recorded video of the child´s eye movement was analyzed both manually by an observer

  18. Analysis of electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Caldas, Fernanda Ferreira; Cardoso, Carolina Costa; Barreto, Monique Antunes de Souza Chelminski; Teixeira, Marina Santos; Hilgenberg, Anacléia Melo da Silva; Serra, Lucieny Silva Martins; Bahmad Junior, Fayez

    2016-01-01

    The cochlear implant device has the capacity to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve. The neural response telemetry is used in order to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve. To analyze the electrically evoked compound action potential, through the neural response telemetry, in children with bilateral cochlear implants. This is an analytical, prospective, longitudinal, historical cohort study. Six children, aged 1-4 years, with bilateral cochlear implant were assessed at five different intervals during their first year of cochlear implant use. There were significant differences in follow-up time (p=0.0082) and electrode position (p=0.0019) in the T-NRT measure. There was a significant difference in the interaction between time of follow-up and electrode position (p=0.0143) when measuring the N1-P1 wave amplitude between the three electrodes at each time of follow-up. The electrically evoked compound action potential measurement using neural response telemetry in children with bilateral cochlear implants during the first year of follow-up was effective in demonstrating the synchronized bilateral development of the peripheral auditory pathways in the studied population. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation dose reduction on multidetector abdominal CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique in children

    Zhang Qifeng; Peng Yun; Duan Xiaomin; Sun Jihang; Yu Tong; Han Zhonglong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility to reduce radiation doses on pediatric multidetector abdominal CT using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique (ASIR) associated with automated tube current modulation technique (ATCM). Methods: Thirty patients underwent abdominal CT with ATCM and the follow-up scan with ATCM cooperated with 40% ASIR. ATCM was used with age dependent noise index (NI) settings: NI = 9 for 0-5 year old and NI = 11 for > 5 years old for simple ATCM group, NI = 11 for 0-5 year old and NI = 15 for > 5 years old for ATCM cooperated with 40% ASIR group (AISR group). Two radiologists independently evaluated images for diagnostic quality and image noise with subjectively image quality score and image noise score using a 5-point scale. Interobserver agreement was assessed by Kappa test. The volume CT dose indexes (CTDIvol) for the two groups were recorded. Statistical significance for the CTDIvol value was analyzed by pair-sample t test. Results: The average CTDIvol for the ASIR group was (1.38 ± 0.64) mGy, about 60% lower than (3.56 ± 1.23) mGy for the simple ATCM group, and the CTDIvol of two groups had statistically significant differences. (t = 33.483, P < 0.05). The subjective image quality scores for the simple ATCM group were 4.43 ± 0.57 and 4.37 ±0.61, Kappa = 0.878, P < 0.01 (ASIR group: 4.70 ± 0.47 and 4.60 ± 0.50, Kappa = 0.783, P < 0.01), by two observers. The image noise score for the simple ATCM group were 4.03 ±0.56 and 3.83 ±0.53, Kappa = 0.572, P < 0.01 (ASIR group: 4.20 ± 0.48 and 4.10 ± 0.48, Kappa = 0.748, P < 0.01), by two observers. All images had acceptable diagnostic image quality. Conclusion: Lower radiation dose can be achieved by elevating NI with ASIR in pediatric CT abdominal studies, while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images. (authors)

  20. Flash visual evoked potentials in patients with periventricular leucomalacia in children less than 1 year of age

    Jitendra Jethani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with periventricular leucomalacia (PVL are known to have visual impairment of various forms starting from reduced vision, field defects, congnitive problems, and problems with hand eye coordination. There is very scant data/literature on the visual evoked potentials (VEPs at an early age in children with PVL. We did a study to evaluate the flash visual evoked potentials (fVEPs in children with PVL less than 1 year of age. Materials and Methods: A total of nine children diagnosed as having PVL on magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study. The mean age was 9.7μ 3.5 months. All children underwent handheld fVEPs under sedation at two different flash frequencies 1.4 and 8 Hz. Results: The mean latency of N1 and P1 on stimulation with 1.4 Hz was 47.9μ 15.2 and 77.7μ 26.0 ms, respectively. However, on stimulation with 8 Hz the mean latency of N1 and P1 was 189.8μ 25.6 and 238.4μ 33.6 ms, respectively. The mean amplitude with 1.4 Hz and 8 stimulation frequency was 5.6μ 4.5 and 5.59μ 3 mV, respectively. Conclusion: We have found for the first time that there is a change in the latency and the delay occurs at 8 Hz frequency but not at 1.4 Hz. We also conclude that amplitudes by fVEPs may be normal even in presence of periventricular changes. The amplitudes of fVEPs are not reliable in children with PVL.

  1. Is the stripping technique a tissue-sparing procedure in large simple ovarian cysts in children?

    Arena, Francesco; Romeo, Carmelo; Castagnetti, Marco; Scalfari, GianFranco; Cimador, Marcello; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Villari, Daniela; Zimbaro, Fabrizio; DeGrazia, Enrico

    2008-07-01

    Stripping of the cystic wall is performed by gynecologists to treat large ovarian cysts. Information in the pediatric population is poor. We prospectively evaluated the pathologic specimens of large ovarian cyst to determine whether the stripping technique is a tissue-sparing procedure even in this age. We evaluated 5 patients. Samples were taken from the intermediate part of the cystic wall and from the layer covering the cyst during excision. The presence of ovarian tissue adjacent to the cyst wall, and the morphological features of the surrounding tissue were both evaluated. Pelvic ultrasound follow-up was also performed. Patients' mean age was 4.5 years (7 days to 12 years). All cysts were removed because all were symptomatic. The mean diameter was 86.6 mm (74-100 mm). Cysts were follicular in 2 cases, serous in other two, and endometriotic in 1 case. Adjacent ovarian tissue was present in 1 of 5 specimens and was approximately 1 to 2 mm in thickness. The layer adjacent to the cystic wall always appeared as normal ovarian tissue. Ultrasound scans at follow-up revealed presence of ovarian tissue. The stripping procedure for large ovarian cyst excision allows to spare the adjacent normal ovarian tissue even in pediatric age because ovarian tissue is rarely excised with the cyst wall during the procedure.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Full Text Available ... children. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT is used to help ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  3. Study of the correlation of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Fobe, Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Central auditory evaluation in 21 children with cerebral palsy was done with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and correlated with brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI); 12 boys and 9 girls between 5 and 12 years old were studied. All children had follow-up at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo. The control group was done with 17 children, 10 boys and 7 girls (mean age 8.06 years, SD 2.27 years). The BAEP abnormalities were: decrease of latency of wave V; decrease of latency III-V and I-IV intervals at the right side. All patients has MRI supratentorial abnormalities and 11 had brainstem atrophy. The MRI pathologic findings were: ventricular enlargement (n=17 or 80.95%), cortical/subcortical atrophy (n=15 or 71.42%), left brainstem atrophy (n=11 or 52.38%), periventricular leukomalacia (n=10 or 47.61%), infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory (n=6 or 28.57%), and malformations such as schizencephaly and colpocephaly (n=5 or 23.80%). The findings of the decrease latencies in children with cerebral palsy suggest the contribution of decussating auditory fibers at the lower and upper pons and midbrain, the lack of homogeneity of the surrounding volume of the conductor fibres and the presence of several concurrently active potential generators sources, should be facilitating mechanisms for the nervous input to brainstem. (author)

  4. Study of the correlation of brainstem auditory evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Fobe, Lisete Pessoa de Oliveira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]. E-mail: lispessoa@yahoo.com

    1999-12-01

    Central auditory evaluation in 21 children with cerebral palsy was done with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and correlated with brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (MRI); 12 boys and 9 girls between 5 and 12 years old were studied. All children had follow-up at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo. The control group was done with 17 children, 10 boys and 7 girls (mean age 8.06 years, SD 2.27 years). The BAEP abnormalities were: decrease of latency of wave V; decrease of latency III-V and I-IV intervals at the right side. All patients has MRI supratentorial abnormalities and 11 had brainstem atrophy. The MRI pathologic findings were: ventricular enlargement (n=17 or 80.95%), cortical/subcortical atrophy (n=15 or 71.42%), left brainstem atrophy (n=11 or 52.38%), periventricular leukomalacia (n=10 or 47.61%), infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory (n=6 or 28.57%), and malformations such as schizencephaly and colpocephaly (n=5 or 23.80%). The findings of the decrease latencies in children with cerebral palsy suggest the contribution of decussating auditory fibers at the lower and upper pons and midbrain, the lack of homogeneity of the surrounding volume of the conductor fibres and the presence of several concurrently active potential generators sources, should be facilitating mechanisms for the nervous input to brainstem. (author)

  5. A rapid technique for estimating the depth and width of a two-dimensional plate from self-potential data

    Mehanee, Salah; Smith, Paul D; Essa, Khalid S

    2011-01-01

    Rapid techniques for self-potential (SP) data interpretation are of prime importance in engineering and exploration geophysics. Parameters (e.g. depth, width) estimation of the ore bodies has also been of paramount concern in mineral prospecting. In many cases, it is useful to assume that the SP anomaly is due to an ore body of simple geometric shape and to use the data to determine its parameters. In light of this, we describe a rapid approach to determine the depth and horizontal width of a two-dimensional plate from the SP anomaly. The rationale behind the scheme proposed in this paper is that, unlike the two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) SP rigorous source current inversions, it does not demand a priori information about the subsurface resistivity distribution nor high computational resources. We apply the second-order moving average operator on the SP anomaly to remove the unwanted (regional) effect, represented by up to a third-order polynomial, using filters of successive window lengths. By defining a function F at a fixed window length (s) in terms of the filtered anomaly computed at two points symmetrically distributed about the origin point of the causative body, the depth (z) corresponding to each half-width (w) is estimated by solving a nonlinear equation in the form ξ(s, w, z) = 0. The estimated depths are then plotted against their corresponding half-widths on a graph representing a continuous curve for this window length. This procedure is then repeated for each available window length. The depth and half-width solution of the buried structure is read at the common intersection of these various curves. The improvement of this method over the published first-order moving average technique for SP data is demonstrated on a synthetic data set. It is then verified on noisy synthetic data, complicated structures and successfully applied to three field examples for mineral exploration and we have found that the estimated depth is in good agreement with

  6. What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements

  7. Correlation of Self Potential and Ground Magnetic Survey Techniques to Investigate Fluid Seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia

    Tajudeen O. Adeeko; Nordiana M. Muztaza; Taqiuddin M. Zakaria; Nurina Ismail

    2018-01-01

    One of the substantial of geophysics is to investigate the subsurface condition of the earth (groundwater) using appropriate geophysical techniques. In this research the correlation of self potential (SP) and ground magnetic methods was used to investigate fluid seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia. Self-potential method was used to determine flow of water, and Ground magnetic method was used to find object that can influence the result of self potential...

  8. POTENTIAL USE OF MELATONIN IN PROCEDURAL ANXIETY AND PAIN IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING BLOOD WITHDRAWAL.

    Marseglia, L; Manti, S; D'Angelo, G; Arrigo, T; Cuppari, C; Salpietro, C; Gitto, E

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of the value of pain, especially in the pediatric population, has increased over the last decade. It is known that pain-related anxiety can increase perceived pain intensity. There are several different approaches to the treatment of pre-procedural anxiety and procedural pain in children. Melatonin, a neurohormone with the profile of a novel hypnotic-anaesthetic agent, plays an important role in anxiolysis and analgesia. This study investigated the effects of oral melatonin premedication to reduce anxiety and pain in children having blood samples taken. The investigations were carried out on 60 children, aged 1-14 years, divided into 2 equal groups. Using a computer-generated randomization schedule, patients were given either melatonin orally (0.5 mg/kg BW, max 5 mg) or placebo 30 min before blood draw. Pre-procedural anxiety was assessed using the scale from the Children’s Anxiety and Pain Scales, while procedural pain used the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability assessment tool for children under the age of 3 years, Faces Pain Scale-Revised for children aged 3-8 years and Numeric Rating Scale for children over the age of 8 years. Oral administration of melatonin before the blood withdrawal procedure significantly reduced both anxiety (pchildren under 3 years and pchildren over 3 years). These data support the use of melatonin for taking blood samples due to its anxiolytic and analgesic properties. Further studies are needed to support the routine use of melatonin to alleviate anxiety and pain in pediatric patients having blood samples taken.

  9. [Multi-channel in vivo recording techniques: analysis of phase coupling between spikes and rhythmic oscillations of local field potentials].

    Wang, Ce-Qun; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Jia-Min; Lin, Long-Nian

    2014-12-25

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the measurements of phase coupling between spikes and rhythmic oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs). Multi-channel in vivo recording techniques allow us to record ensemble neuronal activity and LFPs simultaneously from the same sites in the brain. Neuronal activity is generally characterized by temporal spike sequences, while LFPs contain oscillatory rhythms in different frequency ranges. Phase coupling analysis can reveal the temporal relationships between neuronal firing and LFP rhythms. As the first step, the instantaneous phase of LFP rhythms can be calculated using Hilbert transform, and then for each time-stamped spike occurred during an oscillatory epoch, we marked instantaneous phase of the LFP at that time stamp. Finally, the phase relationships between the neuronal firing and LFP rhythms were determined by examining the distribution of the firing phase. Phase-locked spikes are revealed by the non-random distribution of spike phase. Theta phase precession is a unique phase relationship between neuronal firing and LFPs, which is one of the basic features of hippocampal place cells. Place cells show rhythmic burst firing following theta oscillation within a place field. And phase precession refers to that rhythmic burst firing shifted in a systematic way during traversal of the field, moving progressively forward on each theta cycle. This relation between phase and position can be described by a linear model, and phase precession is commonly quantified with a circular-linear coefficient. Phase coupling analysis helps us to better understand the temporal information coding between neuronal firing and LFPs.

  10. Techniques and methodologies to identify potential generated industries of NORM in Angola Republic and evaluate its impacts

    Diogo, José Manuel Sucumula

    2017-01-01

    Numerous steps have been taken worldwide to identify and quantify the radiological risks associated with the mining of ores containing Naturally Occurrence Radioactive Material (NORM), often resulting in unnecessary exposures to individuals and high environmental damage, with devastating consequences for the health of workers and damage to the economy of many countries due to a lack of regulations or inadequate regulations. For these and other reasons, the objective of this work was to identify industrial potential generating NORM in the Republic of Angola and to estimate its radiological environmental impacts. To achieve this objective, we studied the theoretical aspects, identified the main internationally recognized industrial companies that as generate by NORM. The Brazilian experience in the regulatory aspect was observed in the evaluation criteria to classify industries that generate NORM, the methods of mining and its radiological environmental impacts, as well as the main techniques applied to evaluate the concentrations of radionuclides in a specific environmental matrix and/or a NORM sample. The study approach allowed the elaboration of a NORM map for the main provinces of Angola, establishing the evaluation criteria for implementing the Radiation Protection Plan in the extractive industry, establishing measures to control ionizing radiation in mining, identifying and quantifying radionuclides present in samples of lees oil. However, in order to assess adequately the radiological environmental impact of the NORM industry, it is not enough to identify them, it is important to know the origin, quantify the radioactive material released as liquid and gaseous effluents, identify the main routes of exposure and examine how this material spreads into the environment until it reaches man. (author)

  11. MALDI-TOF and SELDI-TOF analysis: “tandem” techniques to identify potential biomarker in fibromyalgia

    A. Lucacchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by the presence of chronic widespread pain throughout the musculoskeletal system and diffuse tenderness. Unfortunately, no laboratory tests have been appropriately validated for FM and correlated with the subsets and activity. The aim of this study was to apply a proteomic technique in saliva of FM patients: the Surface Enhance Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF. For this study, 57 FM patients and 35 HC patients were enrolled. The proteomic analysis of saliva was carried out using SELDI-TOF. The analysis was performed using different chip arrays with different characteristics of binding. The statistical analysis was performed using cluster analysis and the difference between two groups was underlined using Student’s t-test. Spectra analysis highlighted the presence of several peaks differently expressed in FM patients compared with controls. The preliminary results obtained by SELDI-TOF analysis were compared with those obtained in our previous study performed on whole saliva of FM patients by using electrophoresis. The m/z of two peaks, increased in FM patients, seem to overlap well with the molecular weight of calgranulin A and C and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2, which we had found up-regulated in our previous study. These preliminary results showed the possibility of identifying potential salivary biomarker through salivary proteomic analysis with MALDI-TOF and SELDI-TOF in FM patients. The peaks observed allow us to focus on some of the particular pathogenic aspects of FM, the oxidative stress which contradistinguishes this condition, the involvement of proteins related to the cytoskeletal arrangements, and central sensibilization.

  12. Strategies to avoid the loss of developmental potential in more than 200 million children in the developing world.

    Engle, Patrice L; Black, Maureen M; Behrman, Jere R; Cabral de Mello, Meena; Gertler, Paul J; Kapiriri, Lydia; Martorell, Reynaldo; Young, Mary Eming

    2007-01-20

    This paper is the third in the Child Development Series. The first paper showed that more than 200 million children under 5 years of age in developing countries do not reach their developmental potential. The second paper identified four well-documented risks: stunting, iodine deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia, and inadequate cognitive stimulation, plus four potential risks based on epidemiological evidence: maternal depression, violence exposure, environmental contamination, and malaria. This paper assesses strategies to promote child development and to prevent or ameliorate the loss of developmental potential. The most effective early child development programmes provide direct learning experiences to children and families, are targeted toward younger and disadvantaged children, are of longer duration, high quality, and high intensity, and are integrated with family support, health, nutrition, or educational systems and services. Despite convincing evidence, programme coverage is low. To achieve the Millennium Development Goals of reducing poverty and ensuring primary school completion for both girls and boys, governments and civil society should consider expanding high quality, cost-effective early child development programmes.

  13. Total Pancreatectomy and Islet Auto-Transplantation in Children for Chronic Pancreatitis. Indication, Surgical Techniques, Post Operative Management and Long-Term Outcomes

    Chinnakotla, Srinath; Bellin, Melena D.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.; Radosevich, David M.; Cook, Marie; Dunn, Ty B.; Beilman, Gregory J.; Freeman, Martin L.; Balamurugan, A.N.; Wilhelm, Josh; Bland, Barbara; Jimenez-Vega, Jose M; Hering, Bernhard J.; Vickers, Selwyn M.; Pruett, Timothy L.; Sutherland, David E.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe the surgical technique, complications and long term outcomes of total pancreatectomy and islet auto transplantation (TP-IAT) in a large series of pediatric patients. Summary Background Data Surgical management of childhood pancreatitis is not clear; partial resection or drainage procedures often provide transient pain relief, but long term recurrence is common due to the diffuse involvement of the pancreas. Total pancreatectomy (TP) removes the source of the pain, while islet auto transplantation (IAT) potentially can prevent or minimize TP-related diabetes. Methods Retrospective review of 75 children undergoing TP-IAT for chronic pancreatitis who had failed medical, endoscopic or surgical treatment between 1989–2012. Results Pancreatitis pain and the severity of pain statistically improved in 90% of patients after TP-IAT (p =Puestow (p=0.018), lower body surface area (p=0.048), IEQ per Kg Body Weight (p=0.001) and total IEQ (100,000) (0.004) were associated with insulin independence. By multivariate analysis, 3 factors were associated with insulin independence after TP-IAT:(1) male gender, (2) lower body surface area and the (3) higher total IEQ per kilogram body weight. Total IEQ (100,000) was the single factor most strongly associated with insulin independence (OR = 2.62; p value < 0.001). Conclusions TP-IAT provides sustained pain relief and improved quality of life. The β cell function is dependent on islet yield. TP-IAT is an effective therapy for children with painful pancreatitis that fail medical and or endoscopic management PMID:24509206

  14. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    Context Dietary guidance for children emphasizes fruit over fruit juices but little is known about the potential nutritional and economic impact of substituting fruit for juice. Objective To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the US. Design Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a national food price database. Energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in three models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, low-cost, and widely-consumed and a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. Setting A nationwide, representative sample of children in the US. Participants 7,023 children ages 3-18. Main Outcome Measures Difference in energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost between observed and modeled diets. Results For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/day (−2.6% [95% CI −5.1, −0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 grams/day (+31.1% [95% CI 26.4, 35.9%]) and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/day (+13.3% [95% CI 8.8, 17.8%]). Conclusions Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children’s diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers and families. Cost impacts could be minimized by selecting processed fruits but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved. PMID:22566547

  15. Emergence from anesthesia in children undergoing ambulatory surgery- a comparison between propofol and sevoflurane using single anesthetic technique

    Pasha, A.K.; Kazi, W.A.; Farhat, K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare emergence from anesthesia using total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and volatile induction maintenance anesthesia (VIMA) with sevoflurane, in children undergoing ambulatory inguinal herniorrhaphy. Study Design: Randomized, controlled trials. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa Hospital of Pakistan Navy, from 1st Mar 2005 to 28th Feb 2006. Patients and Methods: Eighty children, aged 5-10 years of ASA physical status I or II were divided into two groups of 40 each using random numbers table. Group P received propofol 3mg/kg for induction and 100-400 micro g/kg/min infusion for maintenance of anesthesia, while group S received sevoflurane 8% (inspired concentration) in 100% oxygen for induction and 2-3% in oxygen for maintenance of anesthesia. No sedative premedication was given. Analgesia was provided with caudal block using 0.25% bupivacaine. Speed of emergence from anesthesia was assessed by time to extubation, time to eye opening, and time to crying / stating name. A modified aldrete score system was used to evaluate recovery while Pain/Discomfort scale to assess the quality of emergence from anesthesia. These were recorded by a separate consultant anesthetist blind to the anesthetic technique. Results: Emergence from anesthesia occurred significantly quicker in the S group as compared to P group, as evident by times in minutes (mean +- SD) to extubation: 8.3+-6.9 versus 4.7+-2.6(p=0.017), eye opening: 9.1 +- 5.3 vs. 5.6 +- 2.6 (p=0.043) and crying / state name: 14.7 +-7.2 vs.11.3 +- 4.6(p=0.039). Similarly, more patients in the S group scored maximum points in the modified aldrete score at 10 min: 17 (42.5%) vs.7 (17.5%) (p=0.015), 20 min: 32 (80%) vs.23 (57.5%) (p=0.030). Although, number of patients in the S group compared to P group scoring max points in Pain-discomfort scale at 10 min: 8 (20%) vs4 (10%), p=0.210; 20 min: 6 (15%) vs.2 (5%), p=0.136 and 30 min: 4 (10%) vs. 0, p=0.130 were more, these results were not

  16. Auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children: an event-related potential study.

    Glass, Elisabeth; Sachse, Steffi; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2008-03-26

    Auditory sensory memory is assumed to play an important role in cognitive development, but little is known about it in young children. The aim of this study was to estimate the duration of auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children. We recorded the mismatch negativity in response to tone stimuli presented with different interstimulus intervals. Our findings suggest that in 2-year-old children the memory representation of the standard tone remains in the sensory memory store for at least 1 s but for less than 2 s. Recording the mismatch negativity with stimuli presented at various interstimulus intervals seems to be a useful method for studying the relationship between auditory sensory memory and normal and disturbed cognitive development.

  17. Bioluminescence : the potential of a non-invasive bio-optical imaging technique and improvement of animal research

    Hesselink, J. W.; van Dam, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Bioluminescence is an optical imaging technique that exploits the emission of photons at specific wavelengths based on energy-dependent reactions catalysed by luciferases. The technique makes it possible to monitor measure, and track biological processes in living animals. A short review is

  18. Auditory Evoked Potential: a proposal for further evaluation in children with learning disabilities

    Ana Claudia Figueiredo Frizzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The information presented in this paper demonstrates the author's experience in previews cross-sectional studies conducted in Brazil, in comparison with the current literature. Over the last ten years, AEP has been used in children with learning disabilities. This method is critical to analyze the quality of the processing in time and indicates the specific neural demands and circuits of the sensorial and cognitive process in this clinical population. Some studies with children with dyslexia and learning disabilities were shown here to illustrate the use of AEP in this population.

  19. Pediatric Endoscopic Pilonidal Sinus Treatment, a Revolutionary Technique to Adopt in Children with Pilonidal Sinus Fistulas: Our Preliminary Experience.

    Esposito, Ciro; Izzo, Serena; Turrà, Francesco; Cerulo, Mariapina; Severino, Giovanni; Settimi, Alessandro; Iannazzone, Marta; Masieri, Lorenzo; Cortese, Giuseppe; Escolino, Maria

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to report our preliminary experience with pediatric endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment (PEPSiT). We retrospectively reviewed the reports of 15 patients, 6 girls and 9 boys, with an average age of 16 years (range 13-18) with noninfected pilonidal sinus disease who underwent PEPSiT in our institution over an 18-month period. Four cases were redo-procedures, for recurrence of disease after open excision repair. Surgical outcomes of sinus healing, recurrence of disease, postoperative pain, hospital stay, analgesic requirements, and patient satisfaction levels were evaluated and a comparison analysis with classic open repair was performed. All procedures were performed under subarachnoid spinal anesthesia. We always adopted a fistuloscope, an endoscopic forceps, and a monopolar electrode to remove the hairs and to heal the fistula. The average length of surgery was 28.5 minutes (range 26-41). No intraoperative or postoperative complications were reported. The average pain score evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scale during the first 48 postoperative hours was 3.2 (range 2-5). The average analgesic requirement was 22 hours (range 16-28). The average hospital stay length was 28 hours (range 22-48). They changed dressing daily, by applying a topical solution of eosin 2% and a silver sulfadiazine spray. At 1 month postoperatively, the external openings were closed in all patients and no recurrence was recorded at a mean follow-up of 6 month. PEPSiT was associated with a significantly shorter, painless, and better outcome compared to open technique. On the basis of our preliminary experience, we believe that PEPSiT is a promising technique for surgical treatment of pilonidal sinus in children. It is technically easy and quick to perform, with a short and painless hospital stay, without recurrences in our series. It allows operated patients an early return to full daily activities without restrictions that happen for the classic treatment.

  20. Functional MR urography in infants and children. Indications, techniques and requirements; Funktionelle MR-Urografie (fMRU) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Indikationen, Techniken und Anforderungen

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie; Darge, Kassa [Children' s Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Section ' ' Body Imaging' ' ; John, Ulrike [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Nephrologie

    2013-03-15

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) need to be diagnosed correctly in early life in order to avoid the need for dialysis and renal transplantation. Traditionally, X-ray, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and ultrasonography are the imaging methods to assess kidneys and the urinary tract. In infants and children, however, ultrasonography is the imaging method of first choice. In order to analyse the renal, to be more precise, the split renal function, MR urography has the potential for giving that information. More easily, information on morphology and dynamics of urinary flow in the upper renal tract can be obtained, too. Up to now, there is no commercial solution for obtaining split renal function with MR machines, however, two freeware solutions exist (''CHOP-fMRU'' and ''MR Urography''), that fill the gap. This article gives detailed information on patient selection, patient preparation, dedicated MR sequence technique, moreover discusses installation, use, and interpretation of the functional part using the ''CHOP-fMRU'' software. (orig.)

  1. Discriminative capacity of bronchodilator response measured with three different lung function techniques in asthmatic and healthy children aged 2 to 5 years

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    as compared with placebo in healthy control subjects. Lung function improved to a significantly greater extent in asthmatic children than in control subjects as reflected by all methods. sRaw provided the best discriminative power of such a bronchodilator response, with a sensitivity of 66% and specificity......The primary aim of this study was to quantify and compare bronchodilator responsiveness in healthy and asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr. The secondary aim of the study was to compare discriminative capacity (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversibility test......) as measured with the impulse oscillation technique were assessed before and 20 min after inhalation of terbutaline from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler via a metal spacer by 92 children (37 healthy controls and 55 asthmatic subjects). The study of healthy children followed a randomized, double...

  2. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children.

    Badcock, Nicholas A; Preece, Kathryn A; de Wit, Bianca; Glenn, Katharine; Fieder, Nora; Thie, Johnson; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under "passive" and "active" listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz) tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of 'high' (i.e., deviant) tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95) in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74). There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children's late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3) and their MMN ERP component.

  3. Exploring the potential of the drawing intervention method for design and evaluation by young children

    Barendregt, W.; Bekker, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of an exploratory study on the use of the Drawing Intervention method for both design and evaluation activities with young children (4-7). In this study we wanted to a) investigate how a variant of this method can be used to evaluate a game with younger

  4. Exploring New Potentials of Blogs for Learning: Can Children Use Blogs for Personal Information Management (PIM)?

    Yeo, Hwan-Ik; Lee, Yekyung Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of blogs for personal information management (PIM) as a learning tool that could bring increased efficiency and academic self-efficacy for carrying out learning tasks. In order to identify the uses and effects of using blogs for PIM by children, a control group that used personal spaces within the class website and an…

  5. Openings for Researching Environment and Place in Children's Literature: Ecologies, Potentials, Realities and Challenges

    Reid, Alan; Payne, Phillip G.; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This not quite "final" ending of this special issue of "Environmental Education Research" traces a series of hopeful, if somewhat difficult and at times challenging, openings for researching experiences of environment and place through children's literature. In the first instance, we draw inspiration from the contributors who…

  6. Morphing Images: A Potential Tool for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2005-01-01

    Children with severe learning difficulties who fail to begin word recognition can learn to recognise pictures and symbols relatively easily. However, finding an effective means of using pictures to teach word recognition has proved problematic. This research explores the use of morphing software to support the transition from picture to word…

  7. [Adaptogenic potentialities of dynamic magnetotherapy in the treatment and prevention of ENT pathology in ailing children].

    Bolotova, N V; Grinkevich, A V; Grishchenko, T P; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Tupkin, V D

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy of dynamic magnetotherapy (in transcranial and adrenal variants) for treatment of ENT pathology and prevention of its exacerbations is demonstrated in 126 ailing children. Mechanism of action of this magnetotherapy is due to formation of adequate adaptation reactions raising resistance to pathogens.

  8. Vocal fold nodules in school age children: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a potential risk factor.

    D'Alatri, Lucia; Petrelli, Livia; Calò, Lea; Picciotti, Pasqualina Maria; Marchese, Maria Raffaella; Bussu, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the presence of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in a population of school age children affected by vocal fold nodules. Parents and teachers of 18 children with vocal fold nodules (10 males, eight females; aged between 6 and 12 years) and 20 matched controls without dysphonia and/or vocal fold diseases (11 males, nine females; aged between 6 and 12 years) completed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scale for parents (SDAG [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Genitori]) and teachers (SDAI [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Insegnanti) rating scales containing in two subscales items that specifically evaluate the symptoms of ADHD according to the DSM-IV. All children were subjected to videolaryngoscopy. The group with vocal fold nodules scored significantly higher than the controls; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant for both the subscales of both questionnaires (SDAG and SDAI) (P ADHD was formulated. ADHD is a possible risk factor for the development of vocal fold nodules in childhood. SDAG and SDAI rating scales may supplement the diagnostic assessment of children with vocal fold nodules. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Potentialities of line planting technique in rehabilitation of logged over area referred to species diversity, growth and soil quality

    PRIJANTO PAMOENGKAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pamoengkas P (2010 Potentialities of line planting technique in rehabilitation of logged over area referred to species diversity, growth and soil quality. Biodiversitas 11: 34-39. Human interventions in the utilization of tropical forest resources are experiencing unanticipated consequences. The selective logging practices generally cause considerable damage to vegetation and the soil surface. It is supposed that soil condition and vegetation growth rate are deteriorated and reduced. Therefore, scientist strongly argue that the only way to achieve sustainability of Indonesian natural forest will require that the production natural forest is managed through methods that are acceptable from the perspective of environment as well as timber production. This means that there will be a strong need and incentive for methods and innovative technology. For more than two decades, tropical rainforest in Indonesia have been managed intensively under the Indonesian selective cutting (TPI and later on by the Indonesian selective cutting and replanting (TPTI and then, selective cutting and line planting (TPTJ system. TPTJ, as one example of selective cutting, recently become a proper alternative should be taken into consideration in the management of production natural forest in Indonesia by planting dipterocarp species in line. In this system, planting line (width 3 m and intermediate line (width 17 m are made alternately. The initial width of line is 3 m and to be expanded until 10 m within 5 years to introduce more light. The objective of this research was to assess growth and soil quality of TPTJ system. The object of research was TPTJ plot of various ages from 1 year to 7 years. For achieving the objective, 14 sample plots measuring 200 m x 200 m each, were laid out at research plots. The result showed that growth respond of Shorea leprosula toward the width of planting line was better comparing to Shorea parvifolia, but generally from this growth

  10. Torcular pseudomass: a potential diagnostic pitfall in infants and young children

    Sampaio, Luisa [Centro Hospitalar de Sao Joao, Department of Neuroradiology, Oporto (Portugal); Morana, Giovanni; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico; Rossi, Andrea [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Leao, Miguel [Centro Hospitalar de Sao Joao, Neuropediatric Unit, Oporto (Portugal)

    2017-02-15

    Incidental findings on brain MRI may constitute a diagnostic pitfall. We observed an incidental extra-axial midline rounded pseudomass between the torcular Herophili and the occipital squama, with spontaneous resolution, which we called ''torcular pseudomass.'' We investigated the frequency, imaging features, natural history and developmental background of this finding in a large group of infants and young children. We conducted a single-center retrospective study by reviewing all brain MRIs performed in children younger than 3 years between 2007 and 2013 in a specialized pediatric hospital. We looked for soft tissue (minimum 2 mm thick) interposed between the torcula and the occipital squama on midsagittal T1 and T2 images; we recorded the maximal diameters and outcome. Of 2,283 the children who had brain MRIs during the study period, 291 (12.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11, 0.14) presented with a torcular pseudomass (median age 4 months, range 0 days to 35 months, 56% male). MRI features were the same in all of these children: T1 isointensity and T2 hyperintensity to the cerebral cortex, facilitated diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient maps, and contrast enhancement. The median diameters were: anteroposterior, 5.8 mm; transverse, 10.5 mm; cranio-caudal, 20.6 mm. Follow-up MRI was available in 34.7% (95% CI: 0.20, 0.40) of the children; median follow-up time was 18 months. Among these children, 35.6% (95% CI: 0.26, 0.45) had total involution, 52.5% (95% CI: 0.26, 0.62) had partial involution and 4.1% (95% CI: 0.05, 0.18) showed stability. Redundant soft tissue in the torcular region, or torcular pseudomass, is not an infrequent finding in infants and young children. It should be considered a physiological tissue, reflecting the postnatal developmental process of the brain and cranial vault, without the need for further investigation or follow-up imaging studies. (orig.)

  11. A novel, eco-friendly technique for covalent functionalization of graphene nanoplatelets and the potential of their nanofluids for heat transfer applications

    Sadri, Rad; Hosseini, Maryam; Kazi, S. N.; Bagheri, Samira; Zubir, Nashrul; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Dahari, Mahidzal; Zaharinie, Tuan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a facile and eco-friendly covalent functionalization technique is developed to synthesize highly stable graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in aqueous media. This technique involves free radical grafting of gallic acid onto the surface of GNPs rather than corrosive inorganic acids. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy are used to confirm the covalent functionalization of GNPs with gallic acid (GAGNPs). The solubility of the GAGNPs in aqueous media is verified using zeta potential and UV-vis spectra measurements. The nanofluid shows significant improvement in thermo-physical properties, indicating its superb potential for various thermal applications.

  12. Technique of radiation polymerization in fine art conservation: a potentially new method of restoration and preservation. [Uv and electron beams

    Garnett, J.L. (Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia); Major, G.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of using radiation polymerization for the restoration and preservation of art treasures is considered. The processes discussed include both radiation grafting and rapid cure procedures, particularly reactions initiated by uv and eb. Representative examples where the technique has already been used are treated including typical applications with paintings, tapestries, leather and archival repair. The structure of the monomers and oligomers used in both grafting and rapid cure systems is outlined. The experimental conditions where grafting may occur during radiation rapid cure processing are discussed. Possible future developments of the technique are outlined. 1 figure, 8 tables.

  13. The impact of the neurodevelopmental traction technique on activation of lateral abdominal muscles in children aged 11-13 years.

    Gogola, Anna; Gnat, Rafał; Dziub, Dorota; Gwóźdź, Michalina; Zaborowska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-27

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique as assessed by ultrasounds as well as to compare the effects of different traction forces. An experiment with repeated measurements of the dependent variables was conducted. Thirty-seven children (22 girls) participated. Measurements of LAM thickness (indicating LAM activation) were performed bilaterally during traction of 5% body weight: 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination; during traction of 15% body weight: 3) in neutral position, 4) in 20° posterior trunk inclination. The ultrasound technology was employed. When applying the lighter traction the superficial LAM (external and internal oblique muscles) showed significant changes. The mean thickness of both muscles during traction increased (both p  0.05). Stronger traction elicited smaller changes. External and internal oblique muscles showed significant increases (p stronger traction (p Stronger traction induces smaller LAM thickness changes than lighter traction.

  14. Potential weekly intake of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children in Brazil.

    Toledo, M C; Guerchon, M S; Ragazzi, S

    1992-01-01

    The Potential Weekly Intake (PWI) of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children living in the District of Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, was estimated on the basis of average consumption data of artificially coloured food and analytically determined colour concentration in foodstuffs ingested. Coloured food consumption data were obtained through dietary recall interviews and collection of the packages and/or labels of the coloured foods consumed during a two-week period. Colours found in the individual types of foods detected through the consumption survey were identified and determined by methods that included wool dyeing and polyamide column extractions, ascending paper chromatography and spectrophotometry. The results showed that all artificial colours used in the composition of 83 commercial food products, including jellies, juices, soft drinks, syrups and 57 different candies, were permitted for use in food in Brazil the year the survey was conducted (1986), in amounts below those prescribed by law. Statistical analysis performed to compare the PWI for different population groups demonstrated that young male children, especially from lower social classes, were most exposed to artificial colours. Comparison of the estimated potential intakes with the toxicologically Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) showed that consumption of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, Indigotine and Tartrazine by all children in the study represented approximately 24%, 3%, 0.05% and 0.4%, of the actual ADI values, respectively.

  15. [Potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old: review of literature].

    Brzozowska, Inga; Sikorska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The literature review regarding potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old, is presented. In this article, cognitive aspects of development include acquisition of language, attention, learning and later school performance. The constant increase of children's access to television is noted, indicating that 60% of infants and toddlers watch TV regularly for 1-2 hours per day. The review included 40 articles and book chapters of significant such as Anderson, Barr, Christakis, Zimmerman, Meltzoff, Courage, Setliff, Troseth. The data was selected from electronic databases of scientific publications: Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and Humanities Full Text (H.W. Wilson) available in Poland. Cited articles provide evidence of the negative impact of exposure to television, media and video on the cognitive functioning of children under 3 years old. The potential impact of watching TV for difficulties in ability to focus attention appears as a core danger. Furthermore, studies suggest a possible connection between early exposure to television and ADHD as well as difficulties with language acquisition, learning and poorer school results.

  16. The potential use of transmission tomography techniques for the quality checking of cement encapsulated and vitrified wastes

    Huddleston, J.; Hutchinson, I.G.; Burch, S.F.; Perring, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of extracting information from real-time radiographic images and processing that data using tomographic reconstruction methods has been demonstrated using simulated full-sized specimens of encapsulated intermediate level waste and high level vitrified waste. Sections of these objects are produced perpendicular to the plane of the radiographs from which they originate. The resulting section is clearer and more informative than the radiographs for complex specimens. The technique is proposed as a complementary stage to existing radiographic analyses. (author)

  17. Healthy casetas: A potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City.

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products.

  18. Inspection of Buildings in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil: Proving the greater tendency of corrosion at the base of reinforced concrete columns using potential corrosion technique

    Marcelo Henrique Farias de Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the corrosion of steel embedded in concrete is a way to assess the degradation of civil structures. A technique used for this is the measurement of corrosion potential, which includes the use of a reference electrode, connected to a high input impedance voltmeter. There are many factors influencing the measurement of corrosion potential, such as: degree of concrete moisture content, the oxygen access, existence of micro fissures, chloride penetration, carbonation and concrete cover...

  19. Free-breathing quantification of hepatic fat in healthy children and children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease using a multi-echo 3-D stack-of-radial MRI technique.

    Armstrong, Tess; Ly, Karrie V; Murthy, Smruthi; Ghahremani, Shahnaz; Kim, Grace Hyun J; Calkins, Kara L; Wu, Holden H

    2018-05-04

    In adults, noninvasive chemical shift encoded Cartesian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (SVS) accurately quantify hepatic steatosis but require breath-holding. In children, especially young and sick children, breath-holding is often limited or not feasible. Sedation can facilitate breath-holding but is highly undesirable. For these reasons, there is a need to develop free-breathing MRI technology that accurately quantifies steatosis in all children. This study aimed to compare non-sedated free-breathing multi-echo 3-D stack-of-radial (radial) MRI versus standard breath-holding MRI and SVS techniques in a group of children for fat quantification with respect to image quality, accuracy and repeatability. Healthy children (n=10, median age [±interquartile range]: 10.9 [±3.3] years) and overweight children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n=9, median age: 15.2 [±3.2] years) were imaged at 3 Tesla using free-breathing radial MRI, breath-holding Cartesian MRI and breath-holding SVS. Acquisitions were performed twice to assess repeatability (within-subject mean difference, MD within ). Images and hepatic proton-density fat fraction (PDFF) maps were scored for image quality. Free-breathing and breath-holding PDFF were compared using linear regression (correlation coefficient, r and concordance correlation coefficient, ρ c ) and Bland-Altman analysis (mean difference). Phepatic PDFF measurements and improved image quality, compared to standard breath-holding MR techniques.

  20. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States.

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the United States. Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a national food prices database. Energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in 3 models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, inexpensive, and widely consumed and in a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. A nationwide, representative sample of children in the United States. A total of 7023 children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic complete or partial replacement of juice with fruit. Difference in energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs between observed and modeled diets. For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/d (-2.6% difference [95% CI, -5.1% to -0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 g/d (31.1% difference [95% CI, 26.4%-35.9%]), and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/d (13.3% difference [95% CI, 8.8%-17.8%]). Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children's diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers, and families. These cost effects could be minimized by selecting processed fruits, but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved.

  1. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  2. Screening and identification of APOC1 as a novel potential biomarker for differentiate of mycoplasma pneumoniae in children

    Jieqiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children, the currently used diagnostic methods are not optimal. Proteomics is increasingly being used to study the biomarkers of infectious diseases. Methods: Label-free quantitative proteomics and liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry were used to analyze the fold change of protein expression in plasma of children with MP pneumonia (MPP, infectious disease control (IDC, and healthy control (HC groups. Selected proteins that can distinguish MPP from HC and IDC were further validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: After multivariate analyses, 27 potential plasma biomarkers were identified to be expressed differently among child MPP, HC, and IDC groups. Among these proteins, SERPINA3, APOC1, ANXA6, KNTC1, and CFLAR were selected for ELISA verification. SERPINA3, APOC1, and CFLAR levels were significantly different among the three groups and the ratios were consistent with the trends of proteomics results. A comparison of MPP patients and HC showed APOC1 had the largest area under the curve (AUC of 0.853, with 77.6% sensitivity and 81.1% specificity. When APOC1 levels were compared between MPP and IDC patients, it also showed a relatively high AUC of 0.882, with 77.6% sensitivity and 88.3% specificity. Conclusion: APOC1 is a potential biomarker for the rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of MPP in children. The present finding may offer new insights into the pathogenesis and biomarker selection of MPP in children.

  3. A Comparison of Potential IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements From Space

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Ismail, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  4. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of an Influenza Vaccination Program Offering Microneedle Patch for Vaccine Delivery in Children.

    Carlos Wong

    Full Text Available The influenza vaccine coverage rate of children is low in Hong Kong. Microneedle patches (MNPs is a technology under development for painless delivery of vaccines. This study aimed to examine the potential clinical outcomes and direct medical costs of an influenza program offering MNP vaccine to children who have declined intramuscular (IM vaccine in Hong Kong.A decision model was designed to compare potential outcomes between IM vaccine program and a program offering MNP vaccine to those declined IM vaccine (IM/MNP program in a hypothetical cohort of children over one-year time horizon. The model outcomes included direct medical cost, influenza infection rate, mortality rate, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs loss. Model inputs were retrieved from published literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of model results.In base-case analysis, IM/MNP program was more costly per child (USD19.13 versus USD13.69; USD1 = HKD7.8 with lower influenza infection rate (98.9 versus 124.8 per 1,000 children, hospitalization rate (0.83 versus 1.05 per 1,000 children and influenza-related mortality rate (0.00042 versus 0.00052 per 1,000 children when compared to IM program. The incremental cost per QALY saved (ICER of IM/MNP program versus IM program was 27,200 USD/QALY. Using gross domestic product (GDP per capita of Hong Kong (USD40,594 as threshold of willingness-to-pay (WTP per QALY, one-way sensitivity analysis found ICER of IM/MNP to exceed WTP when duration of illness in outpatient setting was 1.39-time of IM vaccine cost. In 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations, IM/MNP program was the preferred option in 57.28% and 91.68% of the time, using 1x and 3x GDP per capita as WTP threshold, respectively.Acceptance of IM/MNP program as the preferred program was subject to the WTP threshold, duration of illness in outpatient settings, and cost of MNP vaccine.

  5. The potentialities of nurses' action in the tertiary prevention of obese children

    PFEFFEROVÁ, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical basis: Obesity negatively influences quality of children's lives and its high prevalence is a worldwide problem. Obesity is a multifactorial disease and influences exogenous and genetic factors. Exogenous factors can affect directly on an obese individual and can be delimited by personal anamnesis. Health risks associated with obesity are high and so it is important to focus on treatment of obesity in childhood. In that age it is possible to change unhealthy habits and influence c...

  6. Libertarianism and Potential Agents : A Libertarian View of the Moral Rights of Foetuses and Children

    Andersson, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-01

    This essay advances a libertarian theory of moral rights, which responds effectively to some serious objections that have been raised against libertarianism. I show how libertarianism can explain children’s rights to certain physical integrity and aid. I defend strong moral rights of human, pre-natal organisms, infants and children against all agents to certain non-interference with their physical integrity. I also argue that parents’ moral obligation to aid their offspring follows from a mor...

  7. Technique and clinical applications of full-inflation and end-exhalation controlled-ventilation chest CT in infants and young children

    Long, F.R.; Castile, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Background. The inability of young children to cooperate with breath holding limits the usefulness of chest CT. Objective. To describe the technique and utility of a non-invasive method called controlled-ventilation CT (CVCT) for obtaining motion-free full-inflation and end-exhalation images of the lung in infants and young children. Materials and methods. Eighty-seven children (ages 1 week to 5 years, mean 2 years) underwent CVCT of the chest during suspended respiration at full-lung inflation and end-exhalation for a variety of clinical indications. Respiratory pauses were produced using conscious sedation and positive-pressure face-mask ventilation. Forty-one of 87 children had recordings of respiratory motion during CVCT. Results. Respiratory pause lengths increased with age (P < 0.003), were highly reproducible (r = 0.85), and lasted sufficiently long to be practical for full-inflation (24 ± 9 s) and end-exhalation (12 ± 5 s) CT scanning. Full-inflation CVCT was useful in evaluating tracheal and bronchial stenosis, bronchial wall thickening, early bronchiectasis, bronchial fistula, extent of interstitial fibrosis, and lung nodules. End-exhalation CVCT was useful in evaluating tracheomalacia and air trapping. Conclusion. Controlled-ventilation chest CT is a practical and reliable technique that promises to be clinically useful for a number of clinical indications in infants and young children. (orig.)

  8. Error and feedback processing in children with ADHD and children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder : An EEG event-related potential study

    Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Waggeveld, Brenda; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Performance monitoring was investigated in typically developing (TD) children, children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and medication-free children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods: Subjects performed a feedback-based

  9. Mothers of children with externalizing behavior problems: cognitive risk factors for abuse potential and discipline style and practices.

    McElroy, Erika M; Rodriguez, Christina M

    2008-08-01

    Utilizing the conceptual framework of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model (Milner, 1993, 2000), associations between cognitive risk factors and child physical abuse risk and maladaptive discipline style and practices were examined in an at-risk population. Seventy-three mothers of 5-12-year-old children, who were identified by their therapist as having an externalizing behavior problem, responded to self-report measures pertaining to cognitive risk factors (empathic perspective taking, frustration tolerance, developmental expectations, parenting locus of control), abuse risk, and discipline style and practices. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) provided a confirmation of the child's externalizing behaviors independent of the therapist's assessment. The results of this study suggest several cognitive risk factors significantly predict risk of parental aggression toward children. A parent's ability to empathize and take the perspective of their child, parental locus of control, and parental level of frustration tolerance were significant predictors of abuse potential (accounting for 63% of the variance) and inappropriate discipline practices (accounting for 55% of the variance). Findings of the present study provide support for processes theorized in the SIP model. Specifically, results underscore the potential role of parents' frustration tolerance, developmental expectations, locus of control, and empathy as predictive of abuse potential and disciplinary style in an at-risk sample.

  10. Evaluating the potential of natural reproduction and artificial techniques to increase Acropora cervicornis populations at Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Norman J Quinn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow water Acropora species have become uncommon on north coast Jamaican coral reefs owing to a number of factors. On many reefs, algae have taken their place. The result is loss of habitat for many species of fish and invertebrates and less attractive reefs with fewer fish. These reefs appear to be prime candidates for coral restoration. However, the potential for coral to naturally recover should be examined before efforts to restore reefs are undertaken. Reef restoration is unnecessary if the population has the capacity to recovery through natural means. We observed that the rate of settlement of Acropora spat in the Caribbean is much lower than the spat settlement rate of several other Caribbean coral families and much lower than Acropora spat settlement rates in the South Pacific. A very low percentage of apparently healthy colonies of A. cervicornis possessed developing gametes in July 2005, a month before spawning. It appears that the long-term survival of remnant A. cervicornis populations is threatened unless successful sexual reproduction is restored. Several techniques were used to test transplant methods for restoring A. cervicornis populations. The mean survivorship and growth rate of one technique was >75% and nearly 250% per annum, respectively. Working with hotel operators, environmental groups, and local fishers, we are attempting to reintroduce A. cervicornis to sites where it previously existed and increase coral biomass and complexity at these sites. Reefs with greater A. cervicornis biomass have larger edible fish populations. With localized protection of these restored reefs we anticipate an increase of larger edible fish not only on reefs within the restored protected areas but also on adjacent reefs. Furthermore, increased coral and fish biodiversity improves the attractiveness of the reef community for divers and snorkelers. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 105-116. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Las especies someras de Acropora se

  11. Percutaneous intramedullary decompression, curettage, and grafting with medical-grade calcium sulfate pellets for unicameral bone cysts in children: a new minimally invasive technique.

    Dormans, John P; Sankar, Wudbhav N; Moroz, Leslie; Erol, Bülent

    2005-01-01

    Several treatment options exist for unicameral bone cysts (UBCs), including observation, steroid injection, bone marrow injection, and curettage and bone grafting. These are all associated with high recurrence rates, persistence, and occasional complications. Newer techniques have been described, most with variable success and only short follow-up reported. Because of these factors, a new minimally invasive percutaneous technique was developed for the treatment of UBCs in children. Twenty-eight children with UBCs who underwent percutaneous intramedullary decompression, curettage, and grafting with medical-grade calcium sulfate (MGCS) pellets by the senior author (J.P.D.) between April 2000 and April 2003 were analyzed as part of a pediatric musculoskeletal tumor registry at a large tertiary children's hospital. Four patients were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 24 patients had an average follow-up of 21.9 months (range 4-48 months). Twelve patients were followed for at least 24 months. Six of the 24 children had received previous treatment of their UBC, most often at an outside institution. Follow-up was performed through clinical evaluation and radiographic review. Postoperative radiographs at most recent follow-up showed complete healing, defined as more than 95% opacification, in 22 of 24 patients (91.7%). One patient (4.2%) demonstrated partial healing, defined as 80% to 95% opacification. One patient had less than 80% radiographic healing (4.2%). All 24 patients returned to full activities and were asymptomatic at most recent follow-up. The only complication noted was a superficial suture abscess that occurred in one patient; this resolved with local treatment measures. The new minimally invasive technique of percutaneous intramedullary decompression, curettage, and grafting with MGCS pellets demonstrates favorable results with low complication and recurrence rates compared with conventional techniques. The role of intramedullary decompression as a part

  12. Potential effects of valproate and oxcarbazepine on growth velocity and bone metabolism in epileptic children- a medical center experience.

    Lin, Chien-Ming; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Chu, Der-Ming; Lai, Chi-Chieh; Wang, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shyi-Jou

    2016-05-03

    Children with longstanding use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are susceptible to developing low bone mineral density and an increased fracture risk. However, the literature regarding the effects of AEDs on growth in epileptic children is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of valproate (VPA) and/or oxcarbazepine (OXC) therapy on growth velocity and bone metabolism. Seventy-three ambulatory children (40 boys and 33 girls) with epilepsy, aged between 1 and 18 years (mean age 9.8 ± 4.1 years), were evaluated for growth velocity before and for 1 year after VPA and/or OXC treatment. The bone resorption marker serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b) and the bone formation marker serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured post-AEDs therapy for 1 year. The difference in growth velocity (ΔHt) and body weight change (ΔWt) between pre- and post-AEDs treatment were -1.0 ± 2.8 cm/year (P effect of VPA and/or OXC therapy on dysregulation of bone metabolism might play a crucial role in physical growth.

  13. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Skröder, Helena [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hawkesworth, Sophie [Medical Research Council (MRC), International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (United Kingdom); Kippler, Maria [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Arifeen, Shams [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Wagatsuma, Yukiko [Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. (Japan); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  14. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  15. Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches.

    Frey, U; Latzin, P; Usemann, J; Maccora, J; Zumsteg, U; Kriemler, S

    2015-01-01

    Both obesity and asthma are highly prevalent, complex diseases modified by multiple factors. Genetic, developmental, lung mechanical, immunological and behavioural factors have all been suggested as playing a causal role between the two entities; however, their complex mechanistic interactions are still poorly understood and evidence of causality in children remains scant. Equally lacking is evidence of effective treatment strategies, despite the fact that imbalances at vulnerable phases in childhood can impact long-term health. This review is targeted at both clinicians frequently faced with the dilemma of how to investigate and treat the obese asthmatic child and researchers interested in the topic. Highlighting the breadth of the spectrum of factors involved, this review collates evidence regarding the investigation and treatment of asthma in obese children, particularly in comparison with current approaches in 'difficult-to-treat' childhood asthma. Finally, the authors propose hypotheses for future research from a systems-based perspective. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Potential risk and sodium content of children's ready-to-eat foods distributed at major amusement parks in Korea.

    Lee, N-Y; Park, S-Y; Lee, Y-M; Choi, S-Y; Jeong, S-H; Chung, M-S; Chang, Y-S; Choi, S-H; Bae, D-H; Ha, S-D

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to help better understand the current sodium intake of Korean children and to establish children's good eating habits through investigation of the sodium content of ready-to-eat foods collected from nine major amusement parks in Korea. The sodium content of a total of 322 products was analysed by using ICP and then the potential risk based on the recommended daily intake of sodium as described in the Korean dietary reference intakes was determined. The results showed that sodium content was the lowest in muffins (245 mg/100 g) and the highest in seasoned dried filefish (1825 mg/100 g). The average amounts of sodium per serving of seasoned dried filefish, tteokbokki and fish paste were 1150, 1248 and 1097 mg, respectively. The values were above 50% of the daily intake of sodium recommended by the Korean dietary reference intake. The ready-to-eat foods were also classified into high, medium and low sodium content on the basis of standards recommended by the Korean Food and Drug Administration. Most snacks were classified as high sodium foods because they exceeded "300 mg (84.5% of the total daily allowance)". Furthermore, the meal substitution foods such as kimbab, tteokbokki, mandus, sandwiches and hamburgers exceeded "600 mg (90.3% of the total daily allowance)" and were also classified as high sodium foods. In addition, ready-to-eat foods in amusement parks are similar to foods eaten on streets and foods around school zones, which contain high sodium content; thus, the intake frequency might be high, which would induce high risk to children health. Koreans already consume a high amount of sodium daily via their usual diets. So, the sodium content in snacks and substitution foods needs to be reduced. Consequently, this study noted that parents and guardians should carefully consider their children's consumption of ready-to-eat foods from Korean amusement parks.

  17. Potentials of enhancing the physicochemical and functional characteristics of Nigella sativa oil by using the screw pressing technique for extraction

    Hamed, S.F.; Shaaban, H.A.; Ramadan, A.A.; Edris, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    In the current investigation the crude oil of Nigella sativa was extracted from seeds using hydraulic and screw pressing techniques. Different parameters were evaluated in order to find out the appropriate technique to enhance the physicochemical and functional-related characteristics of the extracted crude oil. Results showed that the acid and peroxide values were significantly lower in the screw pressed oil (SPO) than in the hydraulic pressed oil (HPO). The total phenolic content of the SPO was significantly higher than that of HPO. Evaluation of the oxidative stability using the Rancimat test showed that SPO recorded a much higher oxidative stability index (40.07 h) than HPO (0.51 h). The yield of the volatile oil fraction and its contents of thymoquinone isolated from the SPO were higher than that from the HPO. Biological evaluation revealed that the SPO had significantly higher antimicrobial activity than HPO against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus at 40 μL/well. [es

  18. Carotid artery intima-media thickness measurement in children with normal and increased body mass index: a comparison of three techniques.

    El Jalbout, Ramy; Cloutier, Guy; Cardinal, Marie-Hélène Roy; Henderson, Mélanie; Lapierre, Chantale; Soulez, Gilles; Dubois, Josée

    2018-05-09

    Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In children, increased intima-media thickness is associated with obesity and the risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. To compare intima-media thickness measurements using B-mode ultrasound, radiofrequency (RF) echo tracking, and RF speckle probability distribution in children with normal and increased body mass index (BMI). We prospectively measured intima-media thickness in 120 children randomly selected from two groups of a longitudinal cohort: normal BMI and increased BMI, defined by BMI ≥85th percentile for age and gender. We followed Mannheim recommendations. We used M'Ath-Std for automated B-mode imaging, M-line processing of RF signal amplitude for RF echo tracking, and RF signal segmentation and averaging using probability distributions defining image speckle. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, and Pearson correlation coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Children were 10-13 years old (mean: 11.7 years); 61% were boys. The mean age was 11.4 years (range: 10.0-13.1 years) for the normal BMI group and 12.0 years (range: 10.1-13.5 years) for the increased BMI group. The normal BMI group included 58% boys and the increased BMI group 63% boys. RF echo tracking method was successful in 79 children as opposed to 114 for the B-mode method and all 120 for the probability distribution method. Techniques were weakly correlated: ICC=0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.39). Intima-media thickness was significantly higher in the increased BMI than normal BMI group using the RF techniques and borderline for the B-mode technique. Mean differences between weight groups were: B-mode, 0.02 mm (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.04), P=0.05; RF echo tracking, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.01; and RF speckle probability distribution, 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05), P=0.002. Though techniques are not interchangeable, all showed

  19. Language Development in Children with Language Disorders: An Introduction to Skinner's Verbal Behavior and the Techniques for Initial Language Acquisition

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Language development in typically developing children has a very predictable pattern beginning with crying, cooing, babbling, and gestures along with the recognition of spoken words, comprehension of spoken words, and then one word utterances. This predictable pattern breaks down for children with language disorders. This article will discuss…

  20. Draw-and-Write Technique Elicits Children's Perceptions of Health in the USA and Guatemala

    Renslow, Jillian; Maupin, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Using the draw-and-write methodology, this study examined cross-cultural similarities and differences in children's perceptions of health. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: One public elementary school in the USA and in Guatemala. Method: The total sample included 161 children 9-10 years of age, 80 in the USA and 81 in Guatemala.…

  1. How to Reach and Teach Children with ADD/ADHD: Practical Techniques, Strategies, and Interventions. Third Edition

    Rief, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of "How to Reach and Teach Children and Teens with ADD/ADHD" has been completely revised to offer the most updated and comprehensive guidance to everyone engaged in the positive education of children and teens who have been diagnosed with ADHD or show signs and symptoms of the disorder. This valuable resource contains…

  2. Contribution of radioimmunological techniques on the management of undernourished children in Senegal; Apport des techniques radio-immunologiques pour une meilleure prise en charge de l'enfant malnutri au Senegal

    Mbodj, M.; Gassama, S.S.; Sow, H.T.; Ndoye, O.; Ndong, B. [Universite Cheikh-Anta-Diop, Lab. de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Faculte de Medecine, Dakar-Liberte (Senegal); Diarra, M. [Universite Cheikh-Anta-Diop, Lab. de Biophysique Pharmaceutique, Faculte de Pharmacie (Senegal); Sarr, M.; Diagne, I.; Diouf, S. [Universite Cheikh-Anta-Diop, Institut de Pediatrie Sociale, Dakar (Senegal)

    2007-08-15

    Malnutrition in children continues to be a major health burden in Senegal. The main objective of this study was to discuss the existence of a thyroid disease induced by the various deficiencies, among which iodine, in these children and to assess the effects of the treatment on the thyroid function. Materials and methods Sixty eight children divided in a random way in two groups according to the addition or not of marine algae Hypnea to the traditional nutritional supplementation were included in the study. To appreciate at the same time the nutritional and biological state and to follow the evolution under treatment, the anthropometric parameters were the ratios: weight/age, weight/size, and height/age. Radioimmunoassays of free T3, free T4 and immunoradiometric assays of TSH were carried out in undernourished children before and after supplementation enriched or not in algae. Other blood parameters were measured among them protides, magnesium, and hemoglobin. Results They showed two types of biological abnormalities: low T3 syndrome (8.6%), compensated functional hypothyroidism (9%). The treatment induced neither iodine overload, nor thyroid disease. Conclusion In the program of nutritional rehabilitation, the isotopic techniques allow us to establish the low prevalence (17.6%) of the disturbances of the thyroid function (low T3 syndrome and compensated functional hypothyroidism, thus providing the differential diagnosis), and to confirm the absence of any thyroid disease induced by the iodine supply of the marine algae Hypnea. (authors)

  3. Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children's potential exposure during typical journey conditions.

    Semple, Sean; Apsley, Andrew; Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Friel, Brenda; Snelgrove, Vicki

    2012-11-01

    To measure levels of fine particulate matter in the rear passenger area of cars where smoking does and does not take place during typical real-life car journeys. Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) was used as a marker of secondhand smoke and was measured and logged every minute of each car journey undertaken by smoking and non-smoking study participants. The monitoring instrument was located at breathing zone height in the rear seating area of each car. Participants were asked to carry out their normal driving and smoking behaviours over a 3-day period. 17 subjects (14 smokers) completed a total of 104 journeys (63 smoking journeys). Journeys averaged 27 min (range 5-70 min). PM(2.5) levels averaged 85 and 7.4 μg/m(3) during smoking and non-smoking car journeys, respectively. During smoking journeys, peak PM(2.5) concentrations averaged 385 μg/m(3), with one journey measuring over 880 μg/m(3). PM(2.5) concentrations were strongly linked to rate of smoking (cigarettes per minute). Use of forced ventilation and opening of car windows were very common during smoking journeys, but PM(2.5) concentrations were still found to exceed WHO indoor air quality guidance (25 μg/m(3)) at some point in the measurement period during all smoking journeys. PM(2.5) concentrations in cars where smoking takes place are high and greatly exceed international indoor air quality guidance values. Children exposed to these levels of fine particulate are likely to suffer ill-health effects. There are increasing numbers of countries legislating against smoking in cars and such measures may be appropriate to prevent the exposure of children to these high levels of secondhand smoke.

  4. The Use of the Technique of «Theme Photobooks» in the Work with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disorders

    Veksler D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of «Theme Photobooks» is chosen out of the method of phototherapy and is developed by a group of American specialists in the process of remedial work with children or adults with disturbance of devel¬opment or autistic spectrum disorders. «Theme Photobooks» are an optional tool for remedial activities with children, enabling their development. Activities with Theme Photobooks consist of several stages: choice of an interesting or relevant for the child topic, selection of the objects for photographing, creation of photobooks (selection of images, their placement, making up the inscription to the photo, creation of the stories based on the pictures. The use of the technique of «Theme Photobooks» increases the intensity of communication pro¬cesses, which leads to the normalization of the child’s behaviour and considerably extends the chances of social integration. The article contracts the technique of «Theme Photobooks» with the methods PECS and «Social Stories», it also gives examples of activities with children with autistic spectrum disorders, beginning from the stage of the acquaintance of the teacher with the child to the selection of photos for the Theme Photobook «Rules of Behaviour Outdoors»

  5. Effect of Collection Technique on Yield of Bovine Oocytes and the Development Potential of Oocytes from Different Grades of Oocytes

    R.G Sianturi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte collection technique is important to obtain a maximum number of oocytes to be employed on in vitro production of embryos. In this study, immature bovine oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries by two techniques: aspiration of 2- to 6-mm follicles and slicing. Following collection, oocyte qualities were classified into four categories (A, B, C, and D on the basis of cumulus attachment. Oocytes of each category were matured in vitro in CO2 incubator for 22-24 hours and cumulus expansion and maturation rates were observed. The total number of oocytes (group A+B+C+D and yield of good quality oocytes (only group A and B recovered per ovary by aspiration were 12.02 and 8.21, and by slicing were 29.38 and 19.65 (P<0.01, respectively. The total cumulus cells expansion rates of A, B, C and D oocytes were 97.1%, 88.3%, 6.0% and 20.6% respectively. Maturation rates for A, B and C categories of oocytes were 91.4%, 82.3% and 35.0% respectively while no matured oocyte was observed for group D oocytes. Maturation rates were significantly different between group A and C and also between B and C but not between A and B (P<0.05. In conclusion, slicing technique recovered more oocytes per ovary (2.4 times than that of aspiration and the best maturation rate was observed from category A oocytes which surrounded by more than 3 layers of cumulus cells. However oocytes of category A and B can be considered as good quality oocytes.

  6. Potential use of transmission tomographic techniques for the quality checking of cemented waste drums. Progress report to 31 March 1985

    Huddleston, J; Hutchinson, I G

    1986-01-01

    In support of the programme for the quality checking of encapsulated intermediate level waste, the possibilities of using transmission tomographic techniques for the determination of the physical properties of the drum are being considered. A literature survey has been undertaken and the possibilities of extracting data from video recordings of real time radiographs are considered. This work was carried out with financial support from British Nuclear Fuels plc and the UK Department of the Environment. In the DoE context, the results will be used in the formulation of Government Policy, but at this stage they do not necessarily represent Government Policy.

  7. the potential use of some amendments to remediate heavy metal polluted soil in egypt as determined by nuclear techniques

    Lotfy, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    the objectives of this work were four folds. first ,to characterize the behavior of some heavy metals (zinc and Cr) in tested-amended soil as affected by its physical and chemical properties using Zn 65 and Zr 51 tracer technique. second, to describe the sorption and desorption of these metals. (Zn 65 and Cr 51 ), which may help in remediation technique for the contaminated sites. third, to assess the effect of some oil amendments on heavy metals uptake and recovery from the contaminated soil . fourth, to enhance the remediation of pollutants as well as to protect soil quality. adsorption maximum for Zn 65 ranged between 161 and 909 mg Kg - 1 and from 303 mg Kg - 1 to 1111 mg Kg - 1 for Cr 51 . the highest values were reported for the organic enriched soils. the total contents of tested heavy metals increased in soil due to sludge and/or gypsum application . the addition of sludge resulted in a remarkable increase in heavy metals content

  8. Children's Performance on Pseudoword Repetition Depends on Auditory Trace Quality: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Ceponiene, Rita; Service, Elisabet; Kurjenluoma, Sanna; Cheour, Marie; Naatanen, Risto

    1999-01-01

    Compared the mismatch-negativity (MMN) component of auditory event-related brain potentials to explore the relationship between phonological short-term memory and auditory-sensory processing in 7- to 9-year olds scoring the highest and lowest on a pseudoword repetition test. Found that high and low repeaters differed in MMN amplitude to speech…

  9. Determination of J-integral R-curves for the pressure vessel material A 533 B1 using the potential drop technique and the multi-specimen method

    Krompholz, K.; Ullrich, G.

    1985-01-01

    J-integral experiments at room temperature were performed on three point bend type specimens of the nuclear pressure vessel material A 533 B1 with a/w-ratios of 0.3 and 0.5. Following the ASTM-proposal for the multi-specimen technique a value is obtained close to the value obtained in the HSST round robin test. On the other hand, from the measurement of the Jsub(IC)-value by means of the potential drop technique there is an indication that a lower value of Jsub(IC) is correct. This is in agreement with the multi-specimen technique using linear regression lines without excluding 'invalid' points. That is reasonable if fractographic investigations gives clear indications that stable crack growth has occurred as is the case in this work. (Auth.)

  10. Microwave Heating of Synthetic Skin Samples for Potential Treatment of Gout Using the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Decrystallization Technique

    Toker, Salih; Boone-Kukoyi, Zainab; Thompson, Nishone; Ajifa, Hillary; Clement, Travis; Ozturk, Birol; Aslan, Kadir

    2016-01-01

    Physical stability of synthetic skin samples during their exposure to microwave heating was investigated to demonstrate the use of the metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated decrystallization (MAMAD) technique for potential biomedical applications. In this regard, optical microscopy and temperature measurements were employed for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of damage to synthetic skin samples during 20 s intermittent microwave heating using a monomode microwave source (at 8 G...

  11. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  12. Environmental isotope and geophysical techniques to identify groundwater potential zones in drought prone areas of Amravati District, Maharashtra, India

    Jacob, Noble

    2017-01-01

    The groundwater potential of Anjangaon village in Amaravati district of Maharashtra is generally poor and the water quality is saline in most of the places. Farmers dig open wells (up to 30 m depth) and drill bore wells (100-150 m depth) for domestic and irrigation purposes. Most of the wells failed and farmers are struggling for fresh water in this region. To evaluate the groundwater recharge and to identify the groundwater potential zones an environmental isotope and geophysical study was carried out. Water samples were collected from rain, springs, open wells, bore wells and detention tanks and measured for environmental isotopes such as "1"8O, "2H and "3H. Isotope results indicate that the groundwater is getting modern component of recharge from the rain as well as from the detention tanks. The percentage contributions from the detention tanks were estimated to be about 40 to 90 %. In the southern part of the Anjagaon village, an electrical resistivity survey of the geological formation was carried out and a groundwater potential zone was delineated at 45m depth. The farmers were asked to drill bore wells at the identified depth. The drilled five bore wells yielded perennial source of good quality water

  13. Using the charge-stabilization technique in the double ionization potential equation-of-motion calculations with dianion references.

    Kuś, Tomasz; Krylov, Anna I

    2011-08-28

    The charge-stabilization method is applied to double ionization potential equation-of-motion (EOM-DIP) calculations to stabilize unstable dianion reference functions. The auto-ionizing character of the dianionic reference states spoils the numeric performance of EOM-DIP limiting applications of this method. We demonstrate that reliable excitation energies can be computed by EOM-DIP using a stabilized resonance wave function instead of the lowest energy solution corresponding to the neutral + free electron(s) state of the system. The details of charge-stabilization procedure are discussed and illustrated by examples. The choice of optimal stabilizing Coulomb potential, which is strong enough to stabilize the dianion reference, yet, minimally perturbs the target states of the neutral, is the crux of the approach. Two algorithms of choosing optimal parameters of the stabilization potential are presented. One is based on the orbital energies, and another--on the basis set dependence of the total Hartree-Fock energy of the reference. Our benchmark calculations of the singlet-triplet energy gaps in several diradicals show a remarkable improvement of the EOM-DIP accuracy in problematic cases. Overall, the excitation energies in diradicals computed using the stabilized EOM-DIP are within 0.2 eV from the reference EOM spin-flip values. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  14. Potential for Bias When Estimating Critical Windows for Air Pollution in Children's Health.

    Wilson, Ander; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J; Coull, Brent A

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and children's health outcomes. Recent interest has focused on identifying critical windows of vulnerability. An analysis based on a distributed lag model (DLM) can yield estimates of a critical window that are different from those from an analysis that regresses the outcome on each of the 3 trimester-average exposures (TAEs). Using a simulation study, we assessed bias in estimates of critical windows obtained using 3 regression approaches: 1) 3 separate models to estimate the association with each of the 3 TAEs; 2) a single model to jointly estimate the association between the outcome and all 3 TAEs; and 3) a DLM. We used weekly fine-particulate-matter exposure data for 238 births in a birth cohort in and around Boston, Massachusetts, and a simulated outcome and time-varying exposure effect. Estimates using separate models for each TAE were biased and identified incorrect windows. This bias arose from seasonal trends in particulate matter that induced correlation between TAEs. Including all TAEs in a single model reduced bias. DLM produced unbiased estimates and added flexibility to identify windows. Analysis of body mass index z score and fat mass in the same cohort highlighted inconsistent estimates from the 3 methods. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Phthalates and alternative plasticizers and potential for contact exposure from children's backpacks and toys.

    Xie, Mingjie; Wu, Yaoxing; Little, John C; Marr, Linsey C

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the mass content of plasticizers in children's backpacks and toys, and their mass transfer from product surfaces to cotton wipes. The mass content of plasticizers in six backpacks and seven toys was measured by extracting them in tetrahydrofuran. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) was the most common plasticizer, dominating the composition of plasticizers in four backpacks (average mass content in product polyvinyl chloride, 5.38 ± 1.98%-25.5 ± 3.54%) and six plastic toys (8.17 ± 1.85%-21.2 ± 1.11%). The surface of each product was wiped with three dry and three wet (by isopropanol) cotton wipes, so as to evaluate the mass transfer of plasticizers to clothing and human skin, respectively. DEHT was the most common plasticizer detected on wipe samples. There were strong correlations (backpacks r=0.90; plastic toys r=0.96) between average mass transfer of DEHT to wet wipes and its average mass content in the product. The mass transfers of the five dominant plasticizers in one backpack to both dry and wet wipes were also correlated (both r=1.00) with their mass contents. These results suggest that the mass transfer of plasticizers from products to clothing or human skin is strongly associated with their mass content.

  16. [Prospective study with auditory evoked potentials of the brain stem in children at risk].

    Navarro Rivero, B; González Díaz, E; Marrero Santos, L; Martínez Toledano, I; Murillo Díaz, M J; Valiño Colás, M J

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate methods of hypoacusis screening. The early detection of audition problems is vital for quick rehabilitation. For this reason, resting on the criteria of the Comisión Española para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia (Spanish Commission for the Early Detection of Hypoacusis), we have carried out a prospective study, from January to May 1998, evaluating patients at risk of suffering from hypoacusis. The study included 151 patients with ages between birth and 14 years. Medical records and brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) were carried out. The most common reason for requesting a consultation for the 151 patients included in our study was the suspicion of hypoacusis. Seventy-one (47%) presented pathological BAER, 37 of them were bilateral. In most cases the loss of audition was of cochlear origin, with 11 patients having a serious deafness, 4 with bilateral affection (3 suspicious of hypoacusis and 1 of hyperbilirubinemia) and 7 unilateral deafness. BAER is a good screening method for children at risk. It is an innocuous, objective and specific test that does not require the patient's collaboration. The level of positives is high (47%).

  17. A novel technique for phase synchrony measurement from the complex motor imaginary potential of combined body and limb action

    Zhou, Zhong-xing; Wan, Bai-kun; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hong-zhi

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we proposed and evaluated the use of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique combined with phase synchronization analysis to investigate the human brain synchrony of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor area (M1) during complex motor imagination of combined body and limb action. We separated the EEG data of the SMA and M1 into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the EMD method and determined the characteristic IMFs by power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Thereafter, the instantaneous phases of the characteristic IMFs were obtained by the Hilbert transformation, and the single-trial phase-locking value (PLV) features for brain synchrony measurement between the SMA and M1 were investigated separately. The classification performance suggests that the proposed approach is effective for phase synchronization analysis and is promising for the application of a brain-computer interface in motor nerve reconstruction of the lower limbs.

  18. Application of A Computer Animation Technique to Assist the Teaching of Pre-Handwriting Skills to Children with Coordination Difficulties/Dyspraxia

    Othman Muhammad Fakri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a method to assist children with coordination difficulties or dyspraxia to improve their handwriting skills. We have chosen an animation technique called ‘Rotoscopy’, a method that normally been used in animation and film production and adapted it to Rotoscopy Prehandwriting Interface (RPI prototypes using the interactive whiteboard (IWB as interaction device. The motivation of this research is to discover how efficient if Rotoscopy is used beyond its normal purposes? Does it give benefits in terms of behavioural and motivational aspect rather than commercial and profit point of view? Implementation of RPI prototypes has taken place through series of workshops with a teacher and a group of children with handwriting difficulties at a special education school in Caerphilly, Cardiff, United Kingdom. In the workshops children were given pre-handwriting activities in two different environments. They have been trained to use RPI prototypes and IWB as well as using pen and paper. Their activities and action has been observed and recorded using video camera. Evaluation method is based-on video analysis of children’s pre-handwriting result and their reaction and motivation during the workshop. It was learnt that majority of children who used RPI prototypes and IWB have produced better results in terms of accuracy of the drawing as compared to results of pen and paper activities. Furthermore the children are more motivated to use the prototypes and IWB rather than using pen and paper. The study’s contribution includes offering a new way to improve children’s prehandwriting skills using computer animation technique and touch-based devices.

  19. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children

    Nicholas A. Badcock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children.Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under “passive” and “active” listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of ‘high’ (i.e., deviant tones.Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95 in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74. There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems.Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children’s late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3 and their MMN ERP component.

  20. Developmental changes in visuo-spatial working memory in normally developing children: event-related potentials study.

    Myatchin, Ivan; Lagae, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is very important for normal development. The fronto-parietal neuronal network supporting WM has already been well-studied. Less is known about the cortical activity changes during development of WM. We evaluated the maturation of visual WM network at the electrophysiological level in a group of normally developing children. Multichannel (n=31) event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during a visuo-spatial backmatching task in 69 childrens (6-16 years old). One-backmatching (BM1) and two-backmatching (BM2) tasks were performed. Age-related changes in behavioral parameters (commission and omission errors and reaction times) and ERP parameters (peak amplitudes and latencies) were analyzed between different ages. Clear improvement in performance from young childhood toward adolescence was seen at the behavioral level: decrease of errors and fastening of reaction times. At the electrophysiological level age-related changes were seen in peak latencies and especially in amplitudes. Different peaks have different dynamics in amplitudes and latencies: early peak amplitude decreased and latency shortened with age, which was not always seen in late peaks. This reflects developmental changes in intensity and speed of WM processing. Later peaks were more clearly seen over the right hemisphere in older children, illustrating hemispheric lateralization in visuo-spatial working memory. Our results indicate that not only at the behavioral but also at the electrophysiological level clear age-related dynamics in WM processing can be seen. Furthermore, with ERP we showed that different WM components follow different developmental trajectories. Our work demonstrates that age-related dynamics in intensity and speed of information processing during WM task is reflected in developmental changes in different ERP components. It also states that fronto-parietal visual WM network can be functional even before all its nodes are fully mature. Copyright © 2012 The

  1. Backfilling techniques and materials in underground excavations: Potential alternative backfill materials in use in Posiva's spent fuel repository concept

    Dixon, D.A.; Keto, P.

    2009-05-01

    A variety of geologic media options have been proposed as being suitable for safely and permanently disposing of spent nuclear fuel or fuel reprocessing wastes. In Finland the concept selected is construction of a deep repository in crystalline rock (Posiva 1999, 2006; SKB 1999), likely at the Olkiluoto site (Posiva 2006). Should that site prove suitable, excavation of tunnels and several vertical shafts will be necessary. These excavations will need to be backfilled and sealed as emplacement operations are completed and eventually all of the openings will need to be backfilled and sealed. Clay-based materials were selected after extensive review of materials options and the potential for practical implementation in a repository and work over a 30+ year period has led to the development of a number of workable clay-based backfilling options, although discussion persists as to the most suitable clay materials and placement technologies to use. As part of the continuous process of re-evaluating backfilling options in order to provide the best options possible, placement methods and materials that have been given less attention have been revisited. Primary among options that were and continue to be evaluated as a potential backfill are cementitious materials. These materials were included in the list of candidate materials initially screened in the late 1970's for use in repository backfilling. Conventional cement-based materials were quickly identified as having some serious technical limitations with respect their ability to fulfil the identified requirements of backfill. Concerns related to their ability to achieve the performance criteria defined for backfill resulted in their exclusion from large-scale use as backfill in a repository. Development of new, less chemically aggressive cementitious materials and installation technologies has resulted in their re-evaluation. Concrete and cementitious materials have and are being developed that have chemical, durability

  2. Releasing Effect of Individual Potential: Formation of Productive Collective and Children's Self-Transcendence in a Chinese School.

    Wu, Aruna; Li, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Qian

    2017-09-01

    We describe the intricate relations between social demand structures and their role in facilitation of individual development of children and teachers in a Chinese classroom. The relationship of an individual to the immediate social group is further qualified by the inclusion in a collective which enables the participants to transform their individual self-structures through taking on social roles in everyday collective activities, which release further potential for their individual development. We describe that releasing effect in the case of an intervention program in a Chinese school for the children of rural migrants re-settled in a city, demonstrating gradually how the inter-individual competitive orientation promoted by autocratic teaching style becomes transformed into collective good oriented joint actions towards excellence in educational endeavors (Jiti). The productive nature of the Jiti makes an ecology with multiple nested and open systems, in which every group and student is producer and consumer of each other, and personal self-transcendence is actualized in the process. The releasing effect is demonstrated through observing the co-emergence of new forms of progressive conduct and new problems, presented in pupils' positive participation in activities. The description of the intervention in a Chinese school provides us with insight on how concrete social inclusion frameworks with the underpinning Chinese philosophy of "acting up to trends" can prevent the emergence of direct animosities and lead to new integration of self and society.

  3. Potential application of quantitative microbiological risk assessment techniques to an aseptic-UHT process in the food industry.

    Pujol, Laure; Albert, Isabelle; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Aseptic ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-type processed food products (e.g., milk or soup) are ready to eat products which are consumed extensively globally due to a combination of their comparative high quality and long shelf life, with no cold chain or other preservation requirements. Due to the inherent microbial vulnerability of aseptic-UHT product formulations, the safety and stability-related performance objectives (POs) required at the end of the manufacturing process are the most demanding found in the food industry. The key determinants to achieving sterility, and which also differentiates aseptic-UHT from in-pack sterilised products, are the challenges associated with the processes of aseptic filling and sealing. This is a complex process that has traditionally been run using deterministic or empirical process settings. Quantifying the risk of microbial contamination and recontamination along the aseptic-UHT process, using the scientifically based process quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), offers the possibility to improve on the currently tolerable sterility failure rate (i.e., 1 defect per 10,000 units). In addition, benefits of applying QMRA are (i) to implement process settings in a transparent and scientific manner; (ii) to develop a uniform common structure whatever the production line, leading to a harmonisation of these process settings, and; (iii) to bring elements of a cost-benefit analysis of the management measures. The objective of this article is to explore how QMRA techniques and risk management metrics may be applied to aseptic-UHT-type processed food products. In particular, the aseptic-UHT process should benefit from a number of novel mathematical and statistical concepts that have been developed in the field of QMRA. Probabilistic techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation, Bayesian inference and sensitivity analysis, should help in assessing the compliance with safety and stability-related POs set at the end of the manufacturing

  4. Electrocorticographic Temporal Alteration Mapping: A Clinical Technique for Mapping the Motor Cortex with Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    Zehan Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM, which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS procedure for motor cortex localization. Moreover, the patients were required to perform simple brisk wrist extension task during awake craniotomy surgery. Cross-validation results showed that the proposed ETAM method had high sensitivity (81.8% and specificity (94.3% in identifying sites which exhibited positive DECS motor responses. Moreover, although the sensitivity of the ETAM and EFAM approaches was not significantly different, ETAM had greater specificity compared with EFAM (94.3 vs. 86.1%. These results indicate that for the intraoperative functional brain mapping, ETAM is a promising novel approach for motor cortex localization with the potential to reduce the need for cortical electrical stimulation.

  5. EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STABILIZATION TECHNIQUES ON THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF BREWER’S RICE

    NIK NOR ADILAH MUHAMAD NORDIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s rice is a nutritionally rich by-product of rice milling industries but remained unutilized due to its high susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Thus, it is desirable to develop certain strategies to stabilize the brewer’s rice for food application. In the present study, the effects of microwave heating, gamma irradiation, and chemical (hydrochloric acid treatments in stabilizing brewer’s rice were investigated. Result showed that microwave-heated brewer’s rice contained lower FFA content as compared with control and irradiation. However, FFA content in brewer’s rice increased significantly (p < 0.05 during storage for all methods, except for hydrochloric acid (HCl treatment. All the stabilizations methods showed non-significant (p < 0.05 effect on protein, fat, and ash content. However, microwave and chemical treatment significantly (p < 0.05 reduced moisture content. All methods showed no significant (p < 0.05 reduction on phenolic contents but significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol contents. Microwave heating was able to reduce the oxidation of brewer’s rice without affecting other bioactive molecules present in brewer’s rice. Therefore, microwave heating can be considered as the most suitable technique for stabilizing brewer’s rice.

  6. Dynamic Eye gaze and its Potential in Virtual Reality Based Applications for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Lahiri, Uttama; Trewyn, Adam; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often characterized by deficits in social communication skills. While evidence suggests that intensive individualized interventions can improve aspects of core deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder, at present numerous potent barriers exist related to accessing and implementing such interventions. Researchers are increasingly employing technology to develop more accessible, quantifiable, and individualized intervention tools to address core vulnerabilities related to autism. The present study describes the development and preliminary application of a Virtual Reality technology aimed at facilitating improvements in social communication skills for adolescents with autism. We present preliminary data from the usability study of this technological application for six adolescents with autism and discuss potential future development and application of adaptive Virtual Reality technology within an intervention framework.

  7. Potential place of 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy in the management of children with urinary tract infection

    Piepsz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cortical 99m Tc DMSA scintigraphy is accepted as a highly sensitive technique for the detection of regional lesions. It reflects accurately the histological changes and the interobserver reproducibility in reporting is high. Potential technical pitfalls should be recognized, such as the normal variants and the difficulty to differentiate acute lesions from permanent ones, or acquired lesions from congenital ones. Although DMSA scintgraphy seems to play a minor role in the traditional approach of urinary tract infection, recent studies suggest that this examination might influence the treatment of the acute phase, the indication of chemoprophylaxis and of micturating cystography, as well as the duration of follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Producing children in the 21st century: a critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development.

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations.

  9. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using {sup 15}N isotopic tracer technique

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd, E-mail: a-nazrul@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Sahibin Abd, E-mail: haiyan@ukm.edu.my [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct {sup 15}N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the {sup 15}N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. {sup 15}N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. {sup 15}N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained.

  10. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using 15N isotopic tracer technique

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct 15 N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the 15 N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. 15 N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. 15 N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained

  11. Investigating a potential biological treatment to prevent pathological fractures caused by unicameral bone cysts in children under 8 years.

    Ramos-Pascua, Luis R; Sánchez-Herraéz, Sergio; Casas-Ramos, Paula; Molnar Fuentes, Sebastián; Santos Sánchez, José Ángel

    2014-10-01

    There is no consensus on when and how to treat unicameral bone cysts (UBCs), partly because of a lack of knowledge of the aetiology. To review the different treatment techniques for UBCs and to describe our results with a single injection of autogenous bone marrow (BM) mixed with demineralised bone matrix (DBM) in very young children. We reviewed five patients under the age of 8 years with UBCs treated by percutaneous aspiration and a single injection of BM associated with DBM. The cyst was located in the proximal humerus in four patients and in the proximal femur in one patient. Assessment of the need for surgery was based on the clinical and radiographic suspicion of new pathological fractures. The administration of a second injection, when necessary, was based on the surgeon's judgement regarding the risk of fracture. The mean follow-up after first injection was 41 months. There were no complications related to the procedure, except a non-displaced fracture, which healed without problems. All patients were pain free and progressively resumed their activities without restriction until a new fracture occurred in two cases. According to Capanna's classification, only one case healed completely (grade 1), one lesion was classified as grade 2, and there were three recurrences at 11, 12 and 27 months after initial treatment (grade 3). The final outcome was treatment failure for three out of the five patients. Two patients were treated with a second injection and one patient is waiting for surgery. A single injection of aspirated autogenous BM mixed with DBM in very young children with active UBCs at risk of fracture is very simple, comfortable and safe. Nevertheless, the results seem to be unpredictable and are probably more dependent on the natural evolution of the cyst than on the treatment. Further comparative studies with larger sample numbers are needed.

  12. A study on induced current focusing potential drop (ICFPD) technique. Examination of the sizing accuracy of defects and its frequency dependence

    Kim, Hoon; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    Aiming at nondestructive detection and size prediction of defects with high accuracy and resolution, an Induced Current Focusing Potential Drop (ICFPD) technique has been developed. This technique can be applied for determining the location and size of defects in components with not only simple shape such as plain surface but also more complex shape and geometry such as curved surface and dissimilar joint. This paper describes the basic principle of ICFPD and its probe development. In this ICFPD, current was induced in a conductive material by a straight induction wire, which is electrically isolated, placed on it. The benefits of this new technique compared with the conventional ACPD are: (1) Current is induced and focused only at an explorating region. (2) Applicable to defect detection by scanning the sensor probe in an explorating region. (3) Applicable to defect detection in a weld joint of austenitic stainless steel. As the results of the innovation in instrumentation and the improvement in evaluation procedure by use of suitable parameters, the existence of defects is clearly observed as the variation of potential drops, and the nondimensional parameter (V c,max. /V avg. ) has a direct correlation with crack depth. Especially, for the depth less than 5 mm, the ICFPD shows higher sensitivity than the conventional ACPD at the frequencies of 3, 10 and 30 kHz. (author)

  13. A novel imaging technique to measure capillary-refill time: improving diagnostic accuracy for dehydration in young children with gastroenteritis.

    Shavit, Itai; Brant, Rollin; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri; Galbraith, Roger; Johnson, David W

    2006-12-01

    Assessment of dehydration in young children currently depends on clinical judgment, which is relatively inaccurate. By using digital videography, we developed a way to assess capillary-refill time more objectively. Our goal was to determine whether digitally measured capillary-refill time assesses the presence of significant dehydration (> or = 5%) in young children with gastroenteritis more accurately than conventional capillary refill and overall clinical assessment. We prospectively enrolled children with gastroenteritis, 1 month to 5 years of age, who were evaluated in a tertiary-care pediatric emergency department and judged by a triage nurse to be at least mildly dehydrated. Before any treatment, we measured the weight and digitally measured capillary-refill time of these children. Pediatric emergency physicians determined capillary-refill time by using conventional methods and degree of dehydration by overall clinical assessment by using a 7-point Likert scale. Postillness weight gain was used to estimate fluid deficit; beginning 48 hours after assessment, children were reweighed every 24 hours until 2 sequential weights differed by no more than 2%. We compared the accuracy of digitally measured capillary-refill time with conventional capillary refill and overall clinical assessment by determining sensitivities, specificities, likelihood ratios, and area under the receiver operator characteristic curves. A total of 83 patients were enrolled and had complete follow-up; 13 of these patients had significant dehydration (> or = 5% of body weight). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for digitally measured capillary-refill time and overall clinical assessment relative to fluid deficit ( or = 5%) were 0.99 and 0.88, respectively. Positive likelihood ratios were 11.7 for digitally measured capillary-refill time, 4.5 for conventional capillary refill, and 4.1 for overall clinical assessment. Results of this prospective cohort study suggest

  14. Determination of the distribution coefficient of pesticides in soil and potential mobility to bodies of water using isotopic techniques

    Gonzalez Moreno, Marcela Angelica

    2014-01-01

    The Carbaryl, Diazinon and Chloropyrifos insecticides, herbicides Atrazine and Glyphosate and the fungicide Tebuconazole are widely used pesticides in agriculture. Due the large use of this products that is important the knowledge of their destiny after their application. This way you can prevent and minimize pollution and decreased quality of different environmental compartments like soil and water. In this work, the adsorption of pesticides 14 C-Atrazine, 14 C-Carbaryl , 14 C-Chloropyrifos, 14 C-Diazinon, 14 C-Glyphosate-and 14 C-Tebuconazol was studied by adsorption isotherms through the Batch equilibrium method in an agricultural soil in the region of Araucania in 4 depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm). To the adsorption isotherm was applied the model of Freundlich to obtain distribution Freundlich constant (Kf) and subsequently the normalized adsorption constant depending (according?) on the content of organic matter (Koc). Besides the potential mobility and toxicity of pesticides on nearby bodies of water to the study site by the Pesticide Impact Rating Index program was obtained. Was considered for adsorption curves 5 concentrations for each pesticide unchecked, this solution pesticide was marked by an addition of 14 C-so to achieve a given activity. The solutions were added to 0.1 M CaCl 2 in a ratio soil: solution of 1: 2. The equilibration time was 24 hours with continuous agitation at 170 rpm horizontally pulse. Adsorbed pesticide concentration was determined by the difference between the concentration of pesticide added and the adsorbed pesticide concentration for which no activity (dpm) in the sample was quantified in a liquid scintillation counter (CCL). In addition the ground with the adsorbed pesticide was put to combustion in a Biological Oxidizer where pesticide molecules are degraded to CO 2 marking, this methodology recovery method is determined, which are considered low in this study. Koc indicate that has a weak adsorption Atrazine (Koc

  15. Assessment of the potential for groundwater contamination using the DRASTIC/EGIS technique, Cheongju area, South Korea

    Kim, Youn Jong; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    Groundwater contamination is becoming a major environmental problem in South Korea with the marked expansion of the industrial base and the explosive growth of the population. Even in rural areas, the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, the presence of acid-mine drainage, and increase of volumes of domestic wastewaters are adding to groundwater pollution. The DRASTIC/EGIS model was used to evaluate the potential for groundwater contamination in the Cheongju city area, the first of several pilot studies. The model allows the designation of hydrogeologic settings within the study area, based on a composite description of all the major geologic and hydrogeologic factors for each setting. Then, a scheme for relative ranking of the hydrogeologic factors is applied to evaluate the relative vulnerability to groundwater contamination of each hydrogeologic setting. DRASTIC/EGIS can serve as a tool to evaluate pollution potential and so facilitate programs to protect groundwater resources. Résumé La contamination de l'eau souterraine devient un problème environnemental majeur en Corée du Sud, en relation avec le développement industriel bien marqué et l'explosion démographique. Meme dans les zones rurales, l'utilisation accrue d'engrais et de pesticides, le drainage acide de mines et les rejets croissants d'eaux usées contribuent à la pollution des nappes. Le modèle DRASTIC/EGIS a été utilisé pour évaluer le potentiel de contamination des eaux souterraines dans la région de la ville de Cheongju, la première de plusieurs régions pilotes. Le modèle permet de définir des ensembles hydrogéologiques dans la région étudiée, à partir de la description composite de tous les facteurs géologiques et hydrogéologiques essentiels pour chaque ensemble. Ensuite, un schéma pour le classement des facteurs hydrogéologiques est mis en oeuvre pour évaluer la vulnérabilité relative à la contamination des eaux souterraines pour chaque ensemble. DRASTIC

  16. Comparing the effectiveness of two distraction techniques of inflating balloon and watching cartoon in reducing the vaccination pain among school-age children

    Hassan Robabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pain caused by the invasive procedures, such as vaccination, could be associated with mental tension and tissue damage in children. Therefore, one of the priorities of the healthcare providers is to manage this pain. Regarding this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of distraction using inflating balloons and watching cartoons on the intensity of the pain induced by diphtheria tetanus and pertussis (DPT vaccine in school-age children. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on the school-age children, who referred to Sayyid Al-Shuhada Healthcare Center in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015. In total, 120 patients were selected through convenience sampling technique. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 40 cases. The participants of the first group were encouraged to inflate balloons throughout the vaccination process. On the other hand, the subjects of the second group watched a cartoon started two min before the vaccination and lasting to the end of this procedure. No intervention was carried out for the control group. The pain intensity was measured immediately after the vaccination using the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale (FLACC scale. The data analysis was performed in the SPSS version 22 using the descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA test. Results: In this study, the mean pain scores were 1.87±1.30, 1.40±0.87, and 3.22±1.38 in the first, second, and control groups, respectively. The results of the ANOVA test revealed a difference between the study groups regarding the pain intensity (P<0.001; however, this difference was not significant. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, two distraction methods of inflating balloon and watching cartoons could effectively decrease the pain induced by DPT vaccine. Therefore, the use of these techniques is recommended to manage the pain in children since they are inexpensive and have no side effects.

  17. MRI for the diagnosis of recurrent middle ear cholesteatoma in children - can we optimize the technique? Preliminary study

    Geoffray, Anne; Guesmi, Myriam; Nebbia, Jean Francois; Leloutre, Beatrice; Bailleux, Sonanda; Maschi, Claude [Fondation Lenval, Nice (France)

    2013-04-15

    Recurrent cholesteatoma after surgical excision occurs frequently in children. Until recently, a surgical second look was mandatory and considered as standard reference. MRI including a delayed T1 sequence after gadolinium injection and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has proved its efficiency but has been evaluated mainly in adults. Our purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of DWI to diagnose recurrence of cholesteatoma in children. We evaluated prospectively with MRI 20 ears in 18 children who had had surgery for cholesteatoma. We compared DWI and delayed T1-weighted images following gadolinium administration with intraoperative or follow-up findings. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of each sequence for the diagnosis of recurrent cholesteatoma. Sensitivity to diagnose recurrent cholesteatoma was 87% for both DWI and delayed post-gadolinium sequences, specificity was 71% and 83%, respectively. Adding both sequences, the sensitivity was 87%, the specificity 100%. There was one false negative probably due to small size recurrence. In our series, DWI was reliable to diagnose recurrent cholesteatoma in children and allows avoiding surgery when negative. However, because small recurrences less than 5 mm may be missed, follow-up must be prolonged (5 years). (orig.)

  18. Callous-unemotional traits moderate executive function in children with ASD and ADHD: A pilot event-related potential study

    C. Tye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD are associated with varied executive function (EF difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD + ADHD and typical controls. We examined attentional orienting at cues (Cue-P3, inhibitory processing at non-targets (NoGo-P3 and conflict monitoring between target and non-target trials (Go-N2 vs. NoGo-N2. In children with ASD, higher CU traits were associated with an enhanced increase in N2 amplitude in NoGo trials compared to Go trials, which suggests relatively superior conflict monitoring and a potential cognitive strength associated with CU traits. The results emphasise the importance of considering the effects of co-occurring traits in the assessment of heterogeneity of EF profiles in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. The associations among family meal frequency, food preparation frequency, self-efficacy for cooking, and food preparation techniques in children and adolescents.

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Kirby, Ashley R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) by food preparation frequency (prep), self-efficacy for cooking (SE), and food preparation techniques (techniques) among a small sample in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey was administered under the supervision of the research team. After-school programs, sports programs, and 1 elementary school. The sample included 145 participants (41% boys, 59% girls) in grades 4-8. Demographics, prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors. Exploratory 1-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used. An ordinal regression analysis was used to determine the associations between FDF with descriptor variables (sex, grade, and ethnicity) and prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors (P < .05). Approximately 59% reported family dinners on 6 or 7 days per week. Half of participants were involved with prep 1-6 times per week. Mean SE was 25.3 (scale 1-32), and girls performed more techniques than boys (P = .02). Participants with greater SE (odds ratio = 1.15) and higher family meal attitudes and behaviors (odds ratio = 1.15) were more likely to have a higher FDF. Future health promotion strategies for family meals should aim at increasing children's and adolescents' SE. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Geoprocessing techniques to evaluate the spatial distribution of natural rain erosion potential in the Hydrographic Basin of Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir – Brazil

    João Batista Pereira CABRAL

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural potential erosion were defined from their main natural conditioners in the region of hydrographic basin of Cachoeira Dourada (between Goiás and Minas Gerais states −Brazil, with geoprocessing techniques and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. Upon the decision for natural erosion potential, a matrix with values of erosivity (R, erodibility (K, declivity, and ramp length (LS was elaborated, where classes of low, medium, high, very high, and extremely high natural erosion potential (NEP were established. Spatial distribution for the factors R, K, LS, and PNE was defined. The highest average R index for the rainy series was 8173.50 MJ ha mm-1 h-1 year-1. The period with data from 30 years (1973 – 2002 showed that the reservoir basin displayed areas susceptible to rill and interill erosion (69.16% of the total. There is a predominance of low erosion potential among the classes, which can be explained due to the soil predominant classes as well as to the low declivity. Areas with medium to extremely high erosion potential require the adoption of measures to avoid start and development of more severe erosion processes (ravines and gullies.

  1. Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil

    Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Figueredo, Maria Cristina; Frade, Amanda Farage; Kudó, Mônica Eriko; Silva Filho, Manoel Gomes; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2001-01-01

    Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination ...

  2. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  3. [The influence of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the P300 potential in children with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and tension headache].

    Stolarska-Weryńska, Urszula; Steczkowska, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Explaining associations between neurophysiological and neuropsychological parameteres in children and improving the measurement methods would lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and course of psychosomatic disease. Goal: clinical assessment of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of psychogenic no- nepileptic seizures and tension type headaches in children. Determining the influence of cognitive behavioral therapy on the cognitive P300 potential and whether P300 parameters in children correlate with neuropsychological parameters. 20 children with nonepileptic psychogenic seizures and 30 children with tension type headaches, aged 11.3 - 17.11 years. The final diagnosis was made in the Paediatric Neurology Clinic. The P300 examination was performed before/after therapy, with/without hyperventilation. A fixed structure therapy was implemented (10 sessions, 90 minutes each), during two weeks of hospitalization or in an outpatient clinic (9 children with tension type headache). The psychological assessment comprised of temperament questionnaires, auditory and visual memory trials, executive function and attention trials, and in some cases also intelligence testing. More significant correlations were found in children with psychogenic seizures: attention parameters correlated negatively with reaction time, and this correlation tended to fade in the second examination, after psychotherapy. In children with tension type headache a statistically insignificant tendency was found of a positive correlation between those parameters. Medium P300 parameteres in this group were better. In 17/20 of children with psychogenic seizures a clinical improvement was observed, in 3 children the symptoms persisted in a 6 month follow up, but of a lower frequency. In 11/27 of chil- dren with tension headache the symptoms persisted, also with a lower frequency. cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in the reduction of symptoms in many cases of

  4. Decrease in lactobacilli in the intestinal microbiota of celiac children with a gluten-free diet, and selection of potentially probiotic strains.

    Lorenzo Pisarello, María J; Vintiñi, Elisa O; González, Silvia N; Pagani, Florencia; Medina, Marcela S

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota would be implicated in pathology associated with celiac disease caused by an abnormal immune system reaction against gluten present in cereal grains. The objectives of this work were to detect through basic methods the changes in the composition of the most common genera of bacteria from the intestinal microbiota of symptom-free celiac disease children with a gluten-free diet compared with healthy children from Tucumán and to select lactobacilli (Lb) strains with probiotic potential from the feces of healthy children. Results demonstrated that the feces of celiac children with a gluten-free diet showed significantly lower counts of Lb (P LC4) showed the highest percentage of autoaggregation while Lactobacillus paracasei (LC9) showed high hydrophobicity. Based on these results, LC4 and LC9 were selected, and their use as potential probiotic strains to improve signs and symptoms associated with celiac disease is discussed. This is the first study performed in Argentina concerning the relationship between intestinal microbiota and celiac disease in celiac children with a gluten-free diet. In addition, the development of a probiotic food addressed towards celiac patients and designed with Lb isolated from the feces of healthy children from our province represents a promising alternative to improve the quality of life of celiac patients.

  5. MDCT evaluation of pulmonary embolism in children and young adults following a lateral tunnel Fontan procedure: optimizing contrast-enhancement techniques

    Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Mahmood, Soran; Sena, Laureen; Lee, Edward Y.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening thromboembolic complication in patients who have undergone a Fontan procedure for augmenting pulmonary blood flow in the setting of single-ventricle physiology. In patients following a Fontan procedure, lack of proper contrast agent mixing in the right atrium and sluggish, low-velocity blood flow within the Fontan circulation often results in suboptimal contrast enhancement within the pulmonary artery for evaluating PE. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of information describing the optimal contrast-enhancement technique with multidetector CT (MDCT) for evaluating PE in children and young adults following a Fontan procedure. We illustrate the MDCT imaging findings of suboptimal contrast enhancement within the pulmonary artery, which can be mistaken for PE, in patients following a lateral Fontan procedure, and we discuss MDCT techniques to optimize contrast enhancement within the pulmonary artery in these patients for evaluating PE. The MDCT imaging findings in pediatric and young adult patients following a lateral Fontan procedure and with clinically suspected PE are illustrated. We describe intravenous contrast agent injection techniques that can be used to optimize the contrast enhancement in the pulmonary artery in patients following a lateral Fontan procedure. The use of a suboptimal contrast-enhancement technique led to initial misdiagnosis and incomplete evaluation of PE in the three patients following a lateral Fontan procedure. Imaging in two patients showed that optimal evaluation of thrombosis in the Fontan pathway and PE in the pulmonary arteries can be successfully achieved with simultaneous upper- and lower-limb injections of contrast agent. This series demonstrates that suboptimal contrast enhancement can result in misdiagnosis or incomplete evaluation of PE in children and young adults following a lateral Fontan procedure. Careful attention to optimizing contrast enhancement during MDCT examination for

  6. Optimising the measurement of bruises in children across conventional and cross polarized images using segmentation analysis techniques in Image J, Photoshop and circle diameter measurements.

    Harris, C; Alcock, A; Trefan, L; Nuttall, D; Evans, S T; Maguire, S; Kemp, A M

    2018-02-01

    Bruising is a common abusive injury in children, and it is standard practice to image and measure them, yet there is no current standard for measuring bruise size consistently. We aim to identify the optimal method of measuring photographic images of bruises, including computerised measurement techniques. 24 children aged Photoshop 'ruler' software (Photoshop diameter)). Inter and intra-observer effects were determined by two individuals repeating 11 electronic measurements, and relevant Intraclass Correlation Coefficient's (ICC's) were used to establish reliability. Spearman's rank correlation was used to compare in vivo with computerised measurements; a comparison of measurement techniques across imaging modalities was conducted using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Significance was set at p 0.5 for all techniques, with maximum Feret diameter and maximum Photoshop diameter on conventional images having the strongest correlation with in vivo measurements. There were significant differences between in vivo and computer-aided measurements, but none between different computer-aided measurement techniques. Overall, computer aided measurements appeared larger than in vivo. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was high for all maximum diameter measurements (ICC's > 0.7). Whilst there are minimal differences between measurements of images obtained, the most consistent results were obtained when conventional images, segmented by Image J Software, were measured with a Feret diameter. This is therefore proposed as a standard for future research, and forensic practice, with the proviso that all computer aided measurements appear larger than in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. State regulation and response inhibition in children with ADHD and children with early- and continuously treated phenylketonuria : An event-related potential comparison

    Wiersema, [No Value; van der Meere, JJ; Roeyers, H; Wiersema, R.J

    2005-01-01

    Background: The presentation rate of stimuli plays an important role in explaining the performance inefficiency in children with ADHD. In general, children with ADHD have been found to perform more poorly in conditions of relatively slow event rates as compared with fast and moderate event rates.

  8. Microbial and molecular techniques to evaluate and to implement in-situ biodegradation potential and activity at sites contaminated with aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Karg, F.; Henkler, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Intrinsic bio-remediation harnesses the ability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade contaminants that are present in soil and groundwater. Over the past decade many environmental regulatory agencies especially in Europe have come to recognize the importance of these natural processes in contaminant attenuation. In order to use in-situ bio-remediation to clean up a site successfully it is necessary to investigate the indigenous microbial population and its potential activity to degrade the contaminants of concern (COCs). The evaluation of naturally-occurring degradative activity in initial screening of soil and groundwater samples using recently developed molecular and microbial methods may allow for the implementation of a contaminant reduction and management program without the need for fully engineered remediation intervention. Limited engineering approaches (nutrient delivery etc.) can be implemented to support naturally-occurring bio-restoration processes to achieve a controlled, dynamic attenuation of COCs. Techniques for monitoring pollutant-degrading microorganisms were previously limited to standard culturing techniques. More recently, techniques based upon detection of genetic elements and metabolic activities have been developed in collaboration with university partners Europe, especially in France. The modern techniques are more sensitive for monitoring microbial populations, metabolic activity and the genetic potential to degrade the COCs, and avoid the need for cultivation of microbes under artificial conditions in the laboratory. Especially the application of PCR-Tests (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are able to quantify the Genetic Potential of Pollutant Microbiological Degradation on a contaminated site. This enables to use very economic in-situ site rehabilitation strategies as for example (Dynamic Natural Attenuation). For this modern application of these new strategies PLANREAL created with HPC Envirotec and together with a French University

  9. Comparison of sampling techniques for Rift Valley Fever virus potential vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania.

    Mweya, Clement N; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2013-07-01

    We investigated mosquito sampling techniques with two types of traps and attractants at different time for trapping potential vectors for Rift Valley Fever virus. The study was conducted in six villages in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania from September to October 2012. A total of 1814 mosquitoes were collected, of which 738 were collected by CDC light traps and 1076 by Mosquito Magnet trapping technique. Of the collected mosquitoes, 12.46% (N = 226) were Aedes aegypti and 87.54% (N = 1588) were Culex pipiens complex. More mosquitoes were collected outdoors using Mosquito Magnets baited with octenol attractant, 36.38% (N =660) followed by indoor trapping using CDC light traps without attractant, 29.60% (N = 537). Most of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected outdoor using Mosquito Magnets, 95% (N = 214) whereas Cx. pipiens complex were trapped both indoor using CDC light traps without attractant and outdoors using both CDC light traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) sachets and Mosquito Magnets. Analysis on the differences in abundance of mosquitoes trapped by different techniques using Generalized Linear Models was statistically significance at p-value < 0.05 for both species. Three hours mosquito collections show differing patterns in activity, most Ae. aegypti species were collected primarily during the first and last quarters of the day. Cx pipiens complex was active throughout the night, early evening and early morning then decreased markedly during the day time. The results presented in this paper emphasize the possibility of using Mosquito Magnets in order to efficiently capture these potential RVF vectors.

  10. Development of a morphology-based modeling technique for tracking solid-body displacements: examining the reliability of a potential MRI-only approach for joint kinematics assessment

    Mahato, Niladri K.; Montuelle, Stephane; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian

    2016-01-01

    .31 % and 5.26 % for the two pulse sequences, respectively, while the ICCs were 0.99 for both. For rotation measures, the CVs were 3.19 % and 2.44 % for the two pulse sequences with the ICCs being 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. A novel biplanar imaging approach also yielded high reliability with mean CVs of 2.66 % and 3.39 % for translation in the x- and z-planes, respectively, and ICCs of 0.97 in both planes. This work provides basic proof-of-concept for a reliable marker-less non-ionizing-radiation-based quasi-dynamic motion quantification technique that can potentially be developed into a tool for real-time joint kinematics analysis

  11. Development of a morphology-based modeling technique for tracking solid-body displacements: examining the reliability of a potential MRI-only approach for joint kinematics assessment.

    Mahato, Niladri K; Montuelle, Stephane; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian

    2016-05-18

    .31 % and 5.26 % for the two pulse sequences, respectively, while the ICCs were 0.99 for both. For rotation measures, the CVs were 3.19 % and 2.44 % for the two pulse sequences with the ICCs being 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. A novel biplanar imaging approach also yielded high reliability with mean CVs of 2.66 % and 3.39 % for translation in the x- and z-planes, respectively, and ICCs of 0.97 in both planes. This work provides basic proof-of-concept for a reliable marker-less non-ionizing-radiation-based quasi-dynamic motion quantification technique that can potentially be developed into a tool for real-time joint kinematics analysis.

  12. Neural Correlates of Belief- and Desire-Reasoning in 7- and 8-Year-Old Children: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Bowman, Lindsay C.; Liu, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Theory of mind requires belief- "and" desire-understanding. Event-related brain potential (ERP) research on belief- and desire-reasoning in adults found mid-frontal activations for both desires and beliefs, and selective right-posterior activations "only" for beliefs. Developmentally, children understand desires before beliefs; thus, a critical…

  13. Salivary Fluoride level in preschool children after toothbrushing with standard and low fluoride content dentifrice, using the transversal dentifrice application technique: pilot study

    Fabiana Jandre Melo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF and low (500ppmF/NaF fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student’s-t test (p<0.05. Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

  14. Resolving the chemical structures of off-odorants and potentially harmful substances in toys-example of children's swords.

    Denk, Philipp; Velasco-Schön, Cristina; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Most children's toys on the market are primarily made out of plastic and other complex composite materials. Consumer complaints about offensive odors or irritating effects associated with toy products have increased in recent years. One example is the strongly perceivable negative odor reported for a particular series of toy swords. Characterizing the presence of contaminants, including those that have the potential to be deleterious to health, in such products is a significant analytical challenge due to the high baseline abundance of chemical constituents of the materials used in the products. In the present study, the nature of offensive odorants associated with toy sword products was examined by gas chromatography (GC). After initial sensory evaluations, the volatile compounds from the toy products were recovered using solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. The extracts were analyzed using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional GC-O coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-GC-MS/O). A total of 26 odor-active compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols, were identified among numerous non-odorous volatile by-products. These substances also included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which were analyzed by GC-MS. Representative substances were naphthalene and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene that exhibited moldy, mothball-like odor impressions, and phenol derivatives with leather-like, phenolic, horse-stable-like smells. The odorants detected correlated with the assigned attributes from the sensory analyses. This study clearly shows that the detection and identification of such odorous contaminants can provide key indications of potentially harmful yet unknown substances in everyday products such as toys. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. Phonological abilities in literacy-impaired children: Brain potentials reveal deficient phoneme discrimination, but intact prosodic processing

    Claudia Männel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology, findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands. To provide an objective behavior-independent picture of segmental and suprasegmental phonological processing in impaired literacy acquisition, we investigated event-related brain potentials during passive listening in typically and poor-spelling German school children. For segmental phonology, we analyzed the Mismatch Negativity (MMN during vowel length discrimination, capturing automatic auditory deviancy detection in repetitive contexts. For suprasegmental phonology, we analyzed the Closure Positive Shift (CPS that automatically occurs in response to prosodic boundaries. Our results revealed spelling group differences for the MMN, but not for the CPS, indicating deficient segmental, but intact suprasegmental phonological processing in poor spellers. The present findings point towards a differential role of segmental and suprasegmental phonology in literacy disorders and call for interventions that invigorate impaired literacy by utilizing intact prosody in addition to training deficient phonemic awareness.

  16. Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate in infants and children using iohexol and X-ray fluorescence technique

    Stake, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish methods for the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. The conclusions and clinical implications of the study are as follows: Urography with iohexol in children had no significant influence on the GFR. Valid GFR estimates were calculated from the plasma disappearance rate obtained from two plasma samples taken three and four hour after the injection of iohexol. Both iohexol and metrizoate caused a transitory, increased renal excretion of alkaline phosphatase. GFR as well as the excretion of albumin and β 2 -microglobulin were unchanged. Using the weight-related empirical distribution volume for determination of GFR from the plasma sample taken three hour after the injection of iohexol, a high degree of agreement was found between the preliminary single sample GFR estimate and the reference, two plasma sample GFR. However, the relationship was curvilinear, and in order to obtain a value for the final three hour single sample GFR equal to the reference GFR, the preliminary value had to be corrected by a second degree correction factor. The day-to-day variations of GFRs estimated with the iohexol methods were similar to those obtained with other standard methods. In another group of infants and children, independent, but otherwise comparable to the patients who formed the basis for the single sample iohexol method, it was confirmed that valid GFR estimates were obtained from the three hour single plasma sample. GFR determinations from one hour, two hour, and four hour single samples further supported that the optimal sampling time in patients with GFR down to 20 ml per minute -1 1.73 m -2 was three hours. 53 refs., 5 figs

  17. Contribution of time-activity pattern and microenvironment to black carbon (BC) inhalation exposure and potential internal dose among elementary school children

    Jeong, Hyeran; Park, Donguk

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the contributions of activities or microenvironments (MEs) to daily total exposure to and potential dose of black carbon (BC). Daily BC exposures (24-h) were monitored using a micro-aethalometer micoAeth AE51 with forty school-aged children living in an urban area in Korea from August 2015 to January 2016. The children's time-activity patterns and the MEs they visited were investigated by means of a time-activity diary (TAD) and follow-up interviews with the children and their parents. Potential inhaled dose was estimated by multiplying the airborne BC concentrations (μg/m3) we monitored for the time the children spent in a particular ME by the inhalation rate (IR, m3/h) for the time-activity performed. The contribution of activities and MEs to overall daily exposure to and potential dose of BC was quantified. Overall mean daily potential dose was equal to 24.1 ± 10.6 μg/day (range: 6.6-46.3 μg/day). The largest contribution to BC exposure and potential dose (51.9% and 41.7% respectively) occurred in the home thanks to the large amount of time spent there. Transportation was where children received the most intense exposure to (14.8%) and potential dose (20.2%) of BC, while it accounted for 7.6% of daily time. School on weekdays during the semester was responsible for 20.3% of exposure and 22.5% of potential dose. Contribution to BC exposure and potential dose was altered by several time-activity parameters, such as type of day (weekdays vs. weekends; school days vs. holidays), season, and gender. Traveling by motor vehicle and subway showed more elevated exposure or potential dose intensity on weekdays or school days, probably influenced by the increased surrounding traffic volumes on these days compared to on weekends or holidays. This study may be used to prioritize targets for minimizing children's exposure to BC and to indicate outcomes of BC control strategies.

  18. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Hughes, Sheryl O; Robles, Jessica; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom; Lee, Rebecca E; Nicklas, Theresa; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2013-08-06

    Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study.

  19. Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy in children with chronic pulmonary damage: Preliminary results from application of the SPECT technique

    Lobo S, Gabriel; Ladron de Guevara H, David; Munoz G, Maria Angelica; Araya A, Fernando; Coll C, Claudia; Donoso R, Gilda; Jimenez J, Cesar; Perez R; Andres

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to describe lung perfusion SPECT (LPS) findings in children with chronic pulmonary damage. Material and Method: We revised 106 LPS of children (age:3.9 ± 3.3 yr) with chronic pulmonary damage, performed with a two headed gamma camera. The most common clinical diagnosis were adenovirus bronchopneumonia sequelae (ADV)(29%), unknown origin chronic pulmonary damage (UOPD) (21%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)(15%), and chronic obstructed bronchitis (COB)(14%). Severity of pulmonary alterations were evaluated using a Score, which considered extent and type of lung involvement and differential pulmonary perfusion. Pattern of involvement and Score were correlated with diagnosis and gender. Results: Ninety one percent (96/106) of LPS were abnormal (62% boys). Fifty two (54%) showed bilateral alterations, being this finding (p:0.019) more frequent in boys. ADV group showed mainly a mixed bilateral pattern (35%), UOPD a focal unilateral pattern (32%), COB a diffuse unilateral pattern (33%), and BPD a normal pattern (25%). Miscellaneous and UOPD showed the highest score values, and BPD and COB the lowest ones. Conclusion: In this population, LPS is abnormal in high proportion, with some differential characteristics according gender and original diagnosis (au)

  20. Does Prevention Pay? Costs and Potential Cost-savings of School Interventions Targeting Children with Mental Health Problems.

    Wellander, Lisa; Wells, Michael B; Feldman, Inna

    2016-06-01

    In Sweden, the local government is responsible for funding schools in their district. One funding initiative is for schools to provide students with mental health problems with additional support via extra teachers, personal assistants, and special education classes. There are evidence-based preventive interventions delivered in schools, which have been shown to decrease the levels of students' mental health problems. However, little is known about how much the local government currently spends on students' mental health support and if evidence-based interventions could be financially beneficial. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs of providing additional support for students' mental health problems and the potential cost-offsets, defined as reduced school-based additional support, if two evidence-based school interventions targeting children's mental health problems were implemented in routine practice. This study uses data on the additional support students with mental health problems received in schools. Data was collected from one school district for students aged 6 to 16 years. We modeled two Swedish school interventions, Comet for Teachers and Social and Emotional Training (SET), which both had evidence of reducing mental health problems. We used a cost-offset analysis framework, assuming both interventions were fully implemented throughout the whole school district. Based on the published studies, the expected effects and the costs of the interventions were calculated. We defined the cost-offsets as the amount of predicted averted additional support for students with ongoing mental health problems who might no longer require receiving services such as one-on-one time with an extra teacher, a personal assistant, or to be placed in a special education classroom. A cost-offset analysis, from a payer's perspective (the local government responsible for school financing), was conducted comparing the costs of both interventions with the potential cost