Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
The objective of this study was to provide a review of studies on suicide in children aged 14 years and younger. Articles were identified through a systematic search of Scopus, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. Key words were "children, suicide, psychological autopsy, and case-study." Additional articles were identified through manual search of reference lists and discussion with colleagues. Fifteen published articles were identified, 8 psychological autopsy studies (PA), and 7 retrospective case-study series. Suicide incidence and gender asymmetry increases with age. Hanging is the most frequent method. Lower rates of psychopathology are evident among child suicides compared to adolescents. Previous suicide attempts were an important risk factor. Children were less likely to consume alcohol prior to suicide. Parent-child conflicts were the most common precipitant.
Dasteh Goli N.*BSc
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.
Tjaden, Lidwien; Tong, Allison; Henning, Paul; Groothoff, Jaap; Craig, Jonathan C.
Objective To describe the experiences and perspectives of children and adolescents on dialysis. Design A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted that explored the experiences of children on dialysis. Electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to
Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul
Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…
Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Kolte, Lilian; Briend, André
BACKGROUND: Malnourished children have increased risk of dying, with most deaths caused by infectious diseases. One mechanism behind this may be impaired immune function. However, this immune deficiency of malnutrition has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To review...... the scientific literature about immune function in children with malnutrition. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done in PubMed, and additional articles identified in reference lists and by correspondence with experts in the field. The inclusion criteria were studies investigating immune parameters...... in children aged 1-60 months, in relation to malnutrition, defined as wasting, underweight, stunting, or oedematous malnutrition. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 3402 articles, of which 245 met the inclusion criteria. Most were published between 1970 and 1990, and only 33 after 2003. Malnutrition...
Machado, Eduardo; Dal-Fabbro, Cibele; Cunali, Paulo Afonso; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan
Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB. There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately.
Boluyt, Nicole; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Offringa, Martin
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate clinical, methodologic, and reporting aspects of systematic reviews on the management of acute asthma in children. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of systematic reviews on acute asthma management in children. We identified eligible reviews by searching
Goyal, Tarun; Arora, Shobha S; Banerjee, Sumit; Kandwal, Pankaj
Monteggia fractures are uncommon and frequently missed injuries in children. This article aims to study, in a systematic manner, the surgical management and complications of treatment of chronic radial head dislocations. After screening of relevant abstracts, a total of 28 studies were included in the systematic review. A narrative synthesis of various treatment modalities has been discussed. This article concludes that open reduction should be attempted unless dysmorphism of the radial head restricts it. Open reduction with ulnar osteotomy with or without annular ligament reconstruction is the most commonly performed procedure and is expected to result in reduced pain and elbow deformity.
Park, Min Hae; Kinra, Sanjay; Ward, Kirsten J.; White, Billy; Viner, Russell M.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the efficacy of metformin in reducing BMI and cardiometabolic risk in obese children and adolescents without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Double-blind RCTs of > or =6 months duration in obese subjects age < or =19 years without diabetes were included. Our primary outcomes of interest include changes in BMI and measures of insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Five trials met in...
Menlove, Leanne; Reilly, Colin
Research suggests an increased risk for cognitive impairment in childhood epilepsy with memory being one area of cognition most likely to be affected. Understanding the prevalence and predictors of memory difficulties may help improve awareness of the difficulties and allow efficacious supports to be put in place. A systematic review was carried out using the search terms 'memory', 'children' and 'epilepsy' in the database PUBMED. Eighty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. The review focuses on comparisons of memory scores of children with epilepsy and controls, and comparison of memory scores of children with epilepsy to normative scores. Predictors of memory impairment and the effect of surgery on memory functioning are also reviewed. The majority (78%) of studies reviewed revealed that children with epilepsy scored lower than controls and normative scores on measures of memory. Post-surgery, memory scores were reported to improve in 50% of studies. Predictors of memory impairment included a greater number of AEDs used, younger age of onset, increased seizure frequency and longer duration of epilepsy. Children with epilepsy have a high frequency of memory impairments. However, the exact prevalence of difficulties is not clear due to the lack of population-based data. Most studies have not controlled for IQ and thus it is unclear if difficulties are always related to global cognitive difficulties. There is need for future population-based studies and studies focussing on the neurobiology of memory problems in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children.This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems.Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation or with prematurity as a risk factor.Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies.Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems.
Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz
In the region of the Americas, approximately 100,000 children under the age of 5 years die each year due to environmental hazards. Brazil, due to its large size and wide range of environmental challenges, presents numerous hazards to children's health. The aim of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature that describes children's exposures to environmental pollutants in Brazil and their effects on Brazilian children's health. A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed without language restrictions and time of publication (years). The literature search was conducted in the following key resources: PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Web of Science with the MeSH Terms: Environmental exposure AND Brazil (filters: Human, Child [birth to 18 years] and Affiliation Author). The Virtual Health Library was also employed to access the databases Scielo and Lilacs. The search strategy was [DeCS Terms]: Child OR adolescent AND Environmental exposure AND Brazil. Health effects in children associated with exposure to environmental pollutants in Brazil were reported in 74 studies, during the period between 1995 and 2015. The most frequently cited effect was hospital admission for respiratory causes including wheezing, asthma, and pneumonia among children living in areas with high concentrations of air pollutants. A broad spectrum of other health effects possibly linked to pollutants also was found such as prematurity, low birth weight, congenital abnormality (cryptorchidism, hypospadia, micropenis), poor performance in tests of psychomotor and mental development, and behavioral problems. Exposure to pesticides in utero and postnatally was associated with a high risk for leukemia in children Brazil for stricter monitoring of pollutant emissions and for health surveillance programs especially among vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and young children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Restrepo, Claudia; Gómez, Sandra; Manrique, Ruben
To conduct a systematic review to assess and analyze the scientific evidence about the available therapies for bruxism in children. The literature was searched using Medline, PubMed, Ovid, Biomed Central, EBSCOhost, ISI, Cochrane Library, Embase, LILACS, Scielo, Scirus, the Internet at large, and databases of universities from March 1985 to the end of September 2007. Studies had to be intervention studies for bruxism in children, and the children included in the studies had to be 3 to 10 years old. From 52 records found, 2 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In 1 study, bruxism was treated by widening the upper airway through adenoidectomy, and the other study proposed to treat bruxism in children with psychologic techniques. When analyzed, the 2 considered studies did not fully accomplish the requirements to treat the etiology of bruxism in children. The available literature does not provide adequate support to treat bruxism in children, as the diagnosis methods in the studies are insufficient and are not comparable to confirm the presence of bruxism. Very few studies about therapies for bruxism in children meet the quality criteria required for the evidence-based practice. Treatment for bruxism in children requires further study.
Ejaredar, Maede; Nyanza, Elias C.; Ten Eycke, Kayla; Dewey, Deborah
Background: Emerging evidence from observational studies suggests that prenatal exposure to phthalates affects neurodevelopment in children. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the existing literature on the association between urinary phthalate concentrations and children's neurodevelopment. Methods: We searched electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health, CAB abstracts, and ERIC) (1910 to February 21st, 2014); reference lists of included articles, and conference abstracts (American Psychiatric Association, American Academy of Neurology, and Pediatric Academic Societies). Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and extracted data. We included original studies reporting on the association between prenatal or childhood urinary phthalate metabolites, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes (e.g., IQ scores, BASC-2 scores or equivalent) in children 0–12 years of age. Results: Of 2804 abstracts screened, 11 original articles met our criteria for inclusion. Conclusions: A systematic review of the literature supports the contention that prenatal exposure phthalates is associated with adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children, including lower IQ, and problems with attention, hyperactivity, and poorer social communication. Further research characterizing the associations between specific phthalate metabolites and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes is needed to support the development of mitigation strategies and enhance the development of appropriate health policy. - Highlights: • Prenatal maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites appear to be associated with adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. • Both low molecular weight (e.g., monobutyl phthalate, MBP) and high molecular weight (e.g., di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEHP) phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes. • Sex-specific effects from phthalate
Ejaredar, Maede, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nyanza, Elias C. [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ten Eycke, Kayla [Behavioral Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dewey, Deborah [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Behavioral Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Alberta Children' s Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)
Background: Emerging evidence from observational studies suggests that prenatal exposure to phthalates affects neurodevelopment in children. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the existing literature on the association between urinary phthalate concentrations and children's neurodevelopment. Methods: We searched electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health, CAB abstracts, and ERIC) (1910 to February 21st, 2014); reference lists of included articles, and conference abstracts (American Psychiatric Association, American Academy of Neurology, and Pediatric Academic Societies). Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and extracted data. We included original studies reporting on the association between prenatal or childhood urinary phthalate metabolites, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes (e.g., IQ scores, BASC-2 scores or equivalent) in children 0–12 years of age. Results: Of 2804 abstracts screened, 11 original articles met our criteria for inclusion. Conclusions: A systematic review of the literature supports the contention that prenatal exposure phthalates is associated with adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children, including lower IQ, and problems with attention, hyperactivity, and poorer social communication. Further research characterizing the associations between specific phthalate metabolites and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes is needed to support the development of mitigation strategies and enhance the development of appropriate health policy. - Highlights: • Prenatal maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites appear to be associated with adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children. • Both low molecular weight (e.g., monobutyl phthalate, MBP) and high molecular weight (e.g., di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEHP) phthalate metabolites are associated with adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes. • Sex-specific effects from phthalate
Wesselhoeft, Rikke; Sørensen, Merete J; Heiervang, Einar R; Bilenberg, Niels
Depressive disorders are disabling conditions striking at all ages. In adults, subthreshold depression (SD) is viewed as being on a continuum with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this holds for children and adolescents, is still unclear. We performed the first systematic review of SD in subjects below 18 years, in order to explore if childhood SD and MDD share causal pathways, phenomenology and outcomes, supporting a dimensional view. A critical systematic review in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. A review protocol was developed a priori, and all reports were assessed by two reviewers. The literature search generated 941 eligible references and 24 studies were included. Although diagnostic criteria for SD showed great variability, similarities for SD and MDD were striking. Both were common conditions with similar risk factor patterns. Clinical characteristics in both groups were depressed mood, suicidal ideation and high comorbidity. Outcomes were almost equally poor, with increased psychiatric morbidity and health service use. SD intervention studies showed promising results. Reports with data on SD not reported in keywords or abstract may have been missed by the search strategy. A dimensional view of depressive disorders is also supported in children and adolescents, suggesting SD to be a precursor to MDD. Although SD is a somewhat milder condition than MDD, it has severe outcomes with psychopathology and impairment. There is a need of identifying cost-efficient and longlasting interventions in order to prevent development of early SD into MDD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB in children is subject to discussions in the literature.OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children.METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children.RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four studies were retrieved. Among the selected articles, the prevalence rates of SB ranged from 5.9% to 49.6%, and these variations showed possible associations with the diagnostic criteria used for SB.CONCLUSION: There is a small number of studies with the primary objective of assessing SB in children. Additionally, there was a wide variation in the prevalence of SB in children. Thus, further, evidence-based studies with standardized and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess the prevalence of SB in children more accurately.
Kenyon, Lisa K; Hostnik, Lisa; McElroy, Rachel; Peterson, Courtney; Farris, John P
To summarize and critically appraise the existing evidence related to power mobility training methods used in research studies conducted with children 21 years or younger. A systematic review was conducted using 16 electronic databases to identify primary source quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Data extraction, determination of level of evidence, evaluation of methodological rigor, and assessment of the risk of bias were completed. The Evidence Alert Traffic Light Grading System (EATLS) was used. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review. Levels of evidence were II to V; scientific rigor scores were 2 to 7. An overall Yellow EATLS level of evidence was found indicating that therapists should use caution when providing power mobility training interventions and measure outcomes related to established goals in areas such as development, functional skills, or use of a power mobility device.
Verghese, Valsan Philip; Robinson, Joan L
A systematic review was conducted, seeking all literature relevant to the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcome of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in children. Transmission is thought to be primarily from fecal-oral transmission, with the role of transmission from animal reservoirs not being clear in children. Worldwide, seroprevalence is hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, with most cases being subclinical. However, HEV differs from HAV in that infectivity is lower, perinatal transmission can result in neonatal morbidity and even mortality, and a chronic carrier state exists, accounting for chronic hepatitis in some pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Wojtyniak, Katarzyna; Szajewska, Hania
We updated our 2010 systematic review on the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of constipation in children. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases; clinical trial registries; and reference lists of included studies were searched to February 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed in children, with no language restriction. The primary outcome measure was treatment success, as defined by the investigators. We included seven RCTs with a total of 515 participants. Included trials were heterogeneous with respect to study population, probiotic strains, dosages, study duration, and follow-up. Pooled results of two RCTs showed no significant difference between the Lactobacillus rhamnosus casei Lcr35 and placebo groups with respect to treatment success. Other probiotics were studied in single trials only. There was no significant difference between the probiotic and control groups with respect to treatment success. While some probiotic strains showed some effects on defecation frequency, none of the probiotics had beneficial effects on frequency of fecal incontinence or frequency of abdominal pain. Adverse events were rare and not serious. Limited evidence does not support the use of any of currently evaluated probiotics in the treatment of functional constipation in children. What is Known: • Conventional treatment for functional constipation in children does not always provide satisfying improvement. • Probiotics have been suggested as potential treatment modalities for this condition. What is New: • Probiotics are ineffective for the management of functional constipation in children in terms of treatment success, frequency of fecal incontinence, and frequency of abdominal pain.
Ritchie, Kirsten; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J
To review systematically studies examining the development of social competence in children born very preterm (VPT) (gestation skills. Twenty-three studies were included. Seven focused on social competence and another 16 examined social competence within a range of outcomes. Study quality was low. Limitations included reliance on single informant data, cross-sectional measurement, use of brief screening tools, absence of child or peer report, and no conceptual model. In terms of social adjustment, 16 out of 21 studies found children born VPT had more peer problems and social withdrawal. Findings of social performance were mixed, with some studies suggesting differences in prosocial behavior (4/14) and others not. Social skills were assessed in four studies and showed children born VPT had poorer skills than children born at term. Predictors of social competence included gestational age, neonatal brain abnormalities, and family socio-economic status. Children born VPT have poorer social competence. These difficulties emerge early and persist throughout childhood. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of whether screening for amblyopia in children up to the age of six years leads to better vision outcomes. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with no limitations to a specific year of publication and language. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the bibliographies of included studies and reviews to identify articles not captured through our main search strategy. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies suggested that screening is associated with an absolute reduction in the prevalence of amblyopia between 0.9% and 1.6% (relative reduction: between 45% and 62%. However, the studies showed weaknesses, limiting the validity and reliability of their findings. The main limitation was that studies with significant results considered only a proportion of the originally recruited children in their analysis. On the other hand, retrospective sample size calculation indicated that the power based on the cohort size was not sufficient to detect small changes between the groups. Outcome parameters such as quality of life or adverse effects of screening have not been adequately investigated in the literature currently available. Conclusion Population based preschool vision screening programmes cannot be sufficiently assessed by the literature currently available. However, it is most likely that the present systematic review contains the most detailed description of the main limitations in current
Johnson, Barbara A; Salzberg, Charles L; Stevenson, David A
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of plyometric training for improving motor performance in young children; to determine if this type of training could be used to improve the strength, running speed, agility, and jumping ability of children with low motor competence; and to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature. Primary research articles were selected if they (a) described the outcomes of a plyometric exercise intervention; (b) included measures of strength, balance, running speed, jumping ability, or agility; (c) included prepubertal children 5-14 years of age; and (d) used a randomized control trial or quasiexperimental design. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for the final review. The 7 studies were judged to be of low quality (values of 4-6). Plyometric training had a large effect on improving the ability to run and jump. Preliminary evidence suggests plyometric training also had a large effect on increasing kicking distance, balance, and agility. The current evidence suggests that a twice a week program for 8-10 weeks beginning at 50-60 jumps a session and increasing exercise load weekly results in the largest changes in running and jumping performance. An alternative program for children who do not have the capability or tolerance for a twice a week program would be a low-intensity program for a longer duration. The research suggests that plyometric training is safe for children when parents provide consent, children agree to participate, and safety guidelines are built into the intervention.
Full Text Available Context: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of movement problems that do not worsen over time. They cause physical disability mainly in areas of body movement. It is caused by damage to the motor control centers of developing brain. Management of a child with CP to optimize functional abilities, typically includes the input of many disciplines, including occupational therapy (OT, physical therapy (PT and orthotic treatment. The main aim of this review was to compare the effects of most common rehabilitation intervention on CP. Evidence Acquisition: This systematic review was conducted on published papers that studied rehabilitation interventions approaches for children with CP. A literature search was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS and Google Scholar on papers published from January 1990 to October 2014. Results: From 125 articles related to rehabilitation interventions for children with Cerebral palsy, 36 articles met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: The efficacy of rehabilitation interventions for children with CP is still inconclusive. Functional ability and social participation should be the main outcome measures in evaluating rehabilitation efficacy.
Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic…
Full Text Available Ahmed Ameer,1 Soraya Dhillon,1 Mark J Peters,2 Maisoon Ghaleb11Department of Pharmacy, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK; 2Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK Objective: Medication administration is the last step in the medication process. It can act as a safety net to prevent unintended harm to patients if detected. However, medication administration errors (MAEs during this process have been documented and thought to be preventable. In pediatric medicine, doses are usually administered based on the child's weight or body surface area. This in turn increases the risk of drug miscalculations and therefore MAEs. The aim of this review is to report MAEs occurring in pediatric inpatients. Methods: Twelve bibliographic databases were searched for studies published between January 2000 and February 2015 using “medication administration errors”, “hospital”, and “children” related terminologies. Handsearching of relevant publications was also carried out. A second reviewer screened articles for eligibility and quality in accordance with the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Key findings: A total of 44 studies were systematically reviewed. MAEs were generally defined as a deviation of dose given from that prescribed; this included omitted doses and administration at the wrong time. Hospital MAEs in children accounted for a mean of 50% of all reported medication error reports (n=12,588. It was also identified in a mean of 29% of doses observed (n=8,894. The most prevalent type of MAEs related to preparation, infusion rate, dose, and time. This review has identified five types of interventions to reduce hospital MAEs in children: barcode medicine administration, electronic prescribing, education, use of smart pumps, and standard concentration. Conclusion: This review has identified a wide variation in the prevalence of hospital MAEs in children. This is attributed to
Richards, John R; Smith, Nishelle E; Moulin, Aimee K
To analyze published reports of unintentional cannabis ingestions in children to determine presenting signs and symptoms, route of exposure, treatment, and outcome. PubMed, OpenGrey, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Articles were selected, reviewed, and graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Of 3316 articles, 44 were included (3582 children age ≤12 years). We found no high quality (Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine level I or II) studies and 10 level III studies documenting lethargy as the most common presenting sign and confirming increasing incidence of unintentional ingestion in states having decriminalized medical and recreational cannabis. We identified 16 level IV case series, and 28 level V case reports with 114 children, mean age 25.2 ± 18.7 months, range 8 months to 12 years, and 50 female children (44%). The most common ingestion (n = 43, 38%) was cannabis resin, followed by cookies and joints (both n = 15, 13%). Other exposures included passive smoke, medical cannabis, candies, beverages, and hemp oil. Lethargy was the most common presenting sign (n = 81, 71%) followed by ataxia (n = 16, 14%). Tachycardia, mydriasis, and hypotonia were also commonly observed. All cases were cared for in the emergency department or admitted, and mean length of stay was 27.1 ± 27.0 hours. Twenty (18%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (6%) were intubated. Unintentional cannabis ingestion by children is a serious public health concern and is well-documented in numerous studies and case reports. Clinicians should consider cannabis toxicity in any child with sudden onset of lethargy or ataxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniel, Allison I.; Bandsma, Robert H.; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Voskuijl, Wieger P.; Potani, Isabel; van den Heuvel, Meta
Background The WHO Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children include a recommendation to provide sensory stimulation or play therapy for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This systematic review was performed to synthesize evidence around this
Mirzaei, Masoud; Karimi, Mehran; Beheshti, Shima; Mohammadi, Masoud
Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased during the last decades, especially in children. However, little is known about it in the Middle East region. This systematic review is aimed to estimate the prevalence of asthma among the Middle Eastern children. Methods: Local and international scientific databases including SID, Iranmedex, Medline and Science Direct were systematically searched for relevant keywords including; asthma, prevalence, children, International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISACC) and the names of Middle Eastern countries for the period of 1996-2011. Papers in Persian and English which met the defined criteria were included into the study. Bibliographies of the extracted articles were also searched. After extraction of data, heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were measured using Egger's-test. Effect size was pooled by the random-effect model. Since significant heterogeneity was found between studies, univariate meta-regression analyses were done to assess the association of variables with the overall results. Results: Fifty studies in the Middle East examined the prevalence of asthma and allergy in children under the age of 18 years according to the ISAAC criteria and were included. A total number of 289,717 children were examined in the included studies and the prevalence varied from 0.7 % in Isfahan to 22.3 % in Bagdad. The total prevalence of diagnosed asthma was calculated 7.53 % (95% Cl: 6.38-8.75). Prevalence of asthma in the 13-14 years age group was 7.57% (95% Cl: 5.78-9.29) and in 6-7 years age group was 7.43% (95% Cl: 5.75-9.10). The prevalence of asthma among girls, based on random effect model, was 6.30% (95% Cl: 4.97-7.61) and among boys, it was 8.91% (95% Cl: 6.80-11.04). Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in the Middle East is lower than most developed countries. However, there is not enough longitudinal data to estimate the trend over time. In order to have more accurate
Sophie Susannah Hall
Full Text Available Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented.Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b.The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children's reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.
Hall, Sophie Susannah; Gee, Nancy R; Mills, Daniel Simon
Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented. Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b. The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children's reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.
Boric, Krste; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Batinic, Marijan; Cavar, Marija; Urlic, Marjan; Markovina, Nikolina; Puljak, Livia
The aim of this study was to conduct an overview of systematic reviews that summarizes the results about efficacy and safety from randomized controlled trials involving the various strategies used for postoperative pain management in children. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Database of Reviews of Effect, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO from the earliest date to January 24, 2016. This overview included 45 systematic reviews that evaluated interventions for postoperative pain in children. Out of 45 systematic reviews that investigated various interventions for postoperative pain in children, 19 systematic reviews (42%) presented conclusive evidence of efficacy. Positive conclusive evidence was reported in 18 systematic reviews (40%) for the efficacy of diclofenac, ketamine, caudal analgesia, dexmedetomidine, music therapy, corticosteroid, epidural analgesia, paracetamol, and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and transversus abdominis plane block. Only one systematic review reported conclusive evidence of equal efficacy that involved a comparison of dexmedetomidine vs morphine and fentanyl. Safety of interventions was reported as conclusive in 14 systematic reviews (31%), with positive conclusive evidence for dexmedetomidine, corticosteroid, epidural analgesia, transversus abdominis plane block, and clonidine. Seven systematic reviews reported equal conclusive safety for epidural infusion, diclofenac intravenous vs ketamine added to opioid analgesia, bupivacaine, ketamine, paracetamol, and dexmedetomidine vs intravenous infusions of various opioid analgesics, oral suspension and suppository of diclofenac, only opioid, normal saline, no treatment, placebo, and midazolam. Negative conclusive statement for safety was reported in one systematic review for caudal analgesia vs noncaudal regional analgesia. More than half of systematic reviews included in this overview were rated as having medium methodological quality. Of 45 included
de Bot, Cindy M. A.; Moed, Heleen; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Roeder, Esther; van Wijk, Roy G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.
Systematic reviews have gained popularity as a way to combine the increasing amount of research information. This study assessed the quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis in children, published since 2000. Eligible reviews were
Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken
When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…
Paulus, Frank W; Ohmann, Susanne; von Gontard, Alexander; Popow, Christian
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a serious disorder leading to and maintaining pertinent personal and social impairment. IGD has to be considered in view of heterogeneous and incomplete concepts. We therefore reviewed the scientific literature on IGD to provide an overview focusing on definitions, symptoms, prevalence, and aetiology. We systematically reviewed the databases ERIC, PsyARTICLES, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, and PubMed for the period January 1991 to August 2016, and additionally identified secondary references. The proposed definition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition provides a good starting point for diagnosing IGD but entails some disadvantages. Developing IGD requires several interacting internal factors such as deficient self, mood and reward regulation, problems of decision-making, and external factors such as deficient family background and social skills. In addition, specific game-related factors may promote IGD. Summarizing aetiological knowledge, we suggest an integrated model of IGD elucidating the interplay of internal and external factors. So far, the concept of IGD and the pathways leading to it are not entirely clear. In particular, long-term follow-up studies are missing. IGD should be understood as an endangering disorder with a complex psychosocial background. In representative samples of children and adolescents, on average, 2% are affected by Internet gaming disorder (IGD). The mean prevalences (overall, clinical samples included) reach 5.5%. Definitions are heterogeneous and the relationship with substance-related addictions is inconsistent. Many aetiological factors are related to the development and maintenance of IGD. This review presents an integrated model of IGD, delineating the interplay of these factors. This article's abstract has been translated into Spanish and Portuguese. Follow the links from the abstract to view the translations. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.
Our purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents and to determine its effectiveness compared to fluoride varnish.
Mobile applications are popular among young children, yet there is a dearth of studies examining their impact on learning and development. A systematic review identified 19 studies reporting learning effects on children 2 to 5 years old. The number of children participating in experimental, quasi-experimental, or mixed-method studies was 862 and…
Wan Yunus, Farahiyah; Liu, Karen P.; Bissett, Michelle; Penkala, Stefania
Sensory-based intervention is a common approach used to address behavioral problems in children. Types of sensory-based intervention for children and details of the intervention effectiveness have not been systematically examined. This review examined the effectiveness and ideal types of sensory-based interventions for children with behavioral…
Maynard, Brandy R.; Heyne, David; Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Bulanda, Jeffery J.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Pigott, Terri D.
Objective: School refusal is a psychosocial problem associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and adolescents. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with school refusal. Method: A comprehensive search process was used…
Hoek, van E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Bouwman, L.I.; Janse, A.J.
Abstract Background: Treatment programs for overweight and obese young children are of variable effectiveness, and the characteristics of effective programs are unknown. In this systematic review with meta-analysis, the effectiveness of treatment programs for these children is summarized. Methods:
Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy
Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Jones, Nancy
Communication partners who efficiently use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) are essential interaction partners for children learning to communicate using AAC. This systematic review examines studies targeting interventions designed to help communication partners support children with complex communication needs who use AAC.…
Monei, Thato; Pedro, Athena
The acquisition of numerical competency is regarded as imperative for quality of life and economic well-being. Many children have significant mathematical learning difficulties known as dyscalculia. The aim of this research was to systematically review the available literature for interventions with children presenting with dyscalculia in primary…
Chen, Cliff Yung-Chi
A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the question: What are the effects of parental chronic physical illness on children's educational functioning? Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria for the purpose of this review were identified, indicating the paucity of research on the topic. The results found that…
Manfredini, D.; Restrepo, C.; Diaz-Serrano, K.; Winocur, E.; Lobbezoo, F.
The aim of the present investigation was to perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the issue of sleep bruxism prevalence in children at the general population level. Quality assessment of the reviewed papers was performed to identify flaws in the external and internal validity.
Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans
Family foster care deeply influences the needs of children and how these are satisfied. To increase our knowledge of foster children’s needs and how these are conceptualized, this paper presents a systematic literature review. Sixty- four empirical articles from six databases were reviewed and
Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...
Wong, Kevin; Piraquive, Jacquelyn; Troiano, Chelsea A; Sulibhavi, Anita; Grundfast, Kenneth M; Levi, Jessica R
Review the pediatric otolaryngology literature to 1) identify studies in which children completed patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and 2) appraise the psychometric quality and validity of these PROs as they apply to pediatrics. In October 2016, a systematic review was performed by two reviewers on PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE for all otolaryngology-related studies that utilized PROs in children. Inclusion criteria included articles that required children (ageotolaryngology and some studies utilized PROs that were not validated or not validated for use in this age group. Future efforts to design and validate more instruments may be warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Childhood is an important and sensitive period for cognitive development. There is limited published research regarding the relationship between sports and cognitive functions in children. We present studies that demonstrate the influence of physical activity on health, especially a positive correlation between sports and cognitive functions. The keywords “children, cognition, cognitive function, physical activity, and brain” were searched for using PsycInfo, Medline, and Google Scholar, with publication dates ranging from January 2000 to November 2017. Of the 617 results, 58 articles strictly connected to the main topics of physical activity and cognitive functioning were then reviewed. The areas of attention, thinking, language, learning, and memory were analyzed relative to sports and childhood. Results suggest that engaging in sports in late childhood positively influences cognitive and emotional functions. There is a paucity of publications that investigate the impact of sports on pre-adolescents’ cognitive functions, or explore which cognitive functions are developed by which sporting disciplines. Such knowledge would be useful in developing training programs for pre-adolescents, aimed at improving cognitive functions that may guide both researchers and practitioners relative to the wide range of benefits that result from physical activity.
Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay
of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... was undertaken in two phases. In phase one, all abstracts were review by two independent reviewers. In phase two, the full text of all included studies were independently reviewed by two reviewers. The included studies underwent quality assessment and data synthesis. RESULTS: Ten published studies and 10...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...
Brown, Laura S; Jellison, Judith A
Systematic reviews of research provide pertinent information to both practitioners and researchers. While there are several recent reviews of music research and children with specific disabilities (primarily autism), there is no current review of music research with children with a wide variety of disabilities. The aim of the current study is to identify and systematically review music research with children and youth published in peer reviewed journals for the years 1999 through 2009. Research questions focused on participant characteristics; research purposes, methodologies, and findings; as well as the presence of ideas from special education policies, and practices. We also asked how results have changed from those from an earlier review (Jellison, 2000). Using computer and hand-searches, we identified 45 articles that met our criteria for inclusion. Once identified, through a process of consensus we analyzed articles based on criteria, categories, and codes used in the earlier review. Additionally we analyzed measurement instruments and effectiveness of interventions as reported by the authors. Primary findings show a large majority of studies were experimental with most reporting effective or partially effective interventions, particularly for social variables. Compared to the earlier review, increases were found for participants with autism and for reports including ideas from special education. Percentages of articles measuring generalization and examining high-incident disability populations (specific learning disabilities) were low. The findings from this review and comparisons to the earlier review reveal important implications for practices with children with autism and preparation of researchers to design and conduct studies in inclusive music settings.
Thais Pacheco Epifânio
Full Text Available Introduction: This study addresses the context of children in shelters and their rights after the implementation of the Child and Adolescent Statute (Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente - ECA in 1990. Objective: To analyze the content of articles approaching children in situation of institutional care in the view of the guidelines proposed by ECA. Method: A systematic review was carried out in the LILACS database using the following descriptors: “institutionalized child” or “shelter” or “social shelter”, in Portuguese language. A total of 111 articles were found, of which 92 were excluded after reading the abstract as they did not meet the selection criteria set in the research. After reading the 19 remaining articles in full length, 5 were eliminated because they did not address the theme under study. Thus, 14 articles were used in the analysis. Results: After selection of relevant articles for research and analysis of content, three categories of analysis, based on the recurrent themes of the texts and their relation to the present research theme, were identified: “Shelters as institutions with complete institutional characteristics”, “Shelters and their stance in relation to ECA recommendations” and “The stigma of sheltered children: subjects with rights or subjugated mass?”. The description of shelters is evidently not in consonance with the law, but clearly resembles the old model of sheltering, with unpreparedness and lack of knowledge of laws from the part of professionals. This leads children to be viewed as objects of custody of the State. Conclusion: There is an evident need for training the professionals involved in the process of institutional shelter and also the need for raising empowerment and awareness of the rights of children in society.
Hansen, Sarah; Scott, Jessica
The current study is a systematic review on the available evidence on language development, assessment, challenging behavior, and instruction for children dually diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and deafness. Results indicate a strong need for additional research in these areas, especially in the areas of evidence-based practices.
Esan, Michael O.; Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Hensbroek, Michael Boele van; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija S.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency in HIV-infected children from high- and low-income settings and compared it with that of HIV-uninfected controls. We searched five major databases for primary studies reporting on anaemia and iron
Martin, Liz; Baker, Richard; Harvey, Adrienne
This systematic review focused on the common conventional physiotherapy interventions used with children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 4 to 18 years, and critically appraised the recent evidence of each of these interventions using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. The search strategy yielded 34 articles after…
Petersen, Douglas B.
This systematic review focuses on research articles published since 1980 that assess outcomes of narrative-based language intervention for preschool and school-age children with language impairment. The author conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases and hand searches of other sources for studies using all research designs except…
Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim
Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…
Crane, Jeff; Temple, Viviene
Leisure constraints theory was used as a framework to systematically review factors associated with dropout of organized sport among children and adolescents. Keyword searches for the population, context and construct of interest (i.e. dropout) identified articles from the entire contents of the following databases: Academic Search Complete, ERIC,…
Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.
The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…
Brown, H.; Hume, C.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.
This paper aimed to (1) identify potential mediators reported in children's physical activity interventions; and (2) review the psychometric properties of measures of potential mediators included in such interventions. A systematic search of the literature was conducted and studies that reported
Candy, D; Belsey, J
As the evidence base supporting the use of laxatives in children is very limited, we undertook an updated systematic review to clarify the issue. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify randomised controlled trials of polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus either placebo or active comparator, in patients aged
Calis, Job C. J.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michaël; de Haan, Rob J.; Moons, Peter; Brabin, Bernard J.; Bates, Imelda
OBJECTIVES: To assess the importance of anemia in HIV-infected children in western and tropical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review with a descriptive component. METHODS:: Four databases were searched and reference lists of pertinent articles were checked. Studies that reported data on anemia or
Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler
OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…
Augestad, Liv Berit
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to summarize current scientific knowledge relating to the occurrence of mood disorders among children with visual impairments. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of articles published between January1998 and July 2016, inclusive. A total of 17 publications met the inclusion criteria, of which 15…
Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter
in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...
Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas
to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...
Hoyland, Alexa; Dye, Louise; Lawton, Clare L
Breakfast is recommended as part of a healthy diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, BMI and lifestyle. Breakfast is also widely promoted to improve cognitive function and academic performance, leading to the provision of breakfast initiatives by public health bodies. Despite this positive and intuitive perception of cognitive benefits, there has been no systematic review of the evidence. Systematic review methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in well-nourished children and nutritionally at-risk or stunted children. Acute experimental studies, school feeding programmes and studies of habitual breakfast intake are reviewed. Comparisons of breakfast v. no breakfast and breakfasts differing in energy and macronutrient composition are discussed. Included are forty-five studies described in forty-one papers published between 1950 and 2008. The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is more beneficial than skipping breakfast, but this effect is more apparent in children whose nutritional status is compromised. There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type, precluding recommendations for the size and composition of an optimal breakfast for children's cognitive function. Few studies examined adolescents. Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance, but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage. The present systematic review considers methodological issues in this field and makes recommendations for future research design and policy priorities.
Quelly, Susan B; Norris, Anne E; DiPietro, Jessica L
This review examines the impact of mobile app technology on obesity-related anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes in children and adolescents. Nine research articles retrieved from a systematic review of the literature met criteria. Evidence is limited and mixed, but argues for an impact of mobile app use on motivation and goal-setting behavior, and supports further study of the impact on childhood obesity-related outcomes such as attitudes, perceptions, physical activity, and dietary habits. Nurses can use this evidence to discuss potential benefits of health promotion mobile apps with parents, children, and adolescents to combat childhood obesity. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Weijenberg, Amerins; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.
Background Levetiracetam, a second-generation anti-epileptic drug (AED) with a good efficacy and safety profile, is licensed as monotherapy for adults and children older than 16 years with focal seizures with or without secondary generalization. However, it is increasingly being used off-label in
Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Jansma, Elise P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Background Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in
Luo, Gang; Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Schmick, Darell; Johnson, Michael D
Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease affecting 9.6 % of American children. Delay in asthma diagnosis is prevalent, resulting in suboptimal asthma management. To help avoid delay in asthma diagnosis and advance asthma prevention research, researchers have proposed various models to predict asthma development in children. This paper reviews these models. A systematic review was conducted through searching in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, and OpenGrey up to June 3, 2015. The literature on predictive models for asthma development in children was retrieved, with search results limited to human subjects and children (birth to 18 years). Two independent reviewers screened the literature, performed data extraction, and assessed article quality. The literature search returned 13,101 references in total. After manual review, 32 of these references were determined to be relevant and are discussed in the paper. We identify several limitations of existing predictive models for asthma development in children, and provide preliminary thoughts on how to address these limitations. Existing predictive models for asthma development in children have inadequate accuracy. Efforts to improve these models' performance are needed, but are limited by a lack of a gold standard for asthma development in children.
Ibrahim, Jeyda; Cosgrave, Nicola; Woolgar, Matthew
Borderline personality disorder has repeatedly been associated with a history of maltreatment in childhood; however, research on maltreatment and its link to borderline features in children is limited. The aim of this review is to synthesise the existing data on the association between maltreatment and borderline features in childhood. In total, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Studies indicated that children with borderline features were more likely to have a history of maltreatment, and that children who had been maltreated were more likely to present with borderline features. Other risk factors such as cognitive and executive functioning deficits, parental dysfunction and genetic vulnerability were also identified across studies. This review adds to the literature by highlighting maltreatment as a risk factor for borderline features in childhood. Longitudinal research is required to establish the link between childhood borderline features and adult borderline features. Implications for early identification, prevention and intervention services are discussed.
van Santvoort, Floor; Hosman, Clemens M H; Janssens, Jan M A M; van Doesum, Karin T M; Reupert, Andrea; van Loon, Linda M A
Children of mentally ill parents are at high risk of developing problems themselves. They are often identified and approached as a homogeneous group, despite diversity in parental diagnoses. Some studies demonstrate evidence for transgenerational equifinality (children of parents with various disorders are at risk of similar problems) and multifinality (children are at risk of a broad spectrum of problems). At the same time, other studies indicate transgenerational specificity (child problems are specifically related to the parent's diagnosis) and concordance (children are mainly at risk of the same disorder as their parent). Better insight into the similarities and differences between children of parents with various mental disorders is needed and may inform the development and evaluation of future preventive interventions for children and their families. Accordingly, we systematically compared 76 studies on diagnoses in children of parents with the most prevalent axis I disorders: unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorders. Methodological characteristics of the studies were compared, and outcomes were analyzed for the presence of transgenerational equifinality, multifinality, specificity, and concordance. Also, the strengths of the relationships between child and parent diagnoses were investigated. This review showed that multifinality and equifinality appear to be more of a characteristic of children of unipolar and bipolar parents than of children of anxious parents, whose risk is mainly restricted to developing anxiety disorders. For all children, risk transmission is assumed to be partly specific since the studies indicate a strong tendency for children to develop the same disorder as their parent.
Rees, Philippa; Kemp, Alison; Carter, Ben; Maguire, Sabine
To determine the proportion of children aged epistaxis in the absence of trauma or medical explanation and to identify the characteristics of the clinical presentation indicative of asphyxiation. An all-language systematic review was conducted by searching 10 databases from 1900 to 2015 and gray literature to identify high-quality studies that included children with epistaxis aged epistaxis were excluded. For each comparative study, the proportion of children presenting with epistaxis that were asphyxiated is reported with 95% CI. Of 2706 studies identified, 100 underwent full review, resulting in 6 included studies representing 30 children with asphyxiation-related epistaxis and 74 children with non-asphyxiation-related epistaxis. The proportion of children presenting with epistaxis that had been asphyxiated, reported by 3 studies, was between 7% and 24%. Features associated with asphyxiation in live children included malaise, altered skin color, respiratory difficulty, and chest radiograph abnormalities. There were no explicit associated features described among those children who were dead on arrival. There is an association between epistaxis and asphyxiation in young children; however, epistaxis does not constitute a diagnosis of asphyxia in itself. In any infant presenting with unexplained epistaxis, a thorough investigation of etiology is always warranted, which must include active exploration of asphyxia as a possible explanation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mugie, Suzanne M.; Benninga, Marc A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo
We aimed to review the published literature regarding the epidemiology of constipation in the general paediatric and adult population and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution, and associated factors. A search of the Medline database was performed. Study selection criteria included:
Paudel, Susan; Jancey, Jonine; Subedi, Narayan; Leavy, Justine
This study is a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to identify the correlates of mobile screen media use among children aged 8 years and less. Home or community-based studies were included in this review while child care or school-based studies were excluded. Children aged 8 years or less were the study population. Studies that included larger age groups without subgroup analysis specific to the 0-8 years category were excluded. Eight electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed English language primary research articles published or in press between January 2009 and March 2017 that have studied correlates of mobile screen media use in this age group. Mobile screen media use was the primary outcome measure. Mobile screen media use refers to children's use of mobile screens, such as mobile phones, electronic tablets, handheld computers or personal digital assistants. Thirteen studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified of which a total of 36 correlates were examined. Older children, children better skilled in using mobile screen media devices, those having greater access to such devices at home and whose parents had high mobile screen media use were more likely to have higher use of mobile screen media devices. No association existed with parent's age, sex and education. Limited research has been undertaken into young children's mobile screen media use and most of the variables have been studied too infrequently for robust conclusions to be reached. Future studies with objective assessment of mobile screen media use and frequent examination of the potential correlates across multiple studies and settings are recommended. This review is registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (registration number: CRD42015028028). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless
Whittington, Craig; Pennant, Mary; Kendall, Tim; Glazebrook, Cristine; Trayner, Penny; Groom, Madeleine; Hedderly, Tammy; Heyman, Isobel; Jackson, Georgina; Jackson, Stephen; Murphy, Tara; Rickards, Hugh; Robertson, Mary; Stern, Jeremy; Hollis, Chris
Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD) affect 1-2% of children and young people, but the most effective treatment is unclear. To establish the current evidence base, we conducted a systematic review of interventions for children and young people. Databases were searched from inception to 1 October 2014 for placebo-controlled trials of pharmacological, behavioural, physical or alternative interventions for tics in children and young people with TS or CTD. Certainty in the evidence was assessed with the GRADE approach. Forty trials were included [pharmacological (32), behavioural (5), physical (2), dietary (1)]. For tics/global score there was evidence favouring the intervention from four trials of α2-adrenergic receptor agonists [clonidine and guanfacine, standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.71; 95% CI -1.03, -0.40; N = 164] and two trials of habit reversal training (HRT)/comprehensive behavioural intervention (CBIT) (SMD = -0.64; 95% CI -0.99, -0.29; N = 133). Certainty in the effect estimates was moderate. A post hoc analysis combining oral clonidine/guanfacine trials with a clonidine patch trial continued to demonstrate benefit (SMD = -0.54; 95% CI -0.92, -0.16), but statistical heterogeneity was high. Evidence from four trials suggested that antipsychotic drugs improved tic scores (SMD = -0.74; 95% CI -1.08, -0.40; N = 76), but certainty in the effect estimate was low. The evidence for other interventions was categorised as low or very low quality, or showed no conclusive benefit. When medication is considered appropriate for the treatment of tics, the balance of clinical benefits to harm favours α2-adrenergic receptor agonists (clonidine and guanfacine) as first-line agents. Antipsychotics are likely to be useful but carry the risk of harm and so should be reserved for when α2-adrenergic receptor agonists are either ineffective or poorly tolerated. There is evidence that HRT/CBIT is effective, but there is no evidence for HRT
Bjørnseth, Ingunn; Szabo, Attila
Sexual violence against children in sports receives little research attention. The aim of this Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-based systematic literature review was to synthesize the up-to-date knowledge and identify the already known and the still unknown information in this area. The literature search yielded seven eligible studies for inclusion. Their key outcomes suggest that sexual violence against children in sports is prevalent. Girls are more often the victims than boys, but gender appears to mediate the disclosure. Minority groups are at higher risk for sexual violence, and athletes at higher levels of competition seem to be more vulnerable for grooming. While the coach is often seen as the perpetrator, new research suggests that peer-athletes may precede the coach. Disclosure is a problem, due to personal and interpersonal concerns, which deters scholastic research in this area. In the final section of the review, a "what we know" and "what we need to know" list of highlights is offered as the concluding summary of the review. These factual points could raise the awareness of parents and/or guardians about the vulnerability of their children to sexual abuse if they are involved in sports. They could also attract the attention of the policy makers to the urgent need of developing and implementing preventive measures to make sports and exercise environments pleasurable and safe for children.
LeBlanc, Allana G.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C.; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Tremblay, Mark S.
Background Active video games (AVGs) have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE) has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. Objective This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0?17 years). Data sources Online databases (M...
Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Hojsak, Iva
Probiotics have been suggested to have a preventive effect on respiratory tract infections (RTIs), but limited evidence exist on strain-specific effects. The main aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate strain-specific probiotic effects on RTIs in children attending day care...... RCTs investigating specific probiotic strains or their combinations in prevention of RTIs are needed. (Table presented)...
Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; Torres-Piles, Silvia; Martín, Jorge Guerrero; Jiménez-Palomares, María; Bellino, Macarena Núñez
ABSTRACT Objective: to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. Method: systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old). Results: of 1007...
Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu
Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.
Mosca, Renata; Kritzinger, Alta; van der Linde, Jeannie
Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI) are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013) was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. All the selected articles (n = 9) were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.
Verbecque, Evi; Marijnissen, Tessa; De Belder, Niels; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Boudewyns, An; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vereeck, Luc; Hallemans, Ann
The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction in children with SNHL classified according to the applied test and its corresponding sensitivity and specificity. Data were gathered using a systematic search query including reference screening. Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase were searched. Strategy and reporting of this review was based on the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Methodological quality was assessed with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. All studies, regardless the applied vestibular test, showed that vestibular function differs significantly between children with hearing loss and normal hearing (p 30).
Manuel A.P. Vilela
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of asthenopia in 0-18 year-old children through a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies.SOURCES: Inclusion criteria were population-based studies from 1960 to May of 2014 reporting the prevalence of asthenopia in children. The search was performed independently by two reviewers in the PubMed, EMBASE, and LILACS databases, with no language restriction. This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and the PRISMA Statement. Downs and Black score was used for quality assessment.SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: Out of 1692 potentially relevant citations retrieved from electronic databases and searches of reference lists, 26 were identified as potentially eligible. Five of these studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 2465 subjects. Pooled prevalence of asthenopia was 19.7% (12.4-26.4%. The majority of children with asthenopia did not present visual acuity or refraction abnormalities. The largest study evaluated 1448 children aged 6 years and estimated a prevalence of 12.6%. Associated risk factors were not clearly established.CONCLUSION: Although asthenopia is a frequent and relevant clinical problem in childhood, with potential consequences for learning, the scarcity of studies about the prevalence and clinical impact of asthenopia hinders the effective planning of public health measures.
Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John
During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…
Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Majnemer, Annette; Law, Mary; Lach, Lucyna
Children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) experience difficulties in their ability to move, problem solve, socialize, and communicate, associated with limitations in activities in all environments. They are at risk for lower participation in social and leisure activities critical in fostering friendships, developing interests, and promoting well-being. Little is known about involvement in leisure activities and their determinants. This systematic review aims to describe participation in leisure activities by children with CP and identify personal and environmental factors that influence participation. The following databases were reviewed--CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane, Web of Science, OT-seeker, and REHABDATA--using the keywords participation, cerebral palsy, leisure, and recreation. The literature to date suggests that children with physical disabilities are less involved in leisure activities than their peers; activities are more passive, home based, and lack variety. Several factors influence participation in leisure activities, including age, gender, activity limitations, family preferences and coping, motivation, and environmental resources and supports.
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the factors affecting the language, speech intelligibility, speech production, and lexical tone development of children with hearing loss who use spoken languages other than English. Relevant studies of children with hearing loss published between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed with reference to…
Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane
Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…
Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte
Background: Young patients with Functional Somatic Symptoms (FSS) are common and may present in all clinical settings. Clinical presentation varies from self–limiting to severe and disabling symptoms with impairment in several domains of daily life. In daily clinical practice there is no consensus...... on which treatment to offer children and adolescents with FSS. Research in adults shows that different FSS respond to the same kind of treatment, with the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy being well established. In the understanding of mental health issues in children, it is well established...... is broadly defined and encompasses a wide range of interventions. Aims: As part of a PhD study on family based treatment for children with FSS a systematic review of the literature will be performed in which the type and characteristics of existing family based psychological interventions for children...
Heilskov Rytter, Maren Johanne; Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Houmann, Tine
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric conditions in childhood. Dietary changes have been suggested as a way of reducing ADHD symptoms. Aims: To provide an overview of the evidence available on dietary interventions in children with ADHD......, a systematic review was carried out of all dietary intervention studies in children with ADHD. Methods: Relevant databases were searched in October 2011, with an update search in March 2013. The studies included describe diet interventions in children with ADHD or equivalent diagnoses measuring possible......). Conclusion: Elimination diets and fish oil supplementation seem to be the most promising dietary interventions for a reduction in ADHD symptoms in children. However, the studies on both treatments have shortcomings, and more thorough investigations will be necessary to decide whether they are recommendable...
Rosing, Susanne Nemholt; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels; Baguley, David M
Objectives To systematically review studies of the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and young people, in order to determine the methodological differences implicated in the variability of prevalence estimates and the influence of population characteristics on childhood tinnitus and hyperacusis. Data sources Articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases and from the relevant reference lists using the methods described in the study protocol, which has previously been published. Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Eligibility criteria Studies addressing childhood prevalence, for example, children and young people aged 5–19 years. Data selection 2 reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed study consistency. Owing to the heterogeneity in the methodologies among the reported studies, only narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. Results Having identified 1032 publications, 131 articles were selected and 25 articles met the inclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological consistency to be included. Prevalence estimates of tinnitus range from 4.7% to 46% in the general paediatric population and among children with normal hearing, and from 23.5% to 62.2% of population of children with hearing loss. Reported prevalence ranged from 6% to 41.9% when children with hearing loss and normal hearing were both included. The prevalence of hyperacusis varied from 3.2% to 17.1%. Conclusions Data on prevalence vary considerably according to the study design, study population and the research question posed. The age range of children studied was varied and a marked degree of variation between definitions (tinnitus, hyperacusis) and measures (severity, perception, annoyance) was observed. The lack of consistency among studies indicates the necessity of examining the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents with a set of
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Rainoldi, Alberto; Deregibus, Andrea
The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to identify papers dealing with risk factors associated with sleep bruxism (SB) in children. A systematic search was carried out based on the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs, SciELO. Studies investigating risk factors related to SB after multiple regression analysis and bruxism symptoms assessed with clinical diagnosis or specific questionnaires were searched. Six out of the 4546 initially identified studies were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Among the six analyzed articles, one randomized clinical trial (RCT) suggested the increase of SB in heavily exposed patients to second hand smoke (SHS) (OR=4.5, CI=2.2-9.4), two cross-sectional studies suggested neuroticism as determinant factor for the development of sleep bruxism (OR=1.9, CI=1.3-2.6), among children and three case-control studies suggested that children with sleep disturbances were more likely to have SB (OR=3.3, CI=1.6-6.6). Parafunctional behaviours (OR=2.3, CI=1.2-4.3) had a moderate association. SHS and sleep disturbances presented the strongest association with SB. The most recurrent source of bias was the lack of blinding procedures. Furthermore, the use of reliable SB diagnostic procedures should be recommended to increase the quality of future studies. The evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daniel, Allison I; Bandsma, Robert H; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Voskuijl, Wieger P; Potani, Isabel; van den Heuvel, Meta
The WHO Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children include a recommendation to provide sensory stimulation or play therapy for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This systematic review was performed to synthesize evidence around this recommendation. Specifically, the objective was to answer the question: "In children with severe acute malnutrition, does psychosocial stimulation improve child developmental, nutritional, or other outcomes?" A review protocol was registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016036403). MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched with terms related to SAM and psychosocial stimulation. Studies were selected if they applied a stimulation intervention in children with SAM and child developmental and nutritional outcomes were assessed. Findings were presented within a narrative synthesis and a summary of findings table. Quality of the evidence was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Only two studies, both non-randomized controlled trials, met the selection criteria for this review. One was conducted in Jamaica (1975) with a follow-up period of 14 years; the other was done in Bangladesh (2002) with a six-month follow-up. At the individual study level, each of the included studies demonstrated significant differences in child development outcomes between intervention and control groups. Only the study conducted in Bangladesh demonstrated a clinically significant increase in weight-for-age z-scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. The evidence supporting the recommendation of psychosocial stimulation for children with SAM is not only sparse, but also of very low quality across important outcomes. High-quality trials are needed to determine the effects of psychosocial stimulation interventions on outcomes in children
Daniel, Allison I; Bandsma, Robert H; Lytvyn, Lyubov; Voskuijl, Wieger P; Potani, Isabel; van den Heuvel, Meta
Background The WHO Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children include a recommendation to provide sensory stimulation or play therapy for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This systematic review was performed to synthesize evidence around this recommendation. Specifically, the objective was to answer the question: “In children with severe acute malnutrition, does psychosocial stimulation improve child developmental, nutritional, or other outcomes?” Methods A review protocol was registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016036403). MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched with terms related to SAM and psychosocial stimulation. Studies were selected if they applied a stimulation intervention in children with SAM and child developmental and nutritional outcomes were assessed. Findings were presented within a narrative synthesis and a summary of findings table. Quality of the evidence was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Findings Only two studies, both non–randomized controlled trials, met the selection criteria for this review. One was conducted in Jamaica (1975) with a follow–up period of 14 years; the other was done in Bangladesh (2002) with a six–month follow–up. At the individual study level, each of the included studies demonstrated significant differences in child development outcomes between intervention and control groups. Only the study conducted in Bangladesh demonstrated a clinically significant increase in weight–for–age z–scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions The evidence supporting the recommendation of psychosocial stimulation for children with SAM is not only sparse, but also of very low quality across important outcomes. High–quality trials are needed to determine the effects of
Morelli, Ilaria; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Bortolin, Michelangelo
Orthopedic injuries commonly affect children during earthquakes, but reports about them are rare. This setting may lead to different standards of care, but guidelines are still missing in this field. A systematic review was performed to: (1) assess type and body distribution of pediatric earthquake-related injuries, treatment performed, length of stay, and complications; and (2) identify starting points to define standards of care. PubMed database was researched for papers (1999-2014 period) in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. Inclusion criteria were: English, French, Spanish, or Italian language and data reported about orthopedic lesions in children (≤18 years old). Reviews, letters, commentaries, editorials, and single case reports were excluded. Two independent reviewers selected articles after abstract and full-text reading. Traumatic injuries caused child hospital admissions ranging from 46.9% to 100.0%; 16% to 53% suffered fractures. Lower limbs mostly were involved. Soft-tissue injuries affected 55% of patients. Debridement and external fixation (EF) were the most frequent surgical treatments. Amputation rates varied from 5% to 11%. This study revealed that field hospitals should be prepared to: (1) treat mainly lower extremities fractures in children; and (2) use especially EF techniques. The presence of orthopedic surgeons familiar with pediatric traumatology should be considered.
Xu, Jane; Adams, Susan; Liu, Yingrui Cyril; Karpelowsky, Jonathan
Appendectomy has remained the gold standard treatment of acute appendicitis for more than 100years. Nonoperative management (NOM) has been shown to be a valid treatment alternative for acute uncomplicated appendicitis in adults. A systematic review of available evidence comparing operative management (OM) and NOM in children with acute uncomplicated appendicitis was performed. Systematic searches of MedLine, Embase, and a clinical trial register (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) were performed in March 2016. Only articles that studied NOM for uncomplicated appendicitis in children were included. Data generation was performed independently by two authors, and quality was assessed using the rating schema by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. 15 articles were selected: four retrospective analyses, four prospective cohort studies, four prospective nonrandomized comparative trials and one randomized controlled trial (RCT). Initial success of the NOM groups (a cure within two weeks of intervention) ranged from 58 to 100%, with 0.1-31.8% recurrence at one year. Although present literature is scarce, publications support the feasibility of further studies investigating NOM of acute uncomplicated appendicitis in children. Higher quality prospective RCTs with larger sample sizes and robust randomization methods, studying the noninferiority of NOM with antibiotics compared with OM are required to establish its utility. This manuscript is a systematic review and thus assigned the lowest evidence used from the manuscripts analyzed which is a Level IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ananthan, Anitha; Balasubramanian, Haribalakrishna; Rao, Shripada; Patole, Sanjay
Probiotics may benefit in cystic fibrosis (CF) as gut dysbiosis is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms in CF. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs of probiotic supplementation in children with CF, using the Cochrane methodology, preferred reporting items for systematic reviews (PRISMA) statement, and meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Primary outcomes were pulmonary exacerbations, duration of hospitalization and antibiotics, and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms, markers of gut inflammation, and intestinal microbial balance. A total of nine studies (RCTs, 6, non-RCTs, 3; N = 275) with some methodological weaknesses were included in the review. The pooled estimate showed significant reduction in the rate of pulmonary exacerbation (fixed effects model, two parallel group RCTs and one cross-over trial: relative risk (RR) 0.25, (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.15,0.41); p probiotic supplementation. Probiotic supplementation significantly improved gastrointestinal symptoms (one RCT, one non-RCT) and gut microbial balance (decreased Proteobacteria, increased Firmicutes, and Bacteroides in one RCT, one non-RCT). Limited low-quality evidence exists on the effects of probiotics in children with CF. Well-designed adequately powered RCTs assessing clinically meaningful outcomes are required to study this important issue. • Gut dysbiosis is frequent in children with cystic fibrosis due to frequent exposure to pathogens and antibiotics. • Probiotics decrease gut dysbiosis and improve gut maturity and function. What is New: • This comprehensive systematic review shows that current evidence on the safety and efficacy of probiotics in children with cystic fibrosis is limited and of low quality. • Well-designed and adequately powered trials assessing clinically important outcomes are
Wang, X; Ling, L; Su, H; Cheng, J; Jin, L; Sun, Y-H
The aim of our study was to systematically review studies which had compared self-concept in left-behind children with the general population of children in China. Relevant studies about self-concept of left-behind children in China published from 2004 to 2014 were sought by searching online databases including Chinese Biological Medicine Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database, Vip Database, PubMed Database, Google Scholar and Web of Science. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed by using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Poled effect size and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random effects model. Cochrane's Q was used to test for heterogeneity and I(2) index was used to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Nineteen studies involving 7758 left-behind children met the inclusion criteria and 15 studies were included in a meta-analysis. The results indicated that left-behind group had a lower score of self-concept and more psychological problems than the control group. The factors associated with self-concept in left-behind children were gender, age, grade and the relationships with parents, guardians and teachers. Left-behind children had lower self-concept and more mental health problems compared with the general population of children. The development of self-concept may be an important channel for promoting mental health of left-behind children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dube, Annie; Moffatt, Madeline; Davison, Colleen; Bartels, Susan
Haiti remains the poorest country in the Americas and one of the poorest in the world. Children in Haiti face many health concerns, some of which were exacerbated by the 2010 earthquake. This systematic review summarizes published research conducted since the 2010 earthquake, focusing on health outcomes for children in Haiti, including physical, psychological, and socioeconomic well-being. A literature search was conducted identifying articles published from January 2010 through May 2016 related to pediatric health outcomes in Haiti. Two reviewers screened articles independently. Included research articles described at least one physical health, psychological health, or socioeconomic outcome among children less than 18 years of age in Haiti since the January 2010 earthquake. Fifty-eight full-length research articles were reviewed, covering infectious diseases (non-cholera [N=12] and cholera [N=7]), nutrition (N=11), traumatic injuries (N=11), mental health (N=9), anemia (N=4), abuse and violence (N=5), and other topics (N=3). Many children were injured in the 2010 earthquake, and care of their injuries is described in the literature. Infectious diseases were a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among children following the earthquake, with cholera being one of the most important etiologies. The literature also revealed that large numbers of children in Haiti have significant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), peri-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety, and that food insecurity and malnutrition continue to be important issues. Future health programs in Haiti should focus on provision of clean water, sanitation, and other measures to prevent infectious diseases. Mental health programming and services for children also appear to be greatly needed, and food insecurity/malnutrition must be addressed if children are to lead healthy, productive lives. Given the burden of injury after the 2010 earthquake, further research on long
Fobian, Aaron D; Elliott, Lindsey; Louie, Tinnie
Many of the risk factors for heart disease have recently been shown to develop during childhood such as left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrous plaque lesions. As risk for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents has risen, sleep duration has decreased, and inadequate sleep in children and adolescents has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of this manuscript are to provide an updated systematic review of the literature assessing sleep, hypertension, and cardiovascular risk and evaluate the strength of the evidence based on the available research. A systematic review was conducted using six databases from January 1, 2015 through March 9, 2018. We sought studies which looked at the relationship between sleep duration, sleep timing, or sleep quality and outcome variables of hypertension, inflammation, obesity, glucose or insulin, and lipids in children and adolescents. We found 24 studies which met our criteria. Nine studies included hypertension as an outcome variable; fifteen included obesity; thirteen included glucose or insulin; eight included lipids; and three included measures of inflammation. The existing literature on sleep and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents is limited and relatively weak. Only one RCT was identified, and the overwhelming majority of studies had a high risk of bias. The strongest evidence of an association with sleep is with obesity, hypertension, and insulin sensitivity. Further research using more standardized methods and objective measures is needed to determine if a causal relationship truly exists between sleep and cardiovascular risk.
Peters, Jeroen P M; Ramakers, Geerte G J; Smit, Adriana L; Grolman, Wilko
To systematically review the literature on cochlear implantation (CI) for children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL). PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Embase databases were searched for articles up to June 29, 2015 for UHL, children and CI, and all of their synonyms. After screening of titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligible articles, directness of evidence (DoE) and risk of bias (RoB) were assessed for the included articles. Study characteristics and data on our outcomes of interest (speech perception in noise, sound localization, quality of life, and speech and language development) were extracted. In total, 296 unique articles were retrieved, of which five articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. All of these articles were case series or case reports and had a low to moderate DoE and a high RoB. In these studies, heterogeneous findings were reported in small patient samples. Speech perception in noise and localization ability improved in most patients. Although only measured in one study each, quality of life and speech and language development improved. Most of these results were not statistically significant. No firm conclusions can be drawn on the effectiveness of CI in children with UHL, due to heterogeneous findings, small sample sizes, and the lack of high Level of Evidence studies. Based on the findings of this systematic review, cochlear implantation may be an effective treatment option in children with UHL. Laryngoscope, 126:713-721, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Keilty, Krista; Cohen, Eyal; Ho, Michelle; Spalding, Karen; Stremler, Robyn
Society relies on family caregivers of children who depend on medical technology (e.g. mechanical ventilation), to provide highly skilled and vigilant care in their homes 24 hours per day. Sleep disturbance is among the most common complaints of these caregivers. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine studies reporting on sleep outcomes in family caregivers of technology dependent children. All relevant databases were systematically searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. Given the heterogeneity of the studies, a qualitative analysis was completed and thus results of this review are presented as a narrative. Thirteen studies were retrieved that met eligibility criteria for inclusion. All of the studies reported on family caregivers of children with medical complexity living at home. Moreover, all of the studies relied entirely on self-report, not objective sleep measures. No intervention studies were found. Sleep disturbance was found to be common (51-100%) along with caregiver reports of poor sleep quality. Sleep quantity was seldom measured, but was found in the few studies that did, to be approximately 6 hours, or less than recommendations for optimal health and daytime function. Multiple caregiver, child and environmental factors were also identified that may negatively influence caregiver sleep, health and daytime function. Findings of this review suggest that family caregivers of children with medical complexity who depend on medical technology achieve poor sleep quality and quantity that may place them at risk of the negative consequences of sleep deprivation. Recommendations for practice include that health care providers routinely assess for sleep disturbance in this vulnerable population. The review also suggests that studies using objective sleep measurement are needed to more fully characterize sleep and inform the development of targeted interventions to promote sleep in family caregivers of technology dependent children.
Tor, Jordina; Dolz, Montserrat; Sintes, Anna; Muñoz, Daniel; Pardo, Marta; de la Serna, Elena; Puig, Olga; Sugranyes, Gisela; Baeza, Inmaculada
The concept of being at risk for psychosis has been introduced both for adults and children and adolescents, but fewer studies have been conducted in the latter population. The aim of this study is to systematically review the articles associated with clinical description, interventions, outcome and other areas in children and adolescents at risk for psychosis. We searched in MEDLINE/PubMed and PsycINFO databases for articles published up to 30/06/16. Reviewed articles were prospective studies; written in English; original articles with Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis samples; and mean age of samples younger than 18 years. From 103 studies initially selected, 48 met inclusion criteria and were systematically reviewed. Studies show that CHR children and adolescents present several clinical characteristics at baseline, with most attenuated positive-symptom inclusion criteria observed, reporting mostly perceptual abnormalities and suspiciousness, and presenting comorbid conditions such as depressive and anxiety disorders. CHR children and adolescents show lower general intelligence and no structural brain changes compared with controls. Original articles reviewed show rates of conversion to psychosis between 17 and 20% at 1 year follow-up and between 7 and 21% at 2 years. While 36% of patients recovered from their CHR status at 6-year follow-up, 40% still met CHR criteria. Studies in children and adolescents with CHR were conducted with different methodologies, assessments tools and small samples. It is important to conduct studies on psychopharmacological and psychological treatment, as well as replication of the few studies found.
Annaim, Ali; Lassiter, Mia; Viera, Anthony J; Ferris, Maria
Although some research has examined the use of games for the education of pediatric patients, the use of technology for parental education seems like an appropriate application as it has been a part of the popular culture for at least 30 years. The main objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature for research evaluating the use of interactive media in the education of parents of children with chronic conditions. We searched the MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane database of systematic reviews and EMBASE databases from 1986 to 2014 seeking original investigations on the use of interactive media and video games to educate parents of children with chronic conditions. Cohort studies, randomized control trials, and observational studies were included in our search of the literature. Two investigators reviewed abstracts and full texts as necessary. The quality of the studies was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Overall trend in the results and the degree of certainty in the results were considered when assessing the body of literature pertaining to our focused questions. Our initial search identified 4367 papers, but only 12 fulfilled the criterion established for final analysis, with the majority of the studies having flaws that reduced their quality. These papers reported mostly positive results supporting the idea that parent education is possible through interactive media. We found limited evidence of the effectiveness of using serious games and or interactive media to educate parents of children with chronic conditions.
Jenkin, G; Madhvani, N; Signal, L; Bowers, S
The ubiquitous marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages is a key modifiable influence on childhood dietary patterns and obesity. Much of the research on television food advertising is focused on identifying and quantifying unhealthy food marketing with comparatively few studies examining persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy food to children. This review identifies the most frequently documented persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children via television. A systematic search of eight online databases using key search terms identified 267 unique articles. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed the most commonly reported persuasive techniques used on television to promote food to children. These were the use of premium offers, promotional characters, nutrition and health-related claims, the theme of taste, and the emotional appeal of fun. Identifying and documenting these commonly reported persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television is critical for the monitoring and evaluation of advertising codes and industry pledges and the development of further regulation in this area. This has a strong potential to curbing the international obesity epidemic besieging children throughout the world. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Whittingham, K; Wee, D; Boyd, R
This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy of parenting interventions (i.e. behavioural family intervention and parent training) with parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) on child behavioural outcomes and parenting style/skill outcomes. The following databases were searched: Medline (1950-April 2010), PubMed (1951-April 2010), PsycINFO (1840-April 2010), CINAHL (1982-April 2010) and Web of Science (1900-April 2010). No randomized clinical trials of parenting interventions with parents of children with CP were identified. Three studies were identified that involved the examination of a targeted parenting intervention via a pre-post design. Interventions utilized included the implementation of parenting interventions in conjunction with behavioural intervention and oral motor exercises for children with CP and feeding difficulties, the Hanen It Takes Two to Talk programme and a Functional Communication Training programme for parents. All studies found changes in relevant child behavioural outcomes. The studies reviewed suggest that parenting interventions may be an effective intervention for parents of children with CP. However, the current research is limited to pre-post designs of targeted parenting interventions (e.g. parenting interventions focused upon communication). A randomized controlled trial of parenting interventions for families of children with CP is urgently needed to address this paucity in the literature and provide families of children with CP with an evidence-based intervention to address child behavioural and emotional problems as well as parenting challenges. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hendrie, Gilly A; Brindal, Emily; Baird, Danielle; Gardner, Claire
Strategies are needed to address the shortfall in children's dairy food and Ca intakes. The present review identified interventions targeting an increase in children's dairy food or Ca intakes, and determined characteristics associated with successful intervention. A systematic literature search identified fourteen intervention studies, published in English, between 1990 and 2010. Studies were evaluated for study population, setting and mode of delivery, dietary targets and outcome measures, measures of intervention intensity, intervention description, the use of behaviour change techniques and intervention effectiveness. Interventions targeting an increase in dairy food or Ca intake. Children aged 5-12 years. Ten of the fourteen studies were considered to be effective. Studies focusing on encouraging intake of dairy foods or Ca alone were all effective, compared with 55 % of studies promoting dairy within the context of a healthy diet. Effective interventions tended to be higher in intensity, provide dairy foods and were delivered across a variety of settings to a range of primary targets. The number of behaviour change techniques used did not differentiate effective and ineffective interventions, but the use of taste exposure and prompting practice appeared to be important for effective intervention. Interventions that target an increase in children's dairy food or Ca intake could potentially increase children's dairy food intake by about one serving daily. Research conducted outside the USA is needed. The review has identified some promising strategies likely to be part of effective interventions for improving dairy and Ca intakes in countries where children's intake is insufficient.
Bowatte, Gayan; Tham, Rachel; Perret, Jennifer L; Bloom, Michael S; Dong, Guanghui; Waidyatillake, Nilakshi; Bui, Dinh; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Jalaludin, Bin; Lodge, Caroline J; Dharmage, Shyamali C
Young children are particularly vulnerable to otitis media (OM) which globally affects over 80% of children below the age of 3 years. Although there is convincing evidence for an association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and OM in children, the relationship with ambient air pollution is not clear. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and OM in children. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases. Of 934 references identified, 24 articles were included. There is an increasing body of evidence supporting an association between higher ambient air pollution exposure and a higher risk of OM in children. While NO₂ showed the most consistent association with OM, other specific pollutants showed inconsistent associations. Studies were mainly conducted in high/middle income countries with limited evidence from low-income countries. Although there was a general consensus that higher air pollution exposure is associated with a greater prevalence of OM, the evidence for associations with specific pollutants is inconsistent. More well-designed studies on associations between specific air pollutants as risk factors for OM are warranted, especially in low income countries with high air pollution levels.
Tham, Rachel; Perret, Jennifer L.; Bloom, Michael S.; Dong, Guanghui; Waidyatillake, Nilakshi; Bui, Dinh; Morgan, Geoffrey G.; Jalaludin, Bin; Lodge, Caroline J.
Young children are particularly vulnerable to otitis media (OM) which globally affects over 80% of children below the age of 3 years. Although there is convincing evidence for an association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and OM in children, the relationship with ambient air pollution is not clear. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and OM in children. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases. Of 934 references identified, 24 articles were included. There is an increasing body of evidence supporting an association between higher ambient air pollution exposure and a higher risk of OM in children. While NO2 showed the most consistent association with OM, other specific pollutants showed inconsistent associations. Studies were mainly conducted in high/middle income countries with limited evidence from low-income countries. Although there was a general consensus that higher air pollution exposure is associated with a greater prevalence of OM, the evidence for associations with specific pollutants is inconsistent. More well-designed studies on associations between specific air pollutants as risk factors for OM are warranted, especially in low income countries with high air pollution levels. PMID:29401661
Full Text Available Young children are particularly vulnerable to otitis media (OM which globally affects over 80% of children below the age of 3 years. Although there is convincing evidence for an association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and OM in children, the relationship with ambient air pollution is not clear. We aimed to systematically review the literature on the relationship between ambient air pollution exposure and OM in children. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases. Of 934 references identified, 24 articles were included. There is an increasing body of evidence supporting an association between higher ambient air pollution exposure and a higher risk of OM in children. While NO2 showed the most consistent association with OM, other specific pollutants showed inconsistent associations. Studies were mainly conducted in high/middle income countries with limited evidence from low-income countries. Although there was a general consensus that higher air pollution exposure is associated with a greater prevalence of OM, the evidence for associations with specific pollutants is inconsistent. More well-designed studies on associations between specific air pollutants as risk factors for OM are warranted, especially in low income countries with high air pollution levels.
Woodman, J; Lecky, F; Hodes, D; Pitt, M; Taylor, B; Gilbert, Ruth
Screening markers are used in emergency departments (EDs) to identify children who should be assessed for possible physical abuse and neglect. We conducted three systematic reviews evaluating age, repeat attendance and injury type as markers for physical abuse or neglect in injured children attending EDs. We included studies comparing markers in physically abused or neglected children and non-abused injured children attending ED or hospital. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) for age group, repeat attendance and injury type (head injury, bruises, fractures, burns or other). Given the low prevalence of abuse or neglect, we considered that an LR of 10 or more would be clinically useful. All studies were poor quality. Infancy increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured or admitted children (LRs 7.7-13.0, 2 studies) but was not strongly associated in children attending the ED (LR 1.5, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.8; one study). Repeat attendance did not substantially increase the risk of abuse or neglect and may be confounded by chronic disease and socio-economic status (LRs 0.8-3.9, 3 studies). One study showed no evidence that the type of injury substantially increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured children. There was no evidence that any of the markers (infancy, type of injury, repeated attendance) were sufficiently accurate (i.e. LR >or= 10) to screen injured children in the ED to identify those requiring paediatric assessment for possible physical abuse or neglect. Clinicians should be aware that among injured children at ED a high proportion of abused children will present without these characteristics and a high proportion of non-abused children will present with them. Information about age, injury type and repeat attendances should be interpreted in this context.
Lelio Moura Lourenco
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the literature on the consequences of exposure to domestic violence – DV for children. The period 2005-2011 was searched in Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, Dialnet, Redalyc, Google Scholar and PsycInfo, using the following descriptors: intimate partner violence , domestic violence , violence descriptors ( physical , sexual, psychological , and child , exposure or witness . The author, country, methodology, journal and the consequences of exposure to DV were considered. 122 articles were selected. The United States and Brazil accounted for 78.7% of the publications, with children being the main victims (51.6%. The major impacts upon children´s health were posttraumatic stress and insecurity (75.8%.
Maruska, K; Hanewinkel, R
In accordance with the conclusion of the US National Cancer Institute to consider smoking in films, in addition to other factors, as one risk factor for the initiation of smoking among children and adolescents, the World Health Organization has invited its member states to implement rules for limiting smoking depictions in films. Results of methodically high-value longitudinal and experimental studies which provide empirical evidence for the association between smoking depictions in films and smoking among children and adolescents are presented. Interpretation of this association as causal according to Hill criteria is discussed. In this systematic review, future personal and structural preventive interventions to address this problem in Germany are presented and discussed. Of special importance is the enhancement of both parental competence in media education as well as media literacy in children and adolescents. Rating films depicting smoking as approved for adults only could yield the largest effect, since it leads to an enduring reduction of exposure.
Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira; Matas, Carla Gentile; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho de
The aim of this study was to analyze the findings on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with cochlear implant through a systematic literature review. After formulation of research question and search of studies in four data bases with the following descriptors: electrophysiology (eletrofisiologia), cochlear implantation (implante coclear), child (criança), neuronal plasticity (plasticidade neuronal) and audiology (audiologia), were selected articles (original and complete) published between 2002 and 2013 in Brazilian Portuguese or English. A total of 208 studies were found; however, only 13 contemplated the established criteria and were further analyzed; was made data extraction for analysis of methodology and content of the studies. The results described suggest rapid changes in P1 component of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in children with cochlear implants. Although there are few studies on the theme, cochlear implant has been shown to produce effective changes in central auditory path ways especially in children implanted before 3 years and 6 months of age.
O'Connor, S G; Maher, J P; Belcher, B R; Leventhal, A M; Margolin, G; Shonkoff, E T; Dunton, G F
Low adherence to guidelines for weight-related behaviours (e.g. dietary intake and physical activity) among US children underscores the need to better understand how parental factors may influence children's obesity risk. In addition to most often acting as primary caregiver to their children, women are also known to experience greater levels of stress than men. This study systematically reviewed associations between maternal stress and children's weight-related behaviours. Our search returned 14 eligible articles, representing 25 unique associations of maternal stress with a distinct child weight-related behaviour (i.e. healthy diet [n = 3], unhealthy diet [n = 6], physical activity [n = 7] and sedentary behaviour [n = 9]). Overall, findings for the relationship between maternal stress and children's weight-related behaviours were mixed, with no evidence for an association with children's healthy or unhealthy dietary intake, but fairly consistent evidence for the association of maternal stress with children's lower physical activity and higher sedentary behaviour. Recommendations for future research include prioritizing prospective designs, identifying moderators, and use of high-resolution, real-time data collection techniques to elucidate potential mechanisms. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Cheong, Sau Kuan; Johnston, Leanne M
This study involved a systematic review aimed to identify self-concept measures that provided published psychometrics for primary school aged children (8-12 years) with cerebral palsy (CP). Six electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Web of Science) were searched to identify assessments that (1) measured self-concept; (2) in children aged 8-12 years; (3) with CP; (4) with psychometrics available. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to evaluate psychometric properties and the CanChild Outcome Measure Rating Form was used to evaluate clinical utility. Search yielded 271 papers, of which five met inclusion criteria. These papers reported five measures of self-concept with psychometric properties for the target population: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Index, Self-Description Questionnaire-I, Self-Perception Profile for Children (original) and two separate modifications of the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Currently, no self-concept measures published in English had sufficient psychometric data for children with CP. The Self-Description Questionnaire-I and the Self-Perception Profile for Children were promising options. Further research is required (a) to determine self-concept construct components important for children with CP and (b) to examine the relative strength, validity, reliability and clinical utility of self-concept measures for the target population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is a need for evidence based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD to limit the life-long, psychosocial impact of pragmatic language impairments. This systematic review identified 22 studies reporting on 20 pragmatic language interventions for children with ASD aged 0-18 years. The characteristics of each study, components of the interventions, and the methodological quality of each study were reviewed. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 15 interventions. Results revealed some promising approaches, indicating that active inclusion of the child and parent in the intervention was a significant mediator of intervention effect. Participant age, therapy setting or modality were not significant mediators between the interventions and measures of pragmatic language. The long-term effects of these interventions and the generalisation of learning to new contexts is largely unknown. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed.
DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Yarzabal, Juan-Pablo; Cruz, James Philip; Schmidt, Johannes E; Kleijnen, Jos
This systematic review examined the epidemiology of otitis media (OM) in children children <6 years of age, OM prevalence was found to be 9.2% in Nigeria, 10% in Egypt, 6.7% in China, 9.2% in India, 9.1% in Iran and 5.1-7.8% in Russia. Few studies examined the etiology of OM and the antibacterial resistance. The most common bacterial pathogens were S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and S. aureus. A high resistance to penicillin was reported in Nigeria and Turkey. Despite the variability between the identified studies, this review indicates that OM and its various sub-types remain a significant burden in different settings. However, the heterogeneity of studies and a general lack of reliable data made generalisation very difficult. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.
Brussoni, Mariana; Gibbons, Rebecca; Gray, Casey; Ishikawa, Takuro; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Chabot, Guylaine; Fuselli, Pamela; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.
Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed. PMID:26062038
Davis, Gavin A; Anderson, Vicki; Babl, Franz E; Gioia, Gerard A; Giza, Christopher C; Meehan, William; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Purcell, Laura; Schatz, Philip; Schneider, Kathryn J; Takagi, Michael; Yeates, Keith Owen; Zemek, Roger
To evaluate the evidence regarding the management of sport-related concussion (SRC) in children and adolescents. The eight subquestions included the effects of age on symptoms and outcome, normal and prolonged duration, the role of computerised neuropsychological tests (CNTs), the role of rest, and strategies for return to school and return to sport (RTSp). Systematic review. MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID) and PsycInfo (OVID). Studies were included if they were original research on SRC in children aged 5 years to 18 years, and excluded if they were review articles, or did not focus on childhood SRC. A total of 5853 articles were identified, and 134 articles met the inclusion criteria. Some articles were common to multiple subquestions. Very few studies examined SRC in young children, aged 5-12 years. This systematic review recommends that in children: child and adolescent age-specific paradigms should be applied; child-validated symptom rating scales should be used; the widespread routine use of baseline CNT is not recommended; the expected duration of symptoms associated with SRC is less than 4 weeks; prolonged recovery be defined as symptomatic for greater than 4 weeks; a brief period of cognitive and physical rest should be followed with gradual symptom-limited physical and cognitive activity; all schools be encouraged to have a concussion policy and should offer appropriate academic accommodations and support to students recovering from SRC; and children and adolescents should not RTSp until they have successfully returned to school, however early introduction of symptom-limited physical activity is appropriate. PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039184. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Kolte, Lilian; Briend, André; Friis, Henrik; Christensen, Vibeke Brix
Malnourished children have increased risk of dying, with most deaths caused by infectious diseases. One mechanism behind this may be impaired immune function. However, this immune deficiency of malnutrition has not previously been systematically reviewed. To review the scientific literature about immune function in children with malnutrition. A systematic literature search was done in PubMed, and additional articles identified in reference lists and by correspondence with experts in the field. The inclusion criteria were studies investigating immune parameters in children aged 1-60 months, in relation to malnutrition, defined as wasting, underweight, stunting, or oedematous malnutrition. The literature search yielded 3402 articles, of which 245 met the inclusion criteria. Most were published between 1970 and 1990, and only 33 after 2003. Malnutrition is associated with impaired gut-barrier function, reduced exocrine secretion of protective substances, and low levels of plasma complement. Lymphatic tissue, particularly the thymus, undergoes atrophy, and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses are reduced. Levels of antibodies produced after vaccination are reduced in severely malnourished children, but intact in moderate malnutrition. Cytokine patterns are skewed towards a Th2-response. Other immune parameters seem intact or elevated: leukocyte and lymphocyte counts are unaffected, and levels of immunoglobulins, particularly immunoglobulin A, are high. The acute phase response appears intact, and sometimes present in the absence of clinical infection. Limitations to the studies include their observational and often cross-sectional design and frequent confounding by infections in the children studied. The immunological alterations associated with malnutrition in children may contribute to increased mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms are still inadequately understood, as well as why different types of malnutrition are associated with different immunological
Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Kolte, Lilian; Briend, André; Friis, Henrik; Christensen, Vibeke Brix
Background Malnourished children have increased risk of dying, with most deaths caused by infectious diseases. One mechanism behind this may be impaired immune function. However, this immune deficiency of malnutrition has not previously been systematically reviewed. Objectives To review the scientific literature about immune function in children with malnutrition. Methods A systematic literature search was done in PubMed, and additional articles identified in reference lists and by correspondence with experts in the field. The inclusion criteria were studies investigating immune parameters in children aged 1–60 months, in relation to malnutrition, defined as wasting, underweight, stunting, or oedematous malnutrition. Results The literature search yielded 3402 articles, of which 245 met the inclusion criteria. Most were published between 1970 and 1990, and only 33 after 2003. Malnutrition is associated with impaired gut-barrier function, reduced exocrine secretion of protective substances, and low levels of plasma complement. Lymphatic tissue, particularly the thymus, undergoes atrophy, and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses are reduced. Levels of antibodies produced after vaccination are reduced in severely malnourished children, but intact in moderate malnutrition. Cytokine patterns are skewed towards a Th2-response. Other immune parameters seem intact or elevated: leukocyte and lymphocyte counts are unaffected, and levels of immunoglobulins, particularly immunoglobulin A, are high. The acute phase response appears intact, and sometimes present in the absence of clinical infection. Limitations to the studies include their observational and often cross-sectional design and frequent confounding by infections in the children studied. Conclusion The immunological alterations associated with malnutrition in children may contribute to increased mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms are still inadequately understood, as well as why different types of
Full Text Available Abstract Background This systematic review is the first step in a study investigating the resilience methods and processes in families of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In particular, this review will focus on chronic or persistent pain, as a common symptom of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The experience of persistent pain can add to the functional disability associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Resilience has relevance to all areas of paediatric psychology, and targeted attention to child, sibling, and parent strengths within the context of paediatric chronic pain and juvenile idiopathic arthritis in particular will augment the field on numerous levels. The objective is to determine which resilience processes are associated with a favourable quality of life in terms of academic, communication, emotional, interpersonal, physical, psychological, and social well-being in families of children with chronic pain associated with JIA. Methods/design This systematic review will be conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and the PRESS (Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies guideline. Longitudinal, cross-sectional, and treatment studies written in English will be included, as will grey literature (i.e. conference abstracts and dissertations. Studies involving participants who are 6–18 years of age, have been diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, are experiencing chronic pain, and are currently undergoing treatment will be included regardless of sex, arthritis type, and type of treatment. Studies including siblings who are 6–18 years of age and the patient’s parents will be included. Discussion Research exploring resilience within the adult population is accruing. Shifting our focus to protective factors of resilience in the context of paediatric chronic pain, specifically
Biswas, T; Islam, A; Islam, Md S; Pervin, S; Rawal, L B
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (0-12 years) and adolescents (13-19 years) has emerged as a major public health threat in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, there is a serious paucity of credible data on these issues that can be used for policy and programmatic development. This article presents a systematic review of studies on overweight and obesity to present a more accurate estimate by pooling results. Systematic review. The study systematically reviewed relevant literature published between 1998 and 2015 using predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist was used to identify relevant studies. Measures of heterogeneity and variability were calculated, and a random effect model was used to report pooled prevalence rates of overweight and obesity. The findings show that prevalence rates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents varied widely from 1.0% to 20.6% and 0.3% to 25.6%, respectively. The pooled prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 7.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.0-10.0) and 6.0% (95% CI 4.0-8.0), respectively. The pooled prevalence rate of overweight increased substantially over the years, from 3.6% during 1998-2003 (95% CI 0.3-29.2) to 5.7% during 2004-2009 (95% CI 0.8-30.2) and 7.9% by 2010-2015 (95% CI 5.1-12.1). However, the pooled prevalence rate of obesity registered a sharp decline between 1998-2003 and 2004-2009 - from 9.7% (95% CI 5.7-16.2) to 2.0% (95% CI 0.3-11.1) - and subsequently increased significantly to 9.0% by 2010-2015 (95% CI 5.3-14.6). This review identified increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. This study underscores the urgent need to promote healthy lifestyles among children and adolescents with a view to effectively address the increasing problem of overweight and obesity. This would also help to prevent the development of
Arvedson, Joan; Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi
Aim: The aim of this unregistered evidence-based systematic review was to determine the state and quality of evidence on the effects of oral motor exercises (OME) on swallowing physiology, pulmonary health, functional swallowing outcomes, and drooling management in children with swallowing disorders. Method: A systematic search of 20 electronic…
Wren, Yvonne; Harding, Sam; Goldbart, Juliet; Roulstone, Sue
Multiple interventions have been developed to address speech sound disorder (SSD) in children. Many of these have been evaluated but the evidence for these has not been considered within a model which categorizes types of intervention. The opportunity to carry out a systematic review of interventions for SSD arose as part of a larger scale study of interventions for primary speech and language impairment in preschool children. To review systematically the evidence for interventions for SSD in preschool children and to categorize them within a classification of interventions for SSD. Relevant search terms were used to identify intervention studies published up to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: participants were aged between 2 years and 5 years, 11 months; they exhibited speech, language and communication needs; and a primary outcome measure of speech was used. Studies that met inclusion criteria were quality appraised using the single case experimental design (SCED) or PEDro-P, depending on their methodology. Those judged to be high quality were classified according to the primary focus of intervention. The final review included 26 studies. Case series was the most common research design. Categorization to the classification system for interventions showed that cognitive-linguistic and production approaches to intervention were the most frequently reported. The highest graded evidence was for three studies within the auditory-perceptual and integrated categories. The evidence for intervention for preschool children with SSD is focused on seven out of 11 subcategories of interventions. Although all the studies included in the review were good quality as defined by quality appraisal checklists, they mostly represented lower-graded evidence. Higher-graded studies are needed to understand clearly the strength of evidence for different interventions. © 2018 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Duncombe, Stephanie L; Voss, Christine; Harris, Kevin C
The phase-out of mercury from clinical settings calls for valid alternatives to assess blood pressure (BP) in children. Aneroid devices provide a mercury-free alternative to BP measurements by auscultation, whereas oscillometric (automated) devices are increasingly becoming the norm in clinical practice due to their ease of use. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the accuracy of oscillometric and aneroid BP devices compared with the mercury sphygmomanometer for the measurement of BP in children. We systematically searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science) and relevant journals for eligible articles published before 30 July 2015. We screened 1415 articles, and two authors independently reviewed 92 full-text articles. We included 29 articles (38 studies) with 26 879 children. Random-effects model meta-analyses revealed that oscillometric devices yield higher measurements of SBP than auscultation with a mercury sphygmomanometer (pooled effect estimate 2.53 mmHg; 95% CI 0.57-4.50; P devices and found comparable results. Oscillometric devices may serve as a suitable alternative to auscultation for initial BP screening in the pediatric population.
Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo
to investigate if preoperative residual hearing in prelingually deafened children can interfere on cochlear implant indication and outcomes. a systematic-review was conducted in five international databases up to November-2016, to locate articles that evaluated cochlear implantation in children with some degree of preoperative residual hearing. Outcomes were auditory, language and cognition performances after cochlear implant. The quality of the studies was assessed and classified according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence table - 2011. Risk of biases were also described. From the 30 articles reviewed, two types of questions were identified: (a) what are the benefits of cochlear implantation in children with residual hearing? (b) is the preoperative residual hearing a predictor of cochlear implant outcome? Studies ranged from 04 to 188 subjects, evaluating populations between 1.8 and 10.3 years old. The definition of residual hearing varied between studies. The majority of articles (n = 22) evaluated speech perception as the outcome and 14 also assessed language and speech production. There is evidence that cochlear implant is beneficial to children with residual hearing. Preoperative residual hearing seems to be valuable to predict speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation, even though the mechanism of how it happens is not clear. More extensive researches must be conducted in order to make recommendations and to set prognosis for cochlear implants based on children preoperative residual hearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this systematic review aims to explore and describe the studies that have as a primary outcome the identification of mothers' perception of the nutritional status of their children. SOURCES: the PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and SciELO databases were researched, regardless of language or publication date. The terms used for the search, with its variants, were: Nutritional Status, Perception, Mother, Maternal, Parents, Parental. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: after screening of 167 articles, 41 were selected for full text reading, of which 17 were included in the review and involved the evaluation of the perception of mothers on the nutritional status of 57,700 children and adolescents. The methodological quality of the studies ranged from low to excellent. The proportion of mothers who inadequately perceived the nutritional status of their children was high, and was the most common underestimation for children with overweight or obesity. CONCLUSION: despite the increasing prevalence of obesity in pediatric age, mothers have difficulty in properly perceiving the nutritional status of their children, which may compromise referral to treatment programs.
An increasing body of research is showing associations between green space and overall health. Children are spending more time indoors while pediatric mental and behavioral health problems are increasing. A systematic review of the literature was done to examine the association between access to green space and the mental well-being of children. Articles were limited to English language, ages 0-18 years, and publish date 2012-2017. The search yielded 341 articles in Ovid, 81 in Pub Med and 123 in Scopus. Articles that were not original research and that were not a pediatric population were excluded. Twelve articles fit the selection criteria. Twelve articles relating to green space and the mental well-being of children were reviewed. Three articles outside the date criteria were included as they are cited often in the literature as important early research on this topic. Access to green space was associated with improved mental well-being, overall health and cognitive development of children. It promotes attention restoration, memory, competence, supportive social groups, self-discipline, moderates stress, improves behaviors and symptoms of ADHD and was even associated with higher standardized test scores. Scientific evidence demonstrating the mental health benefits of access to nature for children can guide policy and urban planning, while nursing interventions and initiatives can enhance health by promoting outdoor play, educating patients and families, advocating for recess times and green environments at school as well as healing gardens in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Somerset, Sarah; Hoare, Derek J
Numerous studies have detailed the physical health benefits of children's participation in sport and a growing body of research also highlights the benefits for mental health. Children who participate in sport have also been shown to be advantaged academically. However, despite the benefits there is evidence that children are leading increasingly sedentary lifestyles and are at greater risk of chronic disease than those with active lifestyles. Sport provides an important means for children to achieve their recommended amount of daily physical activity. This systematic review asks 'what are those barriers to children's participation in sport?' Literature searches were carried out in June 2015 using; EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and SportDiscus using the search terms barrier*, stop*, prevent*, participat*, taking part, Sports/, sport*, "physical education", PE, child*, young person*, adolescen*. These were supplemented with hand searches. A total of 3434 records were identified of which 22 were suitable for inclusion in the review, two additional studies were identified from Google Scholar in November 2016. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Study's included in the review assessed children up to 18 years of age. Study quality was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools. Studies took place in the school environment (n = 14), sports club (n = 1), community setting (n = 8) and adolescent care setting (n = 1). Frequently reported barriers across quantitative studies were 'time' (n = 4), 'cost' (n = 3), 'opportunity/accessibility' (n = 3) and 'friends' (n = 2). Frequently reported barriers across qualitative studies were 'time' (n = 6), 'cost' (n = 5), 'not being good at sport' (n = 6) and 'fear of being judged/embarrassed' (n = 6). Policy makers, parents and teachers should all be aware that 'cost' and 'time' are key barriers to participation in sport. More local sports opportunities are needed where costs are reduced. Schools
Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Steenbergen, Bert; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G
Children born preterm have a higher risk for developing motor, cognitive, and behavioral problems. Motor problems can occur in combination with working memory problems, and working memory is important for explicit learning of motor skills. The relation between motor learning and working memory has never been reviewed. The goal of this review was to provide an overview of motor learning, visual working memory and the role of working memory on motor learning in preterm children. A systematic review conducted in four databases identified 38 relevant articles, which were evaluated for methodological quality. Only 4 of 38 articles discussed motor learning in preterm children. Thirty-four studies reported on visual working memory; preterm birth affected performance on visual working memory tests. Information regarding motor learning and the role of working memory on the different components of motor learning was not available. Future research should address this issue. Insight in the relation between motor learning and visual working memory may contribute to the development of evidence based intervention programs for children born preterm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shi, Xiuquan; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Stallones, Lorann; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Shakespeare, Tom; Smith, Gary A; Xiang, Huiyun
Children with disabilities are thought to have an increased risk of unintentional injuries, but quantitative syntheses of findings from previous studies have not been done. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether pre-existing disability can increase the risk of unintentional injuries among children when they are compared to children without disability. We searched 13 electronic databases to identify original research published between 1 January 1990 and 28 February 2013. We included those studies that reported on unintentional injuries among children with pre-existing disabilities compared with children without disabilities. We conducted quality assessments and then calculated pooled odds ratios of injury using random-effects models. Fifteen eligible studies were included from 24,898 references initially identified, and there was a total sample of 83,286 children with disabilities drawn from the eligible studies. When compared with children without disabilities, the pooled OR of injury was 1.86 (95 % CI 1.65-2.10) in children with disabilities. The pooled ORs of injury were 1.28, 1.75, and 1.86 in the 0-4 years, 5-9 years, and ≥10 years of age subgroups, respectively. Compared with children without disabilities, the pooled OR was 1.75 (95 % CI 1.26-2.43) among those with International Classification of Functioning (ICF) limitations. When disability was defined as physical disabilities, the pooled OR was 2.39 (95 % CI 1.43-4.00), and among those with cognitive disabilities, the pooled OR was 1.77 (95 % CI 1.49-2.11). There was significant heterogeneity in the included studies. Compared with peers without disabilities, children with disabilities are at a significantly higher risk of injury. Teens with disabilities may be an important subgroup for future injury prevention efforts. More data are needed from low- and middle-income countries.
Ego, Anne; Lidzba, Karen; Brovedani, Paola; Belmonti, Vittorio; Gonzalez-Monge, Sibylle; Boudia, Baya; Ritz, Annie; Cans, Christine
Visual perception is one of the cognitive functions often impaired in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the frequency of visual-perceptual impairment (VPI) and its relationship with patient characteristics. Eligible studies were relevant papers assessing visual perception with five common standardized assessment instruments in children with CP published from January 1990 to August 2011. Of the 84 studies selected, 15 were retained. In children with CP, the proportion of VPI ranged from 40% to 50% and the mean visual perception quotient from 70 to 90. None of the studies reported a significant influence of CP subtype, IQ level, side of motor impairment, neuro-ophthalmological outcomes, or seizures. The severity of neuroradiological lesions seemed associated with VPI. The influence of prematurity was controversial, but a lower gestational age was more often associated with lower visual motor skills than with decreased visual-perceptual abilities. The impairment of visual perception in children with CP should be considered a core disorder within the CP syndrome. Further research, including a more systematic approach to neuropsychological testing, is needed to explore the specific impact of CP subgroups and of neuroradiological features on visual-perceptual development. © 2015 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Viana, Karolline A; Daher, Anelise; Maia, Lucianne C; Costa, Paulo S; Martins, Carolina C; Paiva, Saul M; Costa, Luciane R
Some sedatives used in children and adolescents can affect memory function. Memory impairment of traumatic experience can minimize the chance of future psychological trauma. Knowledge about the potential of different sedatives to produce amnesia can help in the decision-making process of choosing a sedative regimen. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effect of different sedatives on memory of perioperative events in children and adolescents. Electronic databases and other sources, such as trial registers, gray literature, and conference abstracts will be searched. Randomized controlled trials will be included that assess memory of perioperative events in children and adolescents 2-19 years old receiving sedative drugs as premedication or as agents for procedural sedation in a medical or dental settings. The outcomes will be loss of memory after and before sedative administration (anterograde and retrograde amnesia). Two independent reviewers will perform screening, study selection, and data extraction. Disagreement at all levels will be resolved by consensus or by involving a third reviewer. Assessment of the risk of bias of included studies will be performed according to "Cochrane Collaboration's Tool for Assessing Risk of Bias in Randomized Trials." Clinical and methodological heterogeneity across studies will be evaluated to determine if it is possible to combine or not combine study results in a meta-analysis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no systematic review that specifically addresses this question. Findings from the review will be useful in the decision-making process about the best sedative for minimizing recall of the medical/dental event and possible psychological trauma. PROSPERO CRD42015017559.
Full Text Available Background: Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. Objectives: This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. Method: A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013 was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. Results: All the selected articles (n = 9 were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Conclusion: Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.
Cairns, G.; Angus, K.; Hastings, G.; Caraher, M.
A 2009 systematic review of the international evidence on food and beverage marketing to children is the most recent internationally comprehensive review of the evidence base. Its findings are consistent with other independent, rigorous reviews conducted during the period 2003-2012. Food promotions have a direct effect on children's nutrition knowledge, preferences, purchase behaviour, consumption patterns and diet-related health. Current marketing practice predominantly promotes low nutritio...
Houshmand E. Masoumi
Full Text Available Because of decreasing physical activity of children, they are becoming more obese. Moreover, commuting to school has become more passive during the past decades. The objective was to update the previous systematic reviews by narrowing down the topic to body mass index of children (3-12 years as a representative of body composition. Applying search terms such as active transport to school, body mass index, childhood obesity, and so on in four online databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, WorldCat, and Google Scholar. Peer-reviewed English journal papers published between 2005 and 2015 presenting empirical quantitative studies were eligible studies to be reviewed. 310 journal papers were screened, 27 of which were reviewed by studying the full text. The final 13 papers were limited to those that focused only on active commuting to school and body mass index of children and adolescents. Out of 13 final studies, 3 found conclusive associations, three indicate partial associations in subgroups or societal or geographical limitations, and seven show no correlations. The existing literature are still inconsistent, so this study suggests conducting surveys with larger samples on less-studied contexts and applying more complex statistical methods for adjusting some of the variables. It is also argued that this topic can be culturally and contextually specific.
Cavallo, Sabrina; April, Karine Toupin; Grandpierre, Viviane; Majnemer, Annette; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann
The aim of this systematic review is to describe participation in social and physical leisure activities among children and adolescents with JIA, as well as identify potential determinants of leisure participation. Methods Electronic databases were systematically searched for articles published up until June 2013 pertaining to participation in leisure activities among youth with JIA and other rheumatic diseases. Studies were included if they measured involvement in either social or physical leisure activities. Selection and quality appraisal of articles were completed independently by two authors. Results Eight hundred and ninety-three articles were found through electronic and reference search. One hundred and nine full articles were reviewed to assess for eligibility. Twelve articles met inclusion criteria and findings were reviewed. Most focused on describing participation in physical rather than social activities. Results suggest that youth with JIA participated less in both social and physical leisure activities as compared to healthy peers, and those with JIA did not meet national recommendations for physical activity. Potential determinants of leisure participation were socio-demographic (age, sex), anthropometric (height, weight) and disease-related (JIA subtype, disease duration, pain, number of swollen or painful joints, stiffness, fatigue, well-being) factors. Conclusion Characterization of leisure activity remains limited and mostly focused on physical activity in JIA. Assessment of more comprehensive outcome measures is warranted to obtain a better description of leisure in this population. Evidence of the influence of contextual factors as potential determinants of involvement in leisure among children with pediatric rheumatologic diseases is needed. PMID:25329390
Dyer, Suzanne Marie; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Smithers, Lisa Gaye; Davy, Carol; Coleman, Dylan T; Street, Jackie Mary
Evidence-based profiling of obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australian children has been poor. This study systematically reviewed evidence of the prevalence and patterns of obesity/overweight, with respect to gender, age, remoteness, and birth weight, in Indigenous Australian children, 0-18 years (PROSPERO CRD42014007626). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty-five publications (21 studies) met inclusion criteria, with large variations in prevalence for obesity or overweight (11 to 54%) reported. A high degree of heterogeneity in study design was observed, few studies (6/21) were representative of the target population, and few appropriately recruited Indigenous children (8/21). Variability in study design, conduct, and small sample sizes mean that it is not possible to derive a single estimate for prevalence although two high-quality studies indicate at least one in four Indigenous Australian children are overweight or obese. Four of six studies reporting on gender, found overweight/obesity higher in girls and eight studies reporting on overweight/obesity by age suggest prevalence increases with age with one high quality large national study reporting total overweight/obesity as 22.4% of children aged 2-4 years, 27.5% of those aged 5-9, 38.5% aged 10-14, and 36.3% aged 15-17. Three of four studies, reporting obesity/overweight by region, found lower rates for children living in more remote areas than urban areas.
Drury, Nigel E; Patel, Akshay J; Oswald, Nicola K; Chong, Cher-Rin; Stickley, John; Barron, David J; Jones, Timothy J
Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for evaluating health care interventions, yet are uncommon in children's heart surgery. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials in paediatric cardiac surgery to evaluate the scope and quality of the current international literature. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL and LILACS, and manually screened retrieved references and systematic reviews to identify all randomized controlled trials reporting the effect of any intervention on the conduct or outcomes of heart surgery in children published in any language since January 2000; secondary publications and those reporting inseparable adult data were excluded. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility and extracted data; the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess for potential biases. We identified 333 trials from 34 countries randomizing 23 902 children. Most were early phase (313, 94.0%), recruiting few patients (median 45, interquartile range 28-82), and only 11 (3.3%) directly evaluated a surgical intervention. One hundred and nine (32.7%) trials calculated a sample size, 52 (15.6%) reported a CONSORT diagram, 51 (15.3%) were publicly registered and 25 (7.5%) had a Data Monitoring Committee. The overall risk of bias was low in 22 (6.6%), high in 69 (20.7%) and unclear in 242 (72.7%). The recent literature in children's heart surgery contains few late-phase clinical trials. Most trials did not conform to the accepted standards of reporting, and the overall risk of bias was low in few studies. There is a need for high-quality, multicentre clinical trials to provide a robust evidence base for contemporary paediatric cardiac surgical practice.
McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R; Glod, Magdalena; Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Oono, Inalegwu P; Robalino, Shannon; Baird, Gillian; Beresford, Bryony; Charman, Tony; Garland, Deborah; Green, Jonathan; Gringras, Paul; Jones, Glenys; Law, James; Le Couteur, Ann S; Macdonald, Geraldine; McColl, Elaine M; Morris, Christopher; Rodgers, Jacqueline; Simonoff, Emily; Terwee, Caroline B; Williams, Katrina
The needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are complex and this is reflected in the number and diversity of outcomes assessed and measurement tools used to collect evidence about children's progress. Relevant outcomes include improvement in core ASD impairments, such as communication, social awareness, sensory sensitivities and repetitiveness; skills such as social functioning and play; participation outcomes such as social inclusion; and parent and family impact. To examine the measurement properties of tools used to measure progress and outcomes in children with ASD up to the age of 6 years. To identify outcome areas regarded as important by people with ASD and parents. The MeASURe (Measurement in Autism Spectrum disorder Under Review) research collaboration included ASD experts and review methodologists. We undertook systematic review of tools used in ASD early intervention and observational studies from 1992 to 2013; systematic review, using the COSMIN checklist (Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments) of papers addressing the measurement properties of identified tools in children with ASD; and synthesis of evidence and gaps. The review design and process was informed throughout by consultation with stakeholders including parents, young people with ASD, clinicians and researchers. The conceptual framework developed for the review was drawn from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including the domains 'Impairments', 'Activity Level Indicators', 'Participation', and 'Family Measures'. In review 1, 10,154 papers were sifted - 3091 by full text - and data extracted from 184; in total, 131 tools were identified, excluding observational coding, study-specific measures and those not in English. In review 2, 2665 papers were sifted and data concerning measurement properties of 57 (43%) tools were extracted from 128 papers. Evidence for the measurement properties of the reviewed
Jackson, Alun C; Liang, Rachel P-T; Frydenberg, Erica; Higgins, Rosemary O; Murphy, Barbara M
The aim of this review was to examine parent education programmes for families with children with special health care needs, to better design interventions focusing on the psychosocial aspects of living with a child's chronic condition. Studies of familial coping with children with special health care needs indicate high levels of parenting stress, with families with children with special health care needs at risk of major psychological and social disturbances and financial strain. Despite increased knowledge of the factors affecting children with special health care needs themselves, evidence for the effectiveness of preventative and treatment interventions in the form of parent education programmes remains limited. Systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Multi database Boolean searches in EBSCO Discovery Services using the search terms 'complex/special health care needs children', 'child/pediatric/congenital heart disease', 'chronic illness (including diabetes, cancer and cystic fibrosis)', 'family coping', 'siblings' AND 'parenting/family support programs' were conducted. Analysis of 13 included studies showed evidence for the effectiveness of both mixed-health condition and condition-specific parenting programmes delivered in a variety of modes. Three common core intervention approaches were: use of narrative therapy enabling families to tell their own stories, thus facilitating emotional processing and (co-) construction of meaning; a focus on strengthening protective factors such as enhancing parents' skills in communication, and behavioural management and provision of psycho-education to deepen parents' understanding of their child's condition and associated developmental challenges. Irrespective of the type of outcome measures used in the studies, the review showed that there were positive gains and improvements across a range of areas of family functioning such as mental health, parenting, communication and problem-solving skills postprogramme
Hill, Deborah C; Moss, Rachael H; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Conner, Mark; O'Connor, Daryl B
It is well established that stress is linked to changes in eating behaviors. Research using adult populations has shown that stress is associated with both increases and decreases in the amount and type of food consumed. However, due to a lack of research reviews, the relationship between stress and eating behaviors in children is unclear. This systematic research review and meta-analysis aimed to identify whether stress is associated with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors in children aged 8-18 years. Studies were included in the review if they measured stress and included a measure of food consumption. All unique studies retrieved (N = 28,070) were assessed for their eligibility at title, abstract and full text levels. A total of 13 studies were included in the final review and data were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Using random-effects modelling, overall stress was not associated with a change in overall eating behaviors. However, additional analyses indicated stress was associated with unhealthy eating behaviors in both younger (Hedge's g = 0.283, p stress was not associated with healthy eating behaviors in younger children (Hedge's g = 0.093, p = 0.156), but was negatively associated with healthy eating behaviors in older children (Hedge's g = -0.384, p stress on unhealthy eating may begin as early as 8 or 9 years old. Future research ought to investigate further the role of psychological, behavioral and endocrine factors in the development of stress-related eating in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Awai, Hannah I; Newton, Kimberly P; Sirlin, Claude B; Behling, Cynthia; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B
Fatty liver is a common problem in children and increases their risk for cirrhosis, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Liver biopsy is the clinical standard for diagnosing and grading fatty liver. However, noninvasive imaging modalities are needed to assess liver fat in children. We performed a systematic review of studies that evaluated imaging liver fat in children. We searched PubMed for original research articles in peer-reviewed journals from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 2012, using the key words "imaging liver fat." Studies included those in English, and those performed in children from birth to 18 years of age. To be eligible for inclusion, studies were required to measure hepatic steatosis via an imaging modality and a quantitative comparator as the reference standard. We analyzed 9 studies comprising 610 children; 4 studies assessed ultrasonography and 5 studies assessed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasonography was used in the diagnosis of fatty liver with positive predictive values of 47% to 62%. There was not a consistent relationship between ultrasound steatosis score and the reference measurement of hepatic steatosis. Liver fat as measurements by MRI or by spectroscopy varied with the methodologies used. Liver fat measurements by MRI correlated with results from histologic analyses, but sample size did not allow for an assessment of diagnostic accuracy. Available evidence does not support the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis or grading of fatty liver in children. Although MRI is a promising approach, the data are insufficient to make evidence-based recommendations regarding its use in children for the assessment of hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shields, Nora; Synnot, Anneliese Jane; Barr, Megan
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the perceived barriers and facilitators to physical activity among children with disability. 10 electronic databases were searched from the earliest time available to September 2010 to identify relevant articles. Articles were included if they examined the barriers or facilitators to physical activity for children with disability and were written in English. Articles were excluded if they included children with an acute, transient or chronic medical condition, examined sedentary leisure activities, or societal participation in general. Two reviewers independently assessed the search yields, extracted the data and assessed trial quality. Data were analysed descriptively. 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. Barriers included lack of knowledge and skills, the child's preferences, fear, parental behaviour, negative attitudes to disability, inadequate facilities, lack of transport, programmes and staff capacity, and cost. Facilitators included the child's desire to be active, practising skills, involvement of peers, family support, accessible facilities, proximity of location, better opportunities, skilled staff and information. Personal, social, environmental, and policy and programme-related barriers and facilitators influence the amount of activity children with disability undertake. The barriers to physical activity have been studied more comprehensively than the facilitators.
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Hamel, Candyce; Stevens, Adrienne; Pratt, Misty; Moher, David; Doucet, Suzanne P; Neuss, Deirdre; Bernstein, Anita; Na, Eunjung
Permanent hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 children and interferes with typical communication development. Early detection through newborn hearing screening and hearing technology provide most children with the option of spoken language acquisition. However, no consensus exists on optimal interventions for spoken language development. To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of early sign and oral language intervention compared with oral language intervention only for children with permanent hearing loss. An a priori protocol was developed. Electronic databases (eg, Medline, Embase, CINAHL) from 1995 to June 2013 and gray literature sources were searched. Studies in English and French were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were measures of auditory, vocabulary, language, and speech production skills. All data collection and risk of bias assessments were completed and then verified by a second person. Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to judge the strength of evidence. Eleven cohort studies met inclusion criteria, of which 8 included only children with severe to profound hearing loss with cochlear implants. Language development was the most frequently reported outcome. Other reported outcomes included speech and speech perception. Several measures and metrics were reported across studies, and descriptions of interventions were sometimes unclear. Very limited, and hence insufficient, high-quality evidence exists to determine whether sign language in combination with oral language is more effective than oral language therapy alone. More research is needed to supplement the evidence base. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Research has shown that coparenting is a vital family mechanism in predicting mental health in children and adolescents. Considering the increasing prevalence of marital dissolution in Western societies, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the key results of empirical studies that tested the association between mental health of children and coparenting after marital dissolution. Data source: The studies were obtained from three databases (PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge, published between January 2000 and October 2014. The titles, abstracts, and key words of the generated citations were independently reviewed by two investigators to consensually select the articles that met the inclusion criteria. Articles that used psychometrically valid tools to measure at least one mental health indicator and at least one dimension of coparenting in samples with divorced parents were included in the review. Data synthesis: Of the 933 screened articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Significant positive associations were found between coparental conflict and behavioral problems and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization. Significant positive associations were also found between other specific dimensions of coparenting (coparental support, cooperation, and agreement, overall mental health, self-esteem, and academic performance. Conclusions: The integrated analysis of these studies suggests that coparenting is a key mechanism within the family system for the prediction of child mental health after marital dissolution, and thus, it is recommended that pediatricians, psychologists, and other health professionals consider coparenting as a psychosocial variable for children's mental health assessment and diagnosis.
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Manfredini, D; Restrepo, C; Diaz-Serrano, K; Winocur, E; Lobbezoo, F
The aim of the present investigation was to perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the issue of sleep bruxism prevalence in children at the general population level. Quality assessment of the reviewed papers was performed to identify flaws in the external and internal validity. Cut-off criteria for an acceptable external validity were established to select studies for the discussion of prevalence data. A total of 22 publications were included in the review, most of which had methodological problems limiting their external validity. Prevalence data extraction was performed only on eight papers that were consistent as for the sampling strategy and showed only minor external validity problems, but they had some common internal validity flaws related with the definition of sleep bruxism measures. All the selected papers based sleep bruxism diagnosis on proxy reports by the parents, and no epidemiological data were available from studies adopting other diagnostic strategies (e.g. polysomnography or electromyography). The reported prevalence was highly variable between the studies (3·5-40·6%), with a commonly described decrease with age and no gender differences. A very high variability in sleep bruxism prevalence in children was found, due to the different age groups under investigation and the different frequencies of self-reported sleep bruxism. This prevented from supporting any reliable estimates of the prevalence of sleep bruxism in children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weber, S; Jud, A; Landolt, M A
To review data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals with childhood trauma, including psychological maltreatment, physical maltreatment, sexual abuse, and neglect. The literature search was conducted with pre-defined keywords using the following electronic bibliographic databases: EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsyINFO, PSYNDEX, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Further databases were searched for relevant dissertations. Study selection and data extraction were completed by two independent reviewers. The literature search yielded 1568 entries. Nineteen articles met all inclusion criteria and were retained for further analysis. Findings quite consistently showed significant negative associations between child maltreatment and both self- and proxy-rated HRQoL. Effect sizes range from small to large. Number of types of maltreatment and HRQoL were found to be negatively related. Data on HRQoL for maltreated children are still rare. Studies often investigate adult survivors of child maltreatment. Considering HRQoL in children and adolescents who suffered maltreatment would allow the planning of effective interventions and the evaluation of treatments to improve HRQoL of these children.
Appachi, Swathi; Specht, Jessica L; Raol, Nikhila; Lieu, Judith E C; Cohen, Michael S; Dedhia, Kavita; Anne, Samantha
Objective Options for management of unilateral hearing loss (UHL) in children include conventional hearing aids, bone-conduction hearing devices, contralateral routing of signal (CROS) aids, and frequency-modulating (FM) systems. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current literature to characterize auditory outcomes of hearing rehabilitation options in UHL. Data Sources PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to January 2016. Manual searches of bibliographies were also performed. Review Methods Studies analyzing auditory outcomes of hearing amplification in children with UHL were included. Outcome measures included functional and objective auditory results. Two independent reviewers evaluated each abstract and article. Results Of the 249 articles identified, 12 met inclusion criteria. Seven articles solely focused on outcomes with bone-conduction hearing devices. Outcomes favored improved pure-tone averages, speech recognition thresholds, and sound localization in implanted patients. Five studies focused on FM systems, conventional hearing aids, or CROS hearing aids. Limited data are available but suggest a trend toward improvement in speech perception with hearing aids. FM systems were shown to have the most benefit for speech recognition in noise. Studies evaluating CROS hearing aids demonstrated variable outcomes. Conclusions Data evaluating functional and objective auditory measures following hearing amplification in children with UHL are limited. Most studies do suggest improvement in speech perception, speech recognition in noise, and sound localization with a hearing rehabilitation device.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. Method: systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old. Results: of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures, obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils. Conclusion: therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it.
Short, Michelle A; Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle; Matricciani, Lisa; Coussens, Scott; M Reynolds, Chelsea; Galland, Barbara
Sleep recommendations are widely used to guide communities on children's sleep needs. Following recent adjustments to guidelines by the National Sleep Foundation and the subsequent consensus statement by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, we undertook a systematic literature search to evaluate the current evidence regarding relationships between objectively measured sleep duration and cognitive function in children aged 5 to 13 years. Cognitive function included measures of memory, attention, processing speed, and intelligence in children aged 5 to 13 years. Keyword searches of 7 databases to December 2016 found 23 meeting inclusion criteria from 137 full articles reviewed, 19 of which were suitable for meta-analysis. A significant effect (r = .06) was found between sleep duration and cognition, suggesting that longer sleep durations were associated with better cognitive functioning. Analyses of different cognitive domains revealed that full/verbal IQ was significantly associated with sleep loss, but memory, fluid IQ, processing speed and attention were not. Comparison of study sleep durations with current sleep recommendations showed that most children studied had sleep durations that were not within the range of recommended sleep. As such, the true effect of sleep loss on cognitive function may be obscured in these samples, as most children were sleep restricted. Future research using more rigorous experimental methodologies is needed to properly elucidate the relationship between sleep duration and cognition in this age group. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gabrielle Cerqueira da Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: the regular practice of physical activity has been cited as a mental health protection factor during childhood and adulthood. However, few investigations were carried out on the associations between mental disorder and levels of physical activity in children. Objective: To analyze, by systematic review, the association the association between mental health and physical activity levels in children. Method: Search for articles published in the CAPES Journal Portal databases, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO and Scopus. We adopted the following inclusion criteria: original articles in English or Portuguese, performed with humans, with free full-text. We initially found a total of 2,467 articles, which were analyzed by titles, abstracts, followed by reading of the full article. We selected 05 papers for the final result. Results: The results of the articles show that more active children, participating in physical activity, had better mental health compared children who had no physical activities and were sedentary. Conclusion: Further studies are needed related to the mental health of children, addressing mainly the importance of practicing physical activity to treat and prevent mental illness and promote mental health of these individuals.
Creech, Suzannah K.; Hadley, Wendy; Borsari, Brian
Hundreds of thousands of children have had at least 1 parent deploy as part of military operations in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom; OIF; Operation New Dawn; OND) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom; OEF). However, there is little knowledge of the impact of deployment on the relationship of parents and their children. This systematic review examines findings from 3 areas of relevant research: the impact of deployment separation on parenting, and children's emotional, behavioral, and health outcomes; the impact of parental mental health symptoms during and after reintegration; and current treatment approaches in veteran and military families. Several trends emerged. First, across all age groups, deployment of a parent may be related to increased emotional and behavioral difficulties for children, including higher rates of health-care visits for psychological problems during deployment. Second, symptoms of PTSD and depression may be related to increased symptomatology in children and problems with parenting during and well after reintegration. Third, although several treatments have been developed to address the needs of military families, most are untested or in the early stages of implementation and evaluation. This body of research suggests several promising avenues for future research. PMID:25844014
Hart C Anthony
Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent diarrhoea in children is a common problem in low and middle income countries. To help target appropriate treatment for specific pathogens in the absence of diagnostic tests, we systematically reviewed pathogens most commonly associated with persistent diarrhoea in children. Methods We sought all descriptive studies of pathogens in the stool of children with diarrhoea of over 14 days duration in low and middle income countries with a comprehensive search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases. We described the study designs and populations, assessed the quality of the laboratory tests, and extracted and summarised data on pathogens. For Escherichia coli, we calculated high and low prevalence estimates of all enteropathic types combined. Results across studies were compared for geographical patterns. Results Nineteen studies were included. Some used episodes of diarrhoea as the unit of analysis, others used children. The quality of reporting of laboratory procedures varied, and pathogens (particularly E. coli types were classified in different ways. As there were no apparent regional differences in pathogen prevalence, we aggregated data between studies to give a guide to overall prevalence. Enteropathic E. coli types were commonly found in children with persistent diarrhoea (up to 63%. Various other organisms, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, were detected but across all studies their prevalence was under 10%. However, these pathogens were also found in similar frequencies in children without diarrhoea. Conclusion A number of pathogens are commonly associated with persistent diarrhoea in children, but in children without diarrhoea the pathogens are found with similar frequencies. New research with carefully selected controls and standardised laboratory investigations across countries will help map causes and help explore effective options for presumptive treatment.
Houston, Kirsty A; Gibb, Jack G; Maitland, Kathryn
Background: Rehydration strategies in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and severe dehydration are extremely cautious. The World Health Organization (WHO) SAM guidelines advise strongly against intravenous fluids unless the child is shocked or severely dehydrated and unable to tolerate oral fluids. Otherwise, guidelines recommend oral or nasogastric rehydration using low sodium oral rehydration solutions. There is limited evidence to support these recommendations. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on 15 th June 2017 comparing different strategies of rehydration therapy in children with acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydration, specifically relating to intravenous rehydration, using standard search terms. Two authors assessed papers for inclusion. The primary endpoint was evidence of fluid overload. Results: Four studies were identified, all published in English, including 883 children, all of which were conducted in low resource settings. Two were randomised controlled trials and two observational cohort studies, one incorporated assessment of myocardial and haemodynamic function. There was no evidence of fluid overload or other fluid-related adverse events, including children managed on more liberal rehydration protocols. Mortality was high overall, and particularly in children with shock managed on WHO recommendations (day-28 mortality 82%). There was no difference in safety outcomes when different rates of intravenous rehydration were compared. Conclusions: The current 'strong recommendations' for conservative rehydration of children with SAM are not based on emerging evidence. We found no clinical trials providing a direct assessment of the current WHO guidelines, and those that were available suggested that these children have a high mortality and remain fluid depleted on current therapy. Recent studies have reported no evidence of fluid overload or heart failure with more
Full Text Available Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children’s physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1 parenting practices; (2 parents’ role modelling; (3 parental perceptions of children’s PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4 parental self-efficacy; and (5 general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents’ encouragement and support can increase children’s PA, and reducing parents’ own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.
Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.
Black, J A; White, B; Viner, R M; Simmons, R K
The number of obese young people continues to rise, with a corresponding increase in extreme obesity and paediatric-adolescent bariatric surgery. We aimed to (i) systematically review the literature on bariatric surgery in children and adolescents; (ii) meta-analyse change in body mass index (BMI) 1-year post-surgery and (iii) report complications, co-morbidity resolution and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A systematic literature search (1955-2013) was performed to examine adjustable gastric band, sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or biliopancreatic diversions operations among obese children and adolescents. Change in BMI a year after surgery was meta-analysed using a random effects model. In total, 637 patients from 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant decreases in BMI at 1 year (average weighted mean BMI difference: -13.5 kg m(-2) ; 95% confidence interval [CI] -14.1 to -11.9). Complications were inconsistently reported. There was some evidence of co-morbidity resolution and improvements in HRQol post-surgery. Bariatric surgery leads to significant short-term weight loss in obese children and adolescents. However, the risks of complications are not well defined in the literature. Long-term, prospectively designed studies, with clear reporting of complications and co-morbidity resolution, alongside measures of HRQol, are needed to firmly establish the harms and benefits of bariatric surgery in children and adolescents. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Swingler, George H
Knowledge of the accuracy of chest radiograph findings in acute lower respiratory infection in children is important when making clinical decisions. I conducted a systematic review of agreement between and within observers in the detection of radiographic features of acute lower respiratory infections in children, and described the quality of the design and reporting of studies, whether included or excluded from the review. Included studies were those of observer variation in the interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children (neonatal nurseries excluded) in which radiographs were read independently and a clinical population was studied. I searched MEDLINE, HealthSTAR and HSRPROJ databases (1966 to 1999), handsearched the reference lists of identified papers and contacted authors of identified studies. I performed the data extraction alone. Ten studies of observer interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children were identified. Seven of the studies satisfied four or more of the seven design and reporting criteria. Six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Inter-observer agreement varied with the radiographic feature examined. Kappa statistics ranged from around 0.80 for individual radiographic features to 0.27–0.38 for bacterial vs viral etiology. Little information was identified on observer agreement on radiographic features of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Agreement varied with the features assessed from 'fair' to 'very good'. Aspects of the quality of the methods and reporting need attention in future studies, particularly the description of criteria for radiographic features
Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine
We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…
van der Fels, Irene M. J.; te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
Objectives: This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. Design: A systematic review. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21
Deodati, Annalisa; Cianfarani, Stefano
To systematically determine the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature. Systematic review. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials from 1985 to April 2010. Height in adulthood (standard deviation score) and overall gain in height (SD score) from baseline measurement in childhood. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials with height measurements for adults. Inclusion criteria were initial short stature (defined as height >2 SD score below the mean), peak growth hormone responses >10 μg/L, prepubertal stage, no previous growth hormone therapy, and no comorbid conditions that would impair growth. Adult height was considered achieved when growth rate was growth hormone treated children exceeded that of the controls by 0.65 SD score (about 4 cm). The mean height gain in treated children was 1.2 SD score compared with 0.34 SD score in untreated children. A slight difference of about 1.2 cm in adult height was observed between the two growth hormone dose regimens. In the seven non-randomised controlled trials the adult height of the growth hormone treated group exceeded that of the controls by 0.45 SD score (about 3 cm). Growth hormone therapy in children with idiopathic short stature seems to be effective in partially reducing the deficit in height as adults, although the magnitude of effectiveness is on average less than that achieved in other conditions for which growth hormone is licensed. The individual response to therapy is highly variable, and additional studies are needed to identify the responders.
Wallace, Ina F; Berkman, Nancy D; Watson, Linda R; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Wood, Charles T; Cullen, Katherine; Lohr, Kathleen N
No recommendation exists for or against routine use of brief, formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay in children through 5 years of age. This review aimed to update the evidence on screening and treating children for speech and language since the 2006 US Preventive Services Task Force systematic review. Medline, the Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists. We included studies reporting diagnostic accuracy of screening tools and randomized controlled trials reporting benefits and harms of treatment of speech and language. Two independent reviewers extracted data, checked accuracy, and assigned quality ratings using predefined criteria. We found no evidence for the impact of screening on speech and language outcomes. In 23 studies evaluating the accuracy of screening tools, sensitivity ranged between 50% and 94%, and specificity ranged between 45% and 96%. Twelve treatment studies improved various outcomes in language, articulation, and stuttering; little evidence emerged for interventions improving other outcomes or for adverse effects of treatment. Risk factors associated with speech and language delay were male gender, family history, and low parental education. A limitation of this review is the lack of well-designed, well-conducted studies addressing whether screening for speech and language delay or disorders improves outcomes. Several screening tools can accurately identify children for diagnostic evaluations and interventions, but evidence is inadequate regarding applicability in primary care settings. Some treatments for young children identified with speech and language delays and disorders may be effective. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Urpí-Fernández, Ana-María; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Roldán-Merino, Juan-Francisco; Lluch-Canut, María-Teresa
To identify, critically appraise and summarize the measurement properties of instruments to assess self-care in healthy children. Assessing self-care is a proper consideration for nursing practice and nursing research. No systematic review summarizes instruments of measurement validated in healthy children. Psychometric review in accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Open Grey were searched from their inception to December 2016. Validation studies with a healthy child population were included. Search was not restricted by language. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the COSMIN checklist. Eleven studies were included in the review assessing the measurement properties of ten instruments. There was a maximum of two studies per instrument. None of the studies evaluated the properties of test-retest reliability, measurement error, criterion validity and responsiveness. Internal consistency and structural validity were rated as "excellent" or "good" in four studies. Four studies were rated as "excellent" in content validity. Cross-cultural validity was rated as "poor" in the two studies (three instruments) which cultural adaptation was carried out. The evidence available does not allow firm conclusions about the instruments identified in terms of reliability and validity. Future research should focus on generate evidence about a wider range of measurement properties of these instruments using a rigorous methodology, as well as instrument testing on different countries and child population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Barnett, Lisa M; Lai, Samuel K; Veldman, Sanne L C; Hardy, Louise L; Cliff, Dylan P; Morgan, Philip J; Zask, Avigdor; Lubans, David R; Shultz, Sarah P; Ridgers, Nicola D; Rush, Elaine; Brown, Helen L; Okely, Anthony D
Gross motor competence confers health benefits, but levels in children and adolescents are low. While interventions can improve gross motor competence, it remains unclear which correlates should be targeted to ensure interventions are most effective, and for whom targeted and tailored interventions should be developed. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the potential correlates of gross motor competence in typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) using an ecological approach. Motor competence was defined as gross motor skill competency, encompassing fundamental movement skills and motor coordination, but excluding motor fitness. Studies needed to assess a summary score of at least one aspect of motor competence (i.e., object control, locomotor, stability, or motor coordination). A structured electronic literature search was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Six electronic databases (CINAHL Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO ® , Scopus and SPORTDiscus with Full Text) were searched from 1994 to 5 August 2014. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between potential correlates and motor competency if at least three individual studies investigated the same correlate and also reported standardized regression coefficients. A total of 59 studies were identified from 22 different countries, published between 1995 and 2014. Studies reflected the full range of age groups. The most examined correlates were biological and demographic factors. Age (increasing) was a correlate of children's motor competence. Weight status (healthy), sex (male) and socioeconomic background (higher) were consistent correlates for certain aspects of motor competence only. Physical activity and sport participation constituted the majority of investigations in the behavioral attributes and skills category. Whilst we found physical activity to be a positive
Momsen, Anne-Mette Hedeager; Hald, Kathrine; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
REVIEW OBJECTIVE/QUESTION: The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of expanded cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD). Specifically, the review question is: What is the effectiveness of expanded CR compared to standard CR in adult...
Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna
Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID
Gan, Lucy L; Lum, Alistair; Wakefield, Claire E; Nandakumar, Beeshman; Fardell, Joanna E
Siblings of children with chronic illness have unique experiences that can affect their school functioning, such that they may miss ongoing periods of school, experience difficulties with schoolwork or experience changes in their peer and teacher interactions. This review provides an overview of these siblings' school experiences. Six databases (Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Embase and The Cochrane Library) were systematically searched for studies examining the school experiences and peer relationships of siblings of children with chronic illness, as well as school-based interventions for these siblings. Studies were included if they were published in or after 2000 and were published in English. We identified 2137 articles upon initial search. From these, we identified 28 eligible studies examining the school experiences of >1470 siblings of children with chronic illness. Three key themes were identified throughout the reviewed articles. The literature described 1) the psychological impact on siblings at school; 2) decreases in school attendance and academic functioning, and; 3) changes or perceived differences in peer and teacher interactions. Siblings value teacher and peer support, and this support may contribute to better sibling school functioning. Many siblings are socially resilient, yet overlooked, members of the family who may present with psychological, academic and peer related difficulties at school following diagnosis of a brother or sister with chronic illness. Future research is needed to further delineate the sibling school experience to better facilitate the development of targeted sibling support interventions within the school environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cai, Ting; McPherson, Bradley
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the presence of non-purulent inflammation in the middle ear. Hearing impairment is frequently associated with OME. Pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry are two of the most primarily utilised auditory assessments and provide valuable behavioural and functional estimation on hearing loss. This paper was designed to review and analyse the effects of the presence of OME on children's listening abilities. A systematic and descriptive review. Twelve articles reporting frequency-specific pure tone thresholds and/or speech perception measures in children with OME were identified using PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar search platforms. The hearing loss related to OME averages 18-35 dB HL. The air conduction configuration is roughly flat with a slight elevation at 2000 Hz and a nadir at 8000 Hz. Both speech-in-quiet and speech-in-noise perception have been found to be impaired. OME imposes a series of disadvantages on hearing sensitivity and speech perception in children. Further studies investigating the full range of frequency-specific pure tone thresholds, and that adopt standardised speech test materials are advocated to evaluate hearing related disabilities with greater comprehensiveness, comparability and enhanced consideration of their real life implications.
Deardorff, Katrina V; McCollum, Eric D; Ginsburg, Amy Sarah
Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death among children less than five years of age. Predictive tools, commonly referred to as risk scores, can be employed to identify high-risk children early for targeted management to prevent adverse outcomes. This systematic review was conducted to identify pediatric pneumonia risk scores developed, validated, and implemented in low-resource settings. We searched CAB Direct, Cochrane Reviews, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies that developed formal risk scores to predict treatment failure or mortality among children less than five years of age diagnosed with a respiratory infection or pneumonia in low-resource settings. Data abstracted from articles included location and study design, sample size, age, diagnosis, score features and model discrimination. Three pediatric pneumonia risk scores predicted mortality specifically, and two treatment failure. Scores developed using World Health Organization recommended variables for pneumonia assessment demonstrated better predictive fit than scores developed using alternative features. Scores developed using routinely collected healthcare data performed similarly well as those developed using clinical trial data. No score has been implemented in low-resource settings. While pediatric pneumonia-specific risk scores have been developed and validated, it is yet unclear if implementation is feasible, what impact, if any, implemented scores may have on child outcomes, or how broadly scores may be generalized. To increase the feasibility of implementation, future research should focus on developing scores based on routinely collected data.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles about the effect of aripiprazole in children with autism. The articles were searched according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria specifed for this review. All the double-blind, controlled, randomized, clinical trials examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for treating children and adolescents with autism were included. Results: From the 93 titles identified, 26 were irrelevant and 58 were evaluated for more details. Only five articles met the inclusive criteria. The evidence from precise randomized double blind clinical trials of aripiprazole for the treatment of autism in children and adolescents was convincing enough to recommend aripiprazole. Adverse effects were not very common and were usually mild. Interpretation & conclusions: Current evidence suggests that aripiprazole is as effective and safe as risperidone for treating irritability in autism. However, further studies with larger sample size and longer duration are required.
Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Tordjman, Sylvie; Jaafari, Nematollah
No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles about the effect of aripiprazole in children with autism. The articles were searched according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria specifed for this review. All the double-blind, controlled, randomized, clinical trials examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for treating children and adolescents with autism were included. From the 93 titles identified, 26 were irrelevant and 58 were evaluated for more details. Only five articles met the inclusive criteria. The evidence from precise randomized double blind clinical trials of aripiprazole for the treatment of autism in children and adolescents was convincing enough to recommend aripiprazole. Adverse effects were not very common and were usually mild. Current evidence suggests that aripiprazole is as effective and safe as risperidone for treating irritability in autism. However, further studies with larger sample size and longer duration are required.
da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Thiago; Pompéia, Sabine; Miranda, Mônica Carolina
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA. The few selected articles with low risk of bias (levels of evidence I and II) showed that OSA children's intellectual abilities may be impaired but remain within the normal range. Which specific cognitive ability drives this impairment is unclear, as there was insufficient evidence of deficits in language, memory, attention, executive functions, and academic performance, due to low levels of evidence, conflicting findings, and/or heterogeneity of tasks and cognitive abilities tapped by the measures used to assess these domains. To determine why this is so, future studies must test OSA patients using measures that allow for fractionated higher- and lower-order cognitive abilities based on accepted cognitive neuropsychology models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barbosa, Renata Thaís de Almeida; de Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; de Lima Antão, Jennifer Yohanna Ferreira; Crocetta, Tânia Brusque; Guarnieri, Regiani; Antunes, Thaiany Pedrozo Campos; Arab, Claudia; Massetti, Thaís; Bezerra, Italla Maria Pinheiro; de Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos
The use of technology to assist in the communication, socialization, language, and motor skills of children with Down's syndrome (DS) is required. The aim of this study was to analyse research findings regarding the different instruments of 'augmentative and alternative communication' used in children with Down's syndrome. This is a systematic review of published articles available on PubMed, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and BVS using the following descriptors: assistive technology AND syndrome, assistive technology AND down syndrome, down syndrome AND augmentative and alternative communication. Studies published in English were selected if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) study of children with a diagnosis of DS, and (2) assistive technology and/or augmentative and alternative communication analysis in this population. A total of 1087 articles were identified. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The instruments most used by the studies were speech-generating devices (SGDs) and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Twelve instruments that provided significant aid to the process of communication and socialization of children with DS were identified. These instruments increase the interaction between individuals among this population and their peers, contributing to their quality of life and self-esteem.
Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The link between childhood dyslipidemia and occurrence of atherosclerosis and its sequels in adulthood are well-documented. This study aimed to systematically review the prevalence of dyslipidemia among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted on studies published from January 1990 to January 2014. The main international electronic data sources were PubMed and the NLM Gateway (for MEDLINE, Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, and SCOPUS. For Persian databases, we used domestic databases with systematic search capability including IranMedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID. We included all available population-based studies and national surveys conducted in the pediatric age group (aged <21 years. Results: In this review, 1772 articles were identified (PubMed: 1464; Scopus: 11; ISI: 58; SID: 90; IranMedex: 149; Irandoc: 57. During three refine steps and after removing of duplicates, 182 articles related to the study domain were selected. After quality assessment, 46 studies were selected for text appraisal, of which 26 qualified articles were evaluated at the final step. The prevalence range of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were 3-48%, 3-50%, 5-20% and 5-88%, respectively. Low HDL-C and hypertriglyceridemia were the most prevalent lipid disorders in this group of population. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is a common health problem among Iranian children and adolescents. Few data were available in preschool children. This finding provides useful information for health policy makers to implement action-oriented interventions for prevention and early control of this important CVD risk factor.
Full Text Available Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease.
Neunert, C; Noroozi, N; Norman, G; Buchanan, G R; Goy, J; Nazi, I; Kelton, J G; Arnold, D M
The burden of severe bleeding in adults and children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has not been established. To describe the frequency and severity of bleeding events in patients with ITP, and the methods used to measure bleeding in ITP studies. We performed a systematic review of all prospective ITP studies that enrolled 20 or more patients. Two reviewers searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane registry up to May 2014. Overall weighted proportions were estimated using a random effects model. Measurement properties of bleeding assessment tools were evaluated. We identified 118 studies that reported bleeding (n = 10 908 patients). Weighted proportions for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were 1.4% for adults (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-2.1%) and 0.4% for children (95% CI, 0.2-0.7%; P bleeding was 9.6% for adults (95% CI, 4.1-17.1%) and 20.2% for children (95% CI, 10.0-32.9%; P bleeding were highly variable in primary studies. Two bleeding assessment tools (Buchanan 2002 for children; Page 2007 for adults) demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and validity in independent assessments. ICH was more common in adults and tended to occur during chronic ITP; other severe bleeds were more common in children and occurred at all stages of disease. Reporting of non-ICH bleeding was variable across studies. Further attention to ITP-specific bleeding measurement in clinical trials is needed to improve standardization of this important outcome for patients. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Full Text Available The treatment of children with cerebral palsy with Botulinum Toxin is considered safe and effective, but is only approved for children older than two years of age. The effect of BoNT-A injection on juvenile skeletal muscle especially on neuromuscular junction density, distribution and morphology is poorly delineated and concerns of irreversible damage to the motor endplates especially in young children exist. In contrast, earlier treatment could be appropriate to improve the attainment of motor milestones and general motor development. This review systematically analyzes the evidence regarding this hypothesis. A database search, including PubMed and Medline databases, was performed and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin in children younger than two years were identified. Two authors independently extracted the data and the methods of all identified trials were assessed. Three RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of the analysis revealed an improvement in spasticity of the upper and lower extremities as well as in the range of motion in the joints of the lower limbs. However, evidence of an improvement of general motor development could not be found, as the assessment of this area was not completely specified for this patient group. Based on available evidence it can not be concluded that Botulinum Toxin treatment in children younger than two years improves the achievement of motor milestones. However, there is evidence for the reduction of spasticity, avoiding contractures and delaying surgery. Due to some limitations, the results of this review should be cautiously interpreted. More studies, long-term follow up independent high-quality RCTs with effectiveness analyses are needed.
Manon Mura Paroche
Full Text Available Early childhood is a critical time for establishing food preferences and dietary habits. In order for appropriate advice to be available to parents and healthcare professionals it is essential for researchers to understand the ways in which children learn about foods. This review summarizes the literature relating to the role played by known developmental learning processes in the establishment of early eating behavior, food preferences and general knowledge about food, and identifies gaps in our knowledge that remain to be explored. A systematic literature search identified 48 papers exploring how young children learn about food from the start of complementary feeding to 36 months of age. The majority of the papers focus on evaluative components of children's learning about food, such as their food preferences, liking and acceptance. A smaller number of papers focus on other aspects of what and how children learn about food, such as a food's origins or appropriate eating contexts. The review identified papers relating to four developmental learning processes: (1 Familiarization to a food through repeated exposure to its taste, texture or appearance. This was found to be an effective technique for learning about foods, especially for children at the younger end of our age range. (2 Observational learning of food choice. Imitation of others' eating behavior was also found to play an important role in the first years of life. (3 Associative learning through flavor-nutrient and flavor-flavor learning (FFL. Although the subject of much investigation, conditioning techniques were not found to play a major role in shaping the food preferences of infants in the post-weaning and toddler periods. (4 Categorization of foods. The direct effects of the ability to categorize foods have been little studied in this age group. However, the literature suggests that what infants are willing to consume depends on their ability to recognize items on their plate as
Lu, Congchao; Stolk, Ronald P; Sauer, Pieter J J; Sijtsma, Anna; Wiersma, Rikstje; Huang, Guowei; Corpeleijn, Eva
Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this distinct period of development. A systematic search was finished on Jan 10 th , 2017, and identified 2200 hits through PubMed and Web of Science. English-language published studies were included if they reported statistical associations between factors and physical activity. Adapted criteria from the Strengthening The Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and evaluation of the quality of prognosis studies in systematic reviews (QUIPS) were used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. Related factors that were reported in at least three studies were summarized separately for children and adolescents using a semi-quantitative method. Forty two papers (published 2002-2016) were included. Most designs were cross-sectional (79%), and most studies used questionnaires to assess physical activity. Sample size was above 1000 in 18 papers (43%). Thirty seven studies (88%) showed acceptable quality by methodological quality assessment. Most studies reported a low level of physical activity. Boys were consistently more active than girls, the parental physical activity was positively associated with children and adolescents' physical activity, children in suburban/rural regions showed less activity than in urban regions, and, specifically in adolescents, self-efficacy was positively associated with physical activity. Family socioeconomic status and parental education were not associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. The studies included in this review were large but mostly of low quality in terms of study design (cross-sectional) and methods (questionnaires). Parental physical activity and self-efficacy are promising targets for future
Patro-Gołąb, Bernadeta; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania
In May 2014, the updated guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) were published. The use of yogurt in the nutritional management of AGE was not addressed, although it is frequently used in many countries for this purpose. We aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of yogurt consumption for the management of AGE in children. In this systematic review, a number of databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, with no language restrictions, were searched up to July 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of yogurt consumption in children with AGE. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Four RCTs (n = 448) that were generally low in methodological quality, all performed in hospital setting, were included. Compared with placebo/no intervention, yogurt consumption had no significant effect on stool volume. The data on the effect of yogurt consumption on the duration of diarrhea and stool frequency were not consistent. The chance of treatment success (or failure) was similar in both groups. Compared with placebo, the duration of hospitalization was shorter in children who received yogurt, but the difference was of a borderline significance. Total weight gain increased for those treated with yogurt. The consumption of yogurt had a positive effect on weight gain, but no consistent effect on AGE outcomes in hospitalized children. Given the limited data and the methodological limitations of the included trials, the evidence should be viewed with caution. The effect of yogurt consumption in the ambulatory setting is unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W C
This review systematically evaluated the effects of active videogames (AVGs) on physical activity (PA) and related outcomes in healthy children. Electronic databases were searched to retrieve articles published from January 2000 through August 2013. Included were original studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, that included at least one subgroup of healthy participants not older than 18 years, and that measured at least one PA-related cognitive, psychosocial, or behavioral outcome. All study designs were included, but only intervention studies with PA comparison between groups or across time were assessed for methodological quality. Evidence strength for intervention studies was stratified by settings (including the free-living home setting, the school, community, or primary care setting with structured AVG sessions [i.e., AVG play of participants was organized by teachers or researchers], and multiple settings). Fifty-four articles were identified, including 32 studies that examined the immediate PA effects (i.e., energy expenditure and PA levels during AVG play), one survey study, and 21 intervention studies aimed to promote PA. AVGs led to light- to moderate-intensity PA among studies of immediate PA outcomes. No effect was identified of AVGs on PA in the home setting. Moderate evidence was found that structured AVG play could improve PA. Inconclusive evidence was found for the effect of AVGs on PA in multiple settings. The present review does not support using AVGs alone in the home setting to promote PA. Structured AVG play has the potential to promote PA in children.
Gates, Allison; Shave, Kassi; Featherstone, Robin; Buckreus, Kelli; Ali, Samina; Scott, Shannon; Hartling, Lisa
There exist many evidence-based interventions available to manage procedural pain in children and neonates, yet they are severely underutilized. Parents play an important role in the management of their child's pain; however, many do not possess adequate knowledge of how to effectively do so. The purpose of the planned study is to systematically review and synthesize current knowledge of the experiences and information needs of parents with regard to the management of their child's pain and distress related to medical procedures in the emergency department. We will conduct a systematic review using rigorous methods and reporting based on the PRISMA statement. We will conduct a comprehensive search of literature published between 2000 and 2016 reporting on parents' experiences and information needs with regard to helping their child manage procedural pain and distress. Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid PsycINFO, CINAHL, and PubMed will be searched. We will also search reference lists of key studies and gray literature sources. Two reviewers will screen the articles following inclusion criteria defined a priori. One reviewer will then extract the data from each article following a data extraction form developed by the study team. The second reviewer will check the data extraction for accuracy and completeness. Any disagreements with regard to study inclusion or data extraction will be resolved via discussion. Data from qualitative studies will be summarized thematically, while those from quantitative studies will be summarized narratively. The second reviewer will confirm the overarching themes resulting from the qualitative and quantitative data syntheses. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Research Checklist and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies will be used to assess the quality of the evidence from each included study. To our knowledge, no published review exists that comprehensively reports on the experiences and information needs of parents
Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo
This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.
Vidranski, Tihomir; Farkaš, Daria
Hearing impairment is a major limitation in communication, and it can obstruct psychological development, development of social skills and motor development. Hearing impairment is the third most common contemporary chronic health condition, and it has become a public health problem. The effectiveness of problem solving in everyday life and in emergency situations depends greatly on the amount and quality of the motor programs. Therefore, it is evident that the normal motor development in persons with hearing impairment is essential for everyday life. The aim of this research is to analyze the available information pertaining to motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without a cochlear implant (CI) and to analyze possibilities of influencing their motor skills. The relevant studies on motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without CI were obtained by an extensive computer search of various databases using special keywords and extraction with respect to certain criteria, resulting in 22 studies. The overall results of this systematic review indicate that the children with hearing impairment exhibit suboptimal levels of motor skills especially balance. Very few studies compared children with hearing impairment with CI units and without CI units and the results of those studies are quite contradictory. Numerous studies have confirmed that the regular and appropriate physical exercise can improve motor skills of children with hearing impairment, especially balance. The fact that the development of motor skills is crucial for the child's interaction with the outside world, action, perception and acquisition of academic skills and other skills necessary for life shows the importance of motor skills development for children with hearing impairment.
Full Text Available Context Symptoms of methadone poisoning, as one of the most dangerous types of poisoning, are very serious in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe causes and clinical symptoms of methadone poisoning in children admitted to hospitals in Iran. Data Sources Relevant studies published in national and international journals before January 29, 2016 were identified by studying the available databases, including PubMed, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, MagIran, and Irandoc. Study Selection After excluding duplicate, irrelevant, and low-quality articles, relevant papers were entered into the meta-analysis. The prevalence, mean, and standard deviation of methadone poisoning symptoms in children were statistically analyzed, using Stata version 11, and causes of methadone poisoning were presented in tables. Data Extraction Studies with unknown sample sizes, abstracts without access to full text, articles with quality assessment scores below 15.5, and studies carried out on non-Iranian populations were excluded from the meta-analysis. Results During the initial advanced search, 1594 articles were identified. After quality assessment, 12 papers were found eligible for the final systematic review and meta-analysis, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The reported symptoms included drowsiness, vomiting, apnea, cyanosis, seizure, ataxia, and delirium. In the meta-analysis, prevalence of symptoms in referred patients was estimated at 44% (0.95% confidence interval, 0.288 to 0.609. The causes of poisoning in children included accidental feeding by parents, storage of drugs in inappropriate containers, parental addiction, and low educational level of parents. Conclusions It is important to keep methadone in a suitable container away from children. Also, it is essential to focus on educating parents on health issues of their children.
Full Text Available Trinidad Sánchez,1 José A Castro-Rodríguez,2 Pablo E Brockmann2,3 1Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Pulmonology, Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, 3Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile Background: The objective was to perform a systematic review in order to describe the relationship between asthma and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in children, especially regarding the impact of treatment and management. Methods: We performed an electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS database. Study inclusion criteria were the following: 1 studies that examined the relationship between asthma/wheezing and SDB/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; and 2 studies conducted in children <18 years of age. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of asthma and SDB, the tests used for diagnosis, and the influence of their treatment and management. Results: One thousand and twenty studies were identified, among which 32 were selected (n=143,343 children; 51% males; age [mean ± standard deviation] 8.4±2.5 years. Most studies (n=26 diagnosed SDB using questionnaires or clinical history. Nine studies performed a sleep study for diagnosing OSA. The diagnosis of asthma was based on clinical history (n=16, previous medical diagnosis (n=4, questionnaires (n=12, and spirometry (n=5. Children with asthma were more likely to develop habitual snoring and OSA, and children with SDB were more likely to develop asthma. Moreover, asthma was associated with more severe OSA, and the presence of SDB was associated with severe asthma. Treatment of SDB with adenotonsillectomy was associated with significant asthma improvement. Conclusion: The relationship between asthma and SDB appears to be bidirectional, and adenotonsillectomy appears to improve asthma control. Future trials on how asthma treatment could impact on SDB are needed
Patro-Gołąb, B.; Zalewski, B. M.; Kołodziej, M.; Kouwenhoven, S.; Poston, L.; Godfrey, K. M.; Koletzko, B.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Szajewska, H.
This study, performed as part of the international EarlyNutrition research project (http://www.project-earlynutrition.eu), provides a systematic review of systematic reviews on the effects of nutritional interventions or exposures in children (up to 3 years of age) on the subsequent risk of obesity,
Carter, Mary-Ann; Edwards, R; Signal, L; Hoek, J
The current systematic review aimed to identify and critically appraise research on food environments in sports settings, including research into the types of food and beverages available, the extent and impact of food and beverage sponsorship and marketing, and views about food environments among key stakeholders. A systematic review. Fourteen English-language studies (two were papers describing different facets of the same study), published between 1985 and 2011, were identified from searches of electronic databases and bibliographies of primary studies. Most studies originated from Australia (n 10), with the remaining studies originating in the UK (n 1), New Zealand (n 1), the USA (n 1) and Canada (n 1). Data were collected from observations in stadia, websites and televised sports events, through in-depth interviews, focus groups and surveys with sports club members, parents and quick serve restaurant managers. Literature exploring food environments in sports settings was limited and had some important methodological limitations. No studies comprehensively described foods available at clubs or stadia, and only one explored the association between food and beverage sponsorship and club incomes. Club policies focused on the impact of health promotion funding rather than the impact of sponsorship or food availability in sports settings. Further research, including comprehensive studies of the food environment in sports settings, is required to document the availability, sponsorship and marketing of food and beverages at national, regional and club levels and to estimate how sports settings may influence children's diets.
Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Dobson, Kathleen G.; Buckley, Norman
Objective To examine the effectiveness of Audiovisual (AV) interventions at reducing preoperative anxiety and its associated outcomes in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies where the primary outcome was children’s preoperative anxiety was conducted. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain, behavioral changes, recovery, induction compliance, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. The risk of bias of each study was assessed. Results In all, 18 studies were identified. A meta-analytic approach and narrative synthesis of findings were used to summarize the results of the studies. Conclusions This systematic review suggests that AV interventions can be effective in reducing children’s preoperative anxiety. Videos, multi-faceted programs, and interactive games appear to be most effective, whereas music therapy and Internet programs are less effective. While AV interventions appear potentially useful, adequately powered RCTs are required to conclusively pinpoint the components and mechanisms of the most effective AV interventions and guide practice. PMID:26476281
Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel; Mertz, Marcel
Planning and conducting preventive measures against obesity for school children is beset with ethical issues which should be known to make well-informed decisions. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive spectrum of these ethical issues by means of a systematic review. In this context, the study also assesses the value of different search strategies for ethical literature in public health. Literature was searched in Medline, EBSCO and others. Three different search strategies with varied scopes were applied and their output was compared. Qualitative content analysis was used for extracting and categorizing ethical issues. 109 publications (published from 1995 to 2015) were finally included. The qualitative analysis resulted in 60 potentially relevant ethical issues. The three search strategies showed substantial differences regarding their search results. The presented spectrum provides an initial evidence base for dealing with ethical issues adequately. The findings of the study further suggest that a broader scope is more fruitful for systematic reviews on ethical issues in the field of public health.
Full Text Available We aimed to conduct a review to investigate the prevalence of anxiety disorders among Iranian children and adolescents.We systematically reviewed the literature up to June 2014. We searched three Persian databases (Magiran, IranMedex and SID and three English databases: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO. All original studies that investigated the current prevalence of anxiety in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents were entered into the study. All studies conducted on special samples or in special settings were excluded. By searching English databases, we obtained 124 original studies. After removing duplicate papers, 120 articles remained. In the next step, we screened the articles based on their title. In sum, 95 Persian and English articles had relevant titles. After screening based on the abstract and full text, 26 studies remained. After screening based on the full text, all selected studies were qualitatively assessed by two evaluators separately.Twenty five studies were eligible and reported different types of anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias and panic disorder. The samples varied from 81 to 2996 among studies and their age range was 5 to 18 years. These studies were conducted in different cities of Iran. SCL-90 is a frequently used questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were mostly investigated with the prevalence rates ranging from 6.8% in Saravan to 85% in Bandar Abbas. OCD was the second common study with prevalence rates ranging from 1% in Tabriz to 11.9% in Gorgan.Our findings revealed considerable amount of anxiety disorder among Iranian children and adolescents. Given the fact that anxiety disorder has negative effects on the well-being and function of individuals and can lead to severe problems, this disorder should be considered in mental health programs designed for children and adolescents.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD may have significant neurobehavioural problems persisting into adulthood. Early diagnosis may decrease the risk of adverse life outcomes. However, little is known about effective interventions for children with FASD. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify and evaluate the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for children with FASD. Methods We did an electronic search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and ERIC for clinical studies (Randomized controlled trials (RCT, quasi RCT, controlled trials and pre- and post-intervention studies which evaluated pharmacological, behavioural, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychosocial and educational interventions and early intervention programs. Participants were aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of a FASD. Selection of studies for inclusion and assessment of study quality was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was not possible due to diversity in the interventions and outcome measures. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological weaknesses were common, including small sample sizes; inadequate study design and short term follow up. Pharmacological interventions, evaluated in two studies (both RCT showed some benefit from stimulant medications. Educational and learning strategies (three RCT were evaluated in seven studies. There was some evidence to suggest that virtual reality training, cognitive control therapy, language and literacy therapy, mathematics intervention and rehearsal training for memory may be beneficial strategies. Three studies evaluating social communication and behavioural strategies (two RCT suggested that social skills training may improve social skills and behaviour at home and Attention Process Training may improve attention. Conclusion There is limited good
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, evidence has shown the growing trend of published studies on family-oriented interventions in children with cancer. Besides shedding light on the current status of knowledge, a review of the existing evidence can serve an effective step toward designing and implementing appropriate interventions in this domain. Methods: This systematic review was carried out to categorize and report the findings of all types of psychosocial interventions on the family caregivers of children with cancer. The English keywords "family career", "family caregiver", “children with cancer", "psychosocial", "intervention”, “educational", and "childhood cancer" were searched in CINAHL, Web of Science (ISI, PsychINFO, Pubmed and Scopus databanks, and equivalent Persian keywords were searched in the SID of Jihad University, IRANDOC, and IranPsych and Magiran databanks. From among 819 papers found between 1994 and 2014, a total of 17 articles were included in the study after qualitative evaluation. Results: Interventions were often performed on mothers and indicated various interventional approaches. The majority of the interventions were cognitive-behavioral which were reported to be effective in improving the measured criteria such as increasing the quality of life, decreasing emotional distress, anxiety and depression, and increasing adaptive behaviors. Conclusion: The findings were generally reported to be hopeful and most of interventions were reported to have positive effects on the participants, among which behavioral-cognitive interventions were found to show the strongest evidence. Supportive interventions must be considered as an indispensable part of care for children with cancer.
Bai, Jinbing; Behera, Madhusmita; Bruner, Deborah Watkins
The gut microbiome plays a critical role in maintaining children's health and in preventing and treating children's disease. Current application of the gut microbiome in childhood cancer is still lacking. This study aimed to systematically review the following: (1) alternations in the gut microbiome throughout cancer treatment trajectories in children, (2) the associations between the gut microbiome and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and psychoneurological symptoms (PNS), and (3) the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in the gut microbiome in children with cancer. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology abstract were searched. Eligible studies included all study types in which the gut microbiome was primarily reported in children with cancer. The Mixed Methods Assessment Tool was used to evaluate the methodology quality of included studies. Seven studies met our eligibility criteria, including two cohort studies, two case-control studies, and three randomized controlled trails. The findings showed that the diversity estimates of the gut microbiome in children with cancer were lower than those of healthy controls both pre- and post-treatment. Children with cancer showed a significantly lower relative abundance of healthy gut microbiome (e.g., Clostridium XIVa and Bifidobacterium) during and after cancer treatment. No adequate literature was identified to support the associations between dysbiosis of the gut microbiome and GI symptoms/PNS. The use of prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides) and probiotics (Bifidobacterium or Lactobacilli) appears to improve the microenvironment of the gut around 1 month (4-5 weeks) during chemotherapy rather than at the beginning of treatment. Data also suggest that both prebiotic and probiotic interventions decrease clinical side effects (e.g., infection and morbidity risk) in children with cancer. This study adds to the evidence that dysbiosis of the gut microbiome can be improved using
Benarous, Xavier; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David
Compared to the large number of studies exploring difficulties in emotion recognition in maltreated children, few (N = 12) have explored the cognitive aspect of theory of mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to understand others' thoughts and intentions. A systematic review of these studies shows inconsistent results regarding cognitive ToM tasks. Youths with a history of maltreatment are more likely to fail at false-belief tasks (N = 2). However, results are less conclusive regarding other tasks (perspective-taking tasks, N = 4; and hostile attribution tasks, N = 7). Additionally, only one study controlled for potential psychopathology. Measures of psychopathology and other cognitive abilities, in addition to ToM, are required to establish a specific association between maltreatment and the cognitive dimension of ToM.
Full Text Available Compared to the large number of studies exploring difficulties in emotion recognition in maltreated children, few (N=12 have explored the cognitive aspect of theory of mind, i.e., the ability to understand others’ thoughts and intentions. A systematic review of these studies shows inconsistent results regarding cognitive theory of mind tasks. Youths with a history of maltreatment are more likely to fail at false belief tasks (N=2. However, results are less conclusive regarding other tasks (perspective-taking tasks, N=4; and hostile attribution tasks, N=7. Additionally, only one study controlled for potential psychopathology. Measures of psychopathology and other cognitive abilities, in addition to theory of mind, are required to establish a specific association between maltreatment and the cognitive dimension of theory of mind.
Candy, D; Belsey, J
As the evidence base supporting the use of laxatives in children is very limited, we undertook an updated systematic review to clarify the issue. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify randomised controlled trials of polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus either placebo or active comparator, in patients aged milk of magnesia and one with placebo. Study duration ranged from 2 weeks to 12 months. PEG was significantly more effective than placebo and either equivalent to (two studies) or superior to (four studies) active comparator. Differences in study design precluded meaningful meta-analysis. Lack of high quality studies has meant that the management of childhood constipation has tended to rely on anecdote and empirical treatment choice. Recent publication of well designed randomised trials now permits a more evidence-based approach, with PEG-based treatments having been proven to be effective and well-tolerated first-line treatment.
Aguilar Cordero, M J; Ortegón Piñero, A; Mur Vilar, N; Sánchez García, J C; García Verazaluce, J J; García García, I; Sánchez López, A M
Obesity treatment has been the subject of much controversy; various authors have recommended the application of a comprehensive treatment programme, and in the light of this previous research, we consider the question of what is the most effective programme of physical activity to reduce overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. To analyse major studies on the effectiveness of physical activity in reducing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Systematic review of the results of physical activity programmes, published in scientific articles, to reduce overweight and obesity. Using an automated database search in PubMed and Google Scholar, conducted from October 2013 to March 2014, we identified 85 valid items. In selecting the items, the criteria applied included the usefulness and relevance of the subject matter and the credibility or experience of the research study authors. The internal and external validity of each of the articles reviewed was taken into account. This review confirmed the effectiveness of physical activity in reducing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The most effective programmes were those combining aerobic and anaerobic exercises. It is generally accepted that at least 180 minutes per week should be dedicated to exercise, in the form of three 60-minute sessions of moderate intensity. Such programmes could be sufficient for persons with overweight or obesity. Researchers in this field agree that when a diet based on an appropriate distribution of meals is combined with regular physical activity, they reinforce each other, and thus optimum results are obtained. Weight reduction programmes that take account of family involvement are more effective than nutrition education itself or other routine interventions that fail to consider family involvement. The role of pa rents and of the persons around the child or adolescent is essential to reinforce positive behaviour toward lifestyle change. Copyright AULA
Hesketh, Kim; Leveille, Lise; Mulpuri, Kishore
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) undergoing reconstructive hip surgery are at risk for developing avascular necrosis (AVN). The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the reported frequency of AVN, the amount and quality of literature available, and possibly identity risk factors for developing AVN following reconstructive surgery for hip displacement in children with CP. We performed a review of the literature using EMBASE and MEDLINE databases. Studies investigating the outcome of reconstructive hip surgery in patients with CP that identified the presence or absence of AVN were included. Study quality was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine scale. Three hundred and ninety-nine articles were identified using our search strategy. Twenty-nine studies were included for data extraction after full-text review. The frequency of AVN ranged from 0% to 46% with an overall rate across studies of 7.5%. Presence of AVN was the primary outcome in 2 studies. The frequency of AVN in these studies was significantly higher than other studies at 37% and 46%. No statistically significant associations were found between age at surgery, severity of hip subluxation, length of follow-up, or type of surgery (combined varus derotation osteotomy and pelvic osteotomy vs. varus derotation osteotomy alone), and the rate of AVN. The majority of studies did not comment on methods used for determining diagnosis or severity of AVN and clinical significance was not well documented. Children with CP undergoing reconstructive hip surgery are at risk of developing AVN. Frequency and severity of this complication is poorly documented in the literature. On the basis of current evidence no significant risk factors were identified; however, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about them. Incidence of AVN was higher in studies in which AVN was a primary outcome suggesting that the true frequency of AVN
Cawley, John; Hull, Harry F; Rousculp, Matthew D
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccinations for all children 6 months to 18 years of age, which includes school-aged children. Influenza immunization programs may benefit schools by reducing absenteeism. A systematic literature review of PubMed, PsychLit, and Dissertation Abstracts available as of January 7, 2008, was conducted for school-located vaccinations, using search words "School Health Services" and "Immunization Programs"; limited to "Child" (6-12 years) and "Adolescent" (13-18 years) for PubMed and "mass or universal" and (immuniz(*) or immunis(*) or vaccin(*)) and (school or Child or Adolescen(*)) for PsychLit and Dissertation Abstracts. Fifty-nine studies met the criteria for review. Strategies such as incentives, education, the design of the consent form, and follow-up can increase parental consent and number of returned forms. Minimizing out-of-pocket cost, offering both the intramuscular (shot) and intranasal (nasal spray) vaccination, and using reminders can increase vaccination coverage among those whose parents consented. Finally, organization, communication, and planning can minimize the logistical challenges. Schools-based vaccination programs are a promising option for achieving the expanded ACIP recommendation; school-located vaccination programs are feasible and effective. Adhering to lessons from the peer-reviewed scientific literature may help public health officials and schools implement the expanded recommendation to provide the greatest benefit for the lowest cost. Given the potential benefits of the expanded recommendation, both directly to the vaccinated children and indirectly to the community, prospective, well-controlled trials to establish the cost-effectiveness of specific vaccination strategies should be high priorities for future research.
Cheng, J; Sun, Y-H
This study aimed to systematically review evidence of the prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among 'left-behind children' in rural China. The electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure/Wanfang (Chinese) were utilized to search for terms including 'depression' or 'depressive disorder', 'anxiety' or 'mental health', combined with 'left behind', 'children' and 'China'. High rates of psychological depression/anxiety have been reported among left-behind children compared with their age-matched peers. Prevalence rates of depression are reported to range from 12.1 to 51.4% and of anxiety are reported to range from 13.2 to 57.6%. Variability between studies is likely attributable to methodological variations relating to measures used and research setting. Potential predictors measured in studies include age and gender, types of being left, age/years of separation, socio-economic status, etc. These high rates of reported psychological problems among this group of young people suggest the need to develop more effective approaches to prevention and management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wu, Ji; Yang, Xi-Wen; Zhang, Ming
To systematically evaluate the efficacy of massage, a traditional treatment method of traditional Chinese medicine on children with asthma. Literatures from 5 databases using the date ranging from 1 January, 1990, to 13 December, 2016, were reviewed, which were all randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy on children with asthma and effect on lung function mainly by massage therapy. 14 researches with 1299 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control group, a better efficacy was found in treatment group, which focused on massage therapy. Compared with control group, there was remarkable increase on FEV1 as well as PEF in treatment group. All studies have shown that massage therapy has a significantly positive effect on children with asthma, improves the pulmonary function parameters of large airway, reduces the plasma concentrations of PAF and prostaglandin, and increases the levels of PAF-AH and DP1; therefore, it greatly improves pulmonary function. However, the limited research designs of included studies lead to high risk of bias. More randomized controlled trials with better methodological quality are needed to further confirm the effectiveness of massage.
Kaushik, Anya; Kostaki, Evgenia; Kyriakopoulos, Marinos
One in ten children and adolescents suffer with mental health difficulties at any given time, yet less than one third seek treatment. Untreated mental illness predisposes to longstanding individual difficulties and presents a great public health burden. Large scale initiatives to reduce stigmatization of mental illness, identified as a key deterrent to treatment, have been disappointing. This indicates the need for a clearer understanding of the stigmatizing processes faced by young people, so that more effective interventions are employed. A systematic review of the literature, assessing public stigma and self-stigma (i.e. internalized public stigma) specifically in children and adolescents with mental health difficulties (YP-MHD), was conducted. Forty-two studies were identified, confirming that stigmatization of YP-MHD is a universal and disabling problem, present amongst both children and adults. There was some variation by diagnosis and gender, and stigmatization was for the most part unaffected by labelling. Self-stigmatization led to more secrecy and an avoidance of interventions. The findings confirm that stigmatization of mental illness is poorly understood due to a lack of research and methodological discrepancies between existing studies. Implications for the findings are discussed, and suggestions made for future research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho de; Matas, Carla Gentile
To analyze how Auditory Long Latency Evoked Potentials (LLAEP) change according to age in children population through a systematic literature review. After formulation of the research question, a bibliographic survey was done in five data bases with the following descriptors: Electrophysiology (Eletrofisiologia), Auditory Evoked Potentials (Potenciais Evocados Auditivos), Child (Criança), Neuronal Plasticity (Plasticidade Neuronal) and Audiology (Audiologia). Level 1 evidence articles, published between 1995 and 2015 in Brazilian Portuguese or English language. Aspects related to emergence, morphology and latency of P1, N1, P2 and N2 components were analyzed. A total of 388 studies were found; however, only 21 studies contemplated the established criteria. P1 component is characterized as the most frequent component in young children, being observed around 100-150 ms, which tends to decrease as chronological age increases. The N2 component was shown to be the second most commonly observed component in children, being observed around 200-250 ms.. The other N1 and P2 components are less frequent and begin to be seen and recorded throughout the maturational process. The maturation of LLAEP occurs gradually, and the emergence of P1, N1, P2 and N2 components as well as their latency values are variable in childhood. P1 and N2 components are the most observed and described in pediatric population. The diversity of protocols makes the comparison between studies difficult.
Feng, Shaoguang; Qiu, Yuhui; Li, Xiang; Yang, Huajun; Wang, Chen; Yang, Junjia; Liu, Weiguang; Wang, Aihe; Yao, Xianming; Lai, Xin-He
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes between laparoscopic splenectomy and the traditional open splenectomy in children. Literature searches were conducted to identify studies having compared the laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) and open splenectomy (OS) for children. Parameters such as operative time, blood loss, length of postoperative stay, the removal of accessory spleens and postoperative complications including postoperative high fever, acute chest syndrome (ACS), and ileus were pooled and compared by meta-analysis. Among the 922 pediatric participants included in the 10 studies, 508 had received LS and 414 OS. There were shorter length of hospital stays, less blood loss, and longer operative times with the LS approach compared with OS. However, no significant difference was found between LS and OS in the secondary outcome, such as the removal of accessory spleens or postoperative complications including postoperative high fever, ACS, and ileus. LS is a feasible, safe, and effective surgical procedure alternative to OS for pediatric patients. Compared with OS, LS has the advantage of shorter hospital stay and less blood loss. Besides, total postoperative complications may be slightly lower in LS. We conclude that LS should be considered an acceptable option for children.
Full Text Available The article presents results of systematic review of data on prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen. Data search was performed by PubMed database and Google search. 27 publications for analysis were available. Prophylactic efficacy of ibuprofen was studied in 14 studies. Summarizing of the results showed that ibuprofen prevents pain and decreases its following intensity after different surgical or dental operations. There is no significant difference in prophylactic efficacy of single dose ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen was described in 13 studies. Administration of the drug for pain stopping in children is reasonable. The analgesic effect of ibuprofen compared to placebo was shown in all studies of patients with migraine and diseases of ENT-organs. 5 studies performed in last 5 years showed efficacy of ibuprofen in trauma patients, including children with non-complicated fractures of extremities.Key words: children, pain, ibuprofen, prophylaxis, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:52-62
Biddiss, Elaine; Irwin, Jennifer
To systematically review levels of metabolic expenditure and changes in activity patterns associated with active video game (AVG) play in children and to provide directions for future research efforts. A review of the English-language literature (January 1, 1998, to January 1, 2010) via ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and Scholars Portal using the following keywords: video game, exergame, physical activity, fitness, exercise, energy metabolism, energy expenditure, heart rate, disability, injury, musculoskeletal, enjoyment, adherence, and motivation. Only studies involving youth (benefits, and enjoyment and motivation associated with mainstream AVGs were included. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed and data were extracted and synthesized by 2 independent reviewers. MAIN OUTCOME EXPOSURES: Energy expenditure during AVG play compared with rest (12 studies) and activity associated with AVG exposure (6 studies). Percentage increase in energy expenditure and heart rate (from rest). Activity levels during AVG play were highly variable, with mean (SD) percentage increases of 222% (100%) in energy expenditure and 64% (20%) in heart rate. Energy expenditure was significantly lower for games played primarily through upper body movements compared with those that engaged the lower body (difference, -148%; 95% confidence interval, -231% to -66%; P = .001). The AVGs enable light to moderate physical activity. Limited evidence is available to draw conclusions on the long-term efficacy of AVGs for physical activity promotion.
Houston, Kirsty A; Gibb, Jack G; Maitland, Kathryn
Background : Diarrhoea complicates over half of admissions to hospital with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of dehydration recommend the use of oral rehydration with ReSoMal (an oral rehydration solution (ORS) for SAM), which has lower sodium (45mmols/l) and higher potassium (40mmols/l) content than old WHO ORS. The composition of ReSoMal was designed specifically to address theoretical risks of sodium overload and potential under-treatment of severe hypokalaemia with rehydration using standard ORS. In African children, severe hyponatraemia at admission is a major risk factor for poor outcome in children with SAM complicated by diarrhoea. We therefore reviewed the evidence for oral rehydration therapy in children with SAM. Methods : We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on 18 th July 2017 comparing different oral rehydration solutions in severely malnourished children with diarrhoea and dehydration, using standard search terms. The author assessed papers for inclusion. The primary endpoint was frequency of hyponatraemia during rehydration. Results : Six RCTs were identified, all published in English and conducted in low resource settings in Asia. A range of ORS were evaluated in these studies, including old WHO ORS, standard hypo-osmolar WHO ORS and ReSoMal. Hyponatraemia was observed in two trials evaluating ReSoMal, three children developed severe hyponatraemia with one experiencing convulsions. Hypo-osmolar ORS was found to have benefits in time to rehydration, reduction of stool output and duration of diarrhoea. No trials reported over-hydration or fatalities. Conclusions : Current WHO guidelines strongly recommend the use of ReSoMal based on low quality of evidence. Studies indicate a significant risk of hyponatraemia on ReSoMal in Asian children, none have been conducted in Africa, where SAM mortality remains high. Further research should be conducted in Africa to
Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby
. Conclusions: This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential...
Helgstrand, John Thomas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Lippert, Solvej
trials have challenged this dogma. The aim of this study was to evaluate how endocrine therapy (ET) affects survival in different clinical settings of PCa. Materials and methods A review of published phase II, III and IV studies evaluating the effect of ET on survival was performed. Results In localized...
Konidari, Anastasia; Anagnostopoulos, Antonios; Bonnett, Laura J; Pirmohamed, Munir; El-Matary, Wael
The aim was to systematically review the evidence on the clinical usefulness of thiopurine metabolite and white blood count (WBC) monitoring in the assessment of clinical outcomes in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov were screened in adherence to the PRISMA statement by two independent reviewers for identification of eligible studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and large case series of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (6MMPR) as an indicator of hepatotoxicity. Low thiopurine metabolite concentration may be indicative of non-compliance. Thiopurine metabolite testing does not safely predict clinical outcome, but may facilitate toxicity surveillance and treatment optimization in poor responders. Current evidence favours the combination of thiopurine metabolite/WBC monitoring and clinic follow-up for prompt identification of haematologic/hepatic toxicity safe dose adjustment, and treatment modification in cases of suboptimal clinical outcome or non-compliance. Well designed RCTs for the identification of robust surrogate markers of thiopurine efficacy and toxicity are required. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.
Schimmer, J A G; van der Steeg, A F W; Zuidema, W P
Splenic artery embolization (SAE), proximal or distal, is becoming the standard of care for traumatic splenic injury. Theoretically the immunological function of the spleen may be preserved, but this has not yet been proven. A parameter for measuring the remaining splenic function must therefore be determined in order to decide whether or not vaccinations and/or antibiotic prophylaxis are necessary to prevent an overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). A systematic review of the literature was performed July 2015 by searching the Embase and Medline databases. Articles were eligible if they described at least two trauma patients and the subject was splenic function. Description of procedure and/or success rate of SAE was not necessary for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and the quality of the articles and performed the data extraction. Twelve studies were included, eleven with adult patients and one focusing on children. All studies used different parameters to assess splenic function. None of them reported a OPSI after splenic embolization. Eleven studies found a preserved splenic function after SAE, in both adults and children. All but one studies on the long term effects of SAE indicate a preserved splenic function. However, there is still no single parameter or test available which can demonstrate that unequivocally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chou, Roger; Cantor, Amy; Zakher, Bernadette; Mitchell, Jennifer Priest; Pappas, Miranda
Screening and preventive interventions by primary care providers could improve outcomes related to early childhood caries. The objective of this study was to update the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force systematic review on prevention of caries in children younger than 5 years of age. Searching Medline and the Cochrane Library (through March 2013) and reference lists, we included trials and controlled observational studies on the effectiveness and harms of screening and treatments. One author extracted study characteristics and results, which were checked for accuracy by a second author. Two authors independently assessed study quality. No study evaluated effects of screening by primary care providers on clinical outcomes. One good-quality cohort study found pediatrician examination associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 for identifying a child with cavities. No new trials evaluated oral fluoride supplementation. Three new randomized trials were consistent with previous studies in finding fluoride varnish more effective than no varnish (reduction in caries increment 18% to 59%). Three trials of xylitol were inconclusive regarding effects on caries. New observational studies were consistent with previous evidence showing an association between early childhood fluoride use and enamel fluorosis. Evidence on the accuracy of risk prediction instruments in primary care settings is not available. There is no direct evidence that screening by primary care clinicians reduces early childhood caries. Evidence previously reviewed by the US Preventive Services Task Force found oral fluoride supplementation effective at reducing caries incidence, and new evidence supports the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in higher-risk children.
Smolik, Suzanne; Arland, Lesley; Hensley, Mary Ann; Schissel, Debra; Shepperd, Barbara; Thomas, Kristin; Rodgers, Cheryl
Peripheral neuropathy is a known side effect of several chemotherapy agents, including vinca alkaloids and platinum-based chemotherapy. Early recognition and monitoring of this side effect is an important role of the pediatric oncology nurse. There are a variety of peripheral neuropathy assessment tools currently in use, but the usefulness of these tools in identifying and grading neuropathy in children varies, and there is currently no standardized tool in place to evaluate peripheral neuropathy in pediatric oncology. A systematic review was performed to identify the peripheral neuropathy assessment tools that best evaluate the early onset and progression of peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients receiving vincristine. Because of the limited information available in pediatric oncology, this review was extended to any pediatric patient with neuropathy. A total of 8 studies were included in the evidence synthesis. Based on available evidence, the pediatric-modified Total Neuropathy Scale (ped-m TNS) and the Total Neuropathy Score-pediatric version (TNS-PV) are recommended for the assessment of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in children 6 years of age and older. In addition, several studies demonstrated that subjective symptoms alone are not adequate to assess for vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Nursing assessment of peripheral neuropathy should be an integral and regular part of patient care throughout the course of chemotherapy treatment.
van den Heuvel, Renée J F; Lexis, Monique A S; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Jansens, Rianne M L; de Witte, Luc P
Play is an essential part of children's lives. Children with physical disabilities experience difficulties in play, especially those with severe physical disabilities. With the progress of innovative technology, the possibilities to support play are increasing. The purpose of this literature study is to gain insight into the aims, control options and commercial availability of information and communication technology (ICT) and robots to support play (especially play for the sake of play) in children with severe physical disabilities. A systematic literature search in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, IEEE and ERIC was carried out. Titles and abstracts were assessed independently by three reviewers. In addition, studies were selected using Google Scholar, conference proceedings and reference lists. Three main groups of technology for play could be distinguished: robots (n = 8), virtual reality systems (n = 15) and computer systems (n = 4). Besides, ICT and robots developed for specific therapy or educational goals using play-like activities, five of the in total 27 technologies in this study described the aim of "play for play's sake". Many ICT systems and robots to support play in children with physical disabilities were found. Numerous technologies use play-like activities to achieve therapeutic or educational goals. Robots especially are used for "play for play's sake". Implications for Rehabilitation This study gives insight into the aims, control options and commercial availability for application of robots and ICT to support play in children with severe physical disabilities. This overview can be used in both the fields of rehabilitation and special education to search for new innovative intervention options and it can stimulate them to use these innovative play materials. Especially robots may have great potential in supporting "play for play's sake".
Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Sun, Ling; Wen, Yi Feng; McGrath, Colman P
The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal status in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and 7 additional databases, following the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, up to December 2014. Observational studies reporting data on the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in 2-18-y-old participants were included. An initial search identified 4191 papers; 278 potentially effective studies (k = 0.82) and 16 effective studies (k = 0.83) were included after screening. The mean quality of evidence among the studies was 20.3, according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist (k = 0.79). Meta-analyses showed that obesity (measured by body mass index) was significantly associated with visible plaque index (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 2.42, 9.34), bleeding on probing (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.75, 10.63), subgingival calculus (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.62), probing depth (OR: 14.15; 95% CI: 5.10, 39.25) and flow rate of salivary secretion (standardized mean difference: -0.89; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.61). However, various results were reported in the effective studies that were not included in meta-analyses. In conclusion, obesity is associated with some signs of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Further studies with a comprehensive prospective cohort design and more potential variables are recommended. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Townshend, Kishani; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew; Tsey, Komla
The rationale for undertaking this review was to investigate a potential strategy to address the rising prevalence of child and adolescent mental health disorders. The central tenants of mindful parenting appear to be emotional awareness, emotional regulation, attention regulation, intentionality and non-judgmental acceptance. The primary objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of mindful parenting programs in promoting children's, adolescents' and parents' wellbeing, particularly in relation to the intensity of symptoms associated with internalizing (depression, anxiety, stress) and externalizing (conduct) disorders. The secondary objective was to evaluate how effective mindful parenting programs are in improving emotional regulation, attention regulation, quality of the parent-child relationship, resilience and mindfulness of the children, adolescents and parents. Children aged between 0 and 18 years and their parents who have completed a mindful parenting program were the focus of this review. Mindful parenting programs included in this review had a minimum duration of one to two hours per week for 6 to 8 weeks, delivered in a group format, by a facilitator with appropriate training. It included parenting programs that drew upon mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy or acceptance commitment therapy. The comparator was the control or waitlist conditions. This review focused on randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of mindful parenting programs. Primary outcomes were wellbeing or intensity of symptoms associated with internalizing disorders (depression, anxiety, stress) and externalizing disorders (conduct disorders) in children, adolescents and parents. Secondary outcomes were emotional regulation, quality of the parent-child relationship, resilience and mindfulness of the children, adolescents and
Rodrigues, José L S A; Lima, Anderson P B; Nagata, Juliana Y; Rigo, Lilian; Cericato, Graziela O; Franco, Ademir; Paranhos, Luiz R
The domestic violence against children (DVAC) interferes in the psychological development leading to sequels that manifest and persist up to the adulthood. The physical evidences of domestic violence are more easily observed in the orofacial complex, becoming eventually detected by dentists. The present systematic literature review aimed to investigate the perception, knowledge and attitude of dentists towards the detection and management of DVAC cases. A systematic search was performed in 6 databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, GoogleScholar, and OpenGrey. Cross-sectional articles assessing the perception, knowledge, and attitude of dentists facing potential cases of DVAC were selected. No restriction of language, time, and publication status was considered. The search resulted in 1.024 articles, of which 18 fit the eligibility criteria. The knowledge for detecting cases of DVAC obtained during the undergraduation course was classified by the dentists (in 39% of the articles) as "insufficient". When suspecting of cases involving domestic violence, most of the dentists (in 77.75% of the articles) considered reporting to the competent authorities. However, the dentists are not sure about who these authorities are (in 31.25% of the articles). More attention must be given to the Forensic education in Dentistry. Specifically, proper training is necessary to support the dentists on the detection and management of pediatric patients under domestic violence. Systematic Review Registration Number: PROSPERO CRD42015026747 (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Yamamoto, Rumi; Keogh, Brian
WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: There are many qualitative studies that explore what it is like for children who live with a parent who has a mental illness. These studies are sometimes criticized because they have small sample sizes which limits their application. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We conducted a systematic review of qualitative papers with an aim to strengthening our understanding of what it is like for children who live with a parent who has a mental illness. We used stringent criteria to make sure that only the voices of children affected by parental mental illness were included in the review. In addition, the paper presents a timely update on previous reviews completed in this area. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The findings of this review highlight the impact that parental mental illness has on children and the important role that mental health nurses can play in maximizing opportunities for building resilience in affected children. Mental health nurses are in a key position to provide timely and age-appropriate information and support to both parents and children to assist in the development of appropriate coping and support mechanisms. Introduction This paper brings together what is known about what it is like for children who live with a parent with a mental illness with a view to strengthening our understanding of their experiences. This paper presents an update on previous reviews that were completed in this area and used a systematic approach and stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria to ensure that the voices of children were central in the included papers. A systematic review of this nature could not be located in the literature. Aims This paper presents the findings of a systematic review which explored the experiences of children who were affected by parental mental illness. Methods CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, Pubmesh and EMBASE were searched for qualitative studies which explored children's experiences, and
Tong, Huei Jinn; Alzahrani, Fatma Salem; Sim, Yu Fan; Tahmassebi, Jinous F; Duggal, Monty
Over the last few years, numerous reviews and studies have awarded articaine hydrochloride local anaesthetic (LA) a superior reputation, with outcomes of different studies demonstrating a general tendency for articaine hydrochloride to outperform lidocaine hydrochloride for dental treatment. Nevertheless, there seems to be no clear agreement on which LA solution is more efficacious in dental treatment for children. There is no previous publication systematically reviewing and summarising the current best evidence with respect to the success rates of LA solutions in children. To evaluate the available evidence on the efficacy of lidocaine and articaine, used in paediatric dentistry. A systematic search was conducted on Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (OVID; 1950 to June 2017), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; EBSCOhost; 1982 to June 2017), EMBASE (OVID; 1980 to June 2017), SCI-EXPANDED (ISI Web of Knowledge; 1900 to June 2017), key journals, and previous review bibliographies through June 2017. Original research studies that compared articaine with lidocaine for dental treatment in children were included. Methodological quality assessment and assessment of risk of bias were carried out for each of the included studies. Electronic searching identified 525 publications. Following the primary and secondary assessment process, six randomised controlled trials (RCT) were included in the final analysis. There was no difference between patient self-reported pain between articaine and lidocaine during treatment procedures (SMD = 0.06, P-value = 0.614), and no difference in the occurrence of adverse events between articaine and lidocaine injections following treatment in paediatric patients (RR = 1.10, P-value = 0.863). Yet, patients reported significantly less pain post-procedure following articaine injections (SMD = 0.37, P-value = 0.013). Substantial heterogeneity was noted in the reporting of outcomes among studies
Barnard, Katharine; Thomas, Sian; Royle, Pamela; Noyes, Kathryn; Waugh, Norman
Many children with type 1 diabetes have poor glycaemic control. Since the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) showed that tighter control reduces complication rates, there has been more emphasis on intensified insulin therapy. We know that patients and families are afraid of hypoglycaemia. We hypothesised that fear of hypoglycaemia might take precedence over concern about long-term complications, and that behaviour to avoid hypoglycaemia might be at the cost of poorer control, and aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of any interventions designed to prevent that. The objective of this review was to systematically review studies concerning the extent and consequences of fear of hypoglycaemia in parents of children under 12 years of age with type 1 diabetes, and interventions to reduce it. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, meeting abstracts of EASD, ADA and Diabetes UK, Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, UK CRN, scrutiny of bibliographies of retrieved papers and contact with experts in the field.Inclusions: Relevant studies of any design of parents of children under 12 years of age with Type 1 diabetes were included. The key outcomes were the extent and impact of fear, hypoglycaemia avoidance behaviour in parents due to parental fear of hypoglycaemia in their children, the effect on diabetes control, and the impact of interventions to reduce this fear and hypoglycaemia avoidance behaviour. Eight articles from six studies met the inclusion criteria. All were cross sectional studies and most were of good quality. Parental fear of hypoglycaemia, anxiety and depression were reported to be common. There was a paucity of evidence on behaviour to avoid hypoglycaemia, but there were some suggestions that higher than desirable blood glucose levels might be permitted in order to avoid hypoglycaemia. No studies reporting interventions to reduce parental fear of hypoglycaemia were found. The evidence base was limited. Parents
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children with type 1 diabetes have poor glycaemic control. Since the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT showed that tighter control reduces complication rates, there has been more emphasis on intensified insulin therapy. We know that patients and families are afraid of hypoglycaemia. We hypothesised that fear of hypoglycaemia might take precedence over concern about long-term complications, and that behaviour to avoid hypoglycaemia might be at the cost of poorer control, and aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of any interventions designed to prevent that. The objective of this review was to systematically review studies concerning the extent and consequences of fear of hypoglycaemia in parents of children under 12 years of age with type 1 diabetes, and interventions to reduce it. Methods Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, meeting abstracts of EASD, ADA and Diabetes UK, Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, UK CRN, scrutiny of bibliographies of retrieved papers and contact with experts in the field. Inclusions: Relevant studies of any design of parents of children under 12 years of age with Type 1 diabetes were included. The key outcomes were the extent and impact of fear, hypoglycaemia avoidance behaviour in parents due to parental fear of hypoglycaemia in their children, the effect on diabetes control, and the impact of interventions to reduce this fear and hypoglycaemia avoidance behaviour. Results Eight articles from six studies met the inclusion criteria. All were cross sectional studies and most were of good quality. Parental fear of hypoglycaemia, anxiety and depression were reported to be common. There was a paucity of evidence on behaviour to avoid hypoglycaemia, but there were some suggestions that higher than desirable blood glucose levels might be permitted in order to avoid hypoglycaemia. No studies reporting interventions to reduce parental
Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of
Wigham, Sarah; Barton, Stephen; Parr, Jeremy R.; Rodgers, Jacqui
Accurate population rates of depression can inform allocation of health resources and service planning, to counter the impact of depression on quality of life and morbidity. A systematic review of the rates of depression in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and without intellectual disability (high-functioning [HF] ASD) was…
Leenarts, L.E.W.; Diehle, J.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansma, E.P.; Lindauer, R.J.L.
This is a systematic review of evidence-based treatments for children exposed to childhood maltreatment. Because exposure to childhood maltreatment has been associated with a broad range of trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation, substance abuse) and with aggressive
Loeters, Marianne J. B.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Aim Scoliosis is a frequently occurring and serious complication of severe cerebral palsy (CP). This systematic review aims to the assess the risk factors associated with the emergence and progression of scoliosis in children with CP functioning at level IV or V of the Gross Motor Function
Barr, Megan; Duncan, Jill; Dally, Kerry
Children in regional, rural and remote areas have less access to services than those living in urban areas. Practitioners serving children with a hearing loss have attempted to address this gap, however there are few studies investigating service access and experiences of non-metropolitan families and professionals. This systematic review…
Gomez, Ivan Neil; Lai, Cynthia Y Y; Morato-Espino, Paulin Grace; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Tsang, Hector W H
Previous studies have explored the correlates of behavioural and autonomic regulation of response to sensory stimuli in children; however, a comprehensive review of such relationship is lacking. This systematic review was performed to critically appraise the current evidence on such relationship and describe the methods used in these studies. Online databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed, full-text articles in the English language between 1999 and 2016, initially screened by title and abstract, and appraised and synthesized by two independent review authors. Fourteen Level III-3 cross-sectional studies were included for systematic review, among which six studies explored the relationship between behaviour and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli. Three studies reported significant positive weak correlations among ASD children; however, no correlations were found in typically developing children. Methodological differences related to individual differences among participants, measures used, and varied laboratory experimental setting were noted. This review suggests inconclusive evidence supporting the relationship between behavioural and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli among children. Methodological differences may likely have confounded the results of the current evidence. We present methodological recommendations to address this matter for future researches. This trial is registered with PROSPERO registration number CRD42016043887.
Ivan Neil Gomez
Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have explored the correlates of behavioural and autonomic regulation of response to sensory stimuli in children; however, a comprehensive review of such relationship is lacking. This systematic review was performed to critically appraise the current evidence on such relationship and describe the methods used in these studies. Methods. Online databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed, full-text articles in the English language between 1999 and 2016, initially screened by title and abstract, and appraised and synthesized by two independent review authors. Results. Fourteen Level III-3 cross-sectional studies were included for systematic review, among which six studies explored the relationship between behaviour and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli. Three studies reported significant positive weak correlations among ASD children; however, no correlations were found in typically developing children. Methodological differences related to individual differences among participants, measures used, and varied laboratory experimental setting were noted. Conclusion. This review suggests inconclusive evidence supporting the relationship between behavioural and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli among children. Methodological differences may likely have confounded the results of the current evidence. We present methodological recommendations to address this matter for future researches. This trial is registered with PROSPERO registration number CRD42016043887.
Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise
Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 article...
Ekeland, E; Heian, F; Hagen, K B
A systematic review to determine if exercise alone or as part of a comprehensive intervention can improve self esteem in children and young people is described. Twenty three randomised controlled trials were analysed. A synthesis of several small, low quality trials indicates that exercise may have short term beneficial effects on self esteem in children and adolescents. However, high quality research on defined populations with adequate follow up is needed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011, reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl. Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies. Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to
Wong, Angel Y S; Chan, Esther W; Chui, Celine S L; Sutcliffe, Alastair G; Wong, Ian C K
The present study aimed to review the literature on micronutrient deficiency and other factors influencing a deficiency status among children living in China. A systematic review was performed to analyse the literature. Studies were identified through a search of PubMed and secondary references. Children living in China aged less than 18 years. Sixty-one articles were included. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency decreased to approximately 10 % in 1995-2009. It increased with age but no significant difference was found between genders. The prevalence of thiamin and vitamin B12 deficiency was 10·5 % in Yunnan and 4·5 % in Chongqing provinces, respectively. Higher vitamin D deficiency rates were seen in spring and winter. The incidence of bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency was 3·3 % in 1998-2001 and more prevalent in rural areas. Both iodine deficiency and excess iodine intake were observed. Goitre rates were reported in Tibet, Jiangxi, Gansu and Hong Kong (3·5-46 %). Anaemia rates ranged from 20 % to 40 % in 2007-2011. High Se deficiency rates were found in Tibet, Shaanxi and Jiangsu. High Zn deficiency rates were also found (50-70 %) in 1995-2006. Few studies reported Ca deficiency rates (19·6-34·3 %). The degrees of deficiency for vitamin A, vitamin B12, Fe and Zn were more substantial in rural areas compared with urban areas. The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency rates varied. Socio-economic status, environmental factors and the Chinese diet may influence micronutrient deficiency. Public health policies should consider implementing programmes of supplementation, food fortification and nutrition education to address these deficiencies among Chinese children.
Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, is one of the most common metabolic disorders, which lead to many chronic diseases. The link between childhood MetS and occurrence of atherosclerosis and its sequels in adulthood is well documented. This study aims to systematically review the prevalence of MetS among Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted on studies published from January 1990 to January 2015. The main international electronic data sources were PubMed and the NLM Gateway (for MEDLINE, Institute of Scientific Information (ISI, and SCOPUS. For Persian databases, we used domestic databases. We included all available population-based studies and national surveys conducted in the pediatric age group aged 3–21-year-old. Results: In this review, 2138 articles were identified (PubMed: 265; SCOPUS: 368; ISI: 465; Scientific Information Database: 189; IranMedex: 851; Irandoc: 46. After quality assessment, 13 qualified articles were evaluated. The number of total population and points of data were 24,772 and 125, respectively. Regarding the geographical distribution, we found 2 national, 6 provincial, and 5 district level points of data. The prevalence range of MetS among children was 1–22% using different definitions. Reported range of pediatric MetS defined by different criteria was as follows: National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III; 3–16%, International Diabetes Federation; 0–8%, American Heart Association; 4–9.5%, The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; 1–18%, de Ferranti; 0–22%. Conclusion: MetS is a common metabolic disorder among Iranian children and adolescents, with increasing trends during the last decades. This finding provides baseline useful information for health policy makers to implement evidence based-health promotion for appropriate controlling of this growing health problem for the
de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; van de Bor, Margot; Doak, Colleen M; Polman, Katja
Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. We aimed to systematically review current evidence on the relation of helminth infections with micronutrient status in school-age children worldwide. We included both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We applied a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate 1) cross-sectional associations between helminths and micronutrient status, 2) effects of anthelminthic treatment on micronutrient status, and 3) effects of micronutrient supplementation on helminth infection and reinfection. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed an association between helminth infections and serum retinol [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.30; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.13] but not serum ferritin (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.7). Conversely, meta-analyses of anthelminthic treatment RCTs showed a positive effect on ferritin (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.22) but not retinol (SMD: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.14). The number of studies on micronutrients other than ferritin and retinol was not sufficient for pooling. Meta-analyses of micronutrient-supplementation RCTs showed only a modest protective effect for multimicronutrient interventions on helminth infection and reinfection rates (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). In this review, we show evidence of distinct associations between helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children. More studies are needed on micronutrients other than iron and vitamin A and on possible helminth species-specific effects. A thorough comprehension of the interplay between helminth infections and micronutrients will help guide integrated and sustainable intervention strategies in affected children worldwide. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Vloemans, A F P M; Hermans, M H E; van der Wal, M B A; Liebregts, J; Middelkoop, E
A large part of the patient population of a burn centre consists of children, most of whom are younger than four years. The majority of these young children suffer from superficial and deep partial thickness scald burns that may easily deepen to full thickness burns. A proper wound therapy, that prevents infection and ensures a moist wound condition, might prevent the deterioration of the wound. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of wound management and dressing materials to select the best treatment option for children with burns. A search in Medline and Embase revealed 51 articles for a critical appraisal. The articles were divided into randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and a group of case-reports. Total appraisal did not differ much amongst the groups; the level of evidence was highest in the randomized controlled trials and lowest in the case-reports. In 16 out of 34 comparative studies, silver sulfadiazine or a silver sulfadiazine/chlorhexidine-gluconate combination was the standard of wound care treatment. The competitor dressing was Biobrane(®) in six studies and amnion membrane in three. Tulle gauze, or tulle gauze impregnated with an antibacterial addition were the standard of care treatment in seven studies. In general, membranous dressings like Biobrane(®) and amnion membrane performed better than the standard of care on epithelialization rate, length of hospital stay and pain for treatment of partial thickness burns in children. However, hardly any of the studies investigated long-term results like scar formation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toaimah, Fatihi Hassan Soliman; Mohammad, Hala Mohammad Fathi
Rapid intravenous (IV) rehydration is commonly used for the management of pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department. The current practice shows wide variation in the volume and rate of rapid IV hydration. The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of rapid IV rehydration compared with standard method in children with gastroenteritis. MEDLINE (1946-2014), EMBASE (1974-2014), and CENTRAL via the Cochrane Library (Issue 8, 2014) were systematically searched to identify eligible studies. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of rapid IV rehydration in children with gastroenteritis. A total of 1513 articles were retrieved, and our inclusion criteria were met by 3 studies, with a total of 464 participants. The percentage of children who were successfully rehydrated and tolerated oral fluids at 2 to 4 hours after starting IV fluid therapy ranged from 69% to 100% in both rapid IV rehydration and standard method. Time to discharge ranged from 2 to 6 hours (rapid rehydration) versus 2 to 5 hours (standard rehydration). Emergency department revisits ranged from 3% to 16% (rapid rehydration) versus 5% to 14% (standard). Summarized results suggested that rapid IV rehydration may be associated with longer time-to-discharge and higher readmission rates. The new evidence fails to demonstrate superiority of large-volume (60 mL/kg/h) over standard (20 mL/kg/h) IV rehydration. Standard volume IV rehydration for 1 to 4 hours followed by oral hydration or maintenance IV fluids seems sufficient for most children with gastroenteritis requiring IV fluid administration. However, more evidence is needed to establish an optimal IV rehydration regimen.
Casagrande, Arianna; Pederiva, Federica
The appropriate management of asymptomatic congenital pulmonary malformations (CPMs) remains controversial. Prophylactic surgery is recommended to avoid the risk for development of pulmonary infections and to prevent the highly debated development of malignancy. However, the true risk for development of malignancy remains unknown. A systematic review analyzed all cases in which lung tumors associated with CPMs in both the pediatric and adult populations were described. A comprehensive literature search was carried out; it included all the cases in which an association between CPMs and malignant pulmonary lesions was reported. In all, 134 publications were eligible for inclusion. In 168 patients CPM was found associated with lung tumor. The diagnosis was made in 76 children at a mean age of 3.68 ± 3.4, whereas in the adult population (n = 92) it was made at a mean age of 44.62 ± 16.09. Cough was the most frequent presenting symptom both in children and in adults. Most of the patients underwent lobectomy. The tumor most often associated with CPM was pleuropulmonary bastoma in children (n = 31) and adenocarcinoma (n = 20) or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (n = 20) in adults. The CPM most frequenty associated with tumors in children was congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (n = 37), especially type 1 (n = 21), whereas in adults it was bronchogenic cyst (n = 25), followed by congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (n = 21). CPMs should be followed up and never underestimated because they may conceal a tumor. Apparently, there is no age limit for malignant progression of CPMs and no limit of the interval between first detection of the CPM and appearance of the associated tumor. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McGinley, Jennifer L; Dobson, Fiona; Ganeshalingam, Rekha; Shore, Benjamin J; Rutz, Erich; Graham, H Kerr
To conduct a systematic review of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) for children with cerebral palsy, with the aim of evaluating the quality of the evidence and developing recommendations for future research. The systematic review was conducted using standard search and extraction methods in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane electronic databases. For the purposes of this review, SEMLS was defined as two or more soft-tissue or bony surgical procedures at two or more anatomical levels during one operative procedure, requiring only one hospital admission and one period of rehabilitation. Studies were included if: (1) the primary focus was to examine the effect of SEMLS in children with cerebral palsy; (2) the results focused on multiple anatomic levels and reported findings of one or more World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains. Studies that focused on a single intervention or level, or on the utility of a specific outcome measure were excluded. Study quality was appraised with the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine scale. The review also examined the reporting of surgery, adverse events, and rehabilitation. Thirty-one studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion, over the period 1985 to October 2010. The MINORS score for these studies varied from 4 to 19, with marked variation in the quality of reporting. Study quality has improved over recent years. Valid measures of gait and function have been introduced and several of the most recent studies have addressed multiple dimensions of the ICF. A statistical synthesis of the outcome data was not conducted, although a trend towards favourable outcomes in gait was evident. Caution is advised with interpretation owing to the variable study quality. Uncontrolled studies may have resulted in an overestimation of treatment efficacy. The design and reporting of studies of SEMLS are
Kim, Seon-Yeong; Alfafara, Angenine; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jong
Traumatic herniation of a buccal fat pad, predominantly seen in young children, is a rare condition. Because of its rarity and clinical features that resemble tumors, clinicians are faced with challenges at the initial diagnosis. This report describes a case of buccal fat pad herniation with excellent long-term prognosis after surgical relocation and conservative treatment and presents a systematic review of the literature on its management. Through a PubMed search, 811 articles were initially identified. Case series, case reports, technical notes, case and review reports, and retrospective case series were included. After screening and manual review, the sample was narrowed to 35 reports (41 patients) based on eligibility criteria. Articles were included if the standard criteria for traumatic intraoral herniation of buccal fat pad were met. Patients' ages ranged from 4 months to 12 years, with no specific gender predilection. Management consisted of excision (82.9%), relocation (14.6%), and observation (2.4%). Follow-up ranged from 1 week to 4 months. No reports presented a follow-up longer than 4 months; hence, data on long-term prognosis were not reported. For the present case report, a 19-month-old boy diagnosed with traumatic buccal fat pad herniation was successfully treated with surgical relocation and antibiotic support. Twelve-month follow-up showed no esthetic or functional disturbance or recurrence. Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad requires special attention at the initial diagnosis. Considering its clinical importance in young children and few studies have reported long-term postresection follow-up, surgical relocation can be regarded as an excellent and more conservative treatment option. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leroy, Roos, E-mail: Roos.firstname.lastname@example.org [Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre (KCE), Brussels (Belgium); Benahmed, Nadia; Hulstaert, Frank [Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre (KCE), Brussels (Belgium); Van Damme, Nancy [Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels (Belgium); De Ruysscher, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)
Because it spares many normal tissues and reduces the integral dose, proton therapy (PT) is the preferred tumor irradiation technique for treating childhood cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, no systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of PT in children has been reported in the scientific literature. A systematic search for clinical outcome studies on PT published between 2007 and 2015 was performed in Medline (through OVID), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Twenty-three primary studies were identified, including approximately 650 patients overall. The median/mean follow-up times were limited (range, 19-91 months). None of the studies were randomized, 2 were comparative, and 20 were retrospective. Most suffered from serious methodologic limitations, yielding a very low level of clinical evidence for the outcomes in all indications. For example, for retinoblastoma, very low-level evidence was found that PT might decrease the incidence of second malignancies. For chondrosarcoma, chordoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, central nervous system germinoma, glioma, medulloblastoma, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, there was insufficient evidence to either support or refute PT in children. For pelvic sarcoma (ie, nonrhabdomyosarcoma and non-Ewing sarcoma), pineal parenchymal tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and “adult-type” soft tissue sarcoma, no studies were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Although there is no doubt that PT reduces the radiation dose to normal tissues and organs, to date the critical clinical data on the long-term effectiveness and harm associated with the use of PT in the 15 pediatric cancers under investigation are lacking. High-quality clinical research in this area is needed.
Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander
Alcohol misuse by young people causes significant health and social harm, including death and disability. Therefore, prevention of youth alcohol misuse is a policy aim in many countries. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based and (3) multi-component universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in children and adolescents. Three Cochrane systematic reviews were performed: searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Project CORK and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to July 2010, including randomised trials evaluating universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in school, family or multiple settings in youths aged 18 years or younger. Two independent reviewers identified eligible studies and any discrepancies were resolved via discussion. A total of 85 trials were included in the reviews of school (n = 53), family (n = 12) and multi-component (n = 20) programmes. Meta-analysis was not performed due to study heterogeneity. Most studies were conducted in North America. Risk of bias assessment revealed problems related to inappropriate unit of analysis, moderate to high attrition, selective outcome reporting and potential confounding. Certain generic psychosocial and life skills school-based programmes were effective in reducing alcohol use in youth. Most family-based programmes were effective. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that multiple interventions provided additional benefit over single interventions. In these Cochrane reviews, some school, family or multi-component prevention programmes were shown to be effective in reducing alcohol misuse in youths. However, these results warrant a cautious interpretation, since bias and/or contextual factors may have affected the trial results. Further research should replicate the most promising studies identified in these reviews and pay particular attention to content and context factors through rigorous evaluation.
Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques; Joly, Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi
To conduct a systematic review of literature production related to risk factors for proper oral language development in children. We used the terms "child language," "risk factors," and "randomized controlled trial" in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed), Lilacs, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library from January 1980 to February 2014. Randomized controlled trials involving the study of some risk factors related to child language were included. Works with individuals who were not from the age group 0-12 years and presented no reliable definition of risk factors were excluded. The research findings were classified according to their theme and categorized methodological aspects. We observed the lack of a standardized list of risk factors for language available for health professionals. The main risk factor mentioned was family dynamics, followed by interaction with parents, immediate social environment, and encouragement given to the child in the first years of life. It was also observed that organic hazards such as brain injury, persistent otitis media, and cardiac surgery, besides the type of food and parental counseling, may be related to language disorders. More randomized controlled trials involving the evaluation of risk factors for child language and the creation of further studies involving children above 6 years of age and males are needed.
Audrey, Suzanne; Batista-Ferrer, Harriet
This systematic review collates, and presents as a narrative synthesis, evidence from interventions which included changes to the urban environment and reported at least one health behaviour or outcome for children and young people. Following a comprehensive search of six databases, 33 primary studies relating to 27 urban environment interventions were included. The majority of interventions related to active travel. Others included park and playground renovations, road traffic safety, and multi-component community-based initiatives. Public health evidence for effectiveness of such interventions is often weak because study designs tend to be opportunistic, non-randomised, use subjective outcome measures, and do not incorporate follow-up of study participants. However, there is some evidence of potential health benefits to children and young people from urban environment interventions relating to road safety and active travel, with evidence of promise for a multi-component obesity prevention initiative. Future research requires more robust study designs incorporating objective outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Mrázová, Marcela; Celec, Peter
Music therapy is a promising approach widening the potential applications of psychotherapy. Music influences both, psychologic and physiologic parameters, and children are especially responsive to this form of therapy. Many aspects of its action mechanisms remain to be elucidated, underscoring the need for evidence-based medicine (EBM) for clinical use of music therapy. This review seeks to highlight some of the issues of music therapy research and to initiate a discussion about the need for international multicenter cooperation to bring scientifically sound evidence of the benefits of music therapy in pediatric patients. Scientific bibliographic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials on use of music therapy for children. Identified articles were evaluated according to criteria for scientific quality. Twenty-eight studies were identified. Most of the trials were biased by the number of participants, and some trials showed the need to improve design of control groups. Indeed, the novelty of this area of study has produced a large number of different studies (with variability in diagnoses, interventions, control groups, duration, and/or outcome parameters), and there is a need for a more homogeneous and systematic approach. Available studies highlight the need to address reproducibility issues. This analysis identifies the need for a subsequent series of clinical studies on the efficacy of music in the pediatric population, with more focus on eligibility criteria with respect to EBM and reproducibility.
Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P
Bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalization among infants during the first 12 months of life, with high direct and indirect cost for health system and families. Different treatment approaches co-exist worldwide resulting in many drugs prescribed, without any proven benefit. Twenty systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (SRCTs) on management of acute bronchiolitis in children were retrieved through 5 databases and their methodological quality was determined using an AMSTAR tool. Epinephrine showed impact only in short-term outcomes among outpatients (reduced admission at day 1 and improved the clinical score in the first 2 hours, compared to placebo) and inpatients (decreased length of stay (LOS) and improved saturation only in the first 2 hours, compared to nebulized salbutamol, but with high heterogeneity). Nebulized 3% saline among inpatients (but not in the emergency department setting) decreased hospital LOS. In small trials, exogenous surfactant among children may decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit LOS and had favorable effects on oxygenation and CO2 elimination at 24 hrs. Although several SRCTs are currently available, only few treatments show clinically important improvements. Therefore, it is still difficult to prepare a well-established and accepted guideline for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Eunhee; Kwon, Misol
The internet is widely used by children and adolescents, who generally have a high level of competency with technology. Thus, the internet has become a great resource for supporting youth self-care and health-related services. However, few studies have explored adolescents' internet use for health-related matters. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the phenomenon of children and adolescents' health-related internet use and to identify gaps in the research. A total of 19 studies were selected from a search of major electronic databases: PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO using the following search terms: "health-related internet use," "eHealth," "Internet use for health-related purpose," "Web-based resource," "health information seeking," and "online resource," combined with "child," "adolescent," "student," "youth," and "teen." The children's and adolescents' ages were limited to 24 years and younger. The search was conducted from September 2015 to October 2017. The studies identified to contain youth (<24 years) health-related internet use were all published in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years; these studies examined general internet use seeking health care services, resources, information, or using the internet for health promotion and self-care. Studies were excluded if they explored the role of the internet as a modality for surveys, recruitment, or searching for relevant literature without specifically aiming to study participants' health-related internet use; focused solely on quality assurance for specific websites; or were designed to test a specific internet-based intervention. Interesting patterns in adolescents' health-related internet use, such as seeking preventative health care and specific information about medical issues, were identified. Quantitative studies reported rates of the internet use and access among youth, and the purpose and patterns of health
Paudel, Susan; Leavy, Justine; Jancey, Jonine
Background Childhood is a crucial period for shaping healthy behaviours; however, it currently appears to be dominated by screen time. A large proportion of young children do not adhere to the screen time recommendations, with the use of mobile screen devices becoming more common than fixed screens. Existing systematic reviews on correlates of screen time have focused largely on the traditional fixed screen devices such as television. Reviews specially focused on mobile screen media are almos...
Bond, Caroline; Symes, Wendy; Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil; Morewood, Gareth; Woods, Kevin
Systematic literature reviews can play a key role in underpinning evidence-based practice. To date, large-scale reviews of interventions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have focused primarily on research quality. To assist practitioners, the current review adopted a broader framework which allowed for greater consideration of…
Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Loft, Anne; Pinborg, Anja; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Bergh, Christina
Surrogacy is a highly debated method mainly used for treating women with infertility caused by uterine factors. This systematic review summarizes current levels of knowledge of the obstetric, medical and psychological outcomes for the surrogate mothers, the intended parents and children born as a result of surrogacy. PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases up to February 2015 were searched. Cohort studies and case series were included. Original studies published in English and the Scandinavian languages were included. In case of double publications, the latest study was included. Abstracts only and case reports were excluded. Studies with a control group and case series (more than three cases) were included. Cohort studies, but not case series, were assessed for methodological quality, in terms of risk of bias. We examined a variety of main outcomes for the surrogate mothers, children and intended mothers, including obstetric outcome, relationship between surrogate mother and intended couple, surrogate's experiences after relinquishing the child, preterm birth, low birthweight, birth defects, perinatal mortality, child psychological development, parent-child relationship, and disclosure to the child. The search returned 1795 articles of which 55 met the inclusion criteria. The medical outcome for the children was satisfactory and comparable to previous results for children conceived after fresh IVF and oocyte donation. The rate of multiple pregnancies was 2.6-75.0%. Preterm birth rate in singletons varied between 0 and 11.5% and low birthweight occurred in between 0 and 11.1% of cases. At the age of 10 years there were no major psychological differences between children born after surrogacy and children born after other types of assisted reproductive technology (ART) or after natural conception. The obstetric outcomes for the surrogate mothers were mainly reported from case series. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were reported in between 3.2 and 10% of cases and
James S Leung
Full Text Available To systematically review the literature and determine frequencies of adverse drug events (ADE associated with pediatric asthma medications.Following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched six bibliographic databases between January 1991 and January 2017. Study eligibility, data extraction and quality assessment were independently completed and verified by two reviewers. We included randomized control trials (RCT, case-control, cohort, or quasi-experimental studies where the primary objective was identifying ADE in children 1 month- 18 years old exposed to commercial asthma medications. The primary outcome was ADE frequency.Our search identified 14,540 citations. 46 studies were included: 24 RCT, 15 cohort, 4 RCT pooled analyses, 1 case-control, 1 open-label trial and 1 quasi-experimental study. Studies examined the following drug classes: inhaled corticosteroids (ICS (n = 24, short-acting beta-agonists (n = 10, long-acting beta-agonists (LABA (n = 3, ICS + LABA (n = 3, Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists (n = 3 and others (n = 3. 29 studies occurred in North America, and 29 were industry funded. We report a detailed index of 406 ADE descriptions and frequencies organized by drug class. The majority of data focuses on ICS, with 174 ADE affecting 13 organ systems including adrenal and growth suppression. We observed serious ADE, although they were rare, with frequency ranging between 0.9-6% per drug. There were no confirmed deaths, except for 13 potential deaths in a LABA study including combined adult and pediatric participants. We identified substantial methodological concerns, particularly with identifying ADE and determining severity. No studies utilized available standardized causality, severity or preventability assessments.The majority of studies focus on ICS, with adrenal and growth suppression described. Serious ADE are relatively uncommon, with no confirmed pediatric deaths. We identify substantial methodological concerns
Perego, Gaia; Caputi, Marcella; Ogliari, Anna
Background: Institutionalization from birth offers a unique opportunity to investigate the effects on brain and endocrine system of psychosocial deprivation in early infancy. Nonetheless, a systematic review about institutionalization and biological anomalies does not exist. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to systematize all the studies…
Paudel, Susan; Leavy, Justine; Jancey, Jonine
Childhood is a crucial period for shaping healthy behaviours; however, it currently appears to be dominated by screen time. A large proportion of young children do not adhere to the screen time recommendations, with the use of mobile screen devices becoming more common than fixed screens. Existing systematic reviews on correlates of screen time have focused largely on the traditional fixed screen devices such as television. Reviews specially focused on mobile screen media are almost non-existent. This paper describes the protocol for conducting a systematic review of papers published between 2009 and 2015 to identify the correlates of mobile screen media use among children aged 0-8 years. A systematic literature search of electronic databases will be carried out using different combinations of keywords for papers published in English between January 2009 and December 2015. Additionally, a manual search of reference lists and citations will also be conducted. Papers that have examined correlates of screen time among children aged 0-8 will be included in the review. Studies must include at least one type of mobile screen media (mobile phones, electronic tablets or handheld computers) to be eligible for inclusion. This study will identify correlates of mobile screen-viewing among children in five categories: (i) child biological and demographic correlates, (ii) behavioural correlates, (iii) family biological and demographic correlates, (iv) family structure-related correlates and (v) socio-cultural and environmental correlates. PRISMA statement will be used for ensuring transparency and scientific reporting of the results. This study will identify the correlates associated with increased mobile screen media use among young children through the systematic review of published peer-reviewed papers. This will contribute to addressing the knowledge gap in this area. The results will provide an evidence base to better understand correlates of mobile screen media use and
Lipodystrophy syndromes are characterized by generalized or partial absence of adipose tissue. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize data on clinical and metabolic features of lipodystrophy (age at onset, Scopus and Non-Indexe...
de Gier, B.; Campos Ponce, M.; van de Bor, M.; Doak, C.M.; Polman, K.
Background: Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. Objective: We aimed to systematically review
Araya-Quintanilla, F; Celis-Rosati, A; Rodriguez-Leiva, C; Silva-Navarro, C; Silva-Pinto, Y; Toro-Jeria, B
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that affects both children and adults. From the 1920s the ketogenic diet has gained prestige as another treatment option for patients with refractory epilepsy. A summary of the evidence will be made through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials that have compared a single ketogenic diet with other diet for the management of these patients. To determine the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in reducing episodes of seizures in patients with refractory epilepsy. The search strategy included randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials. Databases used were Medline, LILACS, Central and CINAHL. Six articles that met our elegibility criteria. There is limited evidence that the ketogenic diet compared to the medium-chain triglyceride diet is more effective in reducing the frequency of seizures. There is also moderate evidence that classical ketogenic diet compared to the gradual diet (2.5:1 and 3:1) is more effective in reducing seizures. There is moderate evidence that classical ketogenic diet compared to Atkins diet is more effective in reducing the frequency of seizure. The decision to apply this type of diet should also be based on costs, preferences and safety of treatment. It should also take into account the likelihood that studies have indexing problems have been left out of the review.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Further investigation of confirmed UTI in children aims to prevent renal scarring and future complications. Methods We conducted a systematic review to determine the most effective approach to the further investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI in children under five years of age. Results 73 studies were included. Many studies had methodological limitations or were poorly reported. Effectiveness of further investigations: One study found that routine imaging did not lead to a reduction in recurrent UTIs or renal scarring. Diagnostic accuracy: The studies do not support the use of less invasive tests such as ultrasound as an alternative to renal scintigraphy, either to rule out infection of the upper urinary tract (LR- = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.47, 0.68 and thus to exclude patients from further investigation or to detect renal scarring (LR+ = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.5, 4.8. None of the tests investigated can accurately predict the development of renal scarring. The available evidence supports the consideration of contrast-enhanced ultrasound techniques for detecting vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR, as an alternative to micturating cystourethrography (MCUG (LR+ = 14.1, 95% CI: 9.5, 20.8; LR- = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.13, 0.29; these techniques have the advantage of not requiring exposure to ionising radiation. Conclusion There is no evidence to support the clinical effectiveness of routine investigation of children with confirmed UTI. Primary research on the effectiveness, in terms of improved patient outcome, of testing at all stages in the investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection is urgently required.
Maglione, Margaret A; Das, Lopamudra; Raaen, Laura; Smith, Alexandria; Chari, Ramya; Newberry, Sydne; Shanman, Roberta; Perry, Tanja; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gidengil, Courtney
Concerns about vaccine safety have led some parents to decline recommended vaccination of their children, leading to the resurgence of diseases. Reassurance of vaccine safety remains critical for population health. This study systematically reviewed the literature on the safety of routine vaccines recommended for children in the United States. Data sources included PubMed, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices statements, package inserts, existing reviews, manufacturer information packets, and the 2011 Institute of Medicine consensus report on vaccine safety. We augmented the Institute of Medicine report with more recent studies and increased the scope to include more vaccines. Only studies that used active surveillance and had a control mechanism were included. Formulations not used in the United States were excluded. Adverse events and patient and vaccine characteristics were abstracted. Adverse event collection and reporting was evaluated by using the McHarm scale. We were unable to pool results. Strength of evidence was rated as high, moderate, low, or insufficient. Of 20 478 titles identified, 67 were included. Strength of evidence was high for measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine and febrile seizures; the varicella vaccine was associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals. There is strong evidence that MMR vaccine is not associated with autism. There is moderate evidence that rotavirus vaccines are associated with intussusception. Limitations of the study include that the majority of studies did not investigate or identify risk factors for AEs; and the severity of AEs was inconsistently reported. We found evidence that some vaccines are associated with serious AEs; however, these events are extremely rare and must be weighed against the protective benefits that vaccines provide. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Reham Abou El Fadl
Full Text Available Globally, oral diseases contribute to major disease problems and oral health disparities persistently exist amongst vulnerable population groups. Two contributory factors to these challenges are the shortage of dental practitioners and the characteristic separation between the medical and dental professions. Nurses and midwives, in particular, are in a potentially excellent position to assist in basic oral health services such as dental health education and intraoral screening. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of integrating promotion of oral health of young children and their mothers into nursing and midwifery practice.Seven electronic databases including CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, GLOBAL HEALTH, CINHAL, Scopus, and Web of Science were systematically searched whereas conference proceedings and theses were retrieved via PROQUEST. Only randomized, non-randomized trials and observational studies on preventive oral health programs delivered by nurses or midwives in healthcare settings or through home visits were included. Two investigators reviewed full-text articles independently to decide on eligibility for inclusion. Quality assessment was done using Cochrane tool for risk of bias for randomized trials and Downs and Black assessment tool for all other studies. Out of 3162 retrieved records, twenty one trials on oral health interventions incorporated into standard nursing practice were reviewed. Eighteen programs reported significant positive outcomes including reduction in caries experience, better oral hygiene and dietary habits and increased rates of dental visits amongst young children as reported by their caregivers.Incorporating oral health promotion into nursing practice is a promising initiative for reducing oral health disparities by contributing to a downward trend in caries experience and increased access to dental care especially amongst the poor disadvantaged communities.
He, Zhimin; Wynn, Persephone; Kendrick, Denise
Relatively little is currently known about the effectiveness of first-aid training for children and laypeople. We have undertaken a systematic review to synthesise the evidence and inform policy and practice in this area. A range of bibliographic databases were searched. Studies were eligible if they used experimental designs, provided first-aid training to laypeople or children and reported first-aid knowledge, skills behaviours or confidence. Studies were selected for inclusion, data extracted and risk of bias assessed by two independent reviewers. Findings were synthesised narratively. 23 studies (14 randomised controlled trials and 9 non-randomised studies) were included, 12 of which recruited children or young people (≤19 years old). Most studies reported significant effects favouring the intervention group; 11 out of 16 studies reported significant increases in first-aid knowledge; 11 out of 13 studies reported significant increases in first-aid skills; 2 out of 5 studies reported significant improvements in helping behaviour; and 2 out of 3 studies reported significant increases in confidence in undertaking first aid. Only one study undertook an economic evaluation; finding an intensive instructor-led course was more effective, but had significantly higher costs than either a less-intensive instructor-led course or a video-delivered course. Most studies were at risk of bias, particularly selection, performance or detection bias. There is some evidence to support provision of first-aid training, particularly for children or young people, but many studies were judged to be at risk of bias. Conclusions cannot be drawn about which first-aid training courses or programmes are most effective or the age at which training can be most effectively provided. Few studies evaluated training in adult laypeople. High-quality studies are required assessing effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of standardised first-aid training to inform policy development and provision
Sova, Cassandra; Feuling, Mary Beth; Baumler, Megan; Gleason, Linda; Tam, Jonathan S; Zafra, Heidi; Goday, Praveen S
Food allergies affect up to 8% of American children. The current recommended treatment for food allergies is strict elimination of the allergens from the diet. Dietary elimination of nutrient-dense foods may result in inadequate nutrient intake and impaired growth. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze available research on the effect of an elimination diet on nutrient intake and growth in children with multiple food allergies. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and a workgroup was established to critically analyze each relevant article. The findings were summarized and a conclusion was generated. Six studies were analyzed. One study found that children with food allergies are more likely to be malnourished than children without food allergies. Three studies found that children with multiple food allergies were shorter than children with 1 food allergy. Four studies assessed nutrient intake of children with multiple food allergies, but the inclusion and comparison criteria were different in each of the studies and the findings were conflicting. One study found that children with food allergies who did not receive nutrition counseling were more likely to have inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Children with multiple food allergies have a higher risk of impaired growth and may have a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake than children without food allergies. Until more research is available, we recommend monitoring of nutrition and growth of children with multiple food allergies to prevent possible nutrient deficiencies and to optimize growth.
Full Text Available Abstract Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6, one community-based intervention (study 7–8, and four family-based interventions (study 9–13. Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of footwear on the gait of children is poorly understood. This systematic review synthesises the evidence of the biomechanical effects of shoes on children during walking and running. Methods Study inclusion criteria were: barefoot and shod conditions; healthy children aged ≤ 16 years; sample size of n > 1. Novelty footwear was excluded. Studies were located by online database-searching, hand-searching and contact with experts. Two authors selected studies and assessed study methodology using the Quality Index. Meta-analysis of continuous variables for homogeneous studies was undertaken using the inverse variance approach. Significance level was set at P 2. Where I2 > 25%, a random-effects model analysis was used and where I2 Results Eleven studies were included. Sample size ranged from 4-898. Median Quality Index was 20/32 (range 11-27. Five studies randomised shoe order, six studies standardised footwear. Shod walking increased: velocity, step length, step time, base of support, double-support time, stance time, time to toe-off, sagittal tibia-rearfoot range of motion (ROM, sagittal tibia-foot ROM, ankle max-plantarflexion, Ankle ROM, foot lift to max-plantarflexion, 'subtalar' rotation ROM, knee sagittal ROM and tibialis anterior activity. Shod walking decreased: cadence, single-support time, ankle max-dorsiflexion, ankle at foot-lift, hallux ROM, arch length change, foot torsion, forefoot supination, forefoot width and midfoot ROM in all planes. Shod running decreased: long axis maximum tibial-acceleration, shock-wave transmission as a ratio of maximum tibial-acceleration, ankle plantarflexion at foot strike, knee angular velocity and tibial swing velocity. No variables increased during shod running. Conclusions Shoes affect the gait of children. With shoes, children walk faster by taking longer steps with greater ankle and knee motion and increased tibialis anterior activity. Shoes reduce foot motion and
Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Santos, Iná S; Chrestani, Maria Aurora D; Gigante, Denise Petrucci
To conduct a systematic literature review to identify studies that used indirect methods to assess body fat in healthy children. A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a search in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO and Google Scholar databases. Studies in healthy children aged 0-9 years were eligible for inclusion. Studies were kept or excluded from the review according to eligibility criteria defined a priori. Two independent reviewers conducted all steps in the study selection. Initially, 11,246 articles were retrieved, with 3,593 duplicates. After applying the eligibility criteria, 22 articles were selected for review. The methodology of each study was analyzed by each reviewer individually. The indirect methods used to assess body fat in children included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (14 articles), air-displacement plethysmography (five articles), multicomponent models (two articles), and total body water (one article). Most studies reported absolute (in kilograms) or relative (percentage) body fat measures. Only seven studies reported the fat mass index (FMI) (kg/m(2)). DXA was the indirect method most frequently used to assess body fat in healthy children. FMI was seldom reported.
Anne de la Hunty
Full Text Available Objective: To review systematically the evidence on breakfast cereal consumption and obesity in children and adolescents and assess whether the regular consumption of breakfast cereals could help to prevent excessive weight gain. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies relating breakfast cereal consumption to BMI, BMI z-scores and prevalence of obesity as the outcomes. Results: 14 papers met the inclusion criteria. The computed effect size for mean BMI between high consumers and low or non-consumers over all 25 study subgroups was -1.13 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.81, -1.46, p Conclusion: Overall, the evidence reviewed is suggestive that regular consumption of breakfast cereals results in a lower BMI and a reduced likelihood of being overweight in children and adolescents. However, more evidence from long-term trials and investigations into mechanisms is needed to eliminate possible confounding factors and determine causality.
Williams, Jacqueline; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J
Motor skill impairment is a common negative outcome in children born preterm who do not develop cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of current data to provide an accurate estimate of the prevalence of non-CP motor impairment in preterm children at school age. We searched the Medline, PubMed, and PsycInfo databases and relevant journals to identify all studies published post-1990 that reported the prevalence of motor impairment in school-aged children born preterm (children was 40.5/100. and for moderate motor impairment the estimate was 19.0/100. There was also a trend for lower motor impairment levels in samples born before 1990 compared with those born after 1990. Children born preterm are at increased risk of motor impairment, with prevalence three to four times greater than in the general population. This highlights the need for improved surveillance and intervention strategies in this group of children.
O'Gorman, Clodagh S
Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) affects 1 in 500 individuals. Evidence supports the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering effect of statins for adults with heFH. However, there are concerns regarding the treatment children with heFH. By performing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the published literature, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of statins used for children with heFH. A systematic review was performed by searching multiple medical databases and citations to identify reports of randomized controlled trials of statins used to treat children with heFH. The trials were retrieved, reviewed, and subjected to metaanalysis. The search yielded 2,174 titles. Of the 63 studies retrieved and reviewed, 56 were excluded, 7 were included in the systematic review, and 4 were included in the metaanalysis. Significant heterogeneity was detected. The metaanalysis showed significant LDL lowering, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol elevation, and increases in height and weight with statins. The metaanalysis could not be performed for many side effects of statins, but individual trials showed no significant side effects. Quality assessment showed methodologic concerns, with potential for bias. For example, six trials analyzed statin effects without intention to treat despite such a stated intention. Metaanalysis shows significant LDL lowering with statin treatment. Further studies, including epidemiologic and multicenter studies, are required.
Baumel, Amit; Pawar, Aditya; Mathur, Nandita; Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U
To systematically review digitally assisted parent training programs (DPTs) targeting the treatment of children and adolescents with disruptive behaviors. A search was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases for peer-reviewed studies published between January 1, 2000, and March 1, 2016. Reference lists of included and review articles were searched manually for additional references. Broad search terms in varying combinations for parent, training, technologies, and disruptive behavior problems were used. We included English-language articles reporting on the effectiveness of DPTs targeting child or adolescent disruptive behaviors (eg, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder). DPTs designed to use digital media or software programs not to be primarily used within a therapy setting (eg, group, face-to-face) were included. Study design, recruitment and sample characteristics, theoretical background, digital program features, user's engagement, and measures of child behavior were extracted. Fourteen intervention studies (n = 2,427, 58% male, 1,500 in DPT conditions, 12 randomized trials) examining 10 programs met inclusion criteria. Interventions included self-directed noninteractive (eg, podcasts; 3 studies) and interactive (eg, online software; 4 studies) DPTs, remotely administered DPTs combined with professional phone-based coaching (2 studies), and a smartphone enhancement of standard treatment. Interventions were delivered over a mean ± SD period of 8.7 ± 4.2 weeks, most (11/14; 78.6%) were remotely administered, and all recruitment procedures included an outreach for parents outside of mental health-care settings. For programs with > 5 sessions, the mean ± SD completion rate of available sessions was 68.6% ± 13.1%. In comparison to no treatment control, self-directed programs yielded significant improvements in child behavior for children (age technology enhancements may increase engagement and outcomes of standard treatment. The
Butun, Ahmet; Hemingway, Pippa
Over 5 million children attend the Emergency Department (ED) annually in England with an ever-increasing paediatric emergency caseload echoed globally. Approximately 60% of children present with illness and the majority have non-urgent illness creating burgeoning pressures on children's ED and this crisis resonates globally. To date no qualitative systematic review exists that focuses on the parental reasons for childhood attendance at the ED in this sub-group. To identify parental reasons for attending ED for their children presenting with minor illness. A qualitative systematic review was conducted against inclusion/exclusion criteria. Five electronic databases and key journals were searched in June 2015. 471 studies were identified and following study selection, 4 qualitative studies were included. Nine themes were identified e.g. dissatisfaction with family medical services, perceived advantages of ED and 'child suffering' with novel and insightful sub-themes of 'hereditary anxiety', 'taking it off our hands', ED as a 'magical place'. This novel qualitative systematic review examined parental attendance presenting with childhood minor illness of interest to emergency care reformers and clinicians. ED attendance is complex and multifactorial but parents provide vital insight to ED reformers on parental reasons for ED attendance in this sub-group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Current (1999 World Health Organization guidelines recommend giving routine antibiotics (AB for all children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM, even if they have uncomplicated disease with no clinically obvious infections. We examined the evidence behind this recommendation.OVID-MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, GLOBAL-HEALTH, CINAHL, POPLINE, AFRICA-WIDE-NiPAD, and LILACS were searched for AB efficacy, bacterial resistance, and infection rates in SAM. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Three randomised controlled trials (RCT, five Cochrane reviews, and 37 observational studies were identified. One cohort-study showed no increase in nutritional-cure and mortality in uncomplicated SAM where no AB were used. (p>0.05. However, an unpublished RCT in this setting did show mortality benefits. Another RCT did not show superiority of ceftriaxone over amoxicilllin for these same outcomes, but adressed SAM children with and without complications (p = 0.27. Another RCT showed no difference between amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole efficacies for pneumonia in underweight, but not SAM. Our meta-analysis of 12 pooled susceptibility-studies for all types of bacterial isolates, including 2767 stricly SAM children, favoured amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole for susceptibility medians: 42% (IQR 27-55% vs 22% (IQR 17-23% and population-weighted-means 52.9% (range 23-57% vs 35.4% (range 6.7-42%. Susceptibilities to second-line AB were better, above 80%. Prevalence of serious infections in SAM, pooled from 24 studies, ranged from 17% to 35.2%. No study infered any association of infection prevalence with AB regimens in SAM.The evidence underlying current antibiotic recommendations for uncomplicated SAM is weak. Susceptibility-studies favour amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole. However, given that these antibiotics have side-effects, costs, and risks as well as benefits, their routine use needs urgent testing. With reliable
Poton, Wanêssa Lacerda; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de; Gonçalves, Helen
This systematic review study aimed to assess the evidence available for the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood and adolescence. The search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, and PsycINFO databases up to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies assessing the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood or adolescence, using psychometric tests, carried out in humans and published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. The search was performed in several stages by two independent researchers using pre-established criteria. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Breastfeeding for a period equal to or higher than three or four months seemed to be inversely associated with total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood; however, the association remains unclear for other behavior disorders. Only four studies assessed behavior disorders in adolescence, and when an association was found, it was likely to be positive. The duration of breastfeeding seemed to be more important than the exclusive or non-exclusive pattern of breastfeeding. Breastfed children for at least three to four months had fewer total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood. Further studies are needed to better understand this association, particularly in adolescence and involving other behavioral profiles.
Wanêssa Lacerda Poton
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This systematic review study aimed to assess the evidence available for the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood and adolescence. METHODS The search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, and PsycINFO databases up to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies assessing the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood or adolescence, using psychometric tests, carried out in humans and published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. The search was performed in several stages by two independent researchers using pre-established criteria. RESULTS Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Breastfeeding for a period equal to or higher than three or four months seemed to be inversely associated with total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood; however, the association remains unclear for other behavior disorders. Only four studies assessed behavior disorders in adolescence, and when an association was found, it was likely to be positive. The duration of breastfeeding seemed to be more important than the exclusive or non-exclusive pattern of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS Breastfed children for at least three to four months had fewer total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood. Further studies are needed to better understand this association, particularly in adolescence and involving other behavioral profiles.
Jaschke, Artur C; Eggermont, Laura H P; Honing, Henkjan; Scherder, Erik J A
Far transfer between music education and other cognitive skills, such as academic achievement, has been widely examined. However, the results of studies within similar cognitive domains are found to be inconclusive or contradictory. These differences can be traced back to the analytical methods used, differences in the forms of music education studied and differences in neural activation during the processing of these tasks. In order to gain a better picture of the relationships involved, a literature survey was performed in leading databases, such as PubMed/MedLine, psychINFO, ScienceDirect, Embase, ERIC, ASSIA and Jstor from January 2001 to January 2013. All studies included, concerned the far transfer from music education to other cognitive skills in children aged 4-13 years as compared with controls. These studies were independently selected and their quality was assessed by two authors. This systematic review shows the need to address methodological and analytical questions in greater detail. There is a general need to unify methods used in music education research. Furthermore, the hypothesis that intellectual skills, such as mathematics, reading, writing and intelligence can be divided into sub-functions, needs to be examined as one approach to the problems considered here. When this has been done, detailed analysis of cognitive transfer from music education to other disciplines should become possible.
Hillis, Rowan; Larkin, Philip J; Cawley, Des; Connolly, Michael
Introduction: This systematic review seeks to identify the intended components of the role of care coordinator for children with complex care needs and the factors that determine its composition in practice. Theory and methods: The initial search identified 1,157 articles, of which 37 met the inclusion criteria. They were quality assessed using the SIGN hierarchy of evidence structure. Results: Core components of the role include: coordination of care needs, planning and assessment, specialist support, emotional support, administration and logistics and continuing professional development. Influencing factors on the role include the external environment (political and socio-economic), the internal environment (organisational structure and funding protocols), the skills, qualifications and experience of the coordinator, the family circumstances and the nature of the interaction between the care coordinator and the family. Discussion: The lack of consistent terminology creates challenges and there is a need for greater consensus on this issue. Organisations and healthcare professionals need to recognise the extent to which contextual factors influence the role of a care coordinator in practice and plan accordingly. Despite evidence that suggests that the role is pivotal in ensuring that care needs are sustained, there remains great variability in the understanding of the role of a care coordinator for this population. Conclusions: As the provision of care increasingly moves closer to home there is a need for greater understanding of the nature and composition of the interaction between care coordinators and families to determine the extent to which appropriate services are being provided. Further work in this area should take into consideration any potential variance in service provision, for example any potential inequity arising due to geographic location. It is also imperative, where appropriate, to seek the views of children with complex care needs and their
Koppen, Ilan J N; Vriesman, Mana H; Saps, Miguel; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Shi, Xiaoxia; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M
To systematically review the literature regarding the epidemiology of functional constipation and functional nonretentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI) in children. Secondary objectives were to assess the geographical, age, and sex distribution of functional constipation and FNRFI and to evaluate associated factors. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched from 2006 until September 2017. The following inclusion criteria were applied: (1) prospective studies of population-based samples; (2) reporting on the prevalence of functional constipation or FNRFI according to the Rome III/IV criteria; (3) in children aged 0-18 years; and (4) published in full manuscript form. A quality assessment of included studies was conducted. Random effect meta-analyses with meta-regression analyses of study characteristics were performed. Thirty-seven studies were included, of which 35 reported on the prevalence of functional constipation and 15 of FNRFI. The reported prevalence of functional constipation ranged from 0.5% to 32.2%, with a pooled prevalence of 9.5% (95% CI 7.5-12.1). The prevalence of FRNFI ranged from 0.0% to 1.8%, with a pooled prevalence of 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.7). The prevalence of functional constipation was 8.6% in boys compared with 8.9% in girls (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.9-1.4). Geographical location, dietary habits, and exposure to stressful life events were reported to be associated with the prevalence of functional constipation. Data on FNRFI were scarce and no associated factors were identified. Functional constipation is common in childhood and is associated with geographical location, lifestyle factors, and stressful life events. FNRFI is rare, and no associated factors were identified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: This systematic review seeks to identify the intended components of the role of care coordinator for children with complex care needs and the factors that determine its composition in practice. Theory and methods: The initial search identified 1,157 articles, of which 37 met the inclusion criteria. They were quality assessed using the SIGN hierarchy of evidence structure. Results: Core components of the role include: coordination of care needs, planning and assessment, specialist support, emotional support, administration and logistics and continuing professional development. Influencing factors on the role include the external environment (political and socio-economic, the internal environment (organisational structure and funding protocols, the skills, qualifications and experience of the coordinator, the family circumstances and the nature of the interaction between the care coordinator and the family. Discussion: The lack of consistent terminology creates challenges and there is a need for greater consensus on this issue. Organisations and healthcare professionals need to recognise the extent to which contextual factors influence the role of a care coordinator in practice and plan accordingly. Despite evidence that suggests that the role is pivotal in ensuring that care needs are sustained, there remains great variability in the understanding of the role of a care coordinator for this population. Conclusions: As the provision of care increasingly moves closer to home there is a need for greater understanding of the nature and composition of the interaction between care coordinators and families to determine the extent to which appropriate services are being provided. Further work in this area should take into consideration any potential variance in service provision, for example any potential inequity arising due to geographic location. It is also imperative, where appropriate, to seek the views of children with complex care
Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128
Romani, Maria; Vigliante, Miriam; Faedda, Noemi; Rossetti, Serena; Pezzuti, Lina; Guidetti, Vincenzo; Cardona, Francesco
This review focuses on facial recognition abilities in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to May 2017 pertaining to memory, face recognition, affect recognition, facial expression recognition and recall of faces in children and adolescents with ADHD. The qualitative synthesis based on different studies shows a particular focus of the research on facial affect recognition without paying similar attention to the structural encoding of facial recognition. In this review, we further investigate facial recognition abilities in children and adolescents with ADHD, providing synthesis of the results observed in the literature, while detecting face recognition tasks used on face processing abilities in ADHD and identifying aspects not yet explored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de
The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in
de Almeida, Ana Claudia; Mendes, Larissa da Costa; Sad, Izabela Rocha; Ramos, Eloane Gonçalves; Fonseca, Vânia Matos; Peixoto, Maria Virginia Marques
To assess the use of a health monitoring tool in Brazilian children, with emphasis on the variables related to growth and development, which are crucial aspects of child health care. A systematic review of the literature was carried out in studies performed in Brazil, using the Cochrane Brazil, Lilacs, SciELO and Medline databases. The descriptors and keywords used were "growth and development", "child development", "child health record", "child health handbook", "health record and child" and "child handbook", as well as the equivalent terms in Portuguese. Studies were screened by title and summary and those considered eligible were read in full. Sixty-eight articles were identified and eight articles were included in the review, as they carried out a quantitative analysis of the filling out of information. Five studies assessed the completion of the Child's Health Record and three of the Child's Health Handbook. All articles concluded that the information was not properly recorded. Growth monitoring charts were rarely filled out, reaching 96.3% in the case of weight for age. The use of the BMI chart was not reported, despite the growing rates of childhood obesity. Only two studies reported the completion of development milestones and, in these, the milestones were recorded in approximately 20% of the verified tools. The results of the assessed articles disclosed underutilization of the tool and reflect low awareness by health professionals regarding the recording of information in the child's health monitoring document. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
LeBlanc, Allana G; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart J H; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S
Active video games (AVGs) have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE) has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0-17 years). Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Central Database) and personal libraries were searched and content experts were consulted for additional material. Included articles were required to have a measure of AVG and at least one relevant health or behaviour indicator: EE (both habitual and acute), adherence and appeal (i.e., participation and enjoyment), opportunity cost (both time and financial considerations, and adverse events), adiposity, cardiometabolic health, energy intake, adaptation (effects of continued play), learning and rehabilitation, and video game evolution (i.e., sustainability of AVG technology). 51 unique studies, represented in 52 articles were included in the review. Data were available from 1992 participants, aged 3-17 years, from 8 countries, and published from 2006-2012. Overall, AVGs are associated with acute increases in EE, but effects on habitual physical activity are not clear. Further, AVGs show promise when used for learning and rehabilitation within special populations. Evidence related to other indicators was limited and inconclusive. Controlled studies show that AVGs acutely increase light- to moderate-intensity physical activity; however, the findings about if or how AVG lead to increases in habitual physical activity or decreases in sedentary behaviour are less clear. Although AVGs may elicit some health benefits in special populations, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as a means of increasing daily physical activity.
Allana G LeBlanc
Full Text Available Active video games (AVGs have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear.This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0-17 years.Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Central Database and personal libraries were searched and content experts were consulted for additional material.Included articles were required to have a measure of AVG and at least one relevant health or behaviour indicator: EE (both habitual and acute, adherence and appeal (i.e., participation and enjoyment, opportunity cost (both time and financial considerations, and adverse events, adiposity, cardiometabolic health, energy intake, adaptation (effects of continued play, learning and rehabilitation, and video game evolution (i.e., sustainability of AVG technology.51 unique studies, represented in 52 articles were included in the review. Data were available from 1992 participants, aged 3-17 years, from 8 countries, and published from 2006-2012. Overall, AVGs are associated with acute increases in EE, but effects on habitual physical activity are not clear. Further, AVGs show promise when used for learning and rehabilitation within special populations. Evidence related to other indicators was limited and inconclusive.Controlled studies show that AVGs acutely increase light- to moderate-intensity physical activity; however, the findings about if or how AVG lead to increases in habitual physical activity or decreases in sedentary behaviour are less clear. Although AVGs may elicit some health benefits in special populations, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as a means of increasing daily physical activity.
Ana Claudia de Almeida
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the use of a health monitoring tool in Brazilian children, with emphasis on the variables related to growth and development, which are crucial aspects of child health care. Data source: A systematic review of the literature was carried out in studies performed in Brazil, using the Cochrane Brazil, Lilacs, SciELO and Medline databases. The descriptors and keywords used were “growth and development”, “child development”, “child health record”, “child health handbook”, “health record and child” and “child handbook”, as well as the equivalent terms in Portuguese. Studies were screened by title and summary and those considered eligible were read in full. Data synthesis: Sixty-eight articles were identified and eight articles were included in the review, as they carried out a quantitative analysis of the filling out of information. Five studies assessed the completion of the Child's Health Record and three of the Child's Health Handbook. All articles concluded that the information was not properly recorded. Growth monitoring charts were rarely filled out, reaching 96.3% in the case of weight for age. The use of the BMI chart was not reported, despite the growing rates of childhood obesity. Only two studies reported the completion of development milestones and, in these, the milestones were recorded in approximately 20% of the verified tools. Conclusions: The results of the assessed articles disclosed underutilization of the tool and reflect low awareness by health professionals regarding the recording of information in the child's health monitoring document.
McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C.; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Tremblay, Mark S.
Background Active video games (AVGs) have gained interest as a way to increase physical activity in children and youth. The effect of AVGs on acute energy expenditure (EE) has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. Objective This systematic review aimed to explain the relationship between AVGs and nine health and behavioural indicators in the pediatric population (aged 0–17 years). Data sources Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Central Database) and personal libraries were searched and content experts were consulted for additional material. Data selection Included articles were required to have a measure of AVG and at least one relevant health or behaviour indicator: EE (both habitual and acute), adherence and appeal (i.e., participation and enjoyment), opportunity cost (both time and financial considerations, and adverse events), adiposity, cardiometabolic health, energy intake, adaptation (effects of continued play), learning and rehabilitation, and video game evolution (i.e., sustainability of AVG technology). Results 51 unique studies, represented in 52 articles were included in the review. Data were available from 1992 participants, aged 3–17 years, from 8 countries, and published from 2006–2012. Overall, AVGs are associated with acute increases in EE, but effects on habitual physical activity are not clear. Further, AVGs show promise when used for learning and rehabilitation within special populations. Evidence related to other indicators was limited and inconclusive. Conclusions Controlled studies show that AVGs acutely increase light- to moderate-intensity physical activity; however, the findings about if or how AVG lead to increases in habitual physical activity or decreases in sedentary behaviour are less clear. Although AVGs may elicit some health benefits in special populations, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as a
Wilhelmsen, Terese; Sørensen, Marit
This systematic review examines research published from 2009 to 2015 on inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have used a stakeholder approach as a framework for organizing and discussing the results. The searches yielded 535 studies, of which 112 were included. The systematic review outlines which stakeholder perspectives received the most attention, the main themes and findings, the methodological trends that governed the research contribution, and the country of data collection. The main findings indicated that perspectives of pre- and in-service teachers and studies of attitudes still dominate the research contributions. The strengths and limitations of the research conducted to date highlight that several other perspectives need to be discussed. Especially important is seeking information from children with disabilities themselves. Other barriers and facilitators perceived by those actively involved in the inclusion process need to be sought.
Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.
The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness. PMID:26062039
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 1 diabetes are known to have a higher hospital admission rate than the underlying population and may also be admitted for procedures that would normally be carried out on a day surgery basis for non-diabetics. Emergency admission rates have sometimes been used as indicators of quality of diabetes care. In preparation for a study of hospital admissions, a systematic review was carried out on hospital admissions for children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, whilst under the age of 15. The main thrust of this review was to ascertain where there were gaps in the literature for studies investigating post-diagnosis hospitalisations, rather than to try to draw conclusions from the disparate data sets. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane LibrarMEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for the period 1986 to 2006, to identify publications relating to hospital admissions subsequent to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes under the age of 15. Results Thirty-two publications met all inclusion criteria, 16 in Northern America, 11 in Europe and 5 in Australasia. Most of the studies selected were focussed on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA or diabetes-related hospital admissions and only four studies included data on all admissions. Admission rates with DKA as primary diagnosis varied widely between 0.01 to 0.18 per patient-year as did those for other diabetes-related co-morbidity ranging from 0.05 to 0.38 per patient year, making it difficult to interpret data from different study designs. However, people with Type 1 diabetes are three times more likely to be hospitalised than the non-diabetic populations and stay in hospital twice as long. Conclusion Few studies report on all admissions to hospital in patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes whilst under the age of 15 years. Health care costs for type 1 patients are higher than those for the general population and information on associated patterns of
Carrazzone, Oreste Lemos; Belloti, João Carlos; Matsunaga, Fabio Teruo; Mansur, Nacime Salomão Barbachan; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Faloppa, Flavio; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara
The treatment of supracondylar humerus fracture in children (SHFC) is associated with complications such as functional deficit, residual deformity, and iatrogenic neurological damage. The standard treatment is closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation with different configurations. Despite this fact, there is still no consensus on the most effective technique for the treatment of these fractures. The aim of this systematic review will be to evaluate the effect of surgical interventions on the treatment of Gartland type II and III SHFC by assessing function, complications, and error as primary outcomes. Clinical outcomes such as range of motion and pain and radiographic outcomes will also be judged. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials evaluating the surgical treatment of SHFC will be carried out in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, and Excerpta Medica Database. The search will also occur at ongoing and recently completed clinical trials in selected databases. Data management and extraction will be performed using a data withdrawal form and by analyzing the following: study method characteristics, participant characteristics, intervention characteristics, results, methodological domains, and risk of bias. To assess the risk of bias of the included trials, the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool will be used. Dichotomous outcome data will be analyzed as risk ratios, and continuous outcome data will be expressed as mean differences, both with 95% confidence intervals. Also, whenever possible, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and assessment of heterogeneity will be performed. Following the publication of this protocol, searches will be run and included studies will be deeply analyzed. We hope to obtain final results in the next few months and have the final paper published by the end of 2018. This study was funded
Janete Honda Imamura
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review mortality from external causes (accidental injury in children and adolescents in systematically selected journals. This was a systematic review of the literature on mortality from accidental injury in children and adolescents. We searched the Pubrvled, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Excerpta Medica databases for articles published between July of 2001 and June of 2011. National data from official agencies, retrieved by manual searches, were also reviewed. We reviewed 15 journal articles, the 2011 edition of a National Safety Council publication and 2010 statistical data from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Most published data were related to high-income countries. Mortality from accidental injury was highest among children less than 1 year of age. Accidental threats to breathing (non-drowning threats constituted the leading cause of death among this age group in the published articles. Across the pediatric age group in the surveyed studies, traffic accidents were the leading cause of death, followed by accidental drowning and submersion. Traffic accidents constitute the leading external cause of accidental death among children in the countries understudy. However, infants were vulnerable to external causes, particularly to accidental non-drowning threats to breathing, and this age group had the highest mortality rates for external causes. Actions to reduce such events are suggested. Further studies investigating the occurrence of accidental deaths in low-income countries are needed to improve the understanding of these preventable events.
Donnelly, Joseph E.; Hillman, Charles H.; Castelli, Darla; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Lee, Sarah; Tomporowski, Phillip; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.
Background The relation among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. Objective To answer the following questions: (1) among children aged 5-13, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? (2) among children aged 5-13, do PA, physical education, and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness or physical education (PE)/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Data Sources Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on (1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function; and (2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990- September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain) and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). Study appraisal and synthesis methods Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters, therefore results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children's cognitive functioning. Limited
Donnelly, Joseph E; Hillman, Charles H; Castelli, Darla; Etnier, Jennifer L; Lee, Sarah; Tomporowski, Phillip; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N
The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) among children age 5-13 yr, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? 2) Among children age 5-13 yr, do PA, physical education (PE), and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? This study used primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness, or PE/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on 1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function and 2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990-September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain), and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters; therefore, results were synthesized and presented by study design. A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children's cognitive functioning. Limited evidence was available concerning the effects of PA on learning
Augestad, Liv Berit
The purpose of the study was to summarize current scientific knowledge relating to self-concept and self-esteem among children and young adolescents with visual impairment (VI). A systematic review was conducted of articles published between 1998 and 2016. A total of 26 publications, representing 15 countries, met the inclusion criteria, and 24 of the studies had used a cross-sectional design. Some studies found that the age and degree of vision loss influenced perceived self-esteem. In gener...
Maïano, C; Hue, O; Morin, A J S; Moullec, G
Although there have been numerous studies examining the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, they have not yet been integrated and synthesized through a systematic quantitative review process. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine: (i) the prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities; (ii) the sources of heterogeneity in studies reporting the prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population; and (iii) the risk of overweight/obesity in this population compared with their typically developing peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 16 studies, published between 1985 and 2015, met the inclusion criteria. The resulting pooled prevalence estimates for overweight, overweight-obesity and obesity were respectively: (i) 15%, 30%, and 13%, in children; and (ii) 18%, 33%, and 15% in adolescents. Subgroup analyses showed significant variations in the pooled prevalence estimates as a function of geographical region, recruitment setting, additional diagnoses, and norms used to define overweight or obesity. The findings also showed adolescents with intellectual disabilities to be respectively 1.54 and 1.80 times more at risk of overweight-obesity and obesity than typically developing adolescents. Unfortunately, no such comparison is available for children. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.
Chéron, Charlène; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
Sporting activities can cause injuries and overuse injuries of the extremities (OIE) in children have been shown to be more common than injuries caused by trauma. The lower extremity is more frequently affected than the upper extremity in OIE, but it is not known whether injury site and diagnosis vary in different sporting activities. To identify any differences between sports in relation to diagnoses and anatomical areas most likely to be injured. A search was made in November 2014 and again in June 2016 in PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycInfo and Web of Sciences. Search terms were: « overuse injuries OR cumulative trauma disorders OR musculoskeletal injuries » AND « extremity OR limb » AND « physical activity OR sport OR risk factor OR predictors OR exercises » AND « child OR adolescent OR young adults ». Inclusion criteria were: 1) prospective, retrospective, or cross-sectional study design; 2) age ≤19 years; 3) the articles must clearly state if reported cases were classified as traumatic or overuse injuries; 4) reporting on OIE in relation to a particular sports type, and 5) sample size >50. A blinded systematic review was conducted. In all, nine of the 736 identified articles were included, studying soccer, handball, orienteering, running, dance, and gymnastics. The incidence of OIE was given only in a few articles but at least the site and diagnosis of OIE were identifiable. The lower limb is more often affected than the upper in all sports covered, and, in general, the lower leg and knee are the two most often affected areas. However, in handball, the elbow was the second most often reported area, and in gymnastics injuries of the foot appeared to be more frequent than in the other sports. No differences in diagnoses were observed between sports types. Our work contributes new information, namely that the site of OIE in children and adolescents appears to vary only somewhat between different types of sports. Further well-designed surveillance studies
Abdulahi, Ahmed; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Rezaei, Shahabeddin; Djafarian, Kurosh
Undernutrition is the outcome of insufficient food intake and recurrent infectious diseases. The baseline levels of undernutrition remain so high that Ethiopia still needs to continue substantial investment in nutrition.Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain estimates of over-time trends in the prevalence of undernutrition in Ethiopia and to determine risk factors for undernutrition among children of under five years of age. Cross-sectional studies published in English from 1997 to 2015 focusing the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in children aged 0-5 years (n = 39,585) in Ethiopia were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched in PubMed and Scopus databases and other articles manually. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies. The protocol number of the study is PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015027940. Eighteen studies were included and the overall pooled prevalence estimate of stunting, underweight and wasting was 42.0% (95% CI: 37.0, 46.0), 33.0 % (95% CI: 27.0, 39.0) and 15.0% (95% CI: 12.0, 19.0), respectively. The sensitivity analyses resulted in the prevalence of stunting, 40% (95% CI: 32.0, 48.0; I2=99.19%), prevalence of underweight, 33%(95% CI: 24.0, 42.0; I 2 =99.34%) and wasting rate equal to 19%(95% CI: 14.0, 24.0; I2=99.19%). Cumulative analysis revealed a stabilization trend of stunting and underweight (1996-2010) followed by an upward trend (2010-2014). Child age, child sex, complementary food, poor dietary diversity, diarrheal diseases, maternal education, maternal height, residential area and socio- economic status were significant risk factors for undernutrition. The result of the meta-analysis of thes observational studies revealed that the trend of undernutrition in Ethiopia indicates that there is an increment of chronic malnutrition cases in recent years, and the prevalence of undernutrition remains extremely high
Taylor Rod S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct problems are common, disabling and costly. The prognosis for children with conduct problems is poor, with outcomes in adulthood including criminal behaviour, alcoholism, drug abuse, domestic violence, child abuse and a range of psychiatric disorders. There has been a rapid expansion of group based parent-training programmes for the treatment of children with conduct problems in a number of countries over the past 10 years. Existing reviews of parent training have methodological limitations such as inclusion of non-randomised studies, the absence of investigation for heterogeneity prior to meta-analysis or failure to report confidence intervals. The objective of the current study was to systematically review randomised controlled trials of parenting programmes for the treatment of children with conduct problems. Methods Standard systematic review methods were followed including duplicate inclusion decisions, data extraction and quality assessment. Twenty electronic databases from the fields of medicine, psychology, social science and education were comprehensively searched for RCTs and systematic reviews to February 2006. Inclusion criteria were: randomised controlled trial; of structured, repeatable parenting programmes; for parents/carers of children up to the age of 18 with a conduct problem; and at least one measure of child behaviour. Meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were used to summarise included studies. Results 57 RCTs were included. Studies were small with an average group size of 21. Meta-analyses using both parent (SMD -0.67; 95% CI: -0.91, -0.42 and independent (SMD -0.44; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.23 reports of outcome showed significant differences favouring the intervention group. There was insufficient evidence to determine the relative effectiveness of different approaches to delivering parenting programmes. Conclusion Parenting programmes are an effective treatment for children with conduct problems
Theunissen, N.C.M.; Tates, K.
The aim of this review is to gain a comprehensive view on the theories and models referred to in studies on educating and counseling children about physical health. A computer search was conducted using PubMed Medline, and Silverplatter Webspirs Psycinfo. Original studies, reviews, and theoretical
Glendenning, Alexander Charles; Marchant, Amanda; Montgomery, Paul; Stewart, Anne; Wood, Sophie; Lloyd, Keith; Hawton, Keith
Background Given the concerns about bullying via electronic communication in children and young people and its possible contribution to self-harm, we have reviewed the evidence for associations between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors (such as suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts) in children and young people. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence examining the association between cyberbullying involvement as victim or perpetrator and self-harm and suicidal behaviors in children and young people (younger than 25 years), and where possible, to meta-analyze data on the associations. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted for all studies published between January 1, 1996, and February 3, 2017, across sources, including MEDLINE, Cochrane, and PsycINFO. Articles were included if the study examined any association between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors and reported empirical data in a sample aged under 25 years. Quality of included papers was assessed and data were extracted. Meta-analyses of data were conducted. Results A total of 33 eligible articles from 26 independent studies were included, covering a population of 156,384 children and young people. A total of 25 articles (20 independent studies, n=115,056) identified associations (negative influences) between cybervictimization and self-harm or suicidal behaviors or between perpetrating cyberbullying and suicidal behaviors. Three additional studies, in which the cyberbullying, self-harm, or suicidal behaviors measures had been combined with other measures (such as traditional bullying and mental health problems), also showed negative influences (n=44,526). A total of 5 studies showed no significant associations (n=5646). Meta-analyses, producing odds ratios (ORs) as a summary measure of effect size (eg, ratio of the odds of cyber victims who have experienced SH vs nonvictims who
John, Ann; Glendenning, Alexander Charles; Marchant, Amanda; Montgomery, Paul; Stewart, Anne; Wood, Sophie; Lloyd, Keith; Hawton, Keith
Given the concerns about bullying via electronic communication in children and young people and its possible contribution to self-harm, we have reviewed the evidence for associations between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors (such as suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts) in children and young people. The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence examining the association between cyberbullying involvement as victim or perpetrator and self-harm and suicidal behaviors in children and young people (younger than 25 years), and where possible, to meta-analyze data on the associations. An electronic literature search was conducted for all studies published between January 1, 1996, and February 3, 2017, across sources, including MEDLINE, Cochrane, and PsycINFO. Articles were included if the study examined any association between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors and reported empirical data in a sample aged under 25 years. Quality of included papers was assessed and data were extracted. Meta-analyses of data were conducted. A total of 33 eligible articles from 26 independent studies were included, covering a population of 156,384 children and young people. A total of 25 articles (20 independent studies, n=115,056) identified associations (negative influences) between cybervictimization and self-harm or suicidal behaviors or between perpetrating cyberbullying and suicidal behaviors. Three additional studies, in which the cyberbullying, self-harm, or suicidal behaviors measures had been combined with other measures (such as traditional bullying and mental health problems), also showed negative influences (n=44,526). A total of 5 studies showed no significant associations (n=5646). Meta-analyses, producing odds ratios (ORs) as a summary measure of effect size (eg, ratio of the odds of cyber victims who have experienced SH vs nonvictims who have experienced SH), showed that
Background The internet is widely used by children and adolescents, who generally have a high level of competency with technology. Thus, the internet has become a great resource for supporting youth self-care and health-related services. However, few studies have explored adolescents’ internet use for health-related matters. Objective The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the phenomenon of children and adolescents’ health-related internet use and to identify gaps in the research. Methods A total of 19 studies were selected from a search of major electronic databases: PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO using the following search terms: “health-related internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose,” “Web-based resource,” “health information seeking,” and “online resource,” combined with “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The children’s and adolescents’ ages were limited to 24 years and younger. The search was conducted from September 2015 to October 2017. The studies identified to contain youth (internet use were all published in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years; these studies examined general internet use seeking health care services, resources, information, or using the internet for health promotion and self-care. Studies were excluded if they explored the role of the internet as a modality for surveys, recruitment, or searching for relevant literature without specifically aiming to study participants’ health-related internet use; focused solely on quality assurance for specific websites; or were designed to test a specific internet-based intervention. Results Interesting patterns in adolescents’ health-related internet use, such as seeking preventative health care and specific information about medical issues, were identified. Quantitative studies reported rates of the internet use and
Berger, Marjolein Y.; Tabbers, Merit M.; Kurver, Miranda J.; Boluyt, Nicole; Benninga, Marc A.
Objective To perform a systematic review evaluating the value of abdominal radiography, colonic transit time (CTT), and rectal ultrasound scanning in the diagnosis of idiopathic constipation in children. Study design Eligible studies were those assessing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal radiography,
van Tilburg, C M; Sanders, E A M; Rovers, M M; Wolfs, T F W; Bierings, M B
Intensified chemotherapy regimens resulting in improved survival of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) lead to concerns about therapy-induced immune damage reflected by the loss of protection of previous immunizations and the efficacy of (re-)vaccination. The severity of secondary immunodeficiency, however, is not clear and knowledge is based on a limited number of studies. We performed a systematic review on literature concerning vaccination data of children with ALL published since 1980. Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Regarding antibody titers after treatment, the number of children who had preserved the defined protection level for antibodies differed widely, ranging from 17 to 98% for diphtheria, 27 to 82% for Bordetella pertussis, 20 to 98% for tetanus, 62 to 100% for poliomyelitis, 35 to 100% for Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB), 29 to 92% for mumps, 29 to 60% for measles and 72 to 92% for rubella. Most patients however responded to revaccination, demonstrating immunological recovery. Although the designs and results of the included studies varied widely, it can be concluded that cytostatic therapy for ALL in children results in a temporarily reduction of specific antibody levels. Memory is preserved but revaccination may be warranted. This is the first systematic review and the best possible current approximation of chemotherapy-induced immune damage in children after ALL treatment.
George A. Kelley
Full Text Available Purpose. Conduct a systematic review of previous meta-analyses addressing the effects of exercise in the treatment of overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled exercise trials that assessed adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents were included by searching nine electronic databases and cross-referencing from retrieved studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR Instrument. The alpha level for statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. Results. Of the 308 studies reviewed, two aggregate data meta-analyses representing 14 and 17 studies and 481 and 701 boys and girls met all eligibility criteria. Methodological quality was 64% and 73%. For both studies, statistically significant reductions in percent body fat were observed (P=0.006 and P<0.00001. The number-needed-to treat (NNT was 4 and 3 with an estimated 24.5 and 31.5 million overweight and obese children in the world potentially benefitting, 2.8 and 3.6 million in the US. No other measures of adiposity (BMI-related measures, body weight, and central obesity were statistically significant. Conclusions. Exercise is efficacious for reducing percent body fat in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Insufficient evidence exists to suggest that exercise reduces other measures of adiposity.
Rapley, Hannah A; Loades, Maria E
Whilst the evidence base for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with children and young people is growing, the mechanisms through which these beneficial effects occur are still unclear. This systematic review seeks to appraise the relationship between therapeutic outcomes in CBT and therapist adherence and competence, within the child and adolescent literature. A systematic review was carried out, with five studies identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. The literature is currently small and inconclusive. Amongst the studies reviewed, there were inconsistent findings, with minimal-to-no effect sizes found between adherence, competence, and outcomes. The current paucity of research in this area means that conclusions are currently limited. The role and impact of adherence and competence on therapeutic outcomes remains unclear within individual CBT in a child population. This is comparable with the current adult literature, where findings also remain inconclusive. Further research avenues are discussed.
Evans, Subhadra; Ling, Mathew; Hill, Briony; Rinehart, Nicole; Austin, David; Sciberras, Emma
Meditation-based interventions such as mindfulness and yoga are commonly practiced in the general community to improve mental and physical health. Parents, teachers and healthcare providers are also increasingly using such interventions with children. This review examines the use of meditation-based interventions in the treatment of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Electronic databases searched included PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, and AMED. Inclusion criteria involved children (aged to 18 years) diagnosed with ADHD, delivery of a meditation-based intervention to children and/or parents, and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Studies were identified and coded using standard criteria, risk of bias was assessed using Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies- of interventions (ROBINS-I), and effect sizes were calculated. A total of 16 studies were identified (8 that included children in treatment, and 8 that included combined parent-child treatment). Results indicated that risk of bias was high across studies. At this stage, no definitive conclusions can be offered regarding the utility of meditation-based interventions for children with ADHD and/or their parents, since the methodological quality of the studies reviewed is low. Future well designed research is needed to establish the efficacy of meditation-based interventions, including commonly used practices such as mindfulness, before recommendations can be made for children with ADHD and their families.
Maeyama, Kaori; Tomioka, Kazumi; Nagase, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Mieko; Takagi, Yasuko; Kato, Takeshi; Mizobuchi, Masami; Kitayama, Shinji; Takada, Satoshi; Nagai, Masashi; Sakakibara, Nana; Nishiyama, Masahiro; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Morioka, Ichiro; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nishimura, Noriyuki
Association of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with autism spectral disorder (ASD) has been suggested since 1980s. Despite the observed association, its role as a risk factor for ASD remains to be defined. In the present review, we systematically evaluated the available evidence associating congenital CMV infection with ASD using…
Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.
Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…
Buis, D. R.; van Ouwerkerk, W. J. R.; Takahata, H.; Vandertop, W. P.
OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysms are very rare in early childhood. Because the location, morphology as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of these aneurysms seem to be different from those in adults, we performed a systematic review of the literature to discuss the clinical,
Pinart, Mariona; Albang, Richard; Maier, Dieter; Duran-Tauleria, Enric; Mena, Guillermo; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Solà, Ivan; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Guerra, Stefano; Stein, Renato T; Benet, Marta; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Herr, Marie; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Momas, Isabelle; Pin, Isabelle; Rancière, Fanny; Smit, Henriëtte A; Varraso, Raphaelle; Bonfill, Xavier; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Antó, Josep M
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, a large number of phenotypes and disease classifications of allergic diseases have been proposed. Despite the heterogeneity across studies, no systematic review has been conducted on phenotype classification and the criteria that define allergic diseases. We
Smit, K.; Voogt, C.V.; Hiemstra, J.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Purpose: Developmental changes in alcohol expectancies (AE) have been proposed to lead to alcohol use initiation and later alcohol use in adolescence. This systematic review aims to provide longitudinal evidence of the development of AE and the relation of AE to alcohol outcomes from childhood to
Ma, Nylanda; Roberts, Rachel; Winefield, Helen; Furber, Gareth
While the importance of looking at the entire family system in the context of child and adolescent mental health is well recognised, siblings of children with mental health problems (MHPs) are often overlooked. The existing literature on the mental health of these siblings needs to be reviewed. A systematic search located publications from 1990 to 2011 in four electronic databases. Thirty-nine relevant studies reported data on the prevalence of psychopathology in siblings of target children with MHPs. Siblings of target children had higher rates of at least one type of psychopathology than comparison children. Risk of psychopathology varied across the type of MHP in the target child. Other covariates included sibling age and gender and parental psychopathology. Significant variations and limitations in methodology were found in the existing literature. Methodological guidelines for future studies are outlined. Implications for clinicians, parents, and for future research are discussed.
Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R
Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children. Our aim was to systematically review the studies conducted in preschool children using field-based fitness tests, and examine their (1) reliability, (2) validity, and (3) relationship with health outcomes. Our ultimate goal was to propose a field-based physical fitness-test battery to be used in preschool children. PubMed and Web of Science. Studies conducted in healthy preschool children that included field-based fitness tests. When using PubMed, we included Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms to enhance the power of the search. A set of fitness-related terms were combined with 'child, preschool' [MeSH]. The same strategy and terms were used for Web of Science (except for the MeSH option). Since no previous reviews with a similar aim were identified, we searched for all articles published up to 1 April 2014 (no starting date). A total of 2,109 articles were identified, of which 22 articles were finally selected for this review. Most studies focused on reliability of the fitness tests (n = 21, 96%), while very few focused on validity (0 criterion-related validity and 4 (18%) convergent validity) or relationship with health outcomes (0 longitudinal and 1 (5%) cross-sectional study). Motor fitness, particularly balance, was the most studied fitness component, while cardiorespiratory fitness was the least studied. After analyzing the information retrieved in the current systematic review about fitness testing in preschool children, we propose the PREFIT battery, field-based FITness testing in PREschool children. The PREFIT battery is composed of the following
Mitrofan, O; Paul, M; Spencer, N
Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications from relevant organizations and for grey literature; scanned bibliographies; hand-searched key journals; and corresponded with authors. We critically appraised all studies. A total of 12 studies: three experiments with children with behavioural and emotional difficulties found increased aggression after watching aggressive as opposed to low-aggressive content television programmes, one found the opposite and two no clear effect, one found such children no more likely than controls to imitate aggressive television characters. One case-control study and one survey found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties watched more television than controls; another did not. Two studies found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more hours of aggressive television programmes than controls. One study on video game use found that young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more minutes of violence and played longer than controls. In a qualitative study children with behavioural and emotional difficulties, but not their parents, did not associate watching television with aggression. All studies had significant methodological flaws. None was based on power calculations. This systematic review found insufficient, contradictory and methodologically flawed evidence on the association between television viewing and video game playing and aggression in children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties. If public health advice is to be evidence
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the available evidence regarding the efficacy of interventions on parents whose children were aged 2–5 years to promote parental competence and skills for children's healthy lifestyles. Source: Articles published in English and Spanish, available at PubMed, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Eric, and Cochrane Library were reviewed. Summary of the findings: The literature search yielded 2282 articles. Forty‐one full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion using the PRISMA flow diagram. Twenty‐six articles were excluded, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In the end, 15 studies were included. The studies were conducted between 2003 and 2016, nine in North America, four in Europe, and two in Asia. Extracted data were synthesized in a tabular format. CASPe guide was used to assess the quality of studies that was moderate overall. Parental self‐efficacy was the main construct assessed in most studies. Four studies reported an increase in parental self‐efficacy, although most of them were studies without control groups. Conclusions: Outcomes of interventions to improve parental competence in order to promote children's lifestyles are promising, but inconsistent. Additional studies with higher methodological and conceptual quality are needed. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar as evidências disponíveis com relação à eficácia de intervenções em pais de filhos entre dois e cinco anos para promover a competência e as habilidades dos pais a respeito de estilos de vida saudáveis para as crianças. Fonte: Foram analisados artigos publicados em PubMed, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Eric e Biblioteca Cochrane. Inglês e espanhol. Resumo dos achados: A pesquisa da literatura encontrou 2.282 artigos; 41 textos completos foram selecionados e avaliados para inclusão com o fluxograma Prisma; 26 artigos foram excluídos, pois não atendiam aos critérios de inclusão. Por fim, 15 estudos foram incluídos. Os
Bennett, Sophie; Shafran, Roz; Coughtrey, Anna; Walker, Susan; Heyman, Isobel
Children with chronic physical illness are significantly more likely to develop common psychiatric symptoms than otherwise healthy children. These children therefore warrant effective integrated healthcare yet it is not established whether the known, effective, psychological treatments for symptoms of common childhood mental health disorders work in children with chronic physical illness. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases were searched with predefined terms relating to evidence-based psychological interventions for psychiatric symptoms in children with chronic physical illness. We included all studies (randomised and non-randomised designs) investigating interventions aimed primarily at treating common psychiatric symptoms in children with a chronic physical illness in the review. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevance of abstracts identified, extracted data and undertook quality analysis. Ten studies (209 children, including 70 in control groups) met the criteria for inclusion in the review. All studies demonstrated some positive outcomes of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms in children with chronic physical illness. Only two randomised controlled trials, both investigating interventions for symptoms of depression, were found. There is preliminary evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy has positive effects in the treatment of symptoms of depression and anxiety in children with chronic physical illness. However, the current evidence base is weak and fully powered randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy of psychological treatments in this vulnerable population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Strina, Agostino; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C
BACKGROUND: The study of non-atopic asthma/wheeze in children separately from atopic asthma is relatively recent. Studies have focused on single risk factors and had inconsistent findings.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVE: To review evidence on factors associated with non-atopic asthma/wheeze in children and adolescents.\\ud \\ud METHODS: A review of studies of risk factors for non-atopic asthma/wheeze which had a non-asthmatic comparison group, and assessed atopy by skin-prick test or allergen-specific IgE.\\u...
Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement. 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01 indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2
Full Text Available Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS has been causally linked to a number of childhood morbidities and mortalities. Over 50% of UK children whose parents are smokers are regularly exposed to SHS at home. No previous review has identified the factors associated with children's SHS exposure in the home.To identify by systematic review, the factors which are associated with children's SHS exposure in the home, determined by parent or child reports and/or biochemically validated measures including cotinine, carbon monoxide or home air particulate matter.Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Web of Knowledge to July 2014, and hand searches of reference lists from publications included in the review were conducted.Forty one studies were included in the review. Parental smoking, low socioeconomic status and being less educated were all frequently and consistently found to be independently associated with children's SHS exposure in the home. Children whose parents held more negative attitudes towards SHS were less likely to be exposed. Associations were strongest for parental cigarette smoking status; compared to children of non-smokers, those whose mothers or both parents smoked were between two and 13 times more likely to be exposed to SHS.Multiple factors are associated with child SHS exposure in the home; the best way to reduce child SHS exposure in the home is for smoking parents to quit. If parents are unable or unwilling to stop smoking, they should instigate smoke-free homes. Interventions targeted towards the socially disadvantaged parents aiming to change attitudes to smoking in the presence of children and providing practical support to help parents smoke outside the home may be beneficial.
Bailey, S; Boddy, K; Briscoe, S; Morris, C
Children and young people can be valuable partners in research, giving their unique perspectives on what and how research should be done. However, disabled children are less commonly involved in research than their non-disabled peers. This review investigated how disabled children have been involved as research partners; specifically how they have been recruited, the practicalities and challenges of involvement and how these have been overcome, and impacts of involvement for research, and disabled children and young people. The INVOLVE definition of involvement and the Equality and Human Rights Commission definition of disability were used. Relevant bibliographic databases were searched. Websites were searched for grey literature. Included studies had involved disabled children and young people aged 5-25 years in any study design. Reviews, guidelines, reports and other documents from the grey literature were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-two papers were included: seven reviews, eight original research papers, three reports, three guidelines and one webpage. Nine examples of involvement were identified. Recommendations included developing effective communication techniques, using flexible methods that can be adapted to needs and preferences, and ensuring that sufficient support and funding is available for researchers undertaking involvement. Positive impacts of involvement for disabled children included increased confidence, self-esteem and independence. Positive impacts for research were identified. Involving disabled children in research can present challenges; many of these can be overcome with sufficient time, planning and resources. More needs to be done to find ways to involve those with non-verbal communication. Generally, few details were reported about disabled children and young people's involvement in studies, and the quality of evidence was low. Although a range of positive impacts were identified, the majority of these were authors' opinions rather
Wang, Tingting; Liu, Kaihua; Li, Zhanzhan; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Wenpei; Chen, Lizhang
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common childhood neurobehavioural disorder, can produce a series of negative effects on children, adolescents, and even adults as well as place a serious economic burden on families and society. However, the prevalence of ADHD is not well understood in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in China using a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu and CBM databases, and relevant articles published from inception to March 1, 2016, that provided the prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in China were reviewed. The risk of bias in individual studies was assessed using the Risk of Bias Tool for prevalence studies. Pooled-prevalence estimates were calculated with a random-effects model. Sources of heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analyses. Sixty-seven studies with a total of 275,502 individuals were included in this study. The overall pooled-prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in China was 6.26% (95% CI: 5.36-7.22%) with significant heterogeneity (I 2 = 99.0%, P China is generally consistent with the worldwide prevalence and shows that ADHD affects quite a large number of people under 18 years old. However, a nationwide study is needed to provide more accurate estimations.
Domínguez Rodríguez, Alejandro; Cebolla Marti, Ausiàs Josep; Oliver-Gasch, Elia; Baños-Rivera, Rosa María
Childhood obesity is now considered a worldwide problem. Nutrition Education (NE) has been identified as a key factor in preventing overweight and obesity in children. In recent years, there has been an increase in the interest in innovative ways to teach this knowledge to children, mainly through the use of the Internet. Review and analyze the available evidence about programs focused on NE for children through the use of the Internet. Three different ways were found to deliver NE over the Internet to children: platforms designed to communicate with other peers or professionals; platforms designed to provide NE through the contents included in the web tool; and platforms designed to provide NE through the contents included in the web tool and automated feedback. Most of these programs were effective in achieving the objectives established. Although the use of Internet platforms to teach NE to children has been shown to be effective, the amount of evidence is still scarce. Some of the main advantages the Internet provides are: the opportunity to put the children in contact with education and health professionals; children can keep a record of the food consumed; and it is a more attractive and interesting way for children to learn NE, compared to traditional methods.
Marks, Lianna J; Munube, Deogratias; Kasirye, Philip; Mupere, Ezekiel; Jin, Zhezhen; LaRussa, Philip; Idro, Richard; Green, Nancy S
Objectives . The prevalence of stroke among children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa was systematically reviewed. Methods . Comprehensive searches of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were performed for articles published between 1980 and 2016 (English or French) reporting stroke prevalence. Using preselected inclusion criteria, titles and abstracts were screened and full-text articles were reviewed. Results . Ten full-text articles met selection criteria. Cross-sectional clinic-based data reported 2.9% to 16.9% stroke prevalence among children with SCD. Using available sickle gene frequencies by country, estimated pediatric mortality, and fixed- and random-effects model, the number of affected individuals is projected as 29 800 (95% confidence interval = 25 571-34 027) and 59 732 (37 004-82 460), respectively. Conclusion . Systematic review enabled the estimation of the number of children with SCD stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. High disease mortality, inaccurate diagnosis, and regional variability of risk hamper more precise estimates. Adopting standardized stroke assessments may provide more accurate determination of numbers affected to inform preventive interventions.
Galbraith-Emami, S; Lobstein, T
In response to increasing evidence that advertising of foods and beverages affects children's food choices and food intake, several national governments and many of the world's larger food and beverage manufacturers have acted to restrict the marketing of their products to children or to advertise only 'better for you' products or 'healthier dietary choices' to children. Independent assessment of the impact of these pledges has been difficult due to the different criteria being used in regulatory and self-regulatory regimes. In this paper, we undertook a systematic review to examine the data available on levels of exposure of children to the advertising of less healthy foods since the introduction of the statutory and voluntary codes. The results indicate a sharp division in the evidence, with scientific, peer-reviewed papers showing that high levels of such advertising of less healthy foods continue to be found in several different countries worldwide. In contrast, the evidence provided in industry-sponsored reports indicates a remarkably high adherence to voluntary codes. We conclude that adherence to voluntary codes may not sufficiently reduce the advertising of foods which undermine healthy diets, or reduce children's exposure to this advertising. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H
Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research.
Laura M. Lamberti
Full Text Available Evidence supporting the impact of therapeutic zinc supplementation on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children under five is largely derived from studies conducted in South Asia. China experiences a substantial portion of the global burden of diarrhea, but the impact of zinc treatment among children under five has not been well documented by previously published systematic reviews on the topic. We therefore conducted a systematic literature review, which included an exhaustive search of the Chinese literature, in an effort to update previously published estimates of the effect of therapeutic zinc. We conducted systematic literature searches in various databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and abstracted relevant data from studies meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used STATA 12.0 to pool select outcomes and to generate estimates of percentage difference and relative risk comparing outcomes between zinc and control groups. We identified 89 Chinese and 15 non-Chinese studies for the review, including studies in 10 countries from all WHO geographic regions, and analyzed a total of 18,822 diarrhea cases (9469 zinc and 9353 control. None of the included Chinese studies had previously been included in published pooled effect estimates. Chinese and non-Chinese studies reported the effect of therapeutic zinc supplementation on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration and proportion of episodes lasting beyond three and seven days. Pooling Chinese and non-Chinese studies yielded an overall 26% (95% CI: 20%−32% reduction in the estimated relative risk of diarrhea lasting beyond three days among zinc-treated children. Studies conducted in and outside China report reductions in morbidity as a result of oral therapeutic zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea among children under five years of age. The WHO recommendation for zinc treatment of diarrhea
Lu, Congchao; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sijtsma, Anna; Wiersma, Rikstje; Huang, Guowei; Corpeleijn, Eva
Background: Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this
Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby
Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…
Davis, Tonya N.; Scalzo, Rachel; Butler, Erin; Stauffer, Megan; Farah, Yara N.; Perez, Scott; Mainor, Kristen; Clark, Cathryn; Miller, Stacy; Kobylecky, Alicia; Coviello, Laura
Animal assisted intervention (AAI), which has been defined as the use of an animal to provide therapeutic benefit based on a positive relationship between the client and the animal, is a therapy option for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); therefore, it is beneficial to review studies that evaluated its effectiveness. A systematic…
Cousino, Melissa K; Hazen, Rebecca A
To critically review, analyze, and synthesize the literature on parenting stress among caregivers of children with asthma, cancer, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, epilepsy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and/or sickle cell disease. Method PsychInfo, MEDLINE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched according to inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 13 studies and qualitative analysis of 96 studies was conducted. Results Caregivers of children with chronic illness reported significantly greater general parenting stress than caregivers of healthy children (d = .40; p = ≤.0001). Qualitative analysis revealed that greater general parenting stress was associated with greater parental responsibility for treatment management and was unrelated to illness duration and severity across illness populations. Greater parenting stress was associated with poorer psychological adjustment in caregivers and children with chronic illness. Conclusion Parenting stress is an important target for future intervention. General and illness-specific measures of parenting stress should be used in future studies.
Tallandini, Maria Anna; Zanchettin, Liviana; Gronchi, Giorgio; Morsan, Valentina
Does a genetic link and/or a child's age influence a parent's willingness to talk to a child about how they were conceived? The presence/absence of a biological link and the child's age clearly influences the disclosure process. The research published to date has yielded diverse findings on autologous and donor assisted reproductive technology (ART) parents' disclosure of the conception method to their children and on the ages at which the children are informed, if told. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. A search of MEDLINE and PUBMED was run for English-language studies published from January 1996 through January 2015. A total of 26 studies were included in the systematic review, 19 of which were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 2814 parent responses were included in the systematic review. Two authors independently assessed the studies for review inclusion. Selection criteria were: peer-reviewed studies, quantitative studies only, research conducted after the birth of ART-conceived children, number of parent responses on disclosure status reported in terms of Told, Plan to tell, Uncertain, Plan to not tell. Thirty-two (32) study-level effect size statistics were included in the meta-analysis. Three authors independently assessed the risk of bias. Among parents who responded, 23% of the total number of parent responses indicated that they had already Told; 44% were Planning to tell; 13% were Uncertain and 20% were Planning to not tell their children about their ART conception. Meta-analysis gave no statistically significant differences between autologous and donor ART in the children ≥10 years was quite limited; and lastly, most of the data examined were not collected longitudinally. The high number of non-disclosing parents treated by donor ART points to an underestimation of the medical risks for the offspring (the presence of genetic illnesses, inadvertent consanguinity) and suggests that these children's rights may not be given
Pournaghi Azar, F; Mamizadeh, M; Nikniaz, Z; Ghojazadeh, M; Hajebrahimi, S; Salehnia, F; Mashhadi Abdolahi, H
The evidence about the content of TV advertisements broadcast during children's viewing times with an emphasis on the number of food advertisements and the number of cariogenic food advertisements was systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published up until October 2017 in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Persian databases such as Magiran, IranDoc, and Iranmedex with the keywords that were related to advertising and oral health in children were searched and screened by two reviewers independently, and the outcomes of interest were extracted. Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2.0. A total of 480 titles were retrieved and reduced to 256 eligible studies after deletion of duplicates, and finally, after closer assessment of titles and abstracts, five articles were selected for systematic review and meta-analysis. Of the included studies, three were conducted in the UK, one in India, and one in Greece. About 38.0% (95% confidence interval: 19.6-60.6, P = 0.296) of advertisements were related to food and also about 70.6% (95% confidence interval: 53.7-83.3, P < 0.019) of food advertisements were related to cariogenic foods. Food advertising during children's programs is dominated by food items that are potentially harmful to oral health. Moreover, the advertisements shifted toward food items that appeared healthy but contain a large amount of hidden sugar. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P
There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143
Full Text Available Objective: Research has shown that coparenting is a vital family mechanism in predicting mental health in children and adolescents. Considering the increasing prevalence of marital dissolution in Western societies, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the key results of empirical studies that tested the association between mental health of children and coparenting after marital dissolution. Data source: The studies were obtained from three databases (PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge, published between January 2000 and October 2014. The titles, abstracts, and key words of the generated citations were independently reviewed by two investigators to consensually select the articles that met the inclusion criteria. Articles that used psychometrically valid tools to measure at least one mental health indicator and at least one dimension of coparenting in samples with divorced parents were included in the review. Data synthesis: Of the 933 screened articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Significant positive associations were found between coparental conflict and behavioral problems and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization. Significant positive associations were also found between other specific dimensions of coparenting (coparental support, cooperation, and agreement, overall mental health, self-esteem, and academic performance. Conclusions: The integrated analysis of these studies suggests that coparenting is a key mechanism within the family system for the prediction of child mental health after marital dissolution, and thus, it is recommended that pediatricians, psychologists, and other health professionals consider coparenting as a psychosocial variable for children's mental health assessment and diagnosis. Resumo: Objetivo: A investigação tem demonstrado a coparentalidade como um dos mecanismos familiares centrais na predição da saúde mental em crianças e adolescentes. Considerando o aumento da preval
Heinl, Daniel; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Drucker, Aaron M; Ofenloch, Robert; Humphreys, Rosemary; Sach, Tracey; Flohr, Carsten; Apfelbacher, Christian
Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease that exerts a substantial negative impact on quality of life (QoL). The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has used a consensus-based process which identified QoL as one of the four core outcome domains to be assessed in all eczema clinical trials. A number of measurement instruments exist to measure QoL in infants, children, and adolescents with eczema, and there is a great variability in both content and quality of the instruments used. Therefore, the objective of the proposed research is to comprehensively and systematically assess the measurement properties of the existing measurement instruments that were developed and/or validated for the measurement of patient-reported QoL in infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of patient-reported measures of QoL developed and/or validated for infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. A systematic literature search will be carried out in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing, or comparing measurement properties of QoL instruments for infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. Two reviewers will independently perform eligibility assessment and data abstraction. Evidence tables will be used to record study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties, and interpretability. The adequacy of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study has examined a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will yield a comprehensive assessment
Pope, Nicole; Tallon, Mary; McConigley, Ruth; Leslie, Gavin; Wilson, Sally
Pain is a universal and complex phenomenon that is personal, subjective and specific. Despite growing knowledge in pediatric pain, management of children's pain remains sub-optimal and is linked to negative behavioral and physiological consequences later in life. As there is no synthesis of these studies, it was timely to undertake a systematic review. To identify, evaluate and synthesize the existing qualitative evidence on children's experiences of acute pain, including pain management, within a healthcare facility. Children aged four to 18 years (inclusive) attending a healthcare facility who experienced acute pain associated with any injury, medical condition or treatment. Children's experiences and perceptions of their acute pain, pain management and expectations of others in managing their pain. Studies on children's experiences of pain in the postoperative context were excluded as a systematic review exploring this phenomenon had previously been published. Studies reporting on children's experiences of chronic pain were also excluded. Any healthcare facility including general practitioners' surgeries, hospitals, emergency departments and outpatient clinics. Qualitative studies including phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research designs. Using a three-step search strategy, databases were searched in December 2015 to identify both published and unpublished articles from 2000 to 2015. Studies published in languages other than English were excluded. All studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed by at least two independent reviewers for methodological quality using a standardized critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Data were extracted from the papers included in the review using standardized data extraction tool from JBI-QARI. Findings were pooled using JBI-QARI. Findings were rated according to their level of credibility and
Ghirotto, Luca; Busani, Elena; Salvati, Michela; Di Marco, Valeria; Caldarelli, Valeria; Artioli, Giovanna
Qualitative research is pivotal in gaining understanding of individuals' experiences in pediatric palliative care. In the past few decades, the number of qualitative studies on pediatric palliative care has increased slightly, as has interest in qualitative research in this area. Nonetheless, a limited number of such studies have included the first-person perspective of children. The aim of this article is to understand the contribution of previous qualitative research on pediatric palliative care that included the voices of children. A systematic review of qualitative studies and a meta-summary were conducted. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and ERIC were searched without limitations on publication date or language. Eligible articles were qualitative research articles in which the participants were children ranging in age from 3 to 18 years.ResultWe retrieved 16 qualitative research articles reporting on 12 unique studies, and we selected two mixed-method articles. The meta-summary shows eight themes: the relationship with professional caregivers, pain and its management, "living beyond pain," the relationship between pediatric patients and their families, children's view on their treatment and service provision, meanings children give to their end-of-life situation, consequences of clinical decisions, and the relationships among children in pediatric palliative care and their peers.Significance of resultsThis meta-summary presents the "state of the art" of pediatric palliative care qualitative research on children and highlights additional research areas that warrant qualitative study.
Ravi, D K; Kumar, N; Singhi, P
The use of virtual reality systems in the motor rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy is new, and thus the scientific evidence for its effectiveness needs to be evaluated through a systematic review. To provide updated evidence-based guidance for virtual reality rehabilitation in sensory and functional motor skills of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. PubMed, PEDro, Web of Science, OTseeker, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library were searched from their earliest records up to 1 June, 2016. Two reviewers applied the population intervention comparison outcome (PICO) question to screen the studies for this review. Information on study design, subjects, intervention, outcome measures and efficacy results were extracted into a pilot-tested form. Method quality was assessed independently by two reviewers using the Downs and Black checklist. Thirty-one studies included 369 participants in total. Best evidence synthesis was applied to summarize the outcomes, which were grouped according to International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Moderate evidence was found for balance and overall motor development. The evidence is still limited for other motor skills. This review uncovered additional literature showing moderate evidence that virtual reality rehabilitation is a promising intervention to improve balance and motor skills in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. The technique is growing, so long-term follow-up and further research are required to determine its exact place in the management of cerebral palsy. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015026048. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nesibe Olgun Kaval
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the articles on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In this systematic review, articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (March have been searched in the national and international databases. 20 studies that were met the search criteria were examined in terms of research method, therapy characteristics and results. The findings of the articles revealed that cognitive behavioral group therapy is effective for symptoms of social anxiety and the problems that accompany social anxiety (depression, anxiety, etc. in children and adolescents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 3-22
Schoeppe, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Badland, Hannah; Oliver, Melody; Curtis, Carey
Health benefits from children's independent mobility and active travel beyond school travel are largely unexplored. This review synthesized the evidence for associations of independent mobility and active travel to various destinations with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and weight status. Systematic review. A systematic search in six databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, SportDiscus, PsychInfo, TRIS) for papers published between January 1990 and March 2012 was undertaken, focussing on children aged 3-18 years. Study inclusion and methodological quality were independently assessed by two reviewers. 52 studies were included. Most studies focussed solely on active travel to and/or from school, and showed significant positive associations with physical activity. The same relationship was detected for active travel to leisure-related places and independent mobility with physical activity. An inverse relationship between active travel to school and weight status was evident but findings were inconsistent. Few studies examined correlations between active travel to school and self-reported screen-time or objectively measured sedentary behaviour, and findings were unclear. Studies on independent mobility suggested that children who have the freedom to play outdoors and travel actively without adult supervision accumulate more physical activity than those who do not. Further investigation of children's active travel to leisure-related destinations, measurement of diverse sedentary behaviour beyond simply screen-based activities, and consistent thresholds for objectively measured sedentary behaviour in children will clarify the inconsistent evidence base on associations of active travel with sedentary behaviour and weight status. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grace S. Marquis
Full Text Available Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011 was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1 randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2 non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3 prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4 prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies, 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies, 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status, and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status. This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt.
Broome, Marion E.
Background The past twenty years have seen distinct shifts in the way the participation of children and adolescents in research is viewed. This has been emphasized by the growing pediatric research enterprise. Additional information on children’s and adolescents’ experiences during research participation is needed to better inform researchers on the ethical conduct of research with this vulnerable population. Aims The objective of this analysis was to examine ethical issues in research with children and adolescents from their perspective as participants, including: assent, parental consent, risk perception, impact of research participation, and incentives. Methods This systematic review was conducted per the Long et al. framework by means of an iterative searching process. Using the key words ‘research ethics’ and ‘child or pediatric or adolescent’, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases were searched to identify articles. Limitations placed on the original searches were: English language, year of publication between 2003–2014, humans, abstract available, and age birth–18 years. Findings Twenty-three empiric studies were identified and formed the sample. Included studies represented a diverse range of areas of research, methods, settings, sample demographics, authors, and journals. Discussion Even young children demonstrated the ability to understand essential elements of research, although there is variability in children’s level of understanding. Trust was a significant contributing factor to children’s and adolescents’ participation in research, and also shaped their assessments of risk. Research participation was mainly beneficial for children and adolescents. Incentives were mainly viewed positively, although concerns of possible undue influence were expressed. Linking Evidence to Action This systematic review highlights the importance of including the perspectives of children and adolescents and provides researchers and nurse clinicians
Ganesh Sundaram Subramanian
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and is associated with increased cardio vascular mortality and morbidity in adult life. In children, obesity correlates strongly with a progressive reduction in the level of physical activity and changes in food habits. Methods: This study is a qualitative research study. A secondary data collection technique was utilized and conducted through a search of articles published between 2005 and 2014 in PubMed and Google scholar databases. The objective of the present study is to provide a systemic review of the available literature and outline the factors in early life that are associated with an increased risk of obesity in children there by leading to poor gross motor skill performance with the help of Anthropometric assessment, Body composition and Motor skills proficiency. Results: Importantly recent studies have demonstrated that exercise training improves vascular endothelial function and stimulation of pressure receptors leading to increased vagal activity in obese children. The current literature highlights the importance of adding exercise programs to clinics, schools and families for the physical and psychological wellbeing of children. Conclusion: Overall findings from the present review showed that normal children with physical exercise are more superior in motor skills compared to other peers. Results of the previous studies indicated that normal children’s are more efficient in bilateral coordination in greater balancing, efficient upper limb coordination and greater strength
Kuo, Chin-Lung; Tsao, Yuan-Heng; Cheng, Hao-Min; Lien, Chiang-Feng; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Huang, Chii-Yuan; Shiao, An-Suey
No consensus has yet been reached with regard to the link between otitis media with effusion (OME), hearing loss, and language development in children with cleft palate. The objective of this study was to address the effectiveness of ventilation tube insertion (VTI) for OME in children with cleft palate. A dual review process was used to assess eligible studies drawn from PubMed, Medline via Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, and reference lists between 1948 and November 2013. Potentially relevant papers were selected according to the full text of the articles. Relevant data were extracted onto a data extraction sheet. Nine high- or moderate-quality cohort studies were included in this study. VTI was administered in 38% to 53% of the OME cases, and more severe cases appeared more likely to undergo VTI. Compared with conservative forms of management (eg, watchful waiting), VTI has been shown to be beneficial to the recovery of hearing in children with cleft palate and OME. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of VTI in the development of speech and language in children with cleft palate and OME. These children face a higher risk of complications than those undergoing conservative treatments, the most common of which are eardrum retraction and tympanosclerosis, with an incidence of ∼ 11% to 37%. This review provides evidence-based information related to the selection of treatment for OME in children with cleft palate. Additional randomized controlled trials are required to obtain bias-resistant evidence capable of reliably guiding treatment decisions. The conclusions in this review are based on underpowered cohort studies and very-low-strength evidence. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Emma L Anderson
Full Text Available Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study.The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3% and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2% in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%. There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males.
Marco Antonio Arap
Full Text Available During the last decade, new imaging techniques and biological probesprovided further insight into the pathogenesis and natural history ofurinary tract infection (UTI in children. Especially in newborns, UTIis a common cause of fever and probably the most common causeof renal parenchymal loss. In children aged equal or less than 2years, the symptoms of UTI are vague and non-specific - fever,irritability, poor feeding, vomiting, diarrhea and ill appearance. Inneonates, clinical symptoms or laboratory tests could not be usedto predict UTI episodes or eliminate the likelihood of a UTI even ifother sites of infections are clinically suggested. For this reason, thegoal of managing UTI in children is based on identifying and modifyingfactors that may increase the risk of renal parenchymal and functionalloss as from the onset of infection. Moreover, selective antimicrobialpressure is a major concern when treating children with UTI, asrenal parenchymal loss may occur within a short period of time, ifinadequate antimicrobial agents are utilized. OBJECTIVES: Thissystematic review assessed recent diagnostic and therapeuticaspects of severe UTI in children. We also summarized wellconductedstudies and the most important publications regardingdiagnosis and treatment of urinary sepsis in the pediatric population.SEARCH STRATEGY: Trials and reviews were searched in generaland specialized databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library andreferences were reviewed. SELECTION CRITERIA: All publishedtrials and reviews were eligible for inclusion provided they reportedresults for the pediatric population, included clinically significantevents resulting from urinary tract infection, and included specificaspects of diagnosis and therapy. DATA COLLECTION: One reviewerextracted Information. Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of urinarysepsis in the pediatric age group were assessed.
Stassijns, Jorgen; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Baay, Marc; Verstraeten, Thomas
New adjuvants such as the AS- or the MF59-adjuvants improve vaccine efficacy and facilitate dose-sparing. Their use in influenza and malaria vaccines has resulted in a large body of evidence on their clinical safety in children. We carried out a systematic search for safety data from published clinical trials on newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. Serious adverse events (SAEs), solicited AEs, unsolicited AEs and AEs of special interest were evaluated for four new adjuvants: the immuno-stimulants containing adjuvant systems AS01 and AS02, and the squalene containing oil-in-water emulsions AS03 and MF59. Relative risks (RR) were calculated, comparing children receiving newly adjuvanted vaccines to children receiving other vaccines with a variety of antigens, both adjuvanted and unadjuvanted. Twenty-nine trials were included in the meta-analysis, encompassing 25,056 children who received at least one dose of the newly adjuvanted vaccines. SAEs did not occur more frequently in adjuvanted groups (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.75-0.96). Our meta-analyses showed higher reactogenicity following administration of newly adjuvanted vaccines, however, no consistent pattern of solicited AEs was observed across adjuvant systems. Pain was the most prevalent AE, but often mild and of short duration. No increased risks were found for unsolicited AEs, febrile convulsions, potential immune mediated diseases and new onset of chronic diseases. Our meta-analysis did not show any safety concerns in clinical trials of the newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. An unexplained increase of meningitis in one Phase III AS01-adjuvanted malaria trial and the link between narcolepsy and the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine illustrate that continued safety monitoring is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anttila, Heidi; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Suoranta, Jutta
BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions on functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: A search was made in Medline, Cinahl, PEDro and the Cochrane library for the period 1990 to February 2007. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PT...... interventions in children with diagnosed CP were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality and extracted the data. The outcomes measured in the trials were classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). RESULTS: Twenty-two trials...
van Leeuwen, J; Koes, B W; Paulis, W D; van Middelkoop, M
This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content than normal-weight children. Similar results were found for whole body bone mineral density. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association was stronger in girls. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher bone mineral density compared with normal-weight children. Because there was only one study included with a longitudinal design, the long-term impact of childhood overweight and obesity on bone health at adulthood is not clear. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Castilho, Aline Rogéria Freire de; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria
To review current models and scientific evidence on the influence of parents' oral health behaviors on their children's dental caries. MEDLINE articles published between 1980 and June, 2012. Original research articles on parents' oral health behavior were reviewed. A total of 218 citations were retrieved, and 13 articles were included in the analysis. The studies were eligible for review if they matched the following inclusion criteria: (1) they evaluated a possible association between dental caries and parents' oral-health-related behaviors, and (2) the study methodology included oral clinical examination. The main search terms were "oral health", "parental attitudes", "parental knowledge", and "dental caries". : 13 experimental studies contributed data to the synthesis. Original articles, reviews, and chapters in textbooks were also considered. Parents' dental health habits influence their children's oral health. Oral health education programs aimed at preventive actions are needed to provide children not only with adequate oral health, but better quality of life. Special attention should be given to the entire family, concerning their lifestyle and oral health habits. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Lohner, Szimonetta; Küllenberg, Daniela; Antes, Gerd; Decsi, Tamás; Meerpohl, Joerg J
Prebiotics, defined as nondigestible dietary ingredients resistant to gastric acidity and fermented by the intestinal flora, are used to positively influence the composition of intestinal flora, thereby promoting health benefits. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of prebiotics in the prevention of acute infectious diseases in children. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Ovid Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library's Central databases. Finally, five randomized controlled trials, all of them investigating infants and children 0-24 months of age, were included in the review. Pooled estimates from three studies revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of infectious episodes requiring antibiotic therapy in the prebiotic group as compared with the placebo group (rate ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Studies available indicate that prebiotics may also be effective in decreasing the rate of overall infections in infants and children 0-24 months of age. Further studies in the age group 3-18 years are required to determine whether prebiotics can be considered for the prevention of acute infectious diseases in the older pediatric population. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; Torres-Piles, Silvia; Martín, Jorge Guerrero; Jiménez-Palomares, María; Bellino, Macarena Núñez
to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old). of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures), obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils). therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it. conocer los efectos del uso del masaje terapéutico en niños con cáncer. revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos controlados la búsqueda se llevó a cabo en noviembre de 2014 en las bases de datos científicas: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane y PEDro. Los criterios de inclusión han sido: ensayos clínicos, publicados en inglés o español, en los que se analizaran los efectos del masaje en las diferentes etapas y tipos de cáncer infantil (entre 1 y 18 años). de 1007 artículos localizados, 7 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Sus autores utilizan diferentes técnicas de masaje (masaje sueco, effleurage, petrissage, fricciones, presiones), obteniendo beneficios en los síntomas presentes durante la enfermedad (disminución del dolor, náuseas, estrés, ansiedad y aumento de glóbulos blancos y neutrófilos). el masaje terapéutico mejora los síntomas de los niños con cáncer, que respalden los efectos que se le atribuyen. conhecer os efeitos do uso da massagem terapêutica em crianças com câncer. revisão sistemática de ensaios cl
van der Fels, Irene M J; Te Wierike, Sanne C M; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. A systematic review. PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21 articles were included in this study. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers. Motor and cognitive skills were divided into six categories. There was either no correlation in the literature, or insufficient evidence for or against many correlations between motor skills and cognitive skills. However, weak-to-strong evidence was found for some correlations between underlying categories of motor and cognitive skills, including complex motor skills and higher order cognitive skills. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between underlying categories of motor and cognitive skills was found in pre-pubertal children compared to pubertal children (older than 13 years). Weak-to-strong relations were found between some motor and cognitive skills. The results suggest that complex motor intervention programs can be used to stimulate both motor and higher order cognitive skills in pre-pubertal children. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Wyhe, Kaylee S; van de Water, Tanya; Boivin, Michael J; Cotton, Mark F; Thomas, Kevin Gf
Despite improved efficacy of, and access to, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated cognitive impairments remain prevalent in both children and adults. Neuropsychological tests that detect such impairment can help clinicians formulate effective treatment plans. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC), although developed and standardized in the United States, is used frequently in many different countries and cultural contexts to assess paediatric performance across various cognitive domains. This systematic review investigated the cross-cultural utility of the original KABC, and its 2nd edition (KABC-II), in detecting HIV-associated cognitive impairment in children and adolescents. We entered relevant keywords and MeSH terms into the PubMed, PsycInfo, EBSCOHost, ProQuest, and Scopus databases, with search limits set from 1983-2017. Two independent reviewers evaluated the retrieved abstracts and manuscripts. Studies eligible for inclusion in the review were those that (a) used the KABC/KABC-II to assess cognitive function in children/adolescents aged 2-18 years, (b) featured a definition of cognitive impairment (e.g. >2 SD below the mean) or compared the performance of HIV-infected and uninfected control groups, and (c) used a sample excluded from population on which the instruments were normed. We identified nine studies (eight conducted in African countries, and one in the United Kingdom) to comprise the review's sample. All studies detected cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children, including those who were cART-naïve or who were cART treated and clinically stable. KABC/KABC-II subtests assessing simultaneous processing appeared most sensitive. Evaluation of the methodological quality of the selected studies by two independent reviews suggested that shortcomings included reporting and selection biases. This systematic review provides evidence for the cross-cultural utility of the KABC/KABC-II, particularly the simultaneous
Gadeberg, A K; Montgomery, E; Frederiksen, H W; Norredam, M
: It is estimated that children below 18 years constitute 50% of the refugee population worldwide, which is the highest figure in a decade. Due to conflicts like the Syrian crises, children are continuously exposed to traumatic events. Trauma exposure can cause mental health problems that may in turn increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Tools such as questionnaires and interview guides are being used extensively, despite the fact that only a few have been tested and their validity confirmed in refugee children and youth. : Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the validated screening and measurement tools available for assessment of trauma and mental health among refugee children and youth. : We systematically searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and PILOTS. The search yielded 913 articles and 97 were retained for further investigation. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines two authors performed the eligibility assessment. The full text of 23 articles was assessed and 9 met the eligibility criteria. Results : Only nine studies had validated trauma and mental health tools in refugee children and youth populations. A serious lack of validated tools for refugee children below the age of 6 was identified. : There is a lack of validated trauma and mental health tools, especially for refugees below the age of 6. Detection and treatment of mental health issues among refugee children and youth should be a priority both within the scientific community and in practice in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Eneriz-Wiemer, Monica; Sanders, Lee M; Barr, Donald A; Mendoza, Fernando S
One in 10 US adults of childbearing age has limited English proficiency (LEP). Parental LEP is associated with worse health outcomes among healthy children. The relationship of parental LEP to health outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) has not been systematically reviewed. To conduct a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature examining relationships between parental LEP and health outcomes for CSHCN. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Social Science Abstracts, bibliographies of included studies. Key search term categories: language, child, special health care needs, and health outcomes. US studies published between 1964 and 2012 were included if: 1) subjects were CSHCN; 2) studies included some measure of parental LEP; 3) at least 1 outcome measure of child health status, access, utilization, costs, or quality; and 4) primary or secondary data analysis. Three trained reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Two separate reviewers appraised studies for methodological rigor and quality. From 2765 titles and abstracts, 31 studies met eligibility criteria. Five studies assessed child health status, 12 assessed access, 8 assessed utilization, 2 assessed costs, and 14 assessed quality. Nearly all (29 of 31) studies used only parent- or child-reported outcome measures, rather than objective measures. LEP parents were substantially more likely than English-proficient parents to report that their CSHCN were uninsured and had no usual source of care or medical home. LEP parents were also less likely to report family-centered care and satisfaction with care. Disparities persisted for children with LEP parents after adjustment for ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Parental LEP is independently associated with worse health care access and quality for CSHCN. Health care providers should recognize LEP as an independent risk factor for poor health outcomes among CSHCN. Emerging models of chronic disease care should integrate and
Beckers, L W M E; Schnackers, M L A P; Janssen-Potten, Y J; Kleijnen, J; Steenbergen, B
Given the promising advantages of upper extremity home-based programmes in children with cerebral palsy (CP), a systematic review of the available literature on this topic is warranted. The purpose of the systematic review described in this protocol is to investigate currently available home-based occupational therapy and physiotherapy programmes regarding both their feasibility and effect. This protocol describes a systematic review, developed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015. Studies will be included in which primary data are collected, participants are children aged physiotherapy intervention. Comparators of interest are: no therapy, care as usual, centre-based occupational therapy or physiotherapy, an alternative home-based programme and a medical intervention. Studies will be included that report either on feasibility (ie, acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, adaptation, expansion or integration) or on efficacy/effectiveness (ie, child-related upper extremity outcomes within all International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health levels or parent-related/caregiver-related outcomes on the psychological and social domain). Relevant studies will be identified by searching the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, OTSeeker and CPCI-S as well as the trial registers ICTRP and CENTRAL, the reference lists of included records and by circulating a bibliography of the included records to authors of included studies. There will be no restrictions on language or year of publication. The search strategy consists of terms related to the population and intervention. Data will be extracted in duplicate using a digital data extraction form. The proposed study does not involve collection of primary data. Accordingly, no ethical approval is required. The authors will disseminate the findings of this systematic review through publication in a peer-reviewed
Cairns, Georgina; Angus, Kathryn; Hastings, Gerard; Caraher, Martin
A 2009 systematic review of the international evidence on food and beverage marketing to children is the most recent internationally comprehensive review of the evidence base. Its findings are consistent with other independent, rigorous reviews conducted during the period 2003-2012. Food promotions have a direct effect on children's nutrition knowledge, preferences, purchase behaviour, consumption patterns and diet-related health. Current marketing practice predominantly promotes low nutrition foods and beverages. Rebalancing the food marketing landscape' is a recurring policy aim of interventions aimed at constraining food and beverage promotions to children. The collective review evidence on marketing practice indicates little progress towards policy aims has been achieved during the period 2003-2012. There is a gap in the evidence base on how substantive policy implementation can be achieved. We recommend a priority for future policy relevant research is a greater emphasis on translational research. A global framework for co-ordinated intervention to constrain unhealthy food marketing which has received high level support provides valuable insight on some aspects of immediate implementation research priorities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Broekhuizen, Karen; Scholten, Anne-Marie; de Vries, Sanne I
The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in terms of physical activity, cognitive and social outcomes. In addition, we aimed to identify which playground characteristics are the strongest correlates of beneficial effects and for which subgroups of children effects are most distinct. In total, 13 experimental and 17 observational studies have been summarized of which 10 (77%) and 16 (94%) demonstrated moderate to high methodological quality, respectively. Nearly all experimental studies (n = 11) evaluated intervention effects on time spent in different levels of physical activity during recess. Research on the effects of (pre)school playgrounds on cognitive and social outcomes is scarce (n = 2). The experimental studies generated moderate evidence for an effect of the provision of play equipment, inconclusive evidence for an effect of the use of playground markings, allocating play space and for multi-component interventions, and no evidence for an effect of decreasing playground density, the promotion of physical activity by staff and increasing recess duration on children's health. In line with this, observational studies showed positive associations between play equipment and children's physical activity level. In contrast to experimental studies, significant associations were also found between children's physical activity and a decreased playground density and increased recess duration. To confirm the findings of this review, researchers are advised to conduct more experimental studies with a randomized controlled design and to incorporate the assessment of implementation strategies and process evaluations to reveal which intervention strategies and playground characteristics are most effective.
Zhang, Cai; Qin, Dan; Shen, Lu; Ji, Ping; Wang, Jinhua
To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of audiovisual distraction on reducing dental anxiety in children during dental treatment under local anesthesia. The authors identified eligible reports published through August 2017 by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Clinical trials that reported the effects of audiovisual distraction on children's physiological measures, self-reports and behavior rating scales during dental treatment met the minimum inclusion requirements. The authors extracted data and performed a meta-analysis of appropriate articles. Nine eligible trials were included and qualitatively analyzed; some of these trials were also quantitatively analyzed. Among the physiological measures, heart rate or pulse rate was significantly lower (p=0.01) in children subjected to audiovisual distraction during dental treatment under local anesthesia than in those who were not; a significant difference in oxygen saturation was not observed. The majority of the studies using self-reports and behavior rating scales suggested that audiovisual distraction was beneficial in reducing anxiety perception and improving children's cooperation during dental treatment. The audiovisual distraction approach effectively reduces dental anxiety among children. Therefore, we suggest the use of audiovisual distraction when children need dental treatment under local anesthesia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Baux-Cazal, L; Gokalsing, E; Amadeo, S; Messiah, A
Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted". Publications were included if they described suicidal behavior prevention programs (suicide prevention programs, attempted-suicide prevention programs, suicidal ideation screening programs), and if the studies concerned children under age 13. We also included references cited in the articles if they were not already present in our searches but met inclusion criteria. Studies were excluded if they analyzed populations of children and adolescents without sub-analysis for children under age 13. A total of 350 potentially relevant articles were identified, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria, including 4 retrieved from articles' bibliography. Preventive measures against suicidal behavior for children under 13 exist and include: social programs, maltreatment prevention, curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, suicide screening in schools, gatekeepers, reduction of access of lethal means of suicide, suicide screening by primary care, and post-suicide intervention programs. Overall, the evidence was limited by methodological concerns, particularly a lack of RCTs. However, positive effects were found: school-based suicide prevention programs and gatekeepers increased knowledge about suicide and how to seek help, post-suicide programs helped to reduce psychological distress in the short term. One study showed a decreased risk of attempted-suicide after entry into the child welfare system. There are promising interventions but there is not enough scientific evidence to support any efficient preventive measure against
Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Le, Ha; Gerrard, Angela; Muhajarine, Nazeem
While there is a growing body of research on food environments for children, there has not been a published comprehensive review to date evaluating food environments outside the home and school and their relationship with diet in children. The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on the influence of the community and consumer nutrition environments on the diet of children under the age of 18 years. Our search strategy included a combination of both subject heading searching as well as natural language, free-text searching. We searched nine databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, ProQuest Public Health, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and GEOBASE) for papers published between 1995 and July 2013. Study designs were included if they were empirically-based, published scholarly research articles, were focused on children as the population of interest, fit within the previously mentioned date range, included at least one diet outcome, and exposures within the community nutrition environment (e.g., location and accessibility of food outlets), and consumer nutrition environment (e.g., price, promotion, and placement of food choices). After applying exclusion and inclusion criteria, a total of 26 articles were included in our review. The vast majority of the studies were cross-sectional in design, except for two articles reporting on longitudinal studies. The food environment exposure(s) included aspects of the community nutrition environments, except for three that focused on the consumer nutrition environment. The community nutrition environment characterization most often used Geographic Information Systems to geolocate participants' homes (and/or schools) and then one or more types of food outlets in relation to these. The children included were all of school age. Twenty-two out of 26 studies showed at least one positive association between the food environment exposure and diet outcome. Four studies reported only null associations. This
Sullivan, Brittney J; Esmaili, B Emily; Cunningham, Coleen K
Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease globally, with 10.4 million people infected and more than 1.8 million deaths in 2015. TB is a preventable, treatable, and curable disease, yet there are numerous barriers to initiating treatment. These barriers to treatment are exacerbated in low-resource settings and may be compounded by factors related to childhood. Timely initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is critical to reducing disease transmission and improving patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe patient- and system-level barriers to TB treatment initiation specifically for children and youth in sub-Saharan Africa through systematic review of the literature. This review was conducted in October 2015 in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six databases were searched to identify studies where primary or secondary objectives were related to barriers to TB treatment initiation and which included children or youth 0-24 years of age. A total of 1490 manuscripts met screening criteria; 152 met criteria for full-text review and 47 for analysis. Patient-level barriers included limited knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding TB, and economic burdens. System-level barriers included centralization of services, health system delays, and geographical access to healthcare. Of the 47 studies included, 7 evaluated cost, 19 health-seeking behaviors, and 29 health system infrastructure. Only 4 studies primarily assessed pediatric cohorts yet all 47 studies were inclusive of children. Recognizing and removing barriers to treatment initiation for pediatric TB in sub-Saharan Africa are critical. Both patient- and system-level barriers must be better researched in order to improve patient outcomes.
Atekeh Hadinezhad Makrani
Full Text Available Introduction: Enuresis is the second most common disorder among children after allergic disorders. According to the results of previous studies, different estimates of enuresis prevalence and its related factors have been reported. Combining the results of these studies is valuable. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of enuresis and its related factors among Iranian children.Materials and Methods:Relevant articles published during 2000 to 15 May 2015 were identified by a comprehensive search within national and international databanks. Having applied inclusion/exclusion criteria and quality assessment, eligible papers were selected. In addition, references of the articles were reviewed to enhance the search strategy. Standard error of the prevalence in each study was calculated using binomial distribution. Random effects model was used to combine the results. All data analyses were performed using STATA SE V.11 software. Results: We entered 15 eligible articles into the systematic review/meta-analysis recruited 20832 Iranian children. Prevalence (95% CI of enuresis among all children, boys and girls were estimated as of 11.01% (9.2-12.8, 13.9%(11.2-16.7 and 8.4%(6.3-10.6 respectively. Enuresis was more common among children with positive familial history, those with deep sleep, high water consumption, sniffing, low educated and low income parents, mouth breathing, urinary tract infection and children with history of corporal punishment. Conclusion: Our study showed that a considerable proportion of Iranian children are suffering from enuresis and male gender is a predictive factor for this disorder.
de Frey Albie
Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of intravenous quinine, which is the mainstay for treating severe malaria in children, is decreasing in South East Asia and Africa. Artemisinin derivatives are a potential alternative to quinine. However, their efficacy compared to quinine in treating severe malaria in children is not clearly understood. The objective of this review was to assess the efficacy of parenteral artemisinin derivatives versus parenteral quinine in treating severe malaria in children. Methods All randomized controlled studies comparing parenteral artemisinin derivatives with parenteral quinine in treating severe malaria in children were included in the review. Data bases searched were: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2007, MEDLINE (1966 to February 2008, EMBASE (1980 to February 2008, and LILACS (1982 to February 2008. Dichotomous variables were compared using risk ratios (RR and the continuous data using weighted mean difference (WMD. Results Twelve trials were included (1,524 subjects. There was no difference in mortality between artemisinin derivatives and quinine (RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.12. The artemisinin derivatives resolved coma faster than quinine (WMD = -4.61, 95% CI: -7.21 to -2.00, fixed effect model, but when trials with adequate concealment only were considered this differences disappeared. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in parasite clearance time, fever clearance time, incidence of neurological sequelae and 28th day cure rate. One trial reported significantly more local reactions at the injection site with intramuscular quinine compared to artemether. None of the trials was adequately powered to demonstrate equivalence. Conclusion There was no evidence that treatment of children with severe malaria with parenteral artemisinin derivatives was associated with lower mortality or long-term morbidity compared to parenteral quinine
Díaz-Román, Amparo; Hita-Yáñez, Eva; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
Sleep disturbances have been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but such relationship is still unclear. The results from the studies conducted do not provide enough evidence to support a sleep physiology inherent to ADHD. This study tries to determine if that sleep physiology really exists by comparing children with ADHD and control children in some sleep parameters. A search was conducted in several databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed and PsycINFO), and a manual search, to retrieve all the articles available from 1987 until March 2014. Of 8,678 non-duplicate studies retrieved, 11 studies met the inclusion and methodological quality criteria. Two meta-analyses were performed with eight of those studies, depending on data provided by them: polysomnographic or actigraphic. A fixed-effects model, and the standardized mean difference (SMD) as the index of effect size, were used in both meta-analyses. Significant differences were found only in the meta-analysis with polysomnography as outcome. Children with ADHD were found to spend more time in stage 1 sleep than controls (pooled SMD = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.08-0.55, p value = 0.009). Although few differences in sleep between children with ADHD and controls have been found in this review, further studies are required on this matter. Those studies should consider some variables discussed in this review, in order to obtain useful and reliable conclusions for research and clinical practice. Particularly, the influence of assessment criteria and ADHD subtypes in the sleep characteristics of children with ADHD should be addressed. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Martens, L; De Smet, S; Yusof, M Y P M; Rajasekharan, S
To provide a systematic review and meta-analyses investigating the association between overweight/obesity as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and periodontal disease in terms of clinical periodontal outcomes. A systematic search of the literature was conducted by two authors (SR and SD) independently in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, Scielo, Lilacs and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) for full articles published until September 2015. Studies analysing the association between overweight/obesity as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and periodontal disease in children and/or adolescents (age ≤18 years) were included. The Gwets AC1 inter-rater reliability coefficient for screening data was calculated using Agreestat 2011.1. Meta-analyses were carried out by using RStudio version 0.97.551-©2009-2012 RStudio, Inc. software. A total of 769 titles and abstracts were screened and 12 articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review while only 7 were selected for meta-analyses. The Gwets AC1 inter-rater reliability coefficient for screening data was excellent (0.98; CI 0.98-0.99). A positive association between overweight/obesity and a number of periodontal diseases was seen. For the association between prevalent periodontal disease and obesity in children, the overall fixed-effects OR and 95% CI was 1.46 (1.20-1.77) with a χ 2 statistic for heterogeneity (Q) of 33.4 with 6 degrees of freedom (P periodontal disease and obesity in children. Paediatric dentists should be aware of periodontal alterations as a potential hazard associated with obesity.
Wennerholm, U-B; Söderström-Anttila, V; Bergh, C
embryos, blastocysts and oocytes. METHODS: A systematic review was performed. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases from 1984 to September 2008. Inclusion criteria for slow freezing of early cleavage stage embryos were controlled studies reporting perinatal or child outcomes. For slow...... freezing and vitrification of blastocysts and oocytes, and vitrification of early cleavage stage embryos, case reports on perinatal or child outcomes were also included. Three reviewers independently read and evaluated all selected studies. RESULTS: For early cleavage embryos, data from controlled studies...... of blastocysts and for vitrification of early cleavage stage embryos, blastocysts and oocytes, limited neonatal data was reported. We found no long-term child follow-up data for any cryopreservation technique. CONCLUSION: Data concerning infant outcome after slow freezing of embryos was reassuring. Properly...
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva Mm; Teeuw, Arianne H; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Leenders, Arnold G E; van der Lee, Johanna H
Although it is often performed in clinical practice, the diagnostic value of a screening physical examination to detect maltreatment in children without prior suspicion has not been reviewed. This article aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of a complete physical examination as a screening instrument to detect maltreatment in children without prior suspicion. We systematically searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and ERIC, using a sensitive search strategy. Studies that i) presented medical findings of a complete physical examination for screening purposes in children 0-18 years, ii) specifically recorded the presence or absence of signs of child maltreatment, and iii) recorded child maltreatment confirmed by a reference standard, were included. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, data extraction, and quality appraisal using the QUADAS-2 tool. The search yielded 4,499 titles, of which three studies met the eligibility criteria. The prevalence of confirmed signs of maltreatment during screening physical examination varied between 0.8% and 13.5%. The designs of the studies were inadequate to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a screening physical examination for child maltreatment. Because of the lack of informative studies, we could not draw conclusions about the diagnostic value of a screening physical examination in children without prior suspicion of child maltreatment.
This systematic review synthesized the research on interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to promote social-emotional development in young children (birth-5 yr) with or at risk for disabilities. After a comprehensive search of the research literature, 23 studies were reviewed and then synthesized into five themes: (1) touch-based interventions to enhance calming and parent-infant bonding, (2) relationship-based interventions to promote positive caregiver-child interactions, (3) joint attention interventions, (4) naturalistic preschool interventions to promote peer-to-peer engagement, and (5) instruction-based interventions to teach children appropriate social behaviors. The interventions for infants primarily involved coaching parents in specific strategies to promote positive interactions; interventions for preschool-age children typically involved encouraging peer support, instructing children, and applying naturalistic behavioral techniques to develop higher-level social competence. The studies demonstrated low to moderate positive effects for interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to improve social-emotional development across ages, diagnoses, and settings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Akinseye, Gladys Atinuke; Dickinson, Ann-Marie; Munro, Kevin J
To conduct a systematic review of the benefits of non-linear frequency compression (NLFC) in adults and children. Ten databases were searched for studies comparing the effects of NLFC and conventional processing (CP) for the period January 2008 to September 2017. Twelve articles were included in this review: four adults and school-aged only, one pre-school only and three with both adults and school-aged children. A two-stage process was implemented to grade the evidence. The individual studies were graded based on their study type (from 1 = highest quality of evidence to 5 = the lowest quality) and then sub-graded based on their quality ("a" for "good quality" or "b" for "lesser quality"). All studies were awarded 4a, except the single pre-school study, which was awarded 2a. The overall evidence for each population was graded based on the quality, quantity and consistency of the studies. The body of evidence was rated as very low for both adults and school-aged children, but high for pre-school children. The low number (and quality) of studies means that evidence supporting the benefit from NLFC is inconclusive. Further high-quality RCTs are required to provide a conclusive answer to this question.
Shields, Linda; Zappia, Tess; Blackwood, Diana; Watkins, Rochelle; Wardrop, Joan; Chapman, Rose
Few studies have examined the issues faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-parented families in relation to their access to and satisfaction with healthcare services for their children. It is thought that LGBT individuals have experienced negative interactions with the healthcare environment. To systematically review the literature investigating the experience of LGBT parents seeking health care for their children. A search of the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, Google Scholar, Medline, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Sociological Abstracts, Proquest, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted. Using the PRISMA flow chart and processes of the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, we selected and analysed relevant studies. Four studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Studies showed that while the experience of LGBT parents seeking health care was largely positive, strategies need to be implemented to improve the quality of healthcare services for LGBT families and ensure that their needs are met. Although many LGBT parents have positive experiences of health care, some still experience discrimination and prejudice. Specific educational interventions are needed to support LGBT parents seeking health care for their children. Further research is required to explore LGBT-parented families' experiences of healthcare services, and this should include children's experiences. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Bakker-Huvenaars, M.J.; Greven, C.U.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Glennon, J.C.
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for conduct disorder (CD) problems in children and adolescents, based on child, parent and teacher report. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between January
Jancelewicz, Tim; Lopez, Monica E; Downard, Cynthia D; Islam, Saleem; Baird, Robert; Rangel, Shawn J; Williams, Regan F; Arnold, Meghan A; Lal, Dave; Renaud, Elizabeth; Grabowski, Julia; Dasgupta, Roshni; Austin, Mary; Shelton, Julia; Cameron, Danielle; Goldin, Adam B
The goal of this systematic review by the American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Evidence-Based Practice Committee was to derive recommendations from the medical literature regarding the surgical treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Five questions were addressed by searching the MEDLINE, Cochrane, Embase, Central, and National Guideline Clearinghouse databases using relevant search terms. Consensus recommendations were derived for each question based on the best available evidence. There was insufficient evidence to formulate recommendations for all questions. Fundoplication does not affect the rate of hospitalization for aspiration pneumonia, apnea, or reflux-related symptoms. Fundoplication is effective in reducing all parameters of esophageal acid exposure without altering esophageal motility. Laparoscopic fundoplication may be comparable to open fundoplication with regard to short-term clinical outcomes. Partial fundoplication and complete fundoplication are comparable in effectiveness for subjective control of GERD. Fundoplication may benefit GERD patients with asthma, but may not improve outcomes in patients with neurologic impairment or esophageal atresia. Overall GERD recurrence rates are likely below 20%. High-quality evidence is lacking regarding the surgical management of GERD in the pediatric population. Definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of fundoplication are limited by patient heterogeneity and lack of a standardized outcomes reporting framework. Systematic review of level 1-4 studies. Level 1-4 (mainly level 3-4). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BackgroundAcute gastroenteritis (AGE causing dehydration with or without dysnatremias is a common childhood health challenge. While it is accepted that oral rehydration therapy is preferred, clinical factors or parent and healthcare provider preferences may lead to intravenous rehydration (IVR. Isotonic solutions are increasingly recommended in most scenarios requiring IVR. Nevertheless, children with AGE, having ongoing losses of water and electrolytes, represent a unique population.ObjectivesTo evaluate the association between acquired dysnatremias and IVR in children with AGE.MethodsA systematic search of MEDLINE database was conducted through September 14, 2016. Observational studies and clinical trials conducted in high-income countries were included. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the overall quality of evidence for each outcome.Results603 papers were identified of which 6 were included (3 randomized controlled trials and 3 observational studies. Pooling of patient data was not possible due to significantly different interventions or exposures. Single studies results demonstrated that within 24 h, administration of isotonic saline was not associated with a significant decline in serum sodium while hypotonic solutions (0.2–0.45% saline were associated, in one study, with mean serum sodium declines from 1.3 mEq/L (139.2, SD 2.9–137.9, SD 2.5 in 133 young infants (aged 1–28 months, to 5.7 (SD 3.1 mEq/L in a subgroup of 18 older children (age mean 5.8, SD 2.7 years. Both isotonic and hypotonic saline were shown to be associated with improvement of baseline hyponatremia in different studies. Baseline hypernatremia was corrected within 4–24 h in 81/83 (99.6% children using hypotonic saline IVR.ConclusionThere is a paucity of publications assessing the risk for acquired dysnatremias associated with IVR in children with AGE. Current high-quality evidence
Champ, Claire L
Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests. PMID:27184287
Nurmatov, Ulugbek B; Mullen, Stephen; Quinn-Scoggins, Harriet; Mann, Mala; Kemp, Alison
the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of burns first-aid educational interventions given to caregivers of children. Systematic review of eligible studies from seven databases, international journals, trials repositories and contacted international experts. Of 985 potential studies, four met the inclusion criteria. All had high risk of bias and weak global rating. Two studies identified a statistically significant increase in knowledge after of a media campaign. King et al. (41.7% vs 63.2%, pfirst-aid training program and showed a reduction in use of harmful traditional methods for burns in children (29% vs 16.1%, pfirst aid administration. High quality clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Kirsty A. Houston
Full Text Available Background: Rehydration strategies in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM and severe dehydration are extremely cautious. The World Health Organization (WHO SAM guidelines advise strongly against intravenous fluids unless the child is shocked or severely dehydrated and unable to tolerate oral fluids. Otherwise, guidelines recommend oral or nasogastric rehydration using low sodium oral rehydration solutions. There is limited evidence to support these recommendations. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies on 15th June 2017 comparing different strategies of rehydration therapy in children with acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydration, specifically relating to intravenous rehydration, using standard search terms. Two authors assessed papers for inclusion. The primary endpoint was evidence of fluid overload. Results: Four studies were identified, all published in English, including 883 children, all of which were conducted in low resource settings. Two were randomised controlled trials and two observational cohort studies, one incorporated assessment of myocardial and haemodynamic function. There was no evidence of fluid overload or other fluid-related adverse events, including children managed on more liberal rehydration protocols. Mortality was high overall, and particularly in children with shock managed on WHO recommendations (day-28 mortality 82%. There was no difference in safety outcomes when different rates of intravenous rehydration were compared. Conclusions: The current ‘strong recommendations’ for conservative rehydration of children with SAM are not based on emerging evidence. We found no clinical trials providing a direct assessment of the current WHO guidelines, and those that were available suggested that these children have a high mortality and remain fluid depleted on current therapy. Recent studies have reported no evidence of fluid overload or
Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi
Full Text Available Objective: Theory of mind (ToM or mindreading is an aspect of social cognition that evaluates mental states and beliefs of oneself and others. Validity and reliability are very important criteria when evaluating standard tests; and without them, these tests are not usable. The aim of this study was to systematically review the validity and reliability of published English comprehensive ToM tests developed for normal preschool children.Method: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed interface, Web of Science, Science direct, PsycINFO, and also evidence base Medicine (The Cochrane Library databases from 1990 to June 2015. Search strategy was Latin transcription of ‘Theory of Mind’ AND test AND children. Also, we manually studied the reference lists of all final searched articles and carried out a search of their references. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Valid and reliable diagnostic ToM tests published from 1990 to June 2015 for normal preschool children; and exclusion criteria were as follows: the studies that only used ToM tests and single tasks (false belief tasks for ToM assessment and/or had no description about structure, validity or reliability of their tests. Methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP.Result: In primary searching, we found 1237 articles in total databases. After removing duplicates and applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 11 tests for this systematic review. Conclusion: There were a few valid, reliable and comprehensive ToM tests for normal preschool children. However, we had limitations concerning the included articles. The defined ToM tests were different in populations, tasks, mode of presentations, scoring, mode of responses, times and other variables. Also, they had various validities and reliabilities. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers and clinicians select the ToM tests according to their psychometric
Halal, Camila S E; Nunes, Magda L
To analyze the interventions aimed at the practice of sleep hygiene, as well as their applicability and effectiveness in the clinical scenario, so that they may be used by pediatricians and family physicians for parental advice. A search of the PubMed database was performed using the following descriptors: sleep hygiene OR sleep education AND children or school-aged. In the LILACS and SciELO databases, the descriptors in Portuguese were: higiene E sono, educação E sono, educação E sono E crianças, e higiene E sono E infância, with no limitations of the publication period. In total, ten articles were reviewed, in which the main objectives were to analyze the effectiveness of behavioral approaches and sleep hygiene techniques on children's sleep quality and parents' quality of life. The techniques used were one or more of the following: positive routines; controlled comforting and gradual extinction or sleep remodeling; as well as written diaries to monitor children's sleep patterns. All of the approaches yielded positive results. Although behavioral approaches to pediatric sleep hygiene are easy to apply and adhere to, there have been very few studies evaluating the effectiveness of the available techniques. This review demonstrated that these methods are effective in providing sleep hygiene for children, thus reflecting on parents' improved quality of life. It is of utmost importance that pediatricians and family physicians are aware of such methods in order to adequately advise patients and their families. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Martínez-García, Roberto; Ubeda-Sansano, Maria Isabel; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gil-Salom, Manuel
There is an agreement to use simple formulae (expected bladder capacity and other age based linear formulae) as bladder capacity benchmark. But real normal child's bladder capacity is unknown. To offer a systematic review of children's normal bladder capacity, to measure children's normal maximum voided volumes (MVVs), to construct models of MVVs and to compare them with the usual formulae. Computerized, manual and grey literature were reviewed until February 2013. Epidemiological, observational, transversal, multicenter study. A consecutive sample of healthy children aged 5-14 years, attending Primary Care centres with no urologic abnormality were selected. Participants filled-in a 3-day frequency-volume chart. Variables were MVVs: maximum of 24 hr, nocturnal, and daytime maximum voided volumes. diuresis and its daytime and nighttime fractions; body-measure data; and gender. The consecutive steps method was used in a multivariate regression model. Twelve articles accomplished systematic review's criteria. Five hundred and fourteen cases were analysed. Three models, one for each of the MVVs, were built. All of them were better adjusted to exponential equations. Diuresis (not age) was the most significant factor. There was poor agreement between MVVs and usual formulae. Nocturnal and daytime maximum voided volumes depend on several factors and are different. Nocturnal and daytime maximum voided volumes should be used with different meanings in clinical setting. Diuresis is the main factor for bladder capacity. This is the first model for benchmarking normal MVVs with diuresis as its main factor. Current formulae are not suitable for clinical use. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rashmi Ranjan Das
Full Text Available Prophylactic antipyretic administration decreases the post-vaccination adverse reactions. Recent study finds that they may also decrease the antibody responses to several vaccine antigens. This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for a relationship between prophylactic antipyretic administration, post-vaccination adverse events, and antibody response in children.A systematic search of major databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out till March 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing prophylactic antipyretic treatment versus placebo post-vaccination in children ≤ 6 years of age were included. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed the studies for methodological quality, and extracted data [PROSPERO registration: CRD42014009717].Of 2579 citations retrieved, a total of 13 RCTs including 5077 children were included in the review. Prophylactic antipyretic administration significantly reduced the febrile reactions (≥ 38.0 °C after primary and booster vaccinations. Though there were statistically significant differences in the antibody responses between the two groups, the prophylactic PCM group had what would be considered protective levels of antibodies to all of the antigens given after the primary and booster vaccinations. No significant difference in the nasopharyngeal carriage rates (short-term and long-term of H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae serotypes was found between the prophylactic and no prophylactic PCM group. There was a significant reduction in the local and systemic symptoms after primary, but not booster vaccinations.Though prophylactic antipyretic administration leads to relief of the local and systemic symptoms after primary vaccinations, there is a reduction in antibody responses to some vaccine antigens without any effect on the nasopharyngeal carriage rates of S. pneumoniae & H. influenza serotypes. Future trials and surveillance programs should also aim at
Fazeli, Mir Sohail; Lin, Yiqun; Nikoo, Nooshin; Jaggumantri, Sravan; Collet, Jean-Paul; Afshar, Kourosh
Biofeedback has been used to treat children with symptoms of bladder dysfunction not responding to standard therapy alone. However, evidence of the effectiveness of biofeedback is scarce and is based on small studies. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to assess the effects of biofeedback as adjunctive therapy for symptoms of nonneuropathic voiding disorders in children up to age 18 years. We searched MEDLINE(®), Embase(®) and CENTRAL on the OvidSP(®) platform as well as conference proceedings for randomized trials presented at scientific conventions, symposia and workshops through August 13, 2013. Hand searches and review of reference lists of retrieved articles were also performed. Five eligible studies were included in the systematic review, of which 4 (382 participants) were pooled in the meta-analysis based on available outcomes data. The overall proportion of cases with resolved incontinence at month 6 was similar in the biofeedback and control groups (OR 1.37 [95% CI 0.64 to 2.93], RD 0.07 [-0.09, 0.23]). There was also no significant difference in mean maximum urinary flow rate (mean difference 0.50 ml, range -0.56 to 1.55) or likelihood of urinary tract infection (OR 1.30 [95% CI 0.65 to 2.58]). Current evidence does not support the effectiveness of biofeedback in the management of children with nonneuropathic voiding disorders. More high quality, randomized controlled trials are needed to better evaluate the effect of biofeedback. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Booth, Adam T C; Buizer, Annemieke I; Meyns, Pieter; Oude Lansink, Irene L B; Steenbrink, Frans; van der Krogt, Marjolein M
AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of functional gait training on walking ability in children and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: The review was conducted using standardized methodology, searching four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL,
Full Text Available Children of parents with drug and alcohol use disorders often grow up under severe stress and are at greater risk of developing psychological and social problems. However, a substantial proportion of affected children adapt to their distressing life conditions and show positive development in terms of their mental health. These children are described as resilient. One difference between resilient and maladapted children is the presence of protective factors. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the current state of the research concerning protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol or drug use disorders (COPAD. For that purpose, the PsychInfo, PubMed, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through January 2017. All the identified publications were screened using previously developed inclusion criteria. The search yielded 3,402 articles. Eleven of these publications (2003-2013 met the criteria for inclusion in the present review. Information on the studies was extracted using an extraction form. A narrative analysis was performed, and the methodological quality was examined using a checklist based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The research identified familial, parental, child-related and biological factors that influenced mental health outcomes in affected children (N = 1,376, age range = 1-20 years. Overall, protective mental health factors are understudied in this target group. Most of the included studies were conducted in the United States and employed a cross-sectional design. A comparison of the included cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicated consistent results related to a secure parent-child attachment. Based on the current state of the research, no causal conclusions with regard to the effectiveness of protective factors can be drawn. To develop effective prevention programs, further longitudinal studies and studies assessing the interactions between
Lewis, Sheila A; Noyes, Jane; Hastings, Richard P
To determine the effectiveness of epilepsy self-management interventions and explore the views and experiences of medication and seizures by children and young people. Experiencing seizures and side-effects from anti-epileptic medicines have negative impacts on children and young people managing their epilepsy. Children commonly experiment with not taking epilepsy medication as prescribed and engage in unhealthy lifestyles. DESIGN/REVIEW METHODS: Mixed-method systematic review with theory development. Cochrane quantitative methods and thematic synthesis of qualitative and survey evidence. Eight databases were searched from earliest dates to July 2013. Nineteen studies were included. Meta-analysis was not possible. Zero of nine intervention studies showed improvement in anti-epilepsy medication adherence. Skill-based behavioural techniques with activities such as role play and goal setting with young people increased epilepsy knowledge and seizure self-management (small effects). Intervention studies were methodologically weak and no studies reported if improvement in self-management was sustained over time. Synthesis of nine qualitative and one mixed-method studies generated six themes encapsulating anti-epilepsy medication and epilepsy effects. There was a lack of fidelity between intervention programme theories and what children and young people found difficult with medication self-management and managing the effects of epilepsy. Children and young people knowingly and/or unknowingly take risks with their epilepsy and give reasoned explanations for doing so. There are no effective interventions to change epilepsy medication adherence behaviours. There is an urgent need for more innovative and individually tailored interventions to address specific challenges to epilepsy self-management as identified by children and young people themselves. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Celine; Ota, Erika; Mori, Rintaro; Hwang, Yeonhee; Kobayashi, Eriko; Terasaka, Akiko; Tang, Julian; Kamio, Yoko
There has an increasing number of published trials on psychosocial intervention programmes for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To achieve better quality of unbiased evidence for the effectiveness of ASD interventions, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive review that covers studies with adequate quality standards, such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and different types of intervention In this study, we categorize interventions for ASD as behavioural, social-communication focused, and multimodal developmental based on Howlin's classification of early interventions for children with ASD. The aim of this study was to compare these three models and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of each type of intervention and to identify the approaches that contribute to a successful outcome for children with autism. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included RCTs targeting children with ASD 6 years old or younger. A random effects model was used to present the effect estimate for the outcomes. This study also performed combined meta-analyses of all the three models to investigate the overall effectiveness of the intervention programmes. 32 randomized controlled studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. The synthesized data included 594 children from 14 RCTs. There was no statistically significant difference in the effects on autism general symptoms between the social-communication-focused model and the multimodal developmental model (p = 0.83). The results suggest that there is evidence of an effect on 'reciprocity of social interaction towards others' (standard mean difference [95% confidential interval] = 0.53[0.29,0.78], pASD have significant effects on a generalized skill to engage in reciprocal interactions with others. However, the outcomes of 'reciprocity of social interaction towards others' and 'parental synchrony' may be promising targets for interventions involving pre-school children with ASD
Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A; Barr, Dana B; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina
Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose-response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose-response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of
Warthon-Medina, M; Moran, V H; Stammers, A-L; Dillon, S; Qualter, P; Nissensohn, M; Serra-Majem, L; Lowe, N M
In developing countries, deficiencies of micronutrients are thought to have a major impact on child development; however, a consensus on the specific relationship between dietary zinc intake and cognitive function remains elusive. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between zinc intake, status and indices of cognitive function in children and adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March 2014. Included studies were those that supplied zinc as supplements or measured dietary zinc intake. A meta-analysis of the extracted data was performed where sufficient data were available. Of all of the potentially relevant papers, 18 studies met the inclusion criteria, 12 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs; 11 in children and 1 in adults) and 6 were observational studies (2 in children and 4 in adults). Nine of the 18 studies reported a positive association between zinc intake or status with one or more measure of cognitive function. Meta-analysis of data from the adult's studies was not possible because of limited number of studies. A meta-analysis of data from the six RCTs conducted in children revealed that there was no significant overall effect of zinc intake on any indices of cognitive function: intelligence, standard mean difference of failed to show a significant effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive functioning in children though, taken as a whole, there were some small indicators of improvement on aspects of executive function and motor development following supplementation but high-quality RCTs are necessary to investigate this further.
Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Robalino, Shannon; Terwee, Caroline B; Glod, Magdalena; Oono, Inalegwu P; Rodgers, Jacqui; Macdonald, Geraldine; McConachie, Helen
Behaviour problems are common in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are many different tools used to measure behavior problems but little is known about their validity for the population. To evaluate the measurement properties of behaviour problems tools used in evaluation of intervention or observational research studies with children with ASD up to the age of six years. Behaviour measurement tools were identified as part of a larger, two stage, systematic review. First, sixteen major electronic databases, as well as grey literature and research registers were searched, and tools used listed and categorized. Second, using methodological filters, we searched for articles examining the measurement properties of the tools in use with young children with ASD in ERIC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The quality of these papers was then evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. We identified twelve tools which had been used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD, and fifteen studies which investigated the measurement properties of six of these tools. There was no evidence available for the remaining six tools. Two questionnaires were found to be the most robust in their measurement properties, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home Situations Questionnaire-Pervasive Developmental Disorders version. We found patchy evidence on reliability and validity, for only a few of the tools used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD. More systematic research is required on measurement properties of tools for use in this population, in particular to establish responsiveness to change which is essential in measurement of outcomes of intervention. CRD42012002223.
Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Robalino, Shannon; Terwee, Caroline B.; Glod, Magdalena; Oono, Inalegwu P.; Rodgers, Jacqui; Macdonald, Geraldine; McConachie, Helen
Background Behaviour problems are common in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are many different tools used to measure behavior problems but little is known about their validity for the population. Objectives To evaluate the measurement properties of behaviour problems tools used in evaluation of intervention or observational research studies with children with ASD up to the age of six years. Methods Behaviour measurement tools were identified as part of a larger, two stage, systematic review. First, sixteen major electronic databases, as well as grey literature and research registers were searched, and tools used listed and categorized. Second, using methodological filters, we searched for articles examining the measurement properties of the tools in use with young children with ASD in ERIC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The quality of these papers was then evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Results We identified twelve tools which had been used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD, and fifteen studies which investigated the measurement properties of six of these tools. There was no evidence available for the remaining six tools. Two questionnaires were found to be the most robust in their measurement properties, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home Situations Questionnaire—Pervasive Developmental Disorders version. Conclusions We found patchy evidence on reliability and validity, for only a few of the tools used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD. More systematic research is required on measurement properties of tools for use in this population, in particular to establish responsiveness to change which is essential in measurement of outcomes of intervention. PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42012002223 PMID:26659821
Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ataei, Neamatollah; Oraii, Alireza; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Izadi, Anahita
A consensus has not been reached yet about the efficacy of probiotics in reducing the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to assess the efficacy of probiotics in prevention UTI in children. The present study was designed based on guidelines for systematic reviews of clinical trials. Two independent reviewers performed an extensive search in the Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases up to the end of 2016. The summery of eligible studies was assessed independently by two reviewers and recorded in the data extraction form. Finally, a pooled relative risk (RR) was reported with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Data from 10 studies were entered in the present meta-analysis. Probiotic therapy did not have any beneficial effect on the incidence of UTI (RR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.85-1.03; p = 0.19) and its recurrence (RR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.85-1.02; p = 0.14). Subgroup analyses showed that probiotics as monotherapy do not have any beneficial effects on prevention of UTI (RR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.89-1.04; p = 0.31). However, the incidence of UTI is reduced if probiotics are used as adjuvant therapy to antibiotics (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99; p = 0.02). The present meta-analysis showed that probiotics did not have a beneficial effect in reducing the incidence or recurrence of UTI. Only a moderate efficacy was seen when a probiotic was used as adjuvant therapy to antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruiz-Zaldibar, Cayetana; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Mujika, Agurtzane
To analyze the available evidence regarding the efficacy of interventions on parents whose children were aged 2-5 years to promote parental competence and skills for children's healthy lifestyles. Articles published in English and Spanish, available at PubMed, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Eric, and Cochrane Library were reviewed. The literature search yielded 2282 articles. Forty-one full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion using the PRISMA flow diagram. Twenty-six articles were excluded, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In the end, 15 studies were included. The studies were conducted between 2003 and 2016, nine in North America, four in Europe, and two in Asia. Extracted data were synthesized in a tabular format. CASPe guide was used to assess the quality of studies that was moderate overall. Parental self-efficacy was the main construct assessed in most studies. Four studies reported an increase in parental self-efficacy, although most of them were studies without control groups. Outcomes of interventions to improve parental competence in order to promote children's lifestyles are promising, but inconsistent. Additional studies with higher methodological and conceptual quality are needed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Paine, Christine Weirich; Fakeye, Oludolapo; Christian, Cindy W.; Wood, Joanne N.
Objectives We aimed to estimate the prevalence of abuse in young children presenting with rib fractures and to identify demographic, injury, and presentation-related characteristics that affect the probability that rib fractures are secondary to abuse. Methods We searched PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL databases for articles published in English between January 1, 1990 and June 30, 2014 on rib fracture etiology in children ≤ 5 years old. Two reviewers independently extracted predefined data elements and assigned quality ratings to included studies. Study-specific abuse prevalences and the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics for abuse were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Results Data for 1,396 children ≤ 48 months old with rib fractures were abstracted from 10 articles. Among infants Rib fracture location was not associated with likelihood of abuse. The retrospective design of the included studies and variations in ascertainment of cases, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and child abuse assessments prevented further meta-analysis. Conclusions Abuse is the most common cause of rib fractures in infants rib fractures and characteristics associated with abusive rib fractures. PMID:27749806
Full Text Available Noninvasive rehabilitation strategies for children with unilateral cerebral palsy are routinely used to improve hand motor function, activity, and participation. Nevertheless, the studies exploring their effects on brain structure and function are very scarce. Recently, structural neuroplasticity was demonstrated in adult poststroke patients, in response to neurorehabilitation. Our purpose is to review current evidence on the effects of noninvasive intervention strategies on brain structure or function, in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. The main literature databases were searched up to October 2013. We included studies where the effects of upper limb training were evaluated at neurofunctional and/or neurostructural levels. Only seven studies met our selection criteria; selected studies were case series, six using the intervention of the constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT and one used virtual reality therapy (VR. CIMT and VR seem to produce measurable neuroplastic changes in sensorimotor cortex associated with enhancement of motor skills in the affected limb. However, the level of evidence is limited, due to methodological weaknesses and small sample sizes of available studies. Well-designed and larger experimental studies, in particular RCTs, are needed to strengthen the generalizability of the findings and to better understand the mechanism of intervention-related brain plasticity in children with brain injury.
Avery, Amanda; Anderson, Catherine; McCullough, Fiona
Studies have identified an association between watching television (TV) and childhood obesity. This review adds context to existing research by examining the associations between TV viewing, whilst eating, and children's diet quality. Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched from January 2000 to June 2014. Cross-sectional trials of case control or cohort studies, which included baseline data, measuring the associations between eating whilst watching TV and children's food and drink intake. Quality of selected papers was assessed. Thirteen studies, representing 61,674 children aged 1-18 yrs, met inclusion criteria. Of six studies reporting overall food habits, all found a positive association between TV viewing and consumption of pizza, fried foods, sweets, and snacks. Of eight studies looking at fruit and vegetable consumption, seven identified a negative association with eating whilst watching TV (p consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat, high-sugar foods and fewer fruits and vegetables. Although these differences in consumption are small, the cumulative effect may contribute to the positive association between eating whilst watching TV and childhood obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Roostaei, Meysam; Baharlouei, Hamzeh; Azadi, Hamidreza; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A
To review the literature on the effects of aquatic intervention on gross motor skills for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Six databases were searched from inception to January 2016. Aquatic studies for children aged 1-21 years with any type or CP classification and at least one outcome measuring gross motor skills were included. Information was extracted on study design, outcomes, and aquatic program type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Quality was rated using the Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine: Levels of Evidence and the PEDro scale. Of the 11 studies which met inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design, and the results were mixed. Quality of evidence was rated as moderate to high for only one study. Most studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills for within group analyses after aquatic programs were held for two to three times per week and lasting for 6-16 weeks. Participants were classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V, and were aged 3-21 years. Mild to no adverse reactions were reported. Evidence on aquatic interventions for ambulatory children with CP is limited. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; however, dosing parameters are unclear. Further research is needed to determine aquatic intervention effectiveness and exercise dosing across age categories and GMFCS levels.
Parsons, Dave; Cordier, Reinie; Vaz, Sharmila; Lee, Hoe C
Parent training programs for families living outside of urban areas can be used to improve the social behavior and communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no review has been conducted to investigate these programs. The aim of this study was to (1) systematically review the existing evidence presented by studies on parent-mediated intervention training, delivered remotely for parents having children with ASD and living outside of urban areas; (2) provide an overview of current parent training interventions used with this population; (3) and provide an overview of the method of delivery of the parent training interventions used with this population. Guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement, we conducted a comprehensive review across 5 electronic databases (CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, PsycINFO, and Pubmed) on July 4, 2016, searching for studies investigating parent-mediated intervention training for families living outside of urban centers who have a child diagnosed with ASD. Two independent researchers reviewed the articles for inclusion, and assessment of methodological quality was based on the Kmet appraisal checklist. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria, including 2 prepost cohort studies, 3 multiple baseline studies, and 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Interventions included mostly self-guided websites: with and without therapist assistance (n=6), with training videos, written training manuals, and videoconferencing. Post intervention, studies reported significant improvements (P<.05) in parent knowledge (n=4), parent intervention fidelity (n=6), and improvements in children's social behavior and communication skills (n=3). A high risk of bias existed within all of the studies because of a range of factors including small sample sizes, limited use of standardized outcome measures, and a lack of control groups to negate confounding factors. There is
Black, Andrew P; D'Onise, Katina; McDermott, Robyn; Vally, Hassan; O'Dea, Kerin
Effective strategies to improve dietary intake in young children are a priority to reduce the high prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases in adulthood. This study aimed to assess the impact of family-based and school/preschool nutrition programs on the health of children aged 12 or younger, including the sustainability of these impacts and the relevance to socio-economic inequalities. A systematic review of literature published from 1980 to December 2014 was undertaken. Randomised controlled trials involving families with children aged up to 12 years in high income countries were included. The primary outcomes were dietary intake and health status. Results were presented in a narrative synthesis due to the heterogeneity of the interventions and outcomes. The systematic search and assessment identified 39 eligible studies. 82% of these studies were set in school/preschools. Only one school study assessed the impact of involving parents systematically. The family-based programs which provided simple positive dietary advice to parents and regular follow-up reduced fat intake significantly. School and family-based studies, if designed and implemented well, increased F&V intake, particularly fruit. Effective school-based programs have incorporated role-models including peers, teachers and heroic figures, rewards and increased access to healthy foods. School nutrition programs in disadvantaged communities were as effective as programs in other communities. Family and school nutrition programs can improve dietary intake, however evidence of the long-term sustainability of these impacts is limited. The modest overall impact of even these successful programs suggest complementary nutrition interventions are needed to build a supportive environment for healthy eating generally.
Kemp, A.M.; Rajaram, S.; Mann, M.; Tempest, V.; Farewell, D.; Gawne-Cain, M.L.; Jaspan, T.; Maguire, S.
Aims: To investigate the optimal neuroradiological investigation strategy to identify inflicted brain injury (iBI). Materials and methods: A systematic review of studies published between 1970-2008 in any language was conducted, searching 20 databases and four websites, using over 100 keywords/phrases, supplemented by hand-searching of references. All studies underwent two independent reviews (with disagreements adjudicated by a third reviewer) by trained reviewers from paediatrics, paediatric neuroradiology and related disciplines, using standardized critical appraisal tools, and strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. We included primary studies that evaluated the diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to initial computed tomography (CT), or follow-up CT or ultrasound in children with suspected iBI. Results: Of the 320 studies reviewed, 18 met the inclusion criteria, reflecting data on 367 children with iBI and 12 were published since 1998. When an MRI was conducted in addition to an abnormal early CT examination, additional information was found in 25% (95% CI: 18.3-33.16%) of children. The additional findings included further subdural haematoma, subarachnoid haemorrhage, shearing injury, ischaemia, and infarction; it also contributed to dating of injuries. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) further enhanced the delineation of ischaemic changes, and assisted in prognosis. Repeat CT studies varied in timing and quality, and none were compared to the addition of an early MRI/DWI. Conclusions: In an acutely ill child, the optimal imaging strategy involves initial CT, followed by early MRI and DWI if early CT examination is abnormal, or there are ongoing clinical concerns. The role of repeat CT imaging, if early MRI is performed, is unclear, as is the place for MRI/DWI if initial CT examination is normal in an otherwise well child.
Kemp, A.M. [Department of Child Health, Wales School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Rajaram, S. [Department of Child Health, Sue Nicholls Centre, Aylesbury (United Kingdom); Mann, M. [Support Unit for Research Evidence, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Tempest, V. [Department of Child Health, Wales School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Farewell, D. [Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Gawne-Cain, M.L. [Department of Neuroradiology, Wessex Neurological Centre, Southampton University Hospitals Trust (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T. [Imaging Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Maguire, S. [Department of Child Health, Wales School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: email@example.com
Aims: To investigate the optimal neuroradiological investigation strategy to identify inflicted brain injury (iBI). Materials and methods: A systematic review of studies published between 1970-2008 in any language was conducted, searching 20 databases and four websites, using over 100 keywords/phrases, supplemented by hand-searching of references. All studies underwent two independent reviews (with disagreements adjudicated by a third reviewer) by trained reviewers from paediatrics, paediatric neuroradiology and related disciplines, using standardized critical appraisal tools, and strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. We included primary studies that evaluated the diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to initial computed tomography (CT), or follow-up CT or ultrasound in children with suspected iBI. Results: Of the 320 studies reviewed, 18 met the inclusion criteria, reflecting data on 367 children with iBI and 12 were published since 1998. When an MRI was conducted in addition to an abnormal early CT examination, additional information was found in 25% (95% CI: 18.3-33.16%) of children. The additional findings included further subdural haematoma, subarachnoid haemorrhage, shearing injury, ischaemia, and infarction; it also contributed to dating of injuries. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) further enhanced the delineation of ischaemic changes, and assisted in prognosis. Repeat CT studies varied in timing and quality, and none were compared to the addition of an early MRI/DWI. Conclusions: In an acutely ill child, the optimal imaging strategy involves initial CT, followed by early MRI and DWI if early CT examination is abnormal, or there are ongoing clinical concerns. The role of repeat CT imaging, if early MRI is performed, is unclear, as is the place for MRI/DWI if initial CT examination is normal in an otherwise well child.
Full Text Available Background. Fear of adverse events and occurrence of side effects are commonly cited by families and physicians as obstructive to appropriate use of pain medication in children. We examined evidence comparing the safety profiles of three groups of oral medications, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids, to manage acute nonsurgical pain in children (<18 years treated in ambulatory settings. Methods. A comprehensive search was performed to July 2015, including review of national data registries. Two reviewers screened articles for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. Risks (incidence rates were pooled using a random effects model. Results. Forty-four studies were included; 23 reported on adverse events. Based on limited current evidence, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and opioids have similar nausea and vomiting profiles. Opioids have the greatest risk of central nervous system adverse events. Dual therapy with a nonopioid/opioid combination resulted in a lower risk of adverse events than opioids alone. Conclusions. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen have similar reported adverse effects and notably less adverse events than opioids. Dual therapy with a nonopioid/opioid combination confers a protective effect for adverse events over opioids alone. This research highlights challenges in assessing medication safety, including lack of more detailed information in registry data, and inconsistent reporting in trials.
Yang, Hui-Chuan; Mu, Pei-Fan; Sheng, Ching-Ching; Chen, Yi-Wei; Hung, Giun-Yi
When there is a child with cancer in the family, the entire family is affected. Childhood cancer is a highly stressful experience that affects the adaptation of family member to psychosocial tasks. Many of the family stresses and changes that accompany childhood cancer have a severe impact on siblings. An understanding of the experiences and needs of such siblings is vital. The aim of this study was to understand the nature of the overall experiences of a child who has a brother or sister with cancer. Searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Eric, and Chinese electronic periodical services identified 10 qualitative studies that were published between 1960 and 2013. An appraisal of the primary studies was carried out using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Siblings of children with cancer were found to have experienced 4 themes: (1) the disintegration of life, (2) marginalization within their family relationships, (3) self-transcendence during the normalization of family relationships, and (4) maintenance of family integrity and family normality. Siblings of children with cancer experience a great deal of chaos in their family life, and this affects their self-esteem and family intimacy. Being with the sick child may help siblings understand the sick child's suffering and experiences. The findings of this review provide evidence to help health professionals to assess the needs of the siblings to enhance their sense of self within the family. Providing the siblings with suitable resources should result in better adjustment.
Miguel-Berges, María L; Reilly, John J; Moreno Aznar, Luis A; Jiménez-Pavón, David
The present review sought to examine the evidence on the associations between pedometer-determined physical activity and adiposity. Of 304 potentially eligible articles, 36 were included. A search for observational studies was carried out using Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), the OVID (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO), EBSCOhost (Sportdiscus), and PEDro database from their commenced to July 2015. Of 304 potentially eligible articles, 36 were included. Most studies (30/36; 83%) were cross sectional and all used proxies for adiposity, such as body mass index (BMI) or BMI z-score as the outcome measure. Few studies (2/36; 6%) focused on preschool children. There was consistent evidence of negative associations between walking and adiposity; significant negative associations were observed in 72% (26/36) of studies overall. The present review supports the hypothesis that higher levels of walking are protective against child and adolescent obesity. However, prospective longitudinal studies are warranted; there is a need for more research on younger children and for more "dose-response" evidence.
Poole, Marilyn; Simkiss, Doug; Rose, Alice; Li, François-Xavier
To review the literature comparing use of anterior and posterior walkers (PW's) by children with cerebral palsy (CP) to determine which walker type is preferable. Electronic databases were searched using pre-defined terms by two independent reviewers. Reference lists of included studies were hand searched. Studies published between 1985 and 2016 comparing use of anterior and PW's by children with CP were included. All study designs and outcomes were accepted. Risk of bias was assessed using the "Quality assessment standard for a cross-over study". Quality of evidence was evaluated using GRADE. Six studies were analysed. All studies had small sample sizes. A total of 4/6 studies were randomized. A total of 4/6 had high risk of bias. Outcomes included velocity, pelvic tilt, hip flexion, knee flexion, step length, stride length, cadence, double stance time, oxygen cost and participant/parental preference. Velocity, trunk flexion/pelvic tilt, and stability may be improved by using a PW, however, GRADE quality was very low for all outcomes and there was heterogeneity between studies. The majority of participants and parents preferred the PW. Heterogeneity and low quality of existing evidence prevented recommendation of one walker type. Well-designed studies with adequate power are needed to inform clinical recommendations. Implications for rehabilitation Clinical recommendations cannot be made for whether anterior or posterior walkers are preferable for children with cerebral palsy based on the existing evidence. Velocity, trunk flexion/pelvic tilt, and stability may be improved by using a posterior walker. The majority of walking aid users and their parents preferred posterior walkers. Adequately powered studies designed to minimize bias are needed.
Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H
Sedentary behavior is implicated in youth and adult overweight and obesity. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and weight status is often small or inconsistent, with few studies controlling for confounding factors such as diet and physical activity. Diet has been hypothesized to covary with some sedentary behaviors. It is opportune, therefore, to review whether dietary intake is associated with sedentary behavior in young people and adults. This may allow for better interpretation of the diversity of findings concerning sedentary behavior and weight status. Published English-language studies were located from computerized and manual searches in early 2010. Included studies were observational studies assessing an association between at least one sedentary behavior and at least one aspect of dietary intake in children (aged 18 years). Fifty-three studies, totaling 111 independent samples, were eligible for this review. Sedentary behavior in children (n=19, independent samples=24), adolescents (n=26, independent samples=72), and adults (n=11, independent samples=14) appears to be clearly associated with elements of a less healthy diet including lower fruit and vegetable consumption; higher consumption of energy-dense snacks, drinks, and fast foods; and higher total energy intake. Strengths of association were mainly in the small-to-moderate range. The association drawn mainly from cross-sectional studies is that sedentary behavior, usually assessed as screen time and predominantly TV viewing, is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children, adolescents, and adults. Interventions need to be developed that target reductions in sedentary time to test whether diet also changes. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bremer, Emily; Crozier, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann
The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ?16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical…
Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma
Malnutrition among children is a serious public health problem in the aftermath of any natural disaster. We will review the various nutrition interventions for children aged natural disasters occurred and analyse the effect on nutrition-related outcomes. We will conduct a systematic review on nutrition intervention studies following natural disasters that were published between January 2000 and December 2015. Study selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool will be used for randomised controlled trials and Risk of Bias Assessment for Non-Randomized Studies (RoBANS) will be used for non-randomised studies. The quality of evidence will be assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. If sufficient data are available, we will conduct meta-analyses to establish the relationship between nutrition interventions and nutrition outcome indicators. All statistical analyses will be performed using Review Manager (Rev Man) V.5.3 for Windows. Heterogeneity of the data will be tested using the standard χ(2) test. A fixed-effect model will be used for the studies with high heterogeneity (p value>0.10, I(2)≤50%). For dichotomous and continuous data, relative risk (RR) and mean difference with 95% CI will be used respectively. Subgroup analysis will be performed for studies with low heterogeneity (p value ≤0.10). We will use Z score with the level of significance set at p value <0.05 to test the total effect. Funnel plots will be used to detect publication bias. As primary data will not be collected, formal ethical approval will not be required. The results will be disseminated by publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and the media. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42015023243 was registered on 1 June 2015. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Brown, R C; Witt, A; Fegert, J M; Keller, F; Rassenhofer, M; Plener, P L
Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre-post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.
Zhang, Zhiguang; Pereira, João R; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Okely, Anthony D; Feng, Xiaoqi; Santos, Rute
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize ECEC environmental correlates of weight status in children under the age of 6years. Six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched until March 2017. Observational studies examining the relationship between ECEC environmental characteristics and weight status in children aged 0-6years were included. Data was extracted using a predesigned form. Eight studies, representing 4862 children, met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two environmental characteristics were identified and classified into four domains (physical, political, economic, and sociocultural); of these, six correlates were found. 'Active environment' 'sedentary opportunities', 'active play time', 'high sugar and high fat served', 'educators' weight' and 'educators' habitual physical activity level' were associated with weight status in young children. However, for most environmental characteristics examined, strong evidence is not available yet, due to variations across studies on the measures of environmental characteristics and analytical methodologies. Stronger empirical evidence in greater quantity is needed. Future studies in this area are recommended to investigate the environmental influence using an ecological approach and to examine the potential mediators, with a focus on the settings of family-based centres and samples representing toddlers and/or infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rutten, Juliette M T M; Reitsma, Johannes B; Vlieger, Arine M; Benninga, Marc A
Gut directed hypnotherapy (HT) is shown to be effective in adult functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. We performed a systematic review to assess efficacy of HT in paediatric FAP/IBS patients. We searched Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials (RCT) in children with FAP or IBS, investigating efficacy of HT on the following outcomes: abdominal pain scores, quality of life, costs and school absenteeism. Three RCT comparing HT to a control treatment were included with sample sizes ranging from 22 to 52 children. We refrained from statistical pooling because of low number of studies and many differences in design and outcomes. Two studies examined HT performed by a therapist, one examined HT through self-exercises on audio CD. All trials showed statistically significantly greater improvement in abdominal pain scores among children receiving HT. One trial reported beneficial effects sustained after 1 year of follow-up. One trial reported statistically significant improvement in quality of life in the HT group. Two trials reported significant reductions in school absenteeism after HT. Therapeutic effects of HT seem superior to standard medical care in children with FAP or IBS. It remains difficult to quantify exact benefits. The need for more high quality research is evident.
Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Li, Ruisheng; Hu, Yan; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong
Studies that investigated the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and obesity in children suggest inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to summarize and quantify the current evidence on SEP and risks of overweight and obesity in children aged 0-15 years. Relevant studies published between 1990 to Sep 4, 2014 were searched in Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models, according to lowest vs the highest SEP category. A total of 62 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The odds of both overweight risk and obesity risk were higher in the children with lowest SEP than in those with highest SEP (OR, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.17, and OR, 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29-1.55, respectively). Sub-group analyses showed that the inverse relationships between SEP and childhood overweight and obesity were only found in high-income countries and in more economic developed areas. In conclusion, our study suggests that children with lower SEP had higher risks of overweight and obesity, and the increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries.
Johanna Carolina Rojas Mirquez
Full Text Available Objective: To compare the incidence of adverse events between active and placebo arms of randomized clinical trials in depressive children and adolescents with antidepressant treatments, in order to look for similarities in both groups that allow to establish a possible nocebo effect.Methods: Systematic search strategy (January 1974-March 2013 in electronic databases, conference abstracts and reference list of systematic reviews and included studies to identify parallel randomized placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants in children and adolescents (<19 years with Major Depressive Disorder, and one or more interventions of any orally administered antidepressant. The pooled adverse events were calculated based on a fixed-effect model and statistical analysis involved the Risk Ratio (RR of adverse events, with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI.Results: Sixteen studies were included in the review, of which seven studies with a sample of 1911 patients had data to include in the meta-analysis. There was similar risk for the incidence of adverse events between non-active and active group (global Risk Ratio 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.97-1.11. Conclusions: Depressive children and adolescents allocated to placebo or active group had similar risk to develop adverse events. These similarities in both groups are attributed to the nocebo effect. It is of note that defining nocebo effects is challenging in clinical populations because adverse effects may be attributed to the intervention or may be manifestation of the disease itself. The inclusion of a no treatment arm may be warranted. Nocebo effects are likely when adverse events of placebo mimic the adverse events of active treatment, as was the case here.
Nekitsing, Chandani; Blundell-Birtill, Pam; Cockroft, Jennie E; Hetherington, Marion M
Most children do not meet daily recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake, and consumption of vegetables remains especially low. Eating habits track from childhood to adulthood hence establishing liking and intake of vegetables is important. To identify the most successful strategies to enhance vegetable intake in preschool children aged 2-5 years. The research was a systematic review and a meta-analysis of published studies. A comprehensive search strategy was performed using key databases such as Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, EBSCO and CENTRAL. Articles published between 2005-January 2016, specifically with measured vegetable consumption were included. 30 articles and 44 intervention arms were identified for inclusion (n = 4017). Nine dominant intervention strategies emerged to promote vegetable intake in preschool children. These included; choice, pairing (stealth), education, food service, modelling, reward, taste exposure, variety and visual presentation. The meta-analysis revealed that interventions implementing repeated taste exposure had better pooled effects than those which did not. Intake increased with number of taste exposures and intake was greater when vegetables offered were in their plain form rather than paired with a flavor, dip or added energy (e.g. oil). Moreover, intake of vegetables which were unfamiliar/disliked increased more than those which were familiar/liked. Repeated taste exposure is a simple technique that could be implemented in childcare settings and at home by parents. Health policy could specifically target the use of novel and disliked vegetables in childcare settings with emphasis on a minimum 8-10 exposures. The systematic review protocol was registered on the PROSPERO (number: CRD42016033984). Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma
The objective of this paper was to review various nutritional interventions targeted at under-five children in countries that had suffered from natural disasters and to analyse their effect on nutrition-related outcomes. Systematic review. Countries that had suffered from natural disasters. Children aged natural disaster. Primary nutrition-related outcomes were stunting, wasting and underweight. The secondary nutrition-related outcome was anaemia. Of the 1218 studies that the reviewers agreed on, five matched the inclusion criteria and were included in this narrative synthesis. Four studies were longitudinal and one was cross-sectional in design. Food supplementation was an integral part of nutritional interventions in all the included studies. The most consistent nutritional outcome in all five included studies was reduced prevalence of wasting, followed by reduced prevalence of underweight in four, stunting in three and anaemia in one of the five included studies. The largest reduction in the prevalence of wasting and underweight was reported by the study in Sri Lanka. Overall, the quality of evidence ranged from moderate to weak. Integrated nutrition interventions using locally available health resources yielded the best results. However, sound evidence on the most effective interventions is still lacking. Intervention studies with comparison groups are necessary to obtain more robust evidence on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Li, Lian; Zhang, Shuang; Huang, Yubei; Chen, Kexin
Childhood obesity is a major public problem worldwide, and sleep duration may be associated with childhood obesity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to estimate the associations between sleep duration and obesity/body mass index (BMI) in children. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. For the meta-analysis, the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to reveal the association between short sleep duration and obesity. For the review, the outcomes focused on BMI change or subsequent BMI status. A total of 12 studies (15 populations) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Short sleep duration was significantly associated with obesity (RR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.14-1.85). After excluding two cohorts that substantially affected the heterogeneity, the pooled results remained significant (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.20-1.42), and the association was not substantially altered in the subgroup analysis. In addition, we summarised 24 studies that met the criteria for our review of the relationship between sleeping and BMI. The present meta-analysis indicated that short sleep duration increased the risk of childhood obesity. Public health efforts that encourage children to have sufficient sleep time may be important in combating obesity. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Mesa, Tatiana; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Wright, Julie A
Childhood obesity is a significant global public health problem due to increasing rates worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that nonresponsive parental feeding styles and practices are important influences on children's eating behaviors and weight status, especially during early childhood. Therefore, understanding parental factors that may influence nonresponsive parental feeding styles and practices is significant for the development of interventions to prevent childhood obesity. The objectives of this systematic review were to (1) identify and review existing research examining the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and use of nonresponsive feeding styles and practices among mothers of young children (2-8 years of age), (2) highlight the limitations of reviewed studies, and (3) generate suggestions for future research. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols) guidelines, six electronic academic databases were searched for peer-reviewed, full-text papers published in English between January 2000 and June 2016. Only studies with mothers 18+ years old of normally developing children between 2 and 8 years of age were included. Of the 297 citations identified, 35 full-text papers were retrieved and 8 were reviewed. The reviewed studies provided mixed evidence for associations between maternal depressive symptoms and nonresponsive feeding styles and practices. Two out of three studies reported positive associations with nonresponsive feeding styles, in that mothers with elevated depressive symptoms were more likely than mothers without those symptoms to exhibit uninvolved and permissive or indulgent feeding styles. Furthermore, results of reviewed studies provide good evidence for association between maternal depressive symptoms and instrumental feeding (3 of 3 reviewed studies) and nonresponsive family mealtime practices (3/3), but mixed evidence for pressuring children to eat (3/6) and emotional
Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong-In; Ernst, Edzard
We aimed to assess the effectiveness of massage as a treatment option for autism. We searched the following electronic databases using the time of their inception through March 2010: MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Health Technology Assessment, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, 6 Korean medical databases (KSI, DBpia, KISTEP, RISS, KoreaMed, and National Digital Library), China Academic Journal (through China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and 3 Japanese medical databases (Journal@rchive, Science Links Japan, and Japan Science & Technology link). The search phrase used was "(massage OR touch OR acupressure) AND (autistic OR autism OR Asperger's syndrome OR pervasive developmental disorder)." The references in all located articles were also searched. No language restrictions were imposed. Prospective controlled clinical studies of any type of massage therapy for autistic patients were included. Trials in which massage was part of a complex intervention were also included. Case studies, case series, qualitative studies, uncontrolled trials, studies that failed to provide detailed results, and trials that compared one type of massage with another were excluded. All articles were read by 2 independent reviewers (M.S.L. and J-I.K.), who extracted data from the articles according to predefined criteria. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane classification. Of 132 articles, only 6 studies met our inclusion criteria. One randomized clinical trial found that massage plus conventional language therapy was superior to conventional language therapy alone for symptom severity (P firm conclusions cannot be drawn. Future, more rigorous randomized clinical trials seem to be warranted. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available The assessment of sensory perception, discrimination, integration, modulation, praxis, and other motor skills, such as posture, balance, and bilateral motor coordination, is necessary to identify the sensory and motor factors influencing the development of personal autonomy. The aim of this work is to study the assessment tools currently available for identifying different patterns of sensory processing. There are 15 tests available that have psychometric properties, primarily for the US population. Nine of them apply to children in preschool and up to grade 12. The assessment of sensory processing is a process that includes the use of standardized tests, administration of caregiver questionnaires, and clinical observations. The review of different studies using PRISMA criteria or Osteba Critical Appraisal Cards reveals that the most commonly used tools are the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, the Sensory Processing Measure, and the Sensory Profile.
Gasser, Constantine E; Mensah, Fiona K; Russell, Melissa; Dunn, Sophie E; Wake, Melissa
Many calorie-rich dietary components contribute to obesity. However, the contribution of confectionery to obesity in children and adolescents has not been well established. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we hypothesized that higher total, chocolate, and nonchocolate confectionery consumption would be associated with higher odds of overweight, obesity, and other obesity-related outcomes [body mass index (BMI), BMI z score, body composition, waist circumference, and percentage body fat] in children and adolescents. We searched Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of pertinent reviews, supplemented by expert contact, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies published between 1990 and 31 March 2015, and we conducted separate meta-analyses for categorical and continuous ORs and for total, chocolate, and nonchocolate confectioneries with the use of a random-effects model. A total of 19 studies were included in the systematic review, and the cross-sectional results of 11 studies (∼177,260 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. In the meta-analysis, which examined the combined outcome of overweight and obesity, the odds of overweight or obesity were 18% lower (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.97) for subjects in the highest category of consumption than for a reference category of consumption. Thus, a 1-time/wk or a 1-U increase in consumption was associated with a 13% (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.88) decrease in the odds of overweight or obesity. Associations were similarly inverse for chocolate and nonchocolate confectioneries. In the longitudinal studies and the RCT included in the review, no associations were observed between confectionery consumption and overweight, obesity, or obesity-related outcomes. Instead of overweight and obese children and adolescents having higher confectionery intakes, this review shows the reverse effect. This result might reflect a true inverse association, reverse causality, or differential
Long, Kristin A; Lehmann, Vicky; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Carpenter, Aubrey L; Marsland, Anna L; Alderfer, Melissa A
Siblings' psychosocial adjustment to childhood cancer is poorly understood. This systematic review summarizes findings and limitations of the sibling literature since 2008, provides clinical recommendations, and offers future research directions. MEDLINE/Pubmed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO were searched for articles related to siblings, psychosocial functioning, and pediatric cancer. After systematic screening, studies meeting inclusion criteria were rated for scientific merit, and findings were extracted and synthesized. In total, 102 studies were included (63 quantitative, 35 qualitative, 4 mixed-methods). Methodological limitations are common. Mean levels of anxiety, depression, and general adjustment are similar across siblings and comparisons, but symptoms of cancer-related posttraumatic stress are prevalent. School-aged siblings display poorer academic functioning and more absenteeism but similar peer relationships as peers. Quality of life findings are mixed. Adult siblings engage in higher levels of risky health behaviors and may have poorer health outcomes than comparisons. Risk factors for poor sibling adjustment include lower social support, poorer family functioning, lower income, non-White race, and shorter time since diagnosis, but findings are inconsistent. Qualitative themes include siblings' maturity, compassion, and autonomy, but also strong negative emotions, uncertainty, family disruptions, limited parental support, school problems, altered friendships, and unmet needs. Despite methodological limitations, research indicates a strong need for sibling support. Clinical recommendations include identifying at-risk siblings and developing interventions to facilitate family communication and increase siblings' social support, cancer-related knowledge, and treatment involvement. Future longitudinal studies focusing on mechanisms and moderators of siblings' adjustment would inform timing and targets of
Diéguez-Pérez, Montserrat; de Nova-García, Manuel-Joaquín; Mourelle-Martínez, M Rosa; Bartolomé-Villar, Begona
Traditionally, patients with physical and/or intellectual disabilities presented greater oral pathology, owing to their condition and to other external factors. Improved social and health conditions make it necessary to update knowledge on their oral and dental health. For this purpose, a bibliographic review was done regarding the state of oral health of children with these two types of disability, in comparison with a control group. Some of the guidelines of the PRISMA statement were taken into account. The ranking of the articles found is based on the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The final number of articles evaluated was 14. Parameters such as dental caries, oral hygiene, gingival health, dental traumas, malocclusion and habits were considered. There is no consensus among authors regarding dental caries, oral hygiene and gingival health. The different results obtained are due in part to the fact that the methodologies used were not the same. However, it has been noted that, when studying other parameters and regardless of the methodology employed, the results obtained are similar. Children with physical and intellectual disabilities constitute a group that needs early and regular dental care in order to prevent and limit the severity of the pathologies observed. Oral health, dental caries, malocclusion, oral habits, dental trauma, oral hygiene, disabled child, cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.
Hanzlik, Emily; Woodrome, Stacey E; Abdel-Baki, Mohamed; Geller, Thomas J; Elbabaa, Samer K
Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in the pediatric population. As children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, more research is being focused on the long-term cognitive outcomes of the survivors. This review examines the literature on different cognitive outcomes of survivors of different childhood posterior fossa CNS tumor types. The authors reviewed the literature for articles published from 2000 to 2012 about long-term neuropsychological outcomes of children diagnosed with posterior fossa brain tumors before the age of 18, which distinguished between histological tumor types, and had a minimum follow-up of 3 years. The literature search returned 13 articles, and a descriptive analysis was performed comparing intelligence quotient (IQ), attention/executive function, and memory components of 456 survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors. Four articles directly compared astrocytoma and medulloblastoma survivors and showed medulloblastoma survivors fared worse in IQ, attention/executive function, and memory measurements. Five articles reporting medulloblastomas found IQ, attention, and memory scores to be significantly below the standardized means. Articles examining astrocytoma survivors found IQ scores within the normal range for the population. Survivors of ependymomas reported 2/23 survivors impaired on IQ scores, while a second study reported a significant number of ependymoma survivors lower than the expected population norm. Tumor histopathology and the type of postoperative adjuvant therapy seem to have a significant impact on the long-term neuropsychological complications of pediatric posterior fossa CNS tumor survivors. Age at diagnosis and treatment factors are important variables that affect the outcomes of the survivors.
Full Text Available Background: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG and laparoscopic-assisted gastrostomy (LAG are widely used in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was to determine which one of the two procedures is the most effective and safe method. Methods: This systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. Primary outcomes were success rate, efficacy of feeding, quality of life, gastroesophageal reflux and post-operative complications. Results: Five retrospective studies, comparing 550 PEG to 483 LAG placements in children, were identified after screening 2347 articles. The completion rate was similar for both procedures. PEG was associated with significantly more adjacent bowel injuries (P = 0.047, early tube dislodgements (P = 0.02 and complications that require reintervention under general anaesthesia (P < 0.001. Minor complications were equally frequent after both procedures. Conclusions: Because of the lack of well-designed studies, we have to be cautious in making definitive conclusions comparing PEG to LAG. To decide which type of gastrostomy placement is best practice in paediatric patients, randomised controlled trials comparing PEG to LAG are highly warranted.
Mori, R; Yonemoto, N; Fitzgerald, A; Tullus, K; Verrier-Jones, K; Lakhanpaul, M
Prompt diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is needed to initiate treatment but is difficult to establish without urine testing, and reliance on culture leads to delay. Urine dipsticks are often used as an alternative to microscopy, although the diagnostic performance of dipsticks at different ages has not been established systematically. Studies comparing urine dipstick testing in infants versus older children and urine dipstick versus microscopy were systematically searched and reviewed. Meta-analysis of available studies was conducted. Six studies addressed these questions. The results of meta-analysis showed that the performance of urine dipstick testing was significantly less in the younger children when compared with older children (p UTI in children over 2 years than for younger children.
van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on