WorldWideScience

Sample records for children sufficiently apply

  1. Vitamin D sufficiency and Staphylococcus aureus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeffrey W; Hogan, Patrick G; Hunstad, David A; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D promotes epithelial immunity by upregulating antimicrobial peptides, including LL-37, which have bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We found that children with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D recurrent, rather than primary, S. aureus skin or soft tissue infection. Vitamin D sufficiency may be one of a myriad of host and environmental factors that can be directly impacted to reduce the frequency of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:25860535

  2. Assessing Intellectual Disability in Children: Are IQ Measures Sufficient, or Even Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmar, Susan; Maxwell, Amanda; Miller, Leanne

    2006-01-01

    A number of critical issues concerning the assessment of children with intellectual disabilities, including definitional problems, psychometric factors, and practical difficulties, are raised in this article. It is suggested that school counsellors and psychologists should consider these issues when assessing children with probable or known…

  3. Thyroid isthmus thickness in prepubertal healthy children in an iodine-sufficient region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study presented the reference values for thyroid isthmus thickness in prepubertal healthy children. Ultrasound evaluation of the isthmus seems to be very useful in the diagnostic process and monitoring of thyroid diseases, especially the diffuse ones. The authors are not aware of the existence of any other publications on reference values of isthmus depth in children population. In our study, we evaluated isthmus thickness in a healthy population of prepubertal children from a seaside region. A total of 402 healthy children (214 boys and 188 girls) aged 7–12 years, underwent ultrasound examinations of the thyroid. We propose the following maximum values for isthmus depth: from 2.6 mm for boys at the age of 7–9 years to 3.3 mm for those aged 10–12 years and from 2.7 mm to 3.5 mm for girls, respectively

  4. Surgical Site Infection After Skin Excisions in Children: Is Field Sterility Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzi, Laura C; Greene, Arin K; Meara, John G; Taghinia, Amir; Labow, Brian I

    2016-03-01

    Skin excisions are common procedures in children. They may be performed in the clinic using field sterility or the operating room with strict sterile technique. We compared the effect of these locations and the use of antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after skin excisions. Patients ages 0-18 years presenting to our department for the excision of lesions from 2006 to 2010 with complete medical records were included in our study. Records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, presentation, perioperative conditions, and postoperative SSI and other wound complications. Analyses were performed to estimate the costs associated with sterility technique and perioperative antibiotic use. We identified 700 patients with a mean age of 9.1 years. Of 872 lesions excised, 0.3% resulted in SSI and 1.8% had other wound complications. The incidence of SSI did not vary according to sterility technique, antibiotic usage, surgeon, age, or lesion size, type, or location. The equipment costs to excise a lesion in the operating room were 200% greater than in the clinic. The incidence of SSI after excision of benign lesions in children did not differ between those performed using clinic field sterility and those using the standard aseptic sterile technique in the operating room. A considerable cost savings could be realized by adopting field sterility for simple excisions performed in the operating room and avoiding routine perioperative antibiotics in pediatric skin excisions. PMID:25727412

  5. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    O Hendy; M Abou Salem; G Abdel Rasoul; D Rohlman; A. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50) were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; ex...

  6. Hypoxic challenge test applied to healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Hanel, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) decreases <90%. OBJECTIVE: Study responses to a modified HCT, encompassing various body positions and light physical activity, reflecting relevant activities of children during flight, with a view to challenge the evidence of the current cut-off. METHODS: Oxygenation......-300) walking 5 km/h. Light exercise in general led to lower SpO2: 91% (77-96%), p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: A modified HCT led to moments of desaturation below 90% in various body positions at rest and during light physical activity in healthy schoolchildren. It is questionable whether the international recommended...

  7. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Peeters, Robin; Ross, Alec; Jaddoe, Vincent; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that influence cognitive development in the offspring. This study investigated the association between maternal low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in pregnancy and children's cognition in a population-based...

  8. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Hendy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides.Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides.Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls.Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests.Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.

  9. A Marketing Approach Towards the Sufficiency of Ready-Made Garments to Satisfy the Needs of Children With Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akalın

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a term of which we have been aware recently in our country through visual and printed media and which we have seen examples around us. Together with opening Dependent and Independent Education Centres for Children with Autism, children with autism have found the opportunity to receive education in line with their needs. With individual education programs developed by the teacher suitable for the development of the child with autism, they can acquire skills in various development areas. Dressing skill, which is one of the main skills necessary for every individual, is a mandatory skill that children with autism need to acquire to satisfy their own needs. In the first three parts of the study a conceptual frame was given and the definition, history, types, characteristics, and behaviour problems of children with autism were presented, and clothing comfort and other concepts were explained. In the fourth part, method, material, research approach, sample and population, numerals, limitations, data collection technique and data analysis technique were explained and the results were presented in tables. The study was carried out to reveal dressing problems children with autism encounter and to determine to what extent the clothes made by ready-made clothing sector satisfy the needs of children with autism and it was found that children with autism have difficulties in using ready-made clothes.

  10. Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with children.

    OpenAIRE

    F. M. Gresham; Gansle, K A; Noell, G H

    1993-01-01

    Functional analysis of behavior depends upon accurate measurement of both independent and dependent variables. Quantifiable and controllable operations that demonstrate these functional relationships are necessary for a science of human behavior. Failure to implement independent variables with integrity threatens the internal and external validity of experiments. A review of all applied behavior analysis studies with children as subjects that have been published in the Journal of Applied Beha...

  11. Is the existing knowledge and skills of health workers regarding eye care in children sufficient to meet needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishiki, Elizabeth; Hogeweg, Margreet; Dieleman, Marjolein; Lewallen, Susan; Courtright, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Although uncommon, childhood blindness is a major contributor to blind-person years in Africa. Children with vision-related problems need urgent referral, but existing evidence suggests that there is delay in presentation. A pilot study in a random selection of government dispensaries in two districts of Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, was conducted to assess the knowledge and skills of primary healthcare workers regarding eye care needs of children. Questionnaires were administered to 16 healthcare workers, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 9 health workers and 2 key informants. Overall, 88% of workers recognised cataract in a picture, 63% knew that it required surgery but only 50% realised surgery was urgent. Only 38% recognised squint as needing referral and none considered this urgent. Moreover, 38% could correctly suggest a cause of a large corneal scar and 44% of workers believed that children with albinism need to attend schools for the blind. Poor knowledge of referral and treatment guidelines are likely due to a number of factors, including inadequate training and the rarity of childhood blindness. Primary eye care manuals should be reviewed to ensure that information regarding childhood blindness is adequate and appropriate. Referral pathways should also be revised. PMID:24029677

  12. A National UK Census of Applied Behavior Analysis School Provision for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Fletcher, R.; Hastings, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over more than a decade, specialist Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) schools or classes for children with autism have developed in the UK and Ireland. However, very little is known internationally about how ABA is defined in practice in school settings, the characteristics of children supported in ABA school settings, and the staffing structures…

  13. Is high dose methotrexate without irradiation of the brain sufficiently effective in prevention of CNS disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 5-year results of treatment in 93 children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia using two therapeutic protocols containing multidrug chemotherapy including high dose methotrexate. We could ascertain different results in standard and high risk patients. In a group of 62 children with standard risk we observed improvement in complete remission rate being 98.9% after induction phase of therapy, only one patient died on septicemia. Relapse rate in this group was 21.2% and that 14. 7% in the bone marrow and 6.5% in CNS and no testicular relapse at all. In the group of 31 children with high risk leukemia all patients achieved complete remission. Only one of them died on acute pancreatitis due to toxicity. Overall relapse rate in this group was 28.9% with 12.8% of medullary relapse and 16.1 % of CNS relapse. The last one was significantly higher than in the previous study when brain irradiation was a part of therapeutic procedure. It seems that this treatment is effective mainly in the standard risk leukemia, however, in the high risk leukemias this procedure appears to be less effective in preventing CNS leukemia. In this group of patients irradiation of the brain need to be enclosed in the therapy. (authors)

  14. Educational intervention applied in children from 5 to 11 years of age with deforming oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Santos Haces Yanes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are complex neuromuscular patterns learnt by frequent repetition and act as unnatural forces that may cause dental maxillofacial defects. Objective: To assess the intervention of educative measures applied to children with deforming buccal habits in the primary school Raúl Suárez Martínez from the zone “Rafaelito”. Methods: A cuasi-experimental study was developed, with before-after intervention without control group including 253 children from December 2006 to November 2007. We applied the program “To Happily Smile” with a weekly frequency. Surveys were applied to children, parents and teachers after the educational actions to achieve the reduction ofincorrect habits. The studied variables were: age, sex, deforming habits frequency before and after the intervention. Results: The knowledge level of children, parents and teachers was significantly improved. Risk factors were eradicated in more than 50% of the children being the most frequent: lingual protraction, baby bottle suction, mainly among females. Conclusions: The intervention was successful for the reduction of deforming oral habits, and the high level of knowledge acquired. After the intervention it was shown that the educative process is a key tool for the General Comprehensive Dentist.  

  15. Family-Centred Applied Behaviour Analysis Verbal Behaviour Intervention for Young Taiwanese Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Current educational policy promotes the use of evidence-based practices to maximize children's learning outcomes. With the goal of enhancing a child's ability to learn functional language, the purpose of this study was to focus on involving families through the utilization of evidence-based intervention based upon the Applied Behaviour Analysis…

  16. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  17. Points to Be Considered When Applying FibroScan S Probe in Children With Biliary Atresia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung; Kang, Yunkoo; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Seok Joo; Koh, Hong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: With the introduction of smaller probes (S1, S2), the use of transient elastography has been expanded to children. Accordingly, we aimed to address points of consideration in probe choice and interpretation of measured liver stiffness by applying and comparing FibroScan S and M probes in biliary atresia. Methods: Using S1, S2, and M probes, 3 liver stiffness measurements, success rates, and interquartile ranges were obtained from 100 patients. Patients were assigned to 2 ...

  18. Applying Total Physical Response(TPR)Theory to Teaching Chinese Children English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张院院

    2015-01-01

    Now it has become a fashion in our society that young learners aged from 6 or even younger participate in foreign language learning.With the Second Language Acquisition theories,it is believed that learning a foreign language from the childhood can facilitate the learning.Children need a teaching method which conforms to their psychological and physical characteristics.American psychologist James Asher develops Total Physical Response,which advocates leaning through physical actions.He believes that children should learn a foreign language happily and confidently,just like the process of acquiring their mother tongue.However,Total Physical Response can not be applied effectively in the teaching process due to children’s instincts and characteristics.If there is a way or strategy which takes advantage of children’s characteristics and control their behavior in class,the teaching results would be more satisfying.

  19. Recent Widows' Kin Support and Orientations to Self-Sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryant, Shirley L.; Morgan, Leslie A.

    1990-01-01

    Data on recently widowed women suggest that many are quite self-sufficient; however, in areas where support is needed, they largely rely on children. Widows' past experiences and attitudes toward independence influenced amount of overall help they received, whereas income, number of children, and perceived willingness of children to help affected…

  20. Psychosocial problems in pre-school children : Recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care objective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care Objective. To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among pre-school children in the general populatio

  1. Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: Recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care objective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in pre-school children: recognition and strategy applied by doctors and nurses in child health care Objective. To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among pre-school children in the general populatio

  2. Sufficiency Grounded as Sufficiently Free: A Reply to Shlomi Segall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    be grounded on (i) any personal value, nor (ii) any impersonal value. Consequently, sufficientarianism is groundless. This article contains a rejoinder to this critique. Its main claim is that the value of autonomy holds strong potential for grounding sufficiency. It argues, firstly, that autonomy carries...... both personal value for its recipient as well as impersonal value, and that both of these values are suitable for grounding sufficiency. It thus follows that we should reject both (i) and (ii). Secondly, although autonomy is presumably the strongest candidate for grounding sufficiency, the article...... provides some counterargument to Segall’s rejection of the other candidates—the impersonal value of virtue; the personal value for the allocator; and the personal value for others. If the arguments are sound, they show that we need not worry about sufficientarianism being groundless....

  3. Information geometry and sufficient statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ay, N.; Jost, J.; Le, Hong-Van; Schwachhöfer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, 1-2 (2015), s. 327-364. ISSN 0178-8051 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Fisher quadratic form * Amari-Chentsov tensor * sufficient statistic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00440-014-0574-8

  4. Applying Cognitive Behavioural Methods to Retrain Children's Attributions for Success and Failure in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, John; Boyle, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study involves the use of methods derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to change the attributions for success and failure of school children with regard to learning. Children with learning difficulties and/or motivational and self-esteem difficulties (n = 29) were identified by their schools. The children then took part in twelve…

  5. Repulsive Casimir Force: Sufficient Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Luigi; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the Casimir energy of two parallel plates made by materials of different penetration depth and no medium in between is derived. We study the Casimir force density and derive analytical constraints on the two penetration depths which are sufficient conditions to ensure repulsion. Compared to other methods our approach needs no specific model for dielectric or magnetic material properties and constitutes a complementary analysis.

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Healthy Children Who Applied to Erciyes University Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taşkın İ.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Helicobacter pylori (HP is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate the seroprevalence of HP infection in the pediatric population who applied to pediatrics outpatient clinic of Erciyes University and its relationship with different variables. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-one children (124 male, 97 female, age range: 8 months to 16 years were tested for anti-HP antibody Ig G. A questionnaire about the socioeconomic status and some living practices were completed by the familyResults: Of the 221 children, 129 (%58.4 were seropositive for HP. The seroprevalence of HP increased significantly with age and eating from the same plate. There was no correlation between HP seropositivity and other parameters.Conclusion: The rate of seropositivity of HP in children applied to Erciyes University is similar to other regions in Turkey.

  7. Applying Advocacy Skills in Tumultuous Times: Adaptive Capacity of Insuring America's Children Grantees

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Y. Kim; Victoria Peebles; Christopher A. Trenholm

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation established Insuring America's Children to help secure health care for all children. A new brief and executive summary document how state-based grantees responded and adapted to unprecedented changes in children's coverage over the past several years. As state economic and political contexts shifted, grantees adapted strategic partnerships, assuming new and expanded leadership roles in state-based coalitions and forging partnerships with nontra...

  8. Development and Evaluation of Self-Applied Plaque Indices for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Harold G.; And Others

    This paper reports on one of the main goals of preventive dentistry, that is, encouraging children to remove plaque at least once a day. Two self-scoring systems were combined with two disclosants for a total of four experimental systems administered to 128 children. In the count method, the child counts the number of stained teeth; in the rating…

  9. Applying the polyvagal theory to children's emotion regulation: Social context, socialization, and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Coutya, Julie; McShane, Kelly E; Sullivan, Caroline

    2008-12-01

    Effective emotion regulation is essential for children's positive development. Polyvagal theory provides a framework for understanding how parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity contributes to children's adaptive versus maladaptive functioning. Maintenance of cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) under social challenge should support emotion regulation and behavioral adjustment. Children's effective parasympathetic regulation and behavioral adjustment should be supported by appropriate parental socialization. These proposals were evaluated in a short-term longitudinal study of 94 preschool-aged children. Parenting and basal RSA were measured at home, then 6-10 months later behavioral adjustment and RSA in lab baseline and socially challenging contexts were measured. Children with relatively higher RSA in social challenge than at baseline (DeltaRSA) had fewer internalizing problems (IP) and externalizing problems (EP), and better behavioral self-regulation (SR). Mothers who used more negative control had children with lower DeltaRSA, more IP and EP, and less SR. Structural equation modeling showed that vagal regulation mediated associations between maternal negative control and children's adjustment; maternal negative control did not predict EP or SR after accounting for DeltaRSA. Associations were consistent across boys and girls, with one exception: Higher DeltaRSA was significantly associated with fewer EP in boys only. These findings suggest that the practical significance of physiological regulation might be best revealed in ecologically valid procedures, and that children's physiological mechanisms of emotion regulation are shaped by their experiences of parental socialization. PMID:18722499

  10. Review of Teacher Involvement in the Applied Intervention Research for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Shogren, Karrie; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Tonya; Lancioni, Giulio; Hopkins, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This review examined the involvement of teachers in the intervention research for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from 1996 through February 2008. Forty-nine studies involving teachers of children with ASD were coded for different types of involvement. Findings are discussed in regards to three issues: (a) the manner in which…

  11. The TangibleK Robotics Program: Applied Computational Thinking for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Marina U.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the TangibleK robotics program for young children. Based on over a decade of research, this program is grounded on the belief that teaching children about the human-made world, the realm of technology and engineering, is as important as teaching them about the natural world, numbers, and letters. The TangibleK program uses…

  12. Tool for Experimenting with Concepts of Mobile Robotics as Applied to Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Jojoa, E. M.; Bravo, E. C.; Bacca Cortes, E. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a tool for experimenting with mobile robotics concepts, primarily for use by children and teenagers, or by the general public, without previous experience in robotics. This tool helps children learn about science in an approachable and interactive way, using scientific research principles in…

  13. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  14. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  15. Teaching Young Children about the Civil Rights Movement: Applying Effective & Developmentally Appropriate Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Janet E.; Root, Tonja L.; Lee, Seungyoun

    2015-01-01

    Considering the importance of the Civil Rights Movement, children need to be introduced to the related concepts early in their school experiences, and teachers need to consider students' developmental needs and curriculum standards in order to provide appropriate content and methods of instruction. The purpose of this article is to introduce a…

  16. Federal Privacy Laws That Apply to Children and Education. Safeguarding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This table identifies and briefly describes the following federal policies that safeguard and protect the confidentiality of personal information: (1) Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA); (2) Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA); (3) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); (4) Children's Online Privacy…

  17. Applying Motivational Interviewing (MI) in Counselling Obese and Overweight Children and Parents in Swedish Child Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Lena L.; Malmsten, Janna; Bendtsen, Preben; Nilsen, Per

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how a motivational interviewing (MI) training course for child healthcare nurses in Sweden affected their work with children's weight issues and their attitudes to MI. Design: Cross-sectional survey, descriptive design. Setting: Nurses were recruited from 33 different child healthcare centres in Ostergotland, Sweden. Method:…

  18. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinka Jambrek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assumes God’s presence, the reading and keeping of God’s Word, love between the parents, prayer, and worship of God. Clear goals for raising children are presented. This work offers valuable and lived examples of biblical discipline. It discusses the topic of discipline from childhood to the teen ages, trust, responsibility, communication and relationship with God. Finally, the article points out the importance of times of family worship.

  19. The acquired preparedness risk model applied to smoking in 5th grade children

    OpenAIRE

    Combs, Jessica L.; Spillane, Nichea S.; Caudill, Leann; Stark, Brittany; Smith, Gregory T.

    2011-01-01

    The very early onset of smoking predicts numerous health problems. The authors conducted the first test of one risk model for elementary school age smoking, known as the acquired preparedness (AP) model of risk, in a cross-sectional sample of 309 5th grade children. The model posits that (a) impulsivity-related personality traits contribute to risk for a variety of risky, maladaptive behaviors; (b) smoking expectancies confer risk only for smoking; and (c) the personality traits contribute to...

  20. [Apt guidelines for applying immunomodulation with interferons in the multiple sclerosis at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska, Małgorzata; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara; Bawół, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The disease usually affects young people, although it may also occur in early childhood. As well as the availability of diagnostic methods rises also the possibility of disease-modifying treatment increases. With constant development of diagnostic methods also the possibility of disease-modifying treatment (DMT) increases. Since 2012 in Poland a therapeutic program of the National Health Fund gives the possibility of using first-line therapy treatment in children/adolescents with multiple sclerosis (over 12 years of age), and since June 2015 using the interferon beta in children of 7 years old and body mass below 30 kg has been approved. Interferon beta is the first choice treatment. When selecting interferon type the child's age, lifestyle and the possibility of cooperation must be taken into account. The comprehensive care to a child with MS is based on cooperation of pediatric neurologist, rehabilitation physician, physiotherapist, psychologist and nurse. Training for self-administered interferon injection takes place in the hospital department and under the direct supervision of an experienced nurse. All these elements are taking place in our Clinic. The recent studies from the literature clearly have proven the efficacy and safety of interferon beta treatment in children. Yet agains/still it is a huge challenge to search for an effective and safe drug/ medication but with much more convenient form of administration. PMID:27349050

  1. Raising Children in an Evangelical Family Environment: Biblical Principles Applied to the Family

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubinka Jambrek

    2009-01-01

    As Creator, God designed the family and determined the standards and rules for living and functioning in the family. As a basic unit of society, the family is to reflect God’s glory. God’s plan for marriage and the family has not changed, only the human approach to this institution has changed. Therefore, it is vital to re-emphasize how important it is that the family functions according to biblical standards. This article deals with raising children in an evangelical environment which assume...

  2. Behavioral Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism Engaged in Applied Behavior Analysis Early Intervention Programs: The Moderating Role of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral adjustment was explored in 78 siblings of children with autism in applied behavior analysis programs. There were no reported increases in behavioral adjustment problems. Siblings in families with children with less severe autism had fewer adjustment problems when more formal social support was also available to the family. (Contains…

  3. A Bayes but Not Classically Sufficient Statistic

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, D.; Ramamoorthi, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    In a Borel setting, every classically sufficient statistic is Bayes sufficient, but not vice versa. The example is a hypothesis testing problem in which Bayesians, but not classicists, can achieve zero error probabilities.

  4. Will our children be healthy adults? Applying science to public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is predicted to be a leading cause of death and disability worldwide for the foreseeable future. Observational studies link a variety of prevalent early life experiences (for example, smoking in pregnancy, child poverty) to increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal studies suggest plausible causal relationships. However, there has been little consideration of how to use this wealth of information to benefit children's futures. Policy documents have drawn on research evidence to recognise that early experience influences life chances, the development of human capital, and long-term health. This has led to a general policy emphasis on prevention and early intervention. To date, there are few examples of the evidence base being useful in shaping specific policies, despite potential to do so, and some examples of policy misunderstanding of science. Minor changes to the perspectives of epidemiological research in this area might greatly increase the potential for evidence-based policy. PMID:21413485

  5. Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children. Mercury as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo Trasande; Clyde Schechter; Karla A. Haynes; Philip J. Landrigan [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Department of Community and Preventive Medicine

    2006-09-15

    Exposure in prenatal life to methylmercury (MeHg) has become the topic of intense debate in the United States after the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a proposal in 2004 to reverse strict controls on emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants that had been in effect for the preceding 15 years. This proposal failed to incorporate any consideration of the health impacts on children that would result from increased mercury emissions. We assessed the impact on children's health of industrial mercury emissions and found that between 316,588 and 637,233 babies are born with mercury-related losses of cognitive function ranging from 0.2 to 5.13 points. We calculated that decreased economic productivity resulting from diminished intelligence over a lifetime results in an aggregate economic cost in each annual birth cohort of $8.7 billion annually. $1.3 billion of this cost is attributable to mercury emitted from American coal-fired power plants. Downward shifts in intellectual quotient (IQ) are also associated with 1566 excess cases of mental retardation annually. This number accounts for 3.2% of MR cases in the United States. If the lifetime excess cost of a case of MR is $1,248,648 in 2000 dollars, then the cost of these excess cases of MR is $2.0 billion annually. Preliminary data suggest that more stringent mercury policy options would prevent thousands of cases of MR and billions of dollars over the next 25 years.

  6. f-divergences: Sufficiency, deficiency and testing of hypotheses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajda, Igor; Liese, F.

    Toronto : Nova Publishers, 2008 - (Barnett, N.; Dragomir, S.), s. 113-149 ISBN 1-60021-943-8. - (Advances in Mathematical Inequalities) R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : divergence * sufficiency * testing errors * information gain * deficiency * exponential rate Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/vajda-fdivergences sufficiency deficiency and testing of hypotheses.pdf

  7. Comparison of motion correction techniques applied to functional near-infrared spectroscopy data from children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Su; Arredondo, Maria M.; Gomba, Megan; Confer, Nicole; DaSilva, Alexandre F.; Johnson, Timothy D.; Shalinsky, Mark; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2015-12-01

    Motion artifacts are the most significant sources of noise in the context of pediatric brain imaging designs and data analyses, especially in applications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), in which it can completely affect the quality of the data acquired. Different methods have been developed to correct motion artifacts in fNIRS data, but the relative effectiveness of these methods for data from child and infant subjects (which is often found to be significantly noisier than adult data) remains largely unexplored. The issue is further complicated by the heterogeneity of fNIRS data artifacts. We compared the efficacy of the six most prevalent motion artifact correction techniques with fNIRS data acquired from children participating in a language acquisition task, including wavelet, spline interpolation, principal component analysis, moving average (MA), correlation-based signal improvement, and combination of wavelet and MA. The evaluation of five predefined metrics suggests that the MA and wavelet methods yield the best outcomes. These findings elucidate the varied nature of fNIRS data artifacts and the efficacy of artifact correction methods with pediatric populations, as well as help inform both the theory and practice of optical brain imaging analysis.

  8. Decrease of the Manifestation of Attention Deficiency and Hyperactivity Syndrome in Pre-schooling Age Children by Applying the Program of Applied Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Masiulionienė, Giedrė

    2006-01-01

    ADHD is a neuro-biological disorder which is characterized by the child’s levels of attention concentration, absentmindedness and impulsiveness inadequate to the natural development. This is one of the most frequently occurring psychical disorders among children (APA, 1994). Although doctors described ADHD many years ago, its wide spreading has been acknowledged only recently. There is no exact data, but it is considered that from 3 to 10 per cent of pre-schooling age children and from 4 t...

  9. Some existence and sufficient conditions of optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefi, T.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the existence and sufficiency conditions in the field of optimal control was briefly described. The existence theorems are discussed for general nonlinear systems. However, the sufficiency conditions pertain to "nearly" linear systems with integral convex costs. Moreover, a brief discussion of linear systems with multiple-cost functions is presented.

  10. The orthotic and therapeutic effects following daily community applied functional electrical stimulation in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pool, Dayna; Valentine, Jane; Bear, Natasha; Donnelly, Cyril J.; Elliott, Catherine; Stannage, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the orthotic and therapeutic effects of daily community applied FES to the ankle dorsiflexors in a randomized controlled trial. We hypothesized that children receiving the eight-week FES treatment would demonstrate orthotic and therapeutic effects in gait and spasticity as well as better community mobility and balance skills compared to controls not receiving FES. Methods This randomized controlled trial involved 32 children (mean age 10 y...

  11. Sufficient Conditions of Nonsingular H-matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广彬; 洪振杰; 高中喜

    2004-01-01

    From the concept of a diagonally dominant matrix, two sufficient conditions of nonsingular H-matrices were obtained in this paper. An example was given to show that these results improve the known results.

  12. Total renewable energy self-sufficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet required electrical power and transportation fuel, a total renewable energy self-sufficiency strategy needs to be envisaged that will not add to the degradation of our environment. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  13. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Structured Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaee, Mohammad; Rafiee, Seyed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a…

  14. Energy self-sufficiency for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Energy Programme initiated a research project on UK energy self-sufficiency. This produced reports on the contributions of coal, electricity, gas, oil and conservation to self-sufficiency. The conference papers in this volume cut across the energy sectors but are based on the research reports. There are 10 chapters, one of which, on Environmental Issues, has discussions about nuclear energy, and is indexed separately. The other chapters concern policy issues, pricing policy, macroeconomic and fiscal aspects, economic efficiency in energy use, technical change and national security. (U.K.)

  15. Energy self-sufficiently measurement; Energieautark messen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenninger, Philipp; Ulrich, Marco [ABB AG, Forschungszentrum Deutschland, Ladenburg (Germany); Maret, Yannick [ABB Schweiz AG, Corporate Research, Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    For inaccessible and remote measurement points wireless solutions now are available. Of course, the measurement and transmittance of data require electricity. Currently, the electricity is provided by special batteries. But an intensive work is carried out on instruments and transmitters which receive their energy from processes from the environment, and thus operate energy self-sufficiently.

  16. Systems of Not Sufficiently Smooth Functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuman, František

    1-2, - (2005), s. 93-101 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1163401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear systems * not sufficiently smooth functions * qualitative behavior Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Social-cognitive abilities in children with lesser variants of autism : skill deficits or failure to apply skills?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M; Minderaa, RB; van Geert, PLC; Jackson, AE

    1999-01-01

    The present study re-examined the ability of children with lesser variants of autism (classified as PDD-NOS) to infer emotions of other people and to describe others in terms of inner, psychological characteristics. It also explores the hypothesis that these children may have the skill to infer ment

  18. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Achievement in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…

  19. High order sufficient conditions for tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Liñán, María

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study under which conditions the trajectories of a mechanical control system can track any curve on the configuration manifold. We focus on systems that can be represented as forced affine connection control systems and we generalize the sufficient conditions for tracking known in the literature. The sufficient conditions are expressed in terms of convex cones of vector fields defined through particular brackets of the control vector fields of the system. The tracking control laws obtained by our constructions depend on several parameters. By imposing suitable asymptotic conditions on such parameters, we construct algorithmically one-parameter tracking control laws. The theory is supported by examples of control systems associated with elliptic hovercrafts and ellipsoidal submarines.

  20. Capabilitarian Sufficiency: Capabilities and Social Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests an account of sufficientarianism—i.e. that justice is fulfilled when everyone has enough—laid out within a general framework of the capability approach. In doing so, it seeks to show that sufficiency is especially plausible as an ideal of social justice when constructed around...... key capabilitarian insights such as freedom, pluralism, and attention to empirical interconnections between central capabilities. Correspondingly, we elaborate on how a framework for evaluating social justice would look when constructed in this way and give reasons for why capabilitarians should...... of a social being. In each category, we argue, achieving sufficiency requires different distributional patterns depending on how the capabilities themselves work and interrelate. This argument adds a new dimension to the way capabilitarians think about social justice and changes how we should target...

  1. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, E. Leigh; Wildgruber, Andreas; Kreichauf, Susanne; Vögele, Claus; Nixon, Catherine A.; Douthwaite, Wayne; Moore, Helen J; Manios, Yannis; Summerbell, Carolyn D; on behalf of the Toybox-study group

    2012-01-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children’s eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, ‘enjoyment of food’ and ‘satiety responsiveness’. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and expe...

  2. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E L; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Vögele, C; Summerbell, C D; Nixon, C; Moore, H; Douthwaite, W; Manios, Y

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by five to ten repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children's eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. PMID:22309067

  3. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramochi, Yui, E-mail: kuramochi.yui.22c@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, 6158540 Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  4. A note on sufficiency in coherent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Cheng

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Partly of an expository nature, this article brings together a number of notions related to sufficiency in an abstract measure theoretic setting. The notion of a coherent statistical model, as introduced by Hasegawa and Perlman [6], is studied in some details. A few results are generalized and their earlier proofs simplified. Among other things, it is shown that a coherent model can be connected in the sense of Basu [2] if and only if no splitting set (Koehn and Thomas, [7] exists.

  5. Energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The study is not an engineering analysis but begins the process of exploring the potential for conservation and local renewable-resource development in a specific community, Northampton, Massachusetts, with the social, institutional, and environmental factors in that community taken into account. Section I is an extensive executive summary of the full study, and Section II is a detailed examination of the potential for increased local energy self-sufficiency in Northampton, including current and future demand estimates, the possible role of conservation and renewable resources, and a discussion of the economic and social implications of alternative energy systems. (MOW)

  6. Complex Assessment of Sufficiency of the Bank Resource Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizova Kateryna M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of methodical recommendations regarding assessment of sufficiency of the bank resource potential by means of identification and analysis of all its components and use of the method of rating assessment. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of foreign and Ukrainian scientists, the article considers a complex approach to the bank resource potential management. In the result of the study the article identifies specific features of a complex approach in the bank resource potential management. The method of geometric average and normative values of selected ratios for calculation was used for the generalising complex assessment of sufficiency of the bank resource potential. The rating assessment of the Public JSC Mercury Bank resource potential was calculated by such indicators as: debt, loan and own resources. The stated algorithm of the rating assessment of the resource potential could be applied for comparison of banks in dynamics.

  7. Vertex Pancyclicity and New Sufficient Conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kewen Zhao; Yue Lin

    2012-08-01

    For a graph ,() denotes the minimum degree of . In 1971, Bondy proved that, if is a 2-connected graph of order and $d(x)+d(y)≥ $ for each pair of non-adjacent vertices , in , then is pancyclic or $G=K_{n/2,n/2}$. In 2001, $Xu$ proved that, if is a 2-connected graph of order $n≥ 6$ and $|N(x)\\cup N(y)|+(G)≥ n$ for each pair of non-adjacent vertices , in , then is pancyclic or $G=K_{n/2,n/2}$. In this paper, we introduce a new sufficient condition of generalizing degree sum and neighborhood union and prove that, if is a 2-connected graph of order $n≥ 6$ and $|N(x)\\cup N(y)|+d(w)≥ n$ for any three vertices ,, of $d(x,y)=2$ and or $\

  8. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  9. Applying MacKinnon's 4Ps to Foster Creative Thinking and Creative Behaviours in Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Vassiliki; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify certain strategies and conditions that should be used by teachers in kindergarten so as to foster creative thinking and creative behaviours to children. We used a quasi-experimental research design for 6 months in a public kindergarten in a suburban area of Greece, and we developed a creative music and…

  10. The Relationship between Organizational Support Perceptions and Self-Sufficiencies of Logistics Sector Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sefer Gumus

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed in order to examine the relationship between organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of logistics sector employees and to determine whether organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of employees differ according to some specification. The questionnaire form consisting of perceived organizational support scale in accordance with the purpose, general self-sufficiency scale and personal information form, was applied to 124 empl...

  11. The Socioeconomic and Demographic Features of Children with Cerebral Palsi Applied to our Centre from Southern Eastern Anatolian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Nacitarhan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy is a general term which is used to describe a group of disorders that define muscle control impairment due to lesion in the developing brain. The aim of the present study was to indicate the common features of the children with cerebral palsy and their families in South Eastern region of Turkey, the most underdeveloped community in our country. In addition, the rate of marriage between the relatives (consanguineous marriage is higher in this region than the other regions.A total of 258 children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy were enrolled to our study. These children were born in South Eastern Anatolian region and live here throughout their childhood. Their families were also living in this region. The members of the families were interviewed with the questionnaire to obtain information. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with Graphpad Prism Ver 3.00.68.99 percent of the patients in our study were men, and 31.01 percent were women. They were between the ages of 10-375 months, average was 75.43±59.15 months. Rate of people, who was not under any social security guarantee, was 15.5%. 50.3% of mothers were not literate. Families’ income was 8.5% good, 42.6% poor. In families, there was 33.3% rate of relationship between partners (consanguineous marriage. In 15.5% of families, there was another retarded child. 55 percent of mothers were never been under health check in pregnancy period. Retarded child was usually from first delivery (26.3%. 3.1% of our patients had twin pregnancy. Only 59,6% of the whole births were given at the hospital or by the help of a midwife. Children were suckled along 6.4±6.4 months. Only 8,5% of the children were being educated.Finally, we concluded that reducing convertible risk factors caused by the low education level of our region, underdeveloped socioeconomic conditions and some traditions (e.g. consanguineous marriage and delivery in house instead of health organization has

  12. Applying a performance monitoring framework to increase reach and adoption of children's healthy eating and physical activity programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Louise; Lloyd, Beverley; Matthews, Rhonda; Bravo, Andrea; Wiggers, John; Rissel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The allocation of a significant amount of new funding for health promotion in Australia through the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (2009-14) created a unique opportunity to implement a comprehensive approach to the prevention of chronic diseases and demonstrate significant health improvements. Building on existing health promotion infrastructure in Local Health Districts, the NSW Ministry of Health adopted a scaled-up state-wide capacity-building model, designed to alter policies and practices in key children's settings to increase healthy eating and physical activity among children. NSW also introduced a performance monitoring framework to track implementation and impacts. This paper describes the model that NSW developed for monitoring state-wide programs in the Children's Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Program and presents the model's application to early childhood education and care and primary school settings, including current results. This approach to monitoring the scaling up of program implementation at the state-wide level has potential for more widespread application in other policy areas in NSW. PMID:25828447

  13. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  14. A Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle for Optimal Control of Jump Diffusions and Applications to Finance.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    We give a verification theorem by employing Arrow's generalization of the Mangasarian sufficient condition to a general jump diffusion setting, and show the adjoint processes' connections to dynamic programming. The result is applied to financial optimization problems.

  15. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  16. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6, with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02. Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population.

  17. Treatment Integrity of School-Based Interventions with Children in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Gresham, Frank M.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Reed, Derek D.

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed all school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" (JABA) between 1991 and 2005. A total of 142 articles (152 studies) that met review criteria were included. Nearly all (95%) of these experiments provided an operational definition of the independent variable,…

  18. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    can be used in the decision whether and how to continue the investigation. Highlight uncertainty evaluation of aspects of the Site Description judged to be critical to the decision of investigation sufficiency ('uncertainty of key aspects') and to help substantiate how these uncertainties should be explored such that they can be used in the decision analysis. In addressing these objectives the report describes some formal decision analyses tools, assessed potential feedback from Safety Assessment and Rock Engineering, explores some key uncertainty in the Site Description and also explores an example where the decision analyses tools are applied. Based on this work it is generally concluded that the question When to stop the site investigation is a decision problem. In simple words the site investigations should stop when the expected net gain of further investigations is zero or negative, where gain is related to the total cost, which includes several factors besides the direct monetary outlay. Furthermore, this decision perspective should be applied not only in determining the sufficiency of the programme, but also when optimising the remaining parts of the ongoing programme. In particular, it needs to be understood that the Site Investigation is only a step towards the ultimate decision of disposing waste and eventually sealing a repository. The cost and value of information obtained in the Site Investigation Phase, needs to be weighted against the costs and value of obtaining information during later stages. All issues need not be resolved during the Site Investigation Phase. Some could be much better handled later, e.g. during the construction and detailed investigation phase. More specifically, it is recommended to: to actively solicit feedback from Safety Assessment and Repository Engineering, keep track of the uncertainty evaluation of the key aspects of the Site Descriptive Models, develop the Underground Characterisation Programme as this is the next step

  19. Identification of the neural component of torque during manually-applied spasticity assessments in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-On, Lynn; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Harlaar, J.; Kindt, T; Aertbeliën, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Clinical assessment of spasticity is compromised by the difficulty to distinguish neural from non-neural components of increased joint torque. Quantifying the contributions of each of these components is crucial to optimize the selection of anti-spasticity treatments such as botulinum toxin (BTX). The aim of this study was to compare different biomechanical parameters that quantify the neural contribution to ankle joint torque measured during manually-applied passive stretches to the gastrocs...

  20. Self-sufficiency of an autonomous reconfigurable modular robotic organism

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Raja Humza

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how the principle of self-sufficiency can be applied to a reconfigurable modular robotic organism. It shows the design considerations for a novel REPLICATOR robotic platform, both hardware and software, featuring the behavioral characteristics of social insect colonies. Following a comprehensive overview of some of the bio-inspired techniques already available, and of the state-of-the-art in re-configurable modular robotic systems, the book presents a novel power management system with fault-tolerant energy sharing, as well as its implementation in the REPLICATOR robotic modules. In addition, the book discusses, for the first time, the concept of “artificial energy homeostasis” in the context of a modular robotic organism, and shows its verification on a custom-designed simulation framework in different dynamic power distribution and fault tolerance scenarios. This book offers an ideal reference guide for both hardware engineers and software developers involved in the design and implem...

  1. The Relationship between Organizational Support Perceptions and Self-Sufficiencies of Logistics Sector Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefer Gumus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to examine the relationship between organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of logistics sector employees and to determine whether organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of employees differ according to some specification. The questionnaire form consisting of perceived organizational support scale in accordance with the purpose, general self-sufficiency scale and personal information form, was applied to 124 employees of 3 separate logistics firms operating in Istanbul. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS17.0 statistical software package on computer. In the assessment of data, descriptive characteristics of employees were determined by frequency and percentage statistics and the self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels by the mean and standard deviation statistics. The t test, Tukey test and one-way Anova tests were utilized in determining employees' self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels differentiation according to descriptive characteristics, and correlation analysis was utilized in determining the relationship between self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels of employees. In conclusion, it was determined that there was statistical relationship between organizational support and self-sufficiency levels perceived by logistics sector employees. Accordingly, when employees' perceived organizational support levels increase then self-sufficiency levels also increase, and when perceived organizational support levels decrease then self-sufficiency levels also decrease.

  2. The Relationship Between Organizational Support Perceptions and Self-Sufficiencies of Logistics Sector Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefer Gumus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to examine the relationship between organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of logistics sector employees and to determine whether organizational support perceptions and self-sufficiency levels of employees differ according to some specification. The questionnaire form consisting of perceived organizational support scale in accordance with the purpose, general self-sufficiency scale and personal information form, was applied to 124 employees of 3 separate logistics firms operating in Istanbul. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS17.0 statistical software package on computer. In the assessment of data, descriptive characteristics of employees were determined by frequency and percentage statistics and the self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels by the mean and standard deviation statistics. The t test, Tukey test and one-way Anova tests were utilized in determining employees' self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels differentiation according to descriptive characteristics, and correlation analysis was utilized in determining the relationship between self-sufficiency and perceived organizational support levels of employees. In conclusion, it was determined that there was statistical relationship between organizational support and self-sufficiency levels perceived by logistics sector employees. Accordingly, when employees' perceived organizational support levels increase then self-sufficiency levels also increase, and when perceived organizational support levels decrease then self-sufficiency levels also decrease.

  3. Prediction of Mortality in Pediatric Burn Injuries: R-Baux Score to Be Applied in Children (Pediatrics-Baux Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: R-Baux score has obtained an acceptable validity and accuracy in predicting burn-related mortality. However, its usage and efficacy among pediatric burn patients has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to employ Pediatrics-Baux (P-Buax score as modified version of R-Baux score in these patients to determine how it could be applicable in this population.Methods: Through a prospective study, 870 pediatric burn patients were enrolled. P-Baux and R-Baux scores were calculated for each patient and they were categorized to different groups according to these scores. Mortality and further death probability were measured for each subject and then analyzed by logistic regression model to reveal how they change in relation with age in pediatric burn patients.Findings: R-Baux score for 95% probability of death revealed a mean of 73 among patients of this study. Also P-Baux score was measured in these patients with inhalation injury which showed to be 55 for 95% probability of death. Results showed that age had a positive prognostic value in contrast to the negative prognostic value of Total Body Surface Area (TBSA and inhalation injury.Conclusion: Our analysis showed that in children under the age of 15 years, age has a positive prognostic value while TBSA and inhalation injuries had negative prognostic values in relation to mortality. Hence, in contrast to the adult population, burn injury related mortality may be predicted by modified R-Baux score as (TBSA - age + [18×R] which could be named as P-Baux score.

  4. The Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy: a contribution to the theory of development

    OpenAIRE

    Prasopchoke Mongsawad

    2010-01-01

    The King of Thailand’s philosophy of sufficiency economy highlights a balanced way of living. Three principles—moderation, reasonableness, and self-immunity—along with the conditions of morality and knowledge can be applied to any level of the society—from an individual to a country. This article proposes that the philosophy of sufficiency economy conveys new theory in addressing current development challenges, which are issues of institutions, human capital, environmental sustainability and ...

  5. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, Karl-Erik [KEA Geo-konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    can be used in the decision whether and how to continue the investigation. Highlight uncertainty evaluation of aspects of the Site Description judged to be critical to the decision of investigation sufficiency ('uncertainty of key aspects') and to help substantiate how these uncertainties should be explored such that they can be used in the decision analysis. In addressing these objectives the report describes some formal decision analyses tools, assessed potential feedback from Safety Assessment and Rock Engineering, explores some key uncertainty in the Site Description and also explores an example where the decision analyses tools are applied. Based on this work it is generally concluded that the question When to stop the site investigation is a decision problem. In simple words the site investigations should stop when the expected net gain of further investigations is zero or negative, where gain is related to the total cost, which includes several factors besides the direct monetary outlay. Furthermore, this decision perspective should be applied not only in determining the sufficiency of the programme, but also when optimising the remaining parts of the ongoing programme. In particular, it needs to be understood that the Site Investigation is only a step towards the ultimate decision of disposing waste and eventually sealing a repository. The cost and value of information obtained in the Site Investigation Phase, needs to be weighted against the costs and value of obtaining information during later stages. All issues need not be resolved during the Site Investigation Phase. Some could be much better handled later, e.g. during the construction and detailed investigation phase. More specifically, it is recommended to: to actively solicit feedback from Safety Assessment and Repository Engineering, keep track of the uncertainty evaluation of the key aspects of the Site Descriptive Models, develop the Underground Characterisation Programme as this is the

  6. Sufficiency in optimal control without the strengthened condition of Legendre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Licea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we derive a sufficiency theorem of an unconstrained fixed-endpoint problem of Lagrange which provides sufficient conditions for processes which do not satisfy the standard assumption of nonsingularity, that is, the new sufficiency theorem does not impose the strengthened condition of Legendre. The proof of the sufficiency result is direct in nature since the former uses explicitly the positivity of the second variation, in contrast with possible generalizations of conjugate points, solutions of certain matrix Riccati equations, invariant integrals, or the Hamiltonian-Jacobi theory.

  7. 24 CFR 242.2 - Program financial self-sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program financial self-sufficiency... self-sufficiency and actuarial soundness; i.e., to avoid mortgage defaults and claims for insurance... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS General Eligibility Requirements § 242.2 Program financial...

  8. Sufficiency does energy consumption become a moral issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Adrian (Socio-economic Inst. and Univ. Research Priority Programme in Ethics, Univ. of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2009-07-01

    Reducing the externalities from energy use is crucial for sustainability. There are basically four ways to reduce externalities from energy use: increasing technical efficiency ('energy input per unit energy service'), increasing economic efficiency ('internalising external costs'), using 'clean' energy sources with few externalities, or sufficiency ('identifying 'optimal' energy service levels'). A combination of those strategies is most promising for sustainable energy systems. However, the debate on sustainable energy is dominated by efficiency and clean energy strategies, while sufficiency plays a minor role. Efficiency and clean energy face several problems, though. Thus, the current debate should be complemented with a critical discussion of sufficiency. In this paper, I develop a concept of sufficiency, which is adequate for liberal societies. I focus on ethical foundations for sufficiency, as the discussion of such is missing or cursory only in the existing literature. I first show that many examples of sufficiency can be understood as (economic) efficiency, but that the two concepts do not coincide. I then show that sufficiency based on moralization of actions can be understood as implementation of the boundary conditions for social justice that come with notions of liberal societies, in particular the duty not to harm other people. By this, to increase sufficiency becomes a duty beyond individual taste. I further illustrate this in the context of the adverse effects of climate change as externalities from energy use.

  9. Sufficient conditions for Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltyanski V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Principle [2,13] is a well known necessary condition for optimality. This condition, generally, is not sufficient. In [3], the author proved that if there exists regular synthesis of trajectories, the Maximum Principle also is a sufficient condition for time-optimality. In this article, we generalize this result for Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza optimization problems.

  10. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in 1958. The paper described a three stage plan for a sustainable nuclear energy program consistent with India's limited uranium but abundant thorium natural resources. In the first stage, natural uranium would be used to fuel graphite or heavy water moderated reactors. Plutonium extracted from the spent fuel of these thermal reactors would drive fast reactors in the second stage that would contain thorium blankets for breeding uranium-233 (U-233). In the final stage, this U-233 would fuel thorium burning reactors that would breed and fission U-233 in situ. This three stage blueprint still reigns as the core of India's civil nuclear power program. India's progress in the development of nuclear power, however, has been impacted by its isolation from the international nuclear community for its development of nuclear weapons and consequent refusal to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). Initially, India was engaged in numerous cooperative research programs with foreign countries; for example, under the 'Atoms for Peace' program, India acquired the Cirus reactor, a 40 MWt research reactor from Canada moderated with heavy water from the United States. India was also actively engaged in negotiations for the NPT. But, on May 18, 1974, India conducted a 'peaceful nuclear explosion' at Pokharan using plutonium produced by the Cirus reactor, abruptly ending the era of international collaboration. India then refused to sign the NPT, which it viewed as discriminatory since it would be required to join as a non-nuclear weapons state. As a result of India's actions, the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created in 1975 to establish guidelines 'to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities. These nuclear export controls have forced India to be largely self-sufficient in all nuclear

  11. Sufficient stochastic maximum principle in a regime-switching diffusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  12. Sufficient Descent Conjugate Gradient Methods for Solving Convex Constrained Nonlinear Monotone Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two unified frameworks of some sufficient descent conjugate gradient methods are considered. Combined with the hyperplane projection method of Solodov and Svaiter, they are extended to solve convex constrained nonlinear monotone equations. Their global convergence is proven under some mild conditions. Numerical results illustrate that these methods are efficient and can be applied to solve large-scale nonsmooth equations.

  13. Community Service and University Roles: An Action Research Based on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    This study employs action research to develop community service through university roles by applying the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to fulfill villagers' way of life. Participatory learning, seminar, field trip and supervision were employed for strategic plan. Data were collected by participatory…

  14. Standard Blood Pressure Target is Sufficient for Treating Some Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Wednesday, June 8, 2016 Standard blood pressure target is sufficient for treating some ... of Minnesota An international stroke study found that standard and intensive blood pressure treatments were equally effective ...

  15. Improving constraints on the neutrino mass using sufficient statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolk, M; Bel, J; Carbone, C; Carron, J

    2015-01-01

    We use the "Dark Energy and Massive Neutrino Universe" (DEMNUni) simulations to compare the constraining power of "sufficient statistics" with the standard matter power spectrum on the sum of neutrino masses, $M_\

  16. Bayes Linear Sufficiency in Non-exchangeable Multivariate Multiple Regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Wooff, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider sufficiency for Bayes linear revision for multivariate multiple regression problems, and in particular where we have a sequence of multivariate observations at different matrix design points, but with common parameter vector. Such sequences are not usually exchangeable. However, we show that there is a sequence of transformed observations which is exchangeable and we demonstrate that their mean is sufficient both for Bayes linear revision of the parameter vector and for prediction...

  17. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Learning in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program: Summary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontino, Jamie Lyn; Schaal, Kelly; Chambliss, Catherine

    This summary analysis discusses a series of studies that used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of children with autism. In the first study, the between-subjects analysis included data from eight children with autism (ages 5-7), with four on a gluten-free…

  18. Applying Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model to Identify the Negative Influences Facing Children with Physical Disabilities in Rural Areas in Kwa-Zulu Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Brenda; Nel, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Children with visible physical disabilities (CWPDs) living in rural areas of South Africa are a matter of particular concern. While all children living in rural areas face negative influences such as poverty and the high incidence of HIV/AIDS, this situation is exacerbated for CWPDs who are more vulnerable to these influences (Human Sciences…

  19. Rhetorically self-sufficient arguments in Western Australian parliamentary debates on Lesbian and Gay Law Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Mark

    2007-12-01

    Western Australia's Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Bill 2001 delivered a measure of legal equality in such areas as property transfer, superannuation, inheritance and discrimination, and more controversially, adoption, lesbian access to IVF, lowering the age of consent for sex between men from 21 to 16, and incorporating information on homosexuality into high school sex education classes. This paper examines the use of various moral principles within parliamentary speeches supporting or opposing the legislation, and the extent to which they were treated by members as beyond question, or 'rhetorically self-sufficient'. The resources of 'equality', 'human rights', 'democracy', 'the interests of the majority' and 'the interests of children' were given a kind of beyond-question, self-sufficient status, but their use was able to be undermined in a number of ways, relating to members' management of what the Bill was 'about', and the flexibility of these social constructs. It is argued that rather than pitting one set of resources against another, members on both sides of the debate faced a rhetorical pressure to adopt and mobilize all of the same self-sufficient moral resources, due to the flexible, constructed and non-hierarchical, yet often rhetorically self-sufficient nature of common-sense moral principles. PMID:17535460

  20. Sufficient observables for large scale structure in galaxy surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the linear regime, the power spectrum and higher order moments of the matter field no longer capture all cosmological information encoded in density fluctuations. While non-linear transforms have been proposed to extract this information lost to traditional methods, up to now, the way to generalize these techniques to discrete processes was unclear; ad hoc extensions had some success. We pointed out in Carron and Szapudi (2013) that the logarithmic transform approximates extremely well the optimal "sufficient statistics", observables that extract all information from the (continuous) matter field. Building on these results, we generalize optimal transforms to discrete galaxy fields. We focus our calculations on the Poisson sampling of an underlying lognormal density field. We solve and test the one-point case in detail, and sketch out the sufficient observables for the multi-point case. Moreover, we present an accurate approximation to the sufficient observables in terms of the mean and spectrum of a n...

  1. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  2. Quantification is Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient for Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being an infrastructural, widespread activity, measurement is laden with stereotypes. Some of these concern the role of measurement in the relation between quality and quantity. In particular, it is sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is necessary for measurement; it is also sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is sufficient for or synonymous with measurement. To assess the validity of these positions the concepts of measurement and quantitative evaluation should be independently defined and their relationship analyzed. We contend that the defining characteristic of measurement should be the structure of the process, not a feature of its results. Under this perspective, quantitative evaluation is neither sufficient nor necessary for measurement

  3. Minimal sufficient statistics in location-scale parameter models

    OpenAIRE

    Mattner, Lutz

    2000-01-01

    Let f be a probability density on the real line, let n be any positive integer, and assume the condition (R) that logf is locally integrable with respect to Lebesgue measure. Then either logf is almost everywhere equal to a polynomial of degree less than n, or the order statistic of n independent and identically distributed observations from the location-scale parameter model generated by f is minimal sufficient. It follows, subject to (R) and n≥3, that a complete sufficient statistic exists ...

  4. Muscular sufficiency, serum protein, enzymes and bioenergetic studies in chronic malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle sufficiency was significantly lower in 1336 children with chronic malnutrition of moderate to severe degree. 18 children with a chronic moderate degree of malnutrition and 8 well-nourished age-matched controls were selected for biochemical and 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31-P MRS) studies. The results shows that: a) serum total protein, albumin, iron, calcium and inorganic phosphate were similar in both groups; b) serum enzyme levels were significantly increased in the malnuourished group; c) 31-P MRS showed significantly higher means for total ATP, β-ATP, α-ATP and inorganic phosphate for the malnourished compared to the control group. In chronic malnutrition, proteins are maintained by degradation in muscle resulting in release of amino acids and enzymes. 31-P MRS studies showing increases in total ATP, β-ATP and inorganic phosphate and a decrease in phosphocreatine suggest that ATP is maintained at the cost of phosphocreatine. 22 refs., 4 tabs. 1 fig

  5. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Inclusion Relations for Absolute Summability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B E Rhoades; Ekrem Savaş

    2003-08-01

    We obtain a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for $| \\overline{N}, p_n|_k$ to imply $|\\overline{N}, q_n|_s$ for 1 < ≤ < ∞. Using this result we establish several inclusion theorems as well as conditions for the equivalence of $|\\overline{N}, p_n|_k$ and $|\\overline{N}, q_n|_s$.

  6. Sufficient observables for large-scale structure in galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, J.; Szapudi, I.

    2014-03-01

    Beyond the linear regime, the power spectrum and higher order moments of the matter field no longer capture all cosmological information encoded in density fluctuations. While non-linear transforms have been proposed to extract this information lost to traditional methods, up to now, the way to generalize these techniques to discrete processes was unclear; ad hoc extensions had some success. We pointed out in Carron and Szapudi's paper that the logarithmic transform approximates extremely well the optimal `sufficient statistics', observables that extract all information from the (continuous) matter field. Building on these results, we generalize optimal transforms to discrete galaxy fields. We focus our calculations on the Poisson sampling of an underlying lognormal density field. We solve and test the one-point case in detail, and sketch out the sufficient observables for the multipoint case. Moreover, we present an accurate approximation to the sufficient observables in terms of the mean and spectrum of a non-linearly transformed field. We find that the corresponding optimal non-linear transformation is directly related to the maximum a posteriori Bayesian reconstruction of the underlying continuous field with a lognormal prior as put forward in the paper of Kitaura et al.. Thus, simple recipes for realizing the sufficient observables can be built on previously proposed algorithms that have been successfully implemented and tested in simulations.

  7. The Indochinese in America: Progress Towards Self Sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, John

    Despite suspicion in some quarters that refugee resettlement has been unduly expensive, evidence indicates that the Indochinese have made steady progress toward self-sufficiency. The majority of Hmong refugees in Providence, Rhode Island, for example, which has been "heavily impacted" by the large number of Indochinese who have become its newest…

  8. Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Stability of Generalized Expectation Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz El Kaabouchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of generalized definitions of expectation value is often employed in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics for complex systems. Here, the necessary and sufficient condition is presented for such a class to be stable under small deformations of a given arbitrary probability distribution.

  9. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  10. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  11. Reconfigurable self-sufficient traps for ultracold atoms based on a superconducting square

    CERN Document Server

    Siercke, M; Zhang, B; Beian, M; Lim, M J; Dumke, R

    2012-01-01

    We report on the trapping of ultracold atoms in the magnetic field formed entirely by persistent supercurrents induced in a thin film type-II superconducting square. The supercurrents are carried by vortices induced in the 2D structure by applying two magnetic field pulses of varying amplitude perpendicular to its surface. This results in a self-sufficient quadrupole trap that does not require any externally applied fields. We investigate the trapping parameters for different supercurrent distributions. Furthermore, to demonstrate possible applications of these types of supercurrent traps we show how a central quadrupole trap can be split into four traps by the use of a bias field.

  12. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE DOMAN-DELACATO THEORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AS IT APPLIES TO TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KERSHNER, JOHN R.

    THIS STUDY USED TWO INTACT CLASSES OF PUBLIC SCHOOL TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES DERIVED FROM THE DOMAN-DELACATO THEORY OF PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONSISTED OF SEVEN MALES AND SIX FEMALES FROM AGE 8 TO 18 AND THE CONTROL GROUP CONSISTED OF 10 MALES AND SIX…

  13. Conspicuous by Their Absence: Studies Comparing and Combining Risperidone and Applied Behavior Analysis to Reduce Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Marc; Ehrhardt, Kristal; Poling, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Both risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and function-based behavior-analytic interventions are popular and empirically validated treatments for reducing challenging behavior in children with autism. The kind of research that supports their effectiveness differs, however, and no published study has directly compared their effects or…

  14. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response…

  15. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation. PMID:25225770

  16. Asymptotically Sufficient Statistics in Nonparametric Regression Experiments with Correlated Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Andrew V

    2009-01-01

    We find asymptotically sufficient statistics that could help simplify inference in nonparametric regression problems with correlated errors. These statistics are derived from a wavelet decomposition that is used to whiten the noise process and to effectively separate high-resolution and low-resolution components. The lower-resolution components contain nearly all the available information about the mean function, and the higher-resolution components can be used to estimate the error covarianc...

  17. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    OpenAIRE

    David Trafimow

    2015-01-01

    The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables accou...

  18. Quantitative Macro Versus Sufficient Statistic Approach: A Laffer Curve Dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Badel, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights two approaches to tax policy for the top 1 percent of earners. On the one hand are dynamic general equilibrium models requiring complicated calibration and simulation algorithms and strong structural assumptions. On the other hand is the sufficient statistic approach, which attempts to parsimoniously reach the trinity of empirical, theoretical, and policy relevance. The author illustrates ongoing work highlighting explicit connections between these two approaches.

  19. Use of Monte Carlo Bootstrap Method in the Analysis of Sample Sufficiency for Radioecological Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are operational difficulties in obtaining samples for radioecological studies. Population data may no longer be available during the study and obtaining new samples may not be possible. These problems do the researcher sometimes work with a small number of data. Therefore, it is difficult to know whether the number of samples will be sufficient to estimate the desired parameter. Hence, it is critical do the analysis of sample sufficiency. It is not interesting uses the classical methods of statistic to analyze sample sufficiency in Radioecology, because naturally occurring radionuclides have a random distribution in soil, usually arise outliers and gaps with missing values. The present work was developed aiming to apply the Monte Carlo Bootstrap method in the analysis of sample sufficiency with quantitative estimation of a single variable such as specific activity of a natural radioisotope present in plants. The pseudo population was a small sample with 14 values of specific activity of 226Ra in forage palm (Opuntia spp.). Using the R software was performed a computational procedure to calculate the number of the sample values. The re sampling process with replacement took the 14 values of original sample and produced 10,000 bootstrap samples for each round. Then was calculated the estimated average θ for samples with 2, 5, 8, 11 and 14 values randomly selected. The results showed that if the researcher work with only 11 sample values, the average parameter will be within a confidence interval with 90% probability . (Author)

  20. Technology for human self-sufficiency in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed Pathfinder program would determine the critical human and technology requirements for human self-sufficiency and productivity on manned and long-duration missions to the moon and Mars. Human health would require countermeasures against weightlessness, protection from space radiation and habitats conducive to psychological well-being. Life support systems would need regeneration of expendable resources, power systems for plant life support and processing; and microbial contaminant control. Operational performance requirements include extravehicular activities suit, interactive systems for shared control between humans and computers, and human-centered semi-autonomous systems.

  1. Stabilizing and destabilizing Heegaard splittings of sufficiently complicated 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, David

    2012-01-01

    Let M_1 and M_2 be compact, orientable 3-manifolds with incompressible boundary, and M the manifold obtained by gluing with a homeomorphism $\\phi:\\bdy M_1 \\to \\bdy M_2$. We analyze the relationship between the sets of low genus Heegaard splittings of M_1, M_2, and M, assuming the map \\phi is "sufficiently complicated." This analysis yields counter-examples to the Stabilization Conjecture, a resolution of the higher genus analogue of a conjecture of Gordon, and a result about the uniqueness of expressions of Heegaard splittings as amalgamations.

  2. Necessary and sufficient conditions to perform Spectral Tetris

    OpenAIRE

    Casazza, Peter,; Heinecke, Andreas; Kornelson, Keri; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Zhengfang

    2012-01-01

    Spectral Tetris has proved to be a powerful tool for constructing sparse equal norm Hilbert space frames. We introduce a new form of Spectral Tetris which works for non-equal norm frames. It is known that this method cannot construct all frames --- even in the new case introduced here. Until now, it has been a mystery as to why Spectral Tetris sometimes works and sometimes fails. We will give a complete answer to this mystery by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for Spectral Tetris t...

  3. Pathogens in Sludge: A Case of Sufficient Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesilind, R. Aarne

    2003-07-01

    There is increasing pressure in many countries to strengthen the regulations controlling the land disposal of wastewater sludges. In this paper I argue that although there is little doubt that sludges from wastewater treatment contain pathogenic organisms, not only are there no data to show that such disposal is a public health problem, but I want to suggest that small doses of pathogens in the environment provide a ''sufficient challenge'' that actually enhances public health. There therefore seems little reason, from a public health standpoint, to pass stricter sludge disposal regulations. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy - one road to self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Canada is richly endowed with energy resources, it is not energy self-sufficient because a large part of one of these resources, oil, is locked in the Alberta tar sands and is difficult to extract. Thus, Canada is a net importer of oil, and will continue to be so unless additional, accessible oil is discovered; other energy sources are used to substitute for oil; more efficient ways to extract tar-sands oil are developed. Nuclear energy from CANDU reactors can be used to substitute for oil and to extract oil from the tar sands, thus contributing to energy self-sufficiency. However, a major shift to nuclear energy as a substitute for oil can only occur if there is a guaranteed long-term supply of nuclear fuel. The paper indicates several areas where nuclear energy could substitute for oil and how it could be used to produce oil from the tar sands. The status of Canada's nuclear fuel supply is also reviewed and several advanced fuel-cycle options are described to show that CANDU reactors can provide Canada with a stable, long-term source of energy. (auth)

  5. On the Necessary and Sufficient Assumptions for UC Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    for all of them. Perhaps most interestingly we show that: •  For even the minimal meaningful KRA, where we only assume that the secret key is a value which is hard to compute from the public key, one can UC securely compute any poly-time functionality if there exists a passive secure oblivious-transfer...... protocol for the stand-alone model. Since a KRA where the secret keys can be computed from the public keys is useless, and some setup assumption is needed for UC secure computation, this establishes the best we could hope for the KRA model: any non-trivial KRA is sufficient for UC computation. •  We show...... that in the KRA model one-way functions are sufficient for UC commitment and UC zero-knowledge. These are the first examples of UC secure protocols for non-trivial tasks which do not assume the existence of public-key primitives. In particular, the protocols show that non-trivial UC computation is...

  6. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  7. Comparative Study of Four Growth Models Applied to Weight and Height Growth Data in a Cohort of US Children from Birth to 9 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, N.; Gillman, M. W.; Kleinman, K.; Rifas-Shiman, S.; Botton, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The objective of our study was to compare the fit of four growth models for weight and height in contemporary US children between birth and 9 years. Methods In Project Viva, we collected weight and height growth data between birth and 9 years. We compared the Jenss model, the adapted Jenss model that adds a quadratic term, and the Reed 1st and 2nd order models. We used the log likelihood ratio test to compare nested models and the Akaike (AIC)/Bayesian information criterion (BIC) to compare nonnested models. Results For weight and height, the adapted Jenss model had a better fit than the Jenss model (for weight: p < 0.0001), and the Reed 2nd order model had a better fit than the Reed 1st order model (for weight: p < 0.0001). Compared with the Reed 2nd order model, the adapted Jenss model had a better fit for both weight (adapted Jenss vs. Reed 2nd order, AIC: 66,974 vs. 82,791, BIC: 67,066 vs. 82,883) and height (adapted Jenss vs. Reed 2nd order, AIC: 87,108 vs. 87,612, BIC: 87,196 vs. 87,700). Conclusions In this pre-birth study of children aged 0–9 years, for both weight and height the adapted Jenss model presented the best fit of all four tested models. PMID:25413655

  8. Necessary and sufficient conditions to perform Spectral Tetris

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter; Kornelson, Keri; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Zhengfang

    2012-01-01

    Spectral Tetris has proved to be a powerful tool for constructing sparse equal norm Hilbert space frames. We introduce a new form of Spectral Tetris which works for non-equal norm frames. It is known that this method cannot construct all frames --- even in the new case introduced here. Until now, it has been a mystery as to why Spectral Tetris sometimes works and sometimes fails. We will give a complete answer to this mystery by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for Spectral Tetris to construct frames in all cases including equal norm frames, prescribed norm frames, frames with constant spectrum of the frame operator, and frames with prescribed spectrum for the frame operator. We present a variety of examples as well as special cases where Spectral Tetris always works.

  9. Artificial Self-Sufficient P450 in Reversed Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Nagamune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing monooxygenases that require electron transfer proteins for their catalytic activities. They prefer hydrophobic compounds as substrates and it is, therefore, desirable to perform their reactions in non-aqueous media. Reversed micelles can stably encapsulate proteins in nano-scaled water pools in organic solvents. However, in the reversed micellar system, when multiple proteins are involved in a reaction they can be separated into different micelles and it is then difficult to transfer electrons between proteins. We show here that an artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450, which is an enzymatically crosslinked fusion protein composed of P450 and electron transfer proteins, showed micelle-size dependent catalytic activity in a reversed micellar system. Furthermore, the presence of thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase promoted the P450-catalyzed reaction due to cofactor regeneration.

  10. Sufficient conditions of endemic threshold on metapopulation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we focus on susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on metapopulation networks in which nodes represent subpopulations. Recent studies suggest that heterogeneous network structure between elements plays an important role in determining the threshold of infection rate at the onset of epidemics, one of fundamental quantities governing epidemic dynamics. We consider the general case in which the infection rate at each node depends on its population size, as shown in recent empirical observations. We prove that the sufficient condition for the endemic threshold (i.e., its upper bound), which was previously derived based on a mean-field approximation of network structure, also holds true for arbitrary networks. We also derive an improved condition which implies that networks with the rich-club property (that is, high connectivity between nodes with large number of links) are more favorable to disease spreading. The dependency of infection rate on population size introduces remarkable differ...

  11. Are emotions necessary and sufficient for making moral judgments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Sousa Alves

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n1p113Jesse Prinz (2006, 2007 claimed that emotions are necessary and sufficient for moral judgments. First of all, I clarify what this claim amounts to. The view that he labels emotionism will then be critically assessed. Prinz marshals empirical findings to defend a series of increasingly strong theses about how emotions are essential for moral judgments. I argue that the empirical support upon which his arguments are based is not only insufficient, but it even suggests otherwise, if properly interpreted. My criticism is then extended to his sentimentalist theory, that accounts for how emotions are integrated into moral judgments. The central problem is that Prinz’s view fails to capture the rational aspect of moral evaluation. I make this failure explicit and defend that some version or other of neosentimentalism is a more promising route.

  12. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables account for variance (or how much traditional variables account for variance, to see whether they are important, in general or with respect to specific behaviors under investigation. But this approach tacitly assumes that accounting for variance is highly relevant to understanding the production of variance, which is what really is at issue. Based on the variance law, I question this assumption.

  13. Sufficient conditions for a flexible manufacturing system to be deadlocked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Deering

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have been interested in scheduling algorithms to avoid deadlock in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS. FMS are discrete event systems characterized by the availability of resources to produce a set of products. Raw parts, which belong to various product types, enter the system at discrete times and are processed concurrently while sharing a limited number of resources. In such systems, a situation may occur in which parts become permanently block. This is called deadlock. This paper presents the sufficient conditions for deadlock to exist in a FMS; it models a FMS using digraphs to calculate slack, knot, order and space; it identifies three types of circuits that are fundamental in determining if a FMS is in deadlock.

  14. Using scientifically and statistically sufficient statistics in comparing image segmentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E

    2010-01-01

    Automatic computer segmentation in three dimensions creates opportunity to reduce the cost of three-dimensional treatment planning of radiotherapy for cancer treatment. Comparisons between human and computer accuracy in segmenting kidneys in CT scans generate distance values far larger in number than the number of CT scans. Such high dimension, low sample size (HDLSS) data present a grand challenge to statisticians: how do we find good estimates and make credible inference? We recommend discovering and using scientifically and statistically sufficient statistics as an additional strategy for overcoming the curse of dimensionality. First, we reduced the three-dimensional array of distances for each image comparison to a histogram to be modeled individually. Second, we used non-parametric kernel density estimation to explore distributional patterns and assess multi-modality. Third, a systematic exploratory search for parametric distributions and truncated variations led to choosing a Gaussian form as approximating the distribution of a cube root transformation of distance. Fourth, representing each histogram by an individually estimated distribution eliminated the HDLSS problem by reducing on average 26,000 distances per histogram to just 2 parameter estimates. In the fifth and final step we used classical statistical methods to demonstrate that the two human observers disagreed significantly less with each other than with the computer segmentation. Nevertheless, the size of all disagreements was clinically unimportant relative to the size of a kidney. The hierarchal modeling approach to object-oriented data created response variables deemed sufficient by both the scientists and statisticians. We believe the same strategy provides a useful addition to the imaging toolkit and will succeed with many other high throughput technologies in genetics, metabolomics and chemical analysis. PMID:24967000

  15. An approach towards the proof of the strong Goldbach's conjecture for sufficiently large even integers

    OpenAIRE

    Sabihi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We approach a new proof of the strong Goldbach's conjecture for sufficiently large even integers by applying the Dirichlet's series. Using the Perron formula and the Residue Theorem in complex variable integration, one could show that any large even integer is demonstrated as a sum of two primes. In this paper,the Riemann Hypothesis is assumed to be true in throughout the paper. A novel function is defined on the natural numbers set.This function is a typical sieve function.Then based on this...

  16. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  17. Applied Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.

  18. Wnt4 is not sufficient to induce lobuloalveolar mammary development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelegri Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brisken et al (2000 showed that Wnt4 null mammary glands were deficient in early lobuloalveolar mammary outgrowth during pregnancy, and implicated Wnt4 as an effector for the progesterone-induced mammary growth program. Though ectopic Wnt1 signaling is known to be mitogenic and oncogenic, no endogenously expressed Wnt ligands have ever been directly implicated in mammary growth and morphogenesis. Therefore, we generated conditional transgenic mice to test whether Wnt4 can stimulate mammary epithelial cell growth. Results We found that despite pregnancy-associated expression levels of Wnt4, mammary glands did not display the side-branching typical of early pregnancy. Control experiments designed to test the Wnt4 construct in zebrafish reproduced other studies that demonstrated Wnt4-specific phenotypes distinct from Wnt1-induced phenotypes. Indeed, using qPCR-based array analyses, we found that a specific transcriptional target of Wnt4, namely Wnt16, was induced in Wnt4-expressing transgenic glands, to levels equivalent to that of early pregnant glands. Conclusion Taken together, we propose that Wnt4 is necessary, but not sufficient, to induce side-branch development.

  19. On necessity and sufficiency in counseling and psychotherapy (revisited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Arnold A

    2007-09-01

    It seems to me that Carl Rogers (see record 2007-14639-002) was far too ambitious in trying to specify general conditions of necessity and sufficiency that would be relevant to the entire spectrum of problems and the diverse expectancies and personalities of the people who seek our help. Rogers' position and orientation almost totally overlook the array of problems under the rubric of "response deficits" that stem from misinformation and missing information and call for active correction, training, and retraining. Rogers also paid scant attention to problems with significant biological determinants. Nevertheless, as exemplified by his seminal 1957 article and many other articles and books, Rogers made major contributions within the domain of the therapeutic alliance. Today, the scientific emphasis looks at accountability, the need to establish various treatments of choice, and the need to understand their presumed mechanisms. Treatment efficacy and generalizability across different methodologies are now considered key issues. The efficacy narrowing and clinically self-limiting consequences of adhering to one particular school of thought are now self-evident to most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122247

  20. Syndesmotic Malreduction after Ankle ORIF; Is Radiography Sufficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Manafi Rasi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Ankle fractures, especially those resulting from external rotation mechanisms are associated with injury to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Some authors have recommended performing CT scanning after open ankle surgery to evaluate the reduction of syndesmosis. In this current study, we aimed to investigate the sensitivity of plain radiography in diagnosing syndesmosis malreduction after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF in patients with ankle fractures.   Methods: Thirty patients with ankle fractures participated in this prospective study. ORIFs were performed with respect to all of the technical guidelines shown in orthopedic literature for exact syndesmosis reduction, such as fibular length and proper settings. In the operating room, plain radiography was performed in anteroposterior, mortise and lateral views to assess whether syndesmosis was malreduced. If malreduction was detected, the patient was revised. As the gold standard, patients underwent postoperative bilateral CT scanning to investigate the syndesmosis reduction which was then compared to the healthy side. Finally, the sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of syndesmosis malreduction was determined by comparing this method to CT scanning. Results: In both of the methods we did not find any patient with syndesmosis malreduction. Hence, the sensitivity of plain radiography was determined 100%. Conclusion: Based on our findings, there is no need to perform CT scanning to evaluate syndesmosis reduction after ankle ORIF in patients with ankle fractures. Plain radiography is sufficient and has satisfactory sensitivity in these patients.

  1. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  2. 78 FR 59048 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Family Self-Sufficiency Program (FSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Family Self- Sufficiency Program..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Family Self-Sufficiency... toward economic independence and self-sufficiency. Public Housing Agencies consult with local...

  3. Lessons learned in obtaining efficient and sufficient applications of the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US NRC and its contractors developed the PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables) process in 1989 as part of the CSAU (Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty) effort. As originally conceived and applied to a PWR LBLOCA the process proved highly successful. However, the process application was somewhat complex and labor intensive. As a first-of-a-kind product the process did not necessarily recognize future applications in which more limited objectives would be sufficient. In the intervening fourteen years the process has been applied and refined in more than fifteen projects, for example Light water reactor accident scenarios: Large break LOCA, Small break LOCA, Main steam-line break, Steam generator tube rupture, Debris transport in wet and dry containments, Containment coatings, High burnup fuel under accident conditions, Burnup credit, TRISO fuel (manufacturing, operation, and accident life-cycle phases). These subsequent applications have demonstrated the original process can be made more efficient in execution and yet retain the desired sufficiency in results. The objective of this paper is to summarize the significant lessons learned in efficient application of the process

  4. Applied mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.C.; Hausen, D.M.; Hagni, R.D. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    A conference on applied mineralogy was held and figures were presented under the following headings: methodology (including image analysis); ore genesis; exploration; beneficiations (including precious metals); process mineralogy - low and high temperatures; and medical science applications. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  5. FISHBURN’S METHOD: A METHOD OF DRUGS CLINICAL EFFICIENCY EVALUATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF ANTIBIOTICS, APPLIED FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND RECIDIVOUS OBSTRUCTIVE BRONCHITIS OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a structure of a therapy with antibiotics which is applied for patients with acute and recidivous obstructive bronchitis. We have determined a clinical efficiency of each antibiotic used. We have presented a methodology of weight coefficients calculation efficiency by the Fishburn’s method. We have also presented a method for antibiotics distribution by the levels of clinical efficiency – high, medium, and low.

  6. National Energy Plan 1997 - 2010; Sustainable Energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present revision of the PEN consists of two parts, a diagnosis and a strategy. In the diagnosis; the evolution and the changes are analyzed foreseen in the international and national environments to establish the form like the energy sector is affected and it responds to these conditions. In second part it revises the strategy to incorporate the required adjustments of agreement with the changes in the environment, the demand perspectives and sector and national politics limits. In the international thing, the process of transformation of the system economic World cup will contribute to strengthen the liberalization actions, deregulation and privatization of the economies of the development countries. Great part of the dynamics growth, will be sustained then in the private investment and in an atmosphere of global competition. The formation of regional blocks opens favorable perspectives for new cooperation forms and development of resources. In the case of the American hemisphere and with reference to the energy sector, one has an important potential to improve the self-sufficiency starting from regional supplies, especially starting from fossil resources. This expectation is important for Colombia that has well-known reservations and important potentials in these resources. The tendencies waited in the fossil resources are more favorable for the countries than they can have reservations and growing production of petroleum and of natural gas. Nevertheless, the development of the coal maintains favorable expectations, but with important requirements as for efficiency and quality in the production that it guarantee the positioning in a more and more concerned market. In the environmental thing, the growth foreseen in the consumption of fossil fuels also bears to the increment in the 2010 in the greenhouse gases, at levels between 36% and 49% superiors to those of 1990. That most of this increment will originate in the in the development countries and

  7. Innovation in Feed Technology for Self Sufficiency in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is self sufficient in poultry production to meet the local demand for broiler and egg, mainly derived from modern poultry rather than the local village chicken. Feed may contribute up to 70% of total cost of poultry production. Poultry feed is formulated using least cost feed formulation technique to meet the bird requirement and composed by several ingredients both locally available and imported materials. Feed ingredients are classified based on energy sources, protein sources, agro-industrial by products, mineral sources and supplements. In many cases the poultry feed was supplemented with additives (antibiotics, enzymes, preservatives, etc. to improve animal performance. In 2005, Indonesian feed production reached almost 7 million tonnes and comprised around 85% as poultry feed, while the rest for aquaculture, swine and others. Poultry feed is based on corn-soy diet and average corn usage may reach more than 55% while soybean meal more than 23%. Ingredients requirement has been calculated based on the feed production and in order to fulfill the requirement. In 2006, Indonesia will import more than 1.6 million tonnes of corn from Argentina, USA and China, and more than 1.5 million tonnes of protein meal due to insufficiency of the local production. Major problems related in feed production are raw materials supply, quality and price fluctuation along with limited information. Several research have been conducted to use unconventional ingredients as protein sources such as local beans, leguminous seeds, leaf protein, animal by products but they were limited in availability. Research to improve protein level from carbohydrate source or by products had been attempted but it was not feasible for commercial feed industry. In future, technology innovation should be developed based on the existing problems related with feed industry including the areas to improve production efficiency, managing feed quality, processing technology and feed

  8. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  9. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  10. Promoting physical activity for psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youth (4.th-6.th grade): Applying the RE-AIM evaluation framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    best available research evidence with local context and experiences, adaptation, implementation and evaluation of the intervention. The RE-AIM model, initially developed to evaluate public health interventions, is adapted to the present intervention program on physical activity and well......Purpose This study focuses on the stepwise development of a multicomponent school-based physical activity intervention Move for Well-being in Schools using the RE-AIM framework (Glasgow et al. 1999, Glasgow & Emmons 2007). The framework is applied to guide integrative use of both process and...... corresponded to what was intended. Conclusions Project results will enable us to point out new and evidence-informed ways to design, pilot, implement and evaluate multicomponent physical activity interventions in the school setting. In this way we contribute to ongoing discussions on how best to enhance well...

  11. CONCEPTOS GENERALES SOBRE ABA EN NIÑOS CON TRASTORNO DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA General concepts concerning applied behaviour analysis (ABA in children suffering autistic spectrum disorders (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elizabeth Piñeros-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA son entidades que generan discapacidad. Diversas intervenciones psicofarmacológicas y psicosociales modulan algunas de las alteraciones comportamentales asociadas y mejoran la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y de sus cuidadores. La terapia ABA es una de las intervenciones psicosociales más conocidas y utilizada en población con TEA. Mediante de la formulación de preguntas clave y sus respuestas, este artículo realiza una breve descripción de los aspectos históricos, las principales características y los fundamentos teóricos del ABA. Se discuten los resultados de diversos estudios que señalan las limitaciones metodológicas de las investigaciones sobre la efectividad de esta terapia y sus implicaciones para la práctica clínica.Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD cause disability. Psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions modulate some of the associated behavioural alterations and improve the quality of life for those affected and the people caring for them. Applied behaviour analysis (ABA therapy is one of the most well-known psychosocial interventions and is used with populations suffering ASD. This article gives a brief description of the historical aspects, the main characteristics and theoretical foundations regarding applied behaviour analysis (ABA by formulating key questions and their (expected responses. The results of some pertinent studies are discussed, pointing out the methodological limitations of research into the effectiveness of this therapy and its implications for clinical practice.

  12. Energy self-sufficient sensory ball screw drive; Energieautarker sensorischer Kugelgewindetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays the availability of machine tools plays a decisive role in competition to increase in productivity. From state of the art it arises, that ball screw drives are the most abusive component in feed drives because of abrasive wear. Furthermore condition monitoring enables avoiding unplanned machine failure and increasing the availability of the deployed production facility. Thereby the application of additional sensors allows the direct acquisition of wear correlative measurements. To reduce the required effort for integration and increase the robustness, reliability and clarity in industrial environment energy self-sufficient sensor systems can be applied. In this thesis the development and investigation of an energy self-sufficient sensory ball screw drive with direct measurement of wear correlative pretension for condition monitoring application is described. The prototype measures the pretension with force sensors based on strain gauges. The sensor system includes microcontroller-based electronics for signal processing as well as wireless data transmission with ZigBee-standard. A hybrid system assures the energy supply of the sensor system. On the one hand a stepper motor generator produces electrical energy from the motion energy of the ball screw drive. On the other hand an energy buffer based on super caps is reloaded in stationary position by wireless energy transmission. For verification a prototype system is build up. In measurements the sensory and energetic characteristics of the energy self-sufficient sensor systems are analyzed. Moreover, the functionality of the ball screw drive as well as the signal characteristics of the force sensors are examined for different pretensions. In addition, pretension losses due to wear are established in realized endurance trials, which means that timely maintenance can be planned.

  13. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  14. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  15. Simple sufficient conditions for the generalized covariant entropy bound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalized covariant entropy bound is the conjecture that for any null hypersurface which is generated by geodesics with nonpositive expansion starting from a spacelike 2-surface B and ending in a spacelike 2-surface B', the matter entropy on that hypersurface will not exceed one quarter of the difference in areas, in Planck units, of the two spacelike 2-surfaces. We show that this bound can be derived from the following phenomenological assumptions: (i) matter entropy can be described in terms of an entropy current sa; (ii) the gradient of the entropy current is bounded by the energy density, in the sense that vertical bar kakb∇asb vertical bar ≤2πTabkakb/(ℎ/2π) for any null vector ka where Tab is the stress energy tensor; and (iii) the entropy current sa vanishes on the initial 2-surface B. We also show that the generalized Bekenstein bound--the conjecture that the entropy of a weakly gravitating isolated matter system will not exceed a constant times the product of its mass and its width--can be derived from our assumptions. Though we note that any local description of entropy has intrinsic limitations, we argue that our assumptions apply in a wide regime. We closely follow the framework of an earlier derivation, but our assumptions take a simpler form, making their validity more transparent in some examples

  16. Necessary and Sufficient Lyapunov-Like Conditions for Robust Nonlinear Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Karafyllis, Iasson

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology for the expression of necessary and sufficient Lyapunov-like conditions for the existence of stabilizing feedback laws. The methodology is an extension of the well-known Control Lyapunov Function (CLF) method and can be applied to very general nonlinear time-varying systems with disturbance and control inputs, including both finite- and infinite-dimensional systems. The generality of the proposed methodology is also reflected upon by the fact that partial stability with respect to output variables is addressed. In addition, it is shown that the generalized CLF method can lead to a novel tool for the explicit design of robust nonlinear controllers for a class of time-delay nonlinear systems with a triangular structure.

  17. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform.

  18. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gallo, Giulia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Revenue insufficiency, or the missing money problem, occurs when the revenues that generators earn from the market are not sufficient to cover both fixed and variable costs to remain in the market and/or justify investments in new capacity, which may be needed for reliability. The near-zero marginal cost of variable renewable generators further exacerbates these revenue challenges. Estimating the extent of the missing money problem in current electricity markets is an important, nontrivial task that requires representing both how the power system operates and how market participants behave. This paper explores the missing money problem using a production cost model that represented a simplified version of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy-only market for the years 2012-2014. We evaluate how various market structures -- including market behavior, ancillary services, and changing fleet compositions -- affect net revenues in this ERCOT-like system. In most production cost modeling exercises, resources are assumed to offer their marginal capabilities at marginal costs. Although this assumption is reasonable for feasibility studies and long-term planning, it does not adequately consider the market behaviors that impact revenue sufficiency. In this work, we simulate a limited set of market participant strategic bidding behaviors by means of different sets of markups; these markups are applied to the true production costs of all gas generators, which are the most prominent generators in ERCOT. Results show that markups can help generators increase their net revenues overall, although net revenues may increase or decrease depending on the technology and the year under study. Results also confirm that conventional, variable-cost-based production cost simulations do not capture prices accurately, and this particular feature calls for proxies for strategic behaviors (e.g., markups) and more accurate representations of how electricity markets work. The

  19. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  20. 主成分分析在儿童身体素质综合评价中的应用%Applied principal component analysis in physical quality a~essment of preschool children in Beijing.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一辰; 孟杰; 何辉; 潘迎

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Applied principal component analysis in assessing preschool children physical quality in different areas of Beijing. [Methods] Excellent rate of physical quality indicators were studied which including: shuttle run. Standing long jump, throw for distance, eet consecutive jump, seat proneness and walk balance beam by the principal component analysis of preschool children in different areas of Beijing from annual report. [Results] 6 eigenvectors were 4.860,0.691,0. 221,0. 142,0. 058 and 0. 028 with their contribution of 81. 01%,11. 51%, 3. 69%,2. 37%,0. 96%and 0. 47%. The first principal component (Z1) reflected the overall physical quality level of preschool children, such as speed, sensibility, explosive force, throwing power, springing ability, balance ability and so on were better than the others. A sorting order of the principle component scores showed that the preschool children who living in remote counties had better physical quality than whose living in urban areas in Beijing. [Conclusion] Principal component analysis can generalize and reflect the overall level of preschool children physical quality.%[目的]使用主成分分析方法对北京市不同地区学龄前儿童身体素质状况进行综合评价. [方法]选取监测年报中代表各地区3~6岁儿童身体素质单项指标的优秀率作为研究对象,采用统计学中的主成分分析方法进行分析.单项指标分别为10m往返跑、立定跳远、网球掷远、双脚持续跳、坐位体前屈及走平衡木. [结果]六个主成分的特征值依次为4.860、0.691、0.221、0.142、0.058、0.028,其贡献率依次为81.01%、11.51%、3.69%、2.37%、0.96%、0.47%.第一主成分(Z1)能够较好地反映出学龄前儿童的速度与灵敏性、爆发力、投掷力、弹跳力及平衡能力等素质的综合水平.根据主成分分值排序表明:北京市远县学龄前儿童的身体素质优于城区学龄前儿童. [结论]运用主成分分析

  1. Effects of nutrition education cards applied in mothers of simple obese children%营养教育扑克牌对单纯性肥胖儿童母亲营养知识水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘西韶; 陈惠玲; 许丽芳; 陈少英; 王燮衡; 赖莉霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effects of nutrition education cards applied in mothers of simple obese children. Methods In the 10 survey points in Shenzhen ,637 mothers of simple obese children were randomly selected from communities and divided into the card group and the control group. The card group received the cards nutrition education mode,and the control group received the traditional education mode. The education effects were compared between the two groups. Results The nutrition knowledge of the mothers in the card group was significantly improved, and the diet attitude and behaviors were improved too (P < 0.01). Conclusion The implementation of nutrition education cards in mothers of simple obese children can improve their nutrition knowledge, family diets and nutrition behaviors. It is an effective way of nutrition education.%目的 探讨营养教育扑克牌对单纯性肥胖儿童母亲营养知识水平的影响.方法 在深圳市10个调查点中随机抽选社区637名单纯性肥胖儿童的母亲并分为扑克牌组和对照组,扑克牌组采用扑克牌营养教育方式,对照组采用传统教育方式,并比较两组的教育效果.结果 扑克牌组母亲的营养知识水平提高,进而促进了饮食态度和行为改变(P<0.01).结论 对单纯性肥胖儿童的母亲实施营养扑克牌教育可提高其营养认知水平,改善家庭膳食和营养行为,是一种行之有效的营养教育方式.

  2. 76 FR 39115 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants. Description of the need for information and proposed... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION:...

  3. 76 FR 55404 - Announcement of Funding Awards Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards Resident Opportunity and Self- Sufficiency (ROSS... Availability (NOFA) for the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service Coordinators Program. This... residents attain economic and housing self- sufficiency as defined in 24 CFR part 964. More...

  4. 77 FR 73493 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Family Self-Sufficiency Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Family Self-Sufficiency... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program Demonstration... is an evaluation of the Family Self-Sufficiency Program operated at Public Housing Agencies...

  5. 75 FR 39035 - Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of... independence and self- sufficiency. Housing agencies consult with local officials to develop an Action Plan... Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self- Sufficiency (FSS) Program. OMB...

  6. 24 CFR 960.255 - Self-sufficiency incentives-Disallowance of increase in annual income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-sufficiency incentives... and Reexamination § 960.255 Self-sufficiency incentives—Disallowance of increase in annual income. (a... participation in any economic self-sufficiency or other job training program; or (iii) Whose annual...

  7. Study on applied temperament difficulty index screen behavior problem in preschool children%应用气质困难指数筛查学前儿童行为问题的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永明; 关宏岩

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解学龄前儿童行为问题的现状,探讨应用气质困难指数筛查学前儿童行为问题的方法,为制定学前儿童行为问题的预防和干预措施,降低儿童心理行为问题的发生提供适宜工具. [方法]采用《Achenbach儿童行为量表》(Child Behavior Checklist,CBCL)、《Carey 3~7岁儿童气质问卷》分别对600名3~6岁幼儿园儿童的行为问题和气质特征进行评价分析. [结果]学前儿童行为问题的的检出率为37.4%,其中男童检出率为40.5%,女童为33.1%.焦虑/抑郁、退缩、注意力、社会化问题、攻击行为因子得分,男童均显著高于女童(P均<0.05).气质困难指数与儿童行为总分及各行为因子得分均有显著相关(P≤0.001).将Achenbach CBCL作为金标准,气质困难指数(3分为临界值)筛查儿童行为问题的灵敏度为9.9%,特异度为97.2%. [结论]学龄前儿童心理行为问题不容忽视,儿童的气质困难指数与行为问题的发生密切相关,将其作为筛查儿童行为问题的方法有较高特异度,与经典CBCL方法比较,方法简便易行易于家长接受.%[Objective] To investigate the behavior problem in preschool children using applied temperament difficulty index and provide a appropriate tools for the development of prevention and intervention measures.[Method] 600 preschool children were surveyed using Carey Preschool Temperament Questionnaire and Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist for Parents,in Xicheng district of Beijing.[Results] The prevalence of preschool children with behavior problems was 37.4%,with 40.5% in boys and 33.1% in girls.There were significant gender differences in behavior subscale,the boys showed higher anxiety/depression,withdrawal,inattention,social problems,aggressive behavior(all P<0.05).The temperament difficulty index had significantly positive correlation with child behavior problems scores(P≤ 0.001).Temperament difficulty index could be one of

  8. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  9. Torture in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level. PMID:19920326

  10. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  11. A step too far? Making health equity interventions in Namibia more sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ithindi Taati

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equality of health status is the health equity goal being pursued in developed countries and advocated by development agencies such as WHO and The Rockefeller Foundation for developing countries also. Other concepts of fair distribution of health such as equity of access to medical care may not be sufficient to equalise health outcomes but, nevertheless, they may be more practical and effective in advancing health equity in developing countries. Methods A framework for relating health equity goals to development strategies allowing progressive redistribution of primary health care resources towards the more deprived communities is formulated. The framework is applied to the development of primary health care in post-independence Namibia. Results In Namibia health equity has been advanced through the progressive application of health equity goals of equal distribution of primary care resources per head, equality of access for equal met need and equality of utilisation for equal need. For practical and efficiency reasons it is unlikely that health equity would have been advanced further or more effectively by attempting to implement the goal of equality of health status. Conclusion The goal of equality of health status may not be appropriate in many developing country situations. A stepwise approach based on progressive redistribution of medical services and resources may be more appropriate. This conclusion challenges the views of health economists who emphasise the need to select a single health equality goal and of development agencies which stress that equality of health status is the most important dimension of health equity.

  12. An energy self-sufficient public building using integrated renewable sources and hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the use of fossil fuels, major cause of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, in present days represents one of Governments' main challenges; particularly, a significant energy consumption is observed in buildings and might be significantly reduced through sustainable design, increased energy efficiency and use of renewable sources. At the moment, the widespread use of renewable energy in buildings is limited by its intrinsic discontinuity: consequently integration of plants with energy storage systems could represent an efficient solution to the problem. Within this frame, hydrogen has shown to be particularly fit in order to be used as an energetic carrier. In this aim, in the paper an energetic, economic and environmental analysis of two different configurations of a self-sufficient system for energy production from renewable sources in buildings is presented. In particular, in the first configuration energy production is carried out by means of photovoltaic systems, whereas in the second one a combination of photovoltaic panels and wind generators is used. In both configurations, hydrogen is used as an energy carrier, in order to store energy, and fuel cells guarantee its energetic reconversion. The analysis carried out shows that, although dimensioned as a stand-alone configuration, the system can today be realized only taking advantage from the incentivizing fares applied to grid-connected systems, that are likely to be suspended in the next future. In such case, it represents an interesting investment, with capital returns in about 15 years. As concerns economic sustainability, in fact, the analysis shows that the cost of the energy unit stored in hydrogen volumes, due to the not very high efficiency of the process, presently results greater than that of directly used one. Moreover, also the starting fund of the system proves to be very high, showing an additional cost with respect to systems lacking of energy storage equal to about 50

  13. Increased long-latency reflex activity as a sufficient explanation for childhood hypertonic dystonia: a neuromorphic emulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Won J.; Niu, Chuanxin M.; Sanger, Terence D.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder that interferes with daily movements and can have a devastating effect on quality of life for children and their families. Although injury to basal ganglia is associated with dystonia, the neurophysiological mechanisms leading to the clinical manifestations of dystonia are not understood. Previous work suggested that long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) is hyperactive in children with hypertonia due to secondary dystonia. We hypothesize that abnormal activity in motor cortices may cause an increase in the LLSR leading to hypertonia. Approach. We modeled two possibilities of hyperactive LLSR by either creating a tonic involuntary drive to cortex, or increasing the synaptic gain in cortical neurons. Both models are emulated using programmable very-large-scale-integrated-circuit hardware to test their sufficiency for producing dystonic symptoms. The emulation includes a joint with two Hill-type muscles, realistic muscle spindles, and 2,304 Izhikevich-type spiking neurons. The muscles are regulated by a monosynaptic spinal pathway with 32 ms delay and a long-latency pathway with 64 ms loop-delay representing transcortical/supra-spinal connections. Main results. When the limb is passively stretched, both models produce involuntary resistance with increased antagonist EMG responses similar to human data; also the muscle relaxation is delayed similar to human data. Both models predict reduced range of motion in voluntary movements. Significance. Although our model is a highly simplified and limited representation of reflex pathways, it shows that increased activity of the LLSR is by itself sufficient to cause many of the features of hypertonic dystonia.

  14. 25 CFR 26.23 - What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP)? 26.23 Section 26.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.23 What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan...

  15. 75 FR 16493 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Public and Indian Housing Family Self-Sufficiency Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Sufficiency Program Under the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) Program for Fiscal Year 2009...-Sufficiency Program under the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) Program for Fiscal Year 2009...: For questions concerning the FY 2009 Public and Indian Housing Family Self-Sufficiency Program...

  16. 77 FR 14540 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Public and Indian Housing Family Self-Sufficiency Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...-Sufficiency Program Under the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency Program for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011... Family Self-Sufficiency Program under the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (PH-FSS) Program for... make progress toward achieving economic independence and housing self- sufficiency. The PH-FSS...

  17. Is a Single Respiratory Correlated 4D-CT Study Sufficient for Evaluation of Breathing Motion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Respiratory correlated computed tomography has been shown to be effective for evaluation of breathing-induced motion of pulmonary tumors. This study investigated whether a single four-dimensional CT study (4D-CT) is representative and sufficient for treatment planning in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Four repeated helical 4D-CT studies were acquired every 10 min for 10 patients with 14 pulmonary metastases. Patients remained immobilized in a stereotactic body frame (SBF) for 30 min; abdominal compression was applied to seven patients. Using amplitude based sorting, eight phases equally distributed over the breathing cycle were reconstructed for each 4D-CT study. Tumor position was defined in a total of 406 CT series and variability of breathing motion and mean tumor position were evaluated. Results: Peak-to-peak tumor motion was 9.9 mm ± 6.8 mm (mean ± standard deviation) and 9.0 mm ± 7.4 mm at time point 0 min (t0) and t30, respectively. In one patient with poor pulmonary function, continuous increase of breathing motion from 17.4 mm at t0 to 28.3 mm at t30 was seen. In five and two lesions, respectively, a drift of the mean tumor position greater than 3 mm and 5 mm was observed. A borderline significance was calculated for larger tumor position variability in midventilation phases compared with peak-ventilation phases of the breathing cycle (p = 0.08). Conclusion: Treatment planning based on a single 4D-CT study is reliable for the majority of patients. Increased intrafractional uncertainties were seen for patients with poor pulmonary function and with tumors located in the lower lobe

  18. Role of sufficient phosphorus in biodiesel production from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-Jin; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Ge, Huo-Qing; Zheng, Hang; Chu, Fei-Fei; Hu, Hao; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-08-01

    In order to study the role of sufficient phosphorus (P) in biodiesel production by microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum were cultivated in six different media treatments with combination of nitrogen (N) sufficiency/deprivation and phosphorus sufficiency/limitation/deprivation. Profiles of N and P, biomass, and fatty acids (FAs) content and compositions were measured during a 7-day cultivation period. The results showed that the FA content in microalgae biomass was promoted by P deprivation. However, statistical analysis showed that FA productivity had no significant difference (p = 0.63, >0.05) under the treatments of N deprivation with P sufficiency (N-P) and N deprivation with P deprivation (N-P-), indicating P sufficiency in N deprivation medium has little effect on increasing biodiesel productivity from P. triornutum. It was also found that the P absorption in N-P medium was 1.41 times higher than that in N sufficiency and P sufficiency (NP) medium. N deprivation with P limitation (N-P-l) was the optimal treatment for producing biodiesel from P. triornutum because of both the highest FA productivity and good biodiesel quality. PMID:27260287

  19. MRI of the small bowel: can sufficient bowel distension be achieved with small volumes of oral contrast?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufficient luminal distension is mandatory for small bowel imaging. However, patients often are unable to ingest volumes of currently applied oral contrast compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate if administration of low doses of an oral contrast agent with high-osmolarity leads to sufficient and diagnostic bowel distension. Six healthy volunteers ingested at different occasions 150, 300 and 450 ml of a commercially available oral contrast agent (Banana Smoothie Readi-Cat, E-Z-EM; 194 mOsmol/l). Two-dimensional TrueFISP data sets were acquired in 5-min intervals up to 45 min after contrast ingestion. Small bowel distension was quantified using a visual five-grade ranking (5 very good distension, 1 = collapsed bowel). Results were statistically compared using a Wilcoxon-Rank test. Ingestion of 450 ml and 300 ml resulted in a significantly better distension than 150 ml. The all-over average distension value for 450 ml amounted to 3.4 (300 ml: 3.0, 150 ml: 2.3) and diagnostic bowel distension could be found throughout the small intestine. Even 45 min after ingestion of 450 ml the jejunum and ileum could be reliably analyzed. Small bowel imaging with low doses of contrast leads to diagnostic distension values in healthy subjects when a high-osmolarity substance is applied. These findings may help to further refine small bowel MRI techniques, but need to be confirmed in patients with small bowel disorders. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of self -sufficiency of selected types of meat in the Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef SLABOCH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the rate of self-sufficiency of selected types of meat (beef, pork, and poultry in the Visegrad countries. The data are obtained from Eurostat and from national statistical offices of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. The rate of self-sufficiency is evaluated for the time period 2003 - 2013 and its results are compared to trade coverage ratio that indicates competitiveness of country in given commodity. Degree of self-sufficiency is an important indicator of country's ability to meet demand of domestic supply. From the obtained results, it can be concluded, that the situation in the Czech Republic with regard to self-sufficiency significantly deteriorated after EU accession, especially in the area of pork and poultry. The self-sufficiency for pork meat decreased to 57% and to 73% in the case of poultry. The situation is quite stable for beef. However beef creates only a small portion of the Czech consumption. A similar situation can be observed in Slovakia, its degree of self-sufficiency of pork and poultry declined down to 53% and 78% respectively. To cover production of poultry and pork from national resources in both countries, production would need to increase by millions of swine and chicken, which may be complicated with respect to existing infrastructure. The production of beef, poultry and pork is sufficient in Poland, production covers consumption. Self-sufficiency in beef increased above 400% mainly due to decline in beef consumption. Since 2009, self-sufficiency in pork has slightly risen and in 2013 it reached 117%. Consumption and production of poultry is on the rise, poultry become a substitute to beef; processing industry doubled its output between 2003 and 2013. Also Hungary, similarly to Poland, is able to cover domestic consumption by domestic production. The self-sufficiency in the case of poultry meat reach 170%, which is positively reflected in the trade balance. Between 2003 and 2013

  1. Educational intervention applied in children from 5 to 11 years of age with deforming oral habits Intervención educativa aplicada en niños de 5 a11 años portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales

    OpenAIRE

    Ivette Alvarez Mora; Nicolás Ramón Cruz Pérez; Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez; María de los Santos Haces Yanes

    2009-01-01

    Background: Habits are complex neuromuscular patterns learnt by frequent repetition and act as unnatural forces that may cause dental maxillofacial defects. Objective: To assess the intervention of educative measures applied to children with deforming buccal habits in the primary school Raúl Suárez Martínez from the zone “Rafaelito”. Methods:&l...

  2. A sufficient condition for acyclic social choice in a single-profile world

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Somdeb

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we provide a sufficient condition for a social welfare relation to be a social decision relation (i.e. an acyclic social welfare relation) when the profile of individual preferences is given.

  3. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany

    2016-04-26

    This presentation provides an overview of new and ongoing NREL research that aims to improve our understanding of reliability and revenue sufficiency challenges through modeling tools within a markets framework.

  4. Sufficient conditions for the existence of a bound state in the N-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple sufficient conditions for the existence of a bound state in the system of N particles interacting via a purely attractive two-body potential are provided. This method is based on a variational approach. (Author)

  5. Food for thought : Self-sufficient households towards a sustainablefood supply

    OpenAIRE

    Palokangas, Timo; Eriksson, William; Persson, Madeleine; Norman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines to what extent a co-create community called Bobyggetin Herrljunga, Sweden, can be food self-sufficient. To obtain a more comprehensiveresult, the difference between a vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet, as well as howtime spent on farming and available cultivation area affects the outcome, are studied.Moreover, difficulties regarding food self-sufficiency are brought up and discussed.Linear programming is used to maximise the amount of calories obtained fromfarmi...

  6. Applying a Family-Level Economic Strengthening Intervention to Improve Education and Health-Related Outcomes of School-Going AIDS-Orphaned Children: Lessons from a Randomized Experiment in Southern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Karimli, Leyla; Torsten, Neilands; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Chang-Keun; Ilic, Vilma; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Children comprise the largest proportion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, millions are orphaned. Orphanhood increases the likelihood of growing up in poverty, dropping out of school, and becoming infected with HIV. Therefore, programs aimed at securing a healthy developmental trajectory for these orphaned children are desperately needed. We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-level economic strengthening intervention with regard to school attendance, school grades, and self-esteem in AIDS-orphaned adolescents aged 12-16 years from 10 public rural primary schools in southern Uganda. Children were randomly assigned to receive usual care (counseling, school uniforms, school lunch, notebooks, and textbooks), "bolstered" with mentorship from a near-peer (control condition, n = 167), or to receive bolstered usual care plus a family-level economic strengthening intervention in the form of a matched Child Savings Account (Suubi-Maka treatment arm, n = 179). The two groups did not differ at baseline, but 24 months later, children in the Suubi-Maka treatment arm reported significantly better educational outcomes, lower levels of hopelessness, and higher levels of self-concept compared to participants in the control condition. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate on how to address the developmental impacts of the increasing numbers of orphaned and vulnerable children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those affected by HIV/AIDS. Our findings indicate that innovative family-level economic strengthening programs, over and above bolstered usual care that includes psychosocial interventions for young people, may have positive developmental impacts related to education, health, and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26228480

  7. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first

  8. Optimization of the self-sufficient thorium fuel cycle for CANDU power reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergelson Boris R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of optimization calculations for CANDU reactors operating in the thorium cycle are presented in this paper. Calculations were performed to validate the feasibility of operating a heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in a self-sufficient thorium cycle. Two modes of operation were considered in the paper: the mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U in the reactor itself and the mode of operation in a self-sufficient cycle. For the mode of accumulation of 233U, it was assumed that enriched uranium or plutonium was used as additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. In the self-sufficient mode of operation, the mass and isotopic composition of heavy nuclei unloaded from the reactor should provide (after the removal of fission products the value of the multiplication factor of the cell in the following cycle K>1. Additionally, the task was to determine the geometry and composition of the cell for an acceptable burn up of 233U. The results obtained demonstrate that the realization of a self-sufficient thorium mode for a CANDU reactor is possible without using new technologies. The main features of the reactor ensuring a self-sufficient mode of operation are a good neutron balance and moving of fuel through the active core.

  9. Going beyond efficiency: including altruistic motives in behavioral models for sustainability transitions to address sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Schäpke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transitions require altered individual behaviors. Policies aimed at changing people’s consumption behavior are designed according to efficiency, consistency, and sufficiency principles. Taking into account shortcomings of the first two principles, this paper specifically addresses the sufficiency principle. Sufficiency policies are not very popular due to the fear that they may impede quality of life. This fear might be eased when highlighting the motivational side of sustainable behavior, such as the wish to care for future generations and the world’s poor. This article uses the capability approach (CA, developed primarily by Nobel-laureate economist Amartya Sen (1987a and philosopher Martha Nussbaum (1993, 2000, to a include the differentiation between self- and other-oriented goals and behavior, b build on its demonstrated success in assessing quality of life, and c assess the sustainability of behavior and policies. These three facets make CA suitable to analyze the effectiveness of sufficiency policies on sustainability and quality of life. To better understand the motivational side of sustainable behavior, CA is here for the first time enriched through approaches from environmental psychology. This enables us to highlight the idea of intrinsic empowerment as a building block for sufficiency policies. We close the article by highlighting further avenues for research.

  10. 42 CFR 435.117 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public..., Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  11. Self-formed Dynamic Meandering Rivers and Floodplains in the Laboratory: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, M. G.; van Dijk, W. M.; van de Lageweg, W. I.; Markies, H.; van der Gon-Netscher, T.; van de Meer, H.; van Maarseveen, M.; Postma, G.

    2010-12-01

    the cut-off location rises, so modest levees and crevasse splays are built and former channels are flooded, though usually not reactivated. After applying floods laden with silica flour to build the floodplain; the river evolved to, on average, a much less mobile single channel with infrequent chute cut-offs. The lateral channel migration rate decreases with increased floodplain building in agreement with natural systems (Lavooi et al., this conference). Ongoing work quantifies the effect of migration rate and amplitude of the inflow position on the morphodynamics and channel pattern. We conclude that necessary and sufficient conditions for a self-formed, dynamically meandering channel in the laboratory are the presence of floods and floodplain-building sediment and a dynamic boundary condition simulating meander migration. In smaller-scale pilot experiments we use different vegetation species and controlled conditions allow adjustable growth rate, bank strength and hydraulic resistance (van Breemen et al., this conference). We will apply this in the large-scale experiment next year to be able to use less silica flour yet inhance floodplain formation.

  12. Sufficient education attainment for a decent standard of living in modern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joy Callander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Education attainment will impact upon an individual’s capacity to engage in the labour force, their living standards and hence their poverty status. As such, education should be included in measures of poverty. However, it is not known what a sufficient level of education to have a decent standard of living is. Using the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers different levels of education attainment were tested for their association with labour force participation and income. Based upon this, it was concluded that Year 12 or higher is a sufficient level of education attainment for 15 to 64 year olds; and Year 10 or higher for people over the age of 65 years. This is in line with current government policies to improve Year 12 completion rates. Knowing what a ‘sufficient level of education attainment’ is, allows education to be included in multidimensional measures of poverty that view education as a key dimension of disadvantage.

  13. Energy conservation and self-sufficiency in rural property; Geracao e auto-suficiencia de energias em imovel rural familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Sergio Luis [Instituto Paranaense de Assistencia Tecnica e Extensao Rural (EMATER), Toledo, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: slschuch@hotmail.com; Lawder, Jose Henrique [Evolucao Engenharia Eletrica, Toledo, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: jose_lawder@uol.com.br; Feiden, Armin; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: armin_feiden@yahoo.com.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br

    2011-07-01

    This paper aims to highlight an innovative system designed to generate bioenergy in Toledo - PR, applied in a rural residential property. This system is composed by a simple digester model, because it eliminates masonry and hood storage. Cattle slurry and water from barn's floor cleaning are conducted to an anaerobic biodigester chamber. Biogas production is stored in a polypropylene canvas balloon. After compression, the biogas is used to replace liquefied petroleum gas in central water heating and cooking foods. The wood used in sugar cane molasses has been replaced with higher efficiency by biogas. Also was installed Otto engine providing thermal and electrical power generation at the same time. The electrical power output is biphasic and about 70 Amperes. This system deployed in rural property provides energy self-sufficiency and contribute to the reduction of operational costs of the property. (author)

  14. Is a single dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine sufficient for protection? experience from the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaaijk Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first meningococcal serogroup C (MenC conjugate vaccine was licensed in 1999 and introduced in the United Kingdom. Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisation programmes use different schedules. Nevertheless, all involved countries seem to experience substantial declines in the incidence of MenC disease. Discussion Since 2001, the MenC conjugate vaccine has been implemented in the Netherlands by offering a single dose to all children aged 14 months. Prior to the introduction of the vaccine into the national immunisation programme, a catch-up vaccination campaign was initiated in which a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine was offered to all children aged from 14 months up to and including 18 years. Since then, there has been no report of any case of MenC disease among immunocompetent vaccinees. Administration of a single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine after infancy could be beneficial considering the already complex immunisation schedules with large numbers of vaccinations in the first year of life. The present paper deals with the advantages and critical aspects of a single dose of the MenC conjugate vaccine. Summary A single dose of MenC conjugate vaccine at the age of 14 months in combination with a catch up vaccine campaign appeared to be a successful strategy to prevent MenC disease in the Netherlands, thereby confirming that a single dose of the vaccine could sufficiently protect against disease. Nevertheless, this approach can only be justified in countries with a relatively low incidence of serogroup C meningococcal disease in the first year of life. Furthermore, a good surveillance programme is recommended for timely detection of vaccine breakthroughs and outbreaks among non-vaccinees, since long-term protection after a single dose in the second year of life cannot currently be guaranteed.

  15. 黄山市2008-2012年病残儿医学鉴定结果分析%Analysis of Disabled Children Applied for Medical Authentication between 2008 and 2012 in Huangshan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉次秋; 冯建华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Understand the types and causes of diseases of handicapped children by analyzing medical evaluation result. Methods:Organize and analyze the materials of 311 cases handicapped children identified by the expert committee of Huangshan City in the year 2008~2012. Results: 311 cases of handicapped children were identified to meet the handicapped children, of which 99 cases were hereditary diseases. Polygenic disease, autosomal recessive genetic disease and autosomal dominant genetic disease have higher incidence rate. And 212 cases were non-hereditary diseases, among them the top five diseases were:mental retardation, brain damage (cerebral palsy, cerebral hypoplasia, poor, cerebral atrophy, hydrocephalus), epilepsy, congenital heart disease, malignancy (Including intracranial tumors). Conclusion: In order to improve the population quality, prevent and reduce the incidence of handicapped children, we must popularize knowledge of prenatal and postnatal care, establish and improve birth defect intervention mechanism.%目的:通过对病残儿医学鉴定结果的分析,了解导致病残儿的疾病种类、病因,以预防和减少病残儿的发生。方法:对2008~2012年经黄山市专家委员会鉴定符合病残儿医学鉴定标准的311例病残儿资料进行整理分析。结果:311例病残儿中,遗传性疾病99例,以多基因遗传病、常染色体隐性遗传病、常染色体显性遗传病发病率较高。非遗传性疾病212例,位列前5位的非遗传性疾病为:精神发育迟滞、脑组织损伤(脑性瘫痪、大脑发育不全、不良、脑萎缩、脑积水)、癫痫、先天性心脏病、恶性肿瘤(含颅内肿瘤)。结论:为提高人口素质,预防和减少病残儿的发生,必须普及优生优育知识,建立健全出生缺陷干预机制。

  16. Information processing in children's choices among bets

    OpenAIRE

    Hommers, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    Children's information processing of risky choice alternatives was investigated in two studies without using verbal reports. In Study 1, the ability to integrate the probabilities and the payoffs of simple bets was examined using the rating scale methodology. Children's choices among three of those simple bets were recorded also. By cross-classifying the children's choice and rating behavior it was shown that a three-stage developmental hypothesis of decision making is not sufficient. A four-...

  17. Public and Private Incentives for Investment in Higher Education: Are They Sufficient, Especially for Black Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Elizabeth N.

    2013-01-01

    The institutional costs of higher education have been rising. With diminishing public support per student, tuition and fees private costs have also been rising. But so have the real earnings of college graduates. Are there still sufficient incentives on efficiency grounds for additional public investment in higher education? And in particular,…

  18. Designing and Managing Public Housing Self-Sufficiency Programs: The Youngs Lake Commons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleit, Rachel Garshick

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates an experimental public housing self-sufficiency program that encourages home ownership among low-income families. A quasi-experimental design, in combination with focus groups, records review, and key informant interviews, provides data to focus on four questions: (a) Do these programs simply accelerate move-outs for those…

  19. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  20. Can British Columbia Achieve Electricity Self-Sufficiency and Meet its Renewable Portfolio Standard?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.; Wong, L.

    2012-01-01

    British Columbia’s energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and provincial natural gas strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 2,500-3,800 MW. To ascertain the reality of BC’s supply position, we

  1. From Thaksin's Social Capitalism to Self-sufficiency Economics in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    related to its shift with regard to its policies towards privatization. It traces the increase in labor militancy before and after the crisis and investigates its impact on privatization, social policy and entitlements. The third part asks whether self-sufficiency is a possible solution to the stalemate...

  2. A Classroom Note on a Sufficient, but Unsatisfied, Condition for Goldbach's Conjecture to Be True

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This classroom note is presented as a suggested exercise--not to have the class prove or disprove Goldbach's Conjecture, but to stimulate student discussions in the classroom regarding proof, as well as necessary, sufficient, satisfied, and unsatisfied conditions. Goldbach's Conjecture is one of the oldest unsolved problems in the field of number…

  3. Operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Bergelson; A S Gerasimov; G V Tikhomirov

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents the results of calculations for CANDU reactor operation in thorium fuel cycle. Calculations are performed to estimate the feasibility of operation of heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in self-sufficient thorium cycle. Parameters of active core and scheme of fuel reloading were considered to be the same as for standard operation in uranium cycle. Two modes of operations are discussed in the paper: mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U and mode of operation in self-sufficient cycle. For the mode of accumulation of 233U it was assumed for calculations that plutonium can be used as additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. Plutonium was placed in fuel channels, while 232Th was located in target channels. Maximum content of 233U in target channels was estimated to be ∼ 13 kg/t of ThO2. This was achieved by irradiation for six years. The start of the reactor operation in the self-sufficient mode requires 233U content to be not less than 12 kg/t. For the mode of operation in self-sufficient cycle, it was assumed that all channels were loaded with identical fuel assemblies containing ThO2 and certain amount of 233U. It is shown that nonuniform distribution of 233U in fuel assembly is preferable.

  4. The mode of operation of CANDU power reactor in thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergelson Boris R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of calculations for CANDU reactor operation in the thorium fuel cycle. The calculations were performed to estimate feasibility of operation of a heavy-water thermal neutron power reactor in the self-sufficient thorium cycle. The parameters of the active core and the scheme of fuel reloading were considered to be the same as for the standard operation in the uranium cycle. Two modes of operation are discussed in the paper: the mode of preliminary accumulation of 233U and the mode of operation in the self-sufficient cycle. For calculations for the mode of accumulation of 233U, it was assumed that plutonium was used as the additional fissile material to provide neutrons for 233U production. Plutonium was placed in fuel channels, while 232Th was located in target channels. The maximum content of 233U in the target channels was about 13 kg/t of ThO2. This was achieved by six year irradiation. The start of reactor operation in the self-sufficient mode requires content of 233U not less than 12 kg/t. For the mode of operation in the self-sufficient cycle, it was assumed that all the channels were loaded with the identical fuel assemblies containing ThO2 and a certain amount of 233U. It was shown that the non-uniform distribution of 233U in a fuel assembly is preferable.

  5. Identification of necessary and sufficient conditions for real non-negativeness of rational matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessary and sufficient conditions for real non-negativeness of rational matrices have been identified. A programmable algorithm is developed and is given with its computer flow chart. This algorithm can be used as a general solution to test the real non-negativeness of rational matrices. The computer program assures the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. (author)

  6. Necessary and sufficient conditions for moderate deviations of dependent random variables with heavy tails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the moderate deviations of real-valued extended negatively dependent(END) random variables with consistently varying tails.The moderate deviations of partial sums are first given.The results are then used to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for the moderate deviations of random sums under certain circumstances.

  7. A class of group covariant signal sets and its necessary and sufficient condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usuda, Tsuyoshi Sasaki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro [Aichi Prefectural University, Ibaragabasama, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1198 (Japan); Shiromoto, Keisuke [Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    (G,χ-hat)-covariant quantum state signals, which is a generalization of the narrow sense group covariant signals, are defined. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for (G,χ-hat)-covariant signals is given and examples of the signals are shown.

  8. RICE CONSUMPTION, SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND INCOME GROWTH IN PENNINSULAR MALAYSIA, 1972-1983

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; ANDREW LAI

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of real income growth on the consumption of rice in Peninsular Malaysia from 1972 until 1983. A forecast of rice self-sufficiency is man-made for the years 1985-1990.

  9. Role of input self-sufficiency in the economic and environmental sustainability of specialised dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebacq, T; Baret, P V; Stilmant, D

    2015-03-01

    Increasing input self-sufficiency is often viewed as a target to improve sustainability of dairy farms. However, few studies have specifically analysed input self-sufficiency, by including several technical inputs and without only focussing on animal feeding, in order to explore its impact on farm sustainability. To address this gap, our work has three objectives as follows: (1) identifying the structural characteristics required by specialised dairy farms located in the grassland area to be self-sufficient; (2) analysing the relationships between input self-sufficiency, environmental and economic sustainability; and (3) studying how the farms react to a decrease in milk price according to their self-sufficiency degree. Based on farm accounting databases, we categorised 335 Walloon specialised conventional dairy farms into four classes according to their level of input self-sufficiency. To this end, we used as proxy the indicator of economic autonomy - that is, the ratio between costs of inputs related to animal production, crop production and energy use and the total gross product. Classes were then compared using multiple comparison tests and canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 30 organic farms - among which 63% had a high level of economic autonomy - were considered separately and compared with the most autonomous class. We showed that a high degree of economic autonomy is associated, in conventional farms, with a high proportion of permanent grassland in the agricultural area. The most autonomous farms used less input - especially animal feeding - for a same output level, and therefore combined good environmental and economic performances. Our results also underlined that, in a situation of decrease in milk price, the least autonomous farms had more latitude to decrease their input-related costs without decreasing milk production. Their incomes per work unit were, therefore, less impacted by falling prices, but remained lower than those of more

  10. Podocyte-specific overexpression of wild type or mutant trpc6 in mice is sufficient to cause glomerular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Krall

    Full Text Available Mutations in the TRPC6 calcium channel (Transient receptor potential channel 6 gene have been associated with familiar forms of Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS affecting children and adults. In addition, acquired glomerular diseases are associated with increased expression levels of TRPC6. However, the exact role of TRPC6 in the pathogenesis of FSGS remains to be elucidated. In this work we describe the generation and phenotypic characterization of three different transgenic mouse lines with podocyte-specific overexpression of the wild type or any of two mutant forms of Trpc6 (P111Q and E896K previously related to FSGS. Consistent with the human phenotype a non-nephrotic range of albuminuria was detectable in almost all transgenic lines. The histological analysis demonstrated that the transgenic mice developed a kidney disease similar to human FSGS. Differences of 2-3 folds in the presence of glomerular lesions were found between the non transgenic and transgenic mice expressing Trpc6 in its wild type or mutant forms specifically in podocytes. Electron microscopy of glomerulus from transgenic mice showed extensive podocyte foot process effacement. We conclude that overexpression of Trpc6 (wild type or mutated in podocytes is sufficient to cause a kidney disease consistent with FSGS. Our results contribute to reinforce the central role of podocytes in the etiology of FSGS. These mice constitute an important new model in which to study future therapies and outcomes of this complex disease.

  11. 77 FR 14546 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Housing Choice Voucher Family Self-Sufficiency (HCV-FSS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Housing Choice Voucher Family Self-Sufficiency... welfare assistance, and make progress toward economic independence and self-sufficiency. The HCV-FSS... will lead to economic self- sufficiency. As a result of their participation in the HCV-FSS...

  12. Portfolio of Research in Welfare and Family Self-Sufficiency: FY 2014. OPRE Report 2015-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Economic Independence within the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) has primary responsibility for welfare and family self-sufficiency research. OPRE's research in the area of welfare and family self-sufficiency is designed to expand knowledge about effective programs to promote employment, self-sufficiency, and…

  13. 75 FR 31805 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS)-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS... Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) Service Coordinators Program funding for Fiscal Year 2009... questions concerning the FY 2009 Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) Service...

  14. Predictability of the Appearance of Anomalous Waves at Sufficiently Small Benjamin-Feir Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, V P

    2016-01-01

    The numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of random sea waves at moderately small Benjamin-Feir indices and its comparison with the linear dynamics (at the coincidence of spatial Fourier harmonics near a spectral peak at a certain time $t_p$) indicate that the appearance of a rogue wave can be predicted in advance. If the linear approximation shows the presence of a sufficiently extensive and/or high group of waves in the near future after $t_p$, an anomalous wave is almost necessarily formed in the nonlinear model. The interval of reliable forecasting covers several hundred wave periods, which can be quite sufficient in practice for, e.g., avoiding the meeting of a ship with a giant wave.

  15. Sufficiency of Mesolimbic Dopamine Neuron Stimulation for the Progression to Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, Vincent; Terrier, Jean; Hiver, Agnès; Lüscher, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The factors causing the transition from recreational drug consumption to addiction remain largely unknown. It has not been tested whether dopamine (DA) is sufficient to trigger this process. Here we use optogenetic self-stimulation of DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to selectively mimic the defining commonality of addictive drugs. All mice readily acquired self-stimulation. After weeks of abstinence, cue-induced relapse was observed in parallel with a potentiation of excitatory afferents onto D1 receptor-expressing neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). When the mice had to endure a mild electric foot shock to obtain a stimulation, some stopped while others persevered. The resistance to punishment was associated with enhanced neural activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) while chemogenetic inhibition of the OFC reduced compulsivity. Together, these results show that stimulating VTA DA neurons induces behavioral and cellular hallmarks of addiction, indicating sufficiency for the induction and progression of the disease. PMID:26586182

  16. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian;

    2016-01-01

    a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon-oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration...... isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of...... the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop...

  17. A Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Having Independent TE and TM Modes in an Anisotropic Waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Qin; Xia, Tian; Xu, Yuhua; Liu, Na; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-01-01

    Whether there exist independent transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes in a metallic waveguide filled with an anisotropic medium is a fundamental question in electromagnetics waveguide theory, but so far no definitive answers have been published. This paper establishes a necessary and sufficient condition for having independent TE and TM modes in a waveguide filled with a homogeneous lossless anisotropic medium based on both waveguide theory in electromagnetics and basic knowledge in mathematics. Moreover, for the independent TE modes, we prove the propagation constants obtained from both the longitudinal scalar magnetic field stimulation and the transverse vector electric field stimulation are the same; for the independent TM modes, the propagation constants obtained from both the longitudinal scalar electric field stimulation and the transverse vector magnetic field stimulation are the same. This necessary and sufficient condition is a new theoretical result in electromagnetic waveguide...

  18. A Sufficient Condition for Power Flow Insolvability with Applications to Voltage Stability Margins

    CERN Document Server

    Molzahn, Daniel K; DeMarco, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    For the nonlinear power flow problem specified with standard PQ, PV, and slack bus equality constraints, we present a sufficient condition under which the specified set of nonlinear algebraic equations has no solution. This sufficient condition is constructed in a framework of an associated feasible, convex optimization problem. The objective employed in this optimization problem yields a measure of distance (in a parameter set) to the power flow solution boundary. In practical terms, this distance is closely related to quantities that previous authors have proposed as voltage stability margins. A typical margin is expressed in terms of the parameters of system loading (injected powers); here we additionally introduce a new margin in terms of the parameters of regulated bus voltages.

  19. Featural information is sufficient to produce a left cheek bias for happiness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jia Y; Lindell, Annukka K

    2016-08-01

    People perceive the left cheek as more emotionally expressive than the right. Both configural and featural information enable the evaluation of emotional expressions; whether they make equivalent contributions to the left cheek bias is undetermined. As scrambling faces disrupts configural processing whilst leaving featural information intact, we investigated whether configural information is necessary, or featural information is sufficient, to induce a left cheek bias for emotion perception. Eighty-one participants (65 F, 16 M) viewed two types of left and right cheek image pairs - normal, scrambled - and indicated which image appeared happier (half mirror-reversed to control for perceptual biases). Results indicated a left cheek bias for both normal and scrambled faces, irrespective of mirror reversal. As scrambling faces disrupts configural processing, the fact that the left cheek was perceived as more expressive even when scrambled confirms that differences between the cheeks' featural information are sufficient to induce the left cheek bias. PMID:27363004

  20. Economic efficiency or self-sufficiency: alternative strategies for oil consumers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ideal energy source is low cost (efficient) and reliable (secure). The high price and perceived political unreliability of Middle East oil supplies prompted a nearly worldwide trend towards energy self-sufficiency. Gains in energy efficiency, which have been most marked in the OECD, are permanent and, prompted by environmental concern, probably progressive. But the opportunity that is still available to low cost oil suppliers to regain lost markets will only be realized if those supplies are demonstrably reliable. (author)

  1. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families

    OpenAIRE

    Worthman, Carol M.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for nap...

  2. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  3. Taxonomic level sufficient for assessing a moderate impact on macrobenthic communities in Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrobenthic data obtained using three sampling schemes (0.06-sq m x 8-cm-deep sampling unit and 1.0- or 0.5-mm-mesh sieves, and 0.1-sq m x 8-cm-deep sampling unit and 1.0-mm-mesh sieve) previously identified as optimal or near-optimal for detecting differences between a reference and a moderately impacted station when animals were identified to species were reanalyzed at the genus, family, order, and phylum level to determine the taxonomic level sufficient to detect differences between the stations with t-tests on five measures of community structure. Taxonomically sufficient levels for number of taxa were family in 1.0-mm-mesh samples and species in 0.5-mm-mesh samples. Specific identification was usually required for a Dominance, Shannon's, 1 - Simpson's, and McIntosh's Index in 1.0- and 0.5-mm-mesh samples, suggesting limits to the utility of the taxonomic sufficiency concept when using those indices to detect moderate impacts. This and a previous study indicate that one could reliably (alpha = 0.05, 1 - beta about 0.80) detect moderate benthic impacts at the study site on number of taxa and five other measures of community structure with five to seven replicate 0.06-sq m x 8-cm-deep, 1.0-mm-mesh samples per station and identification to family only. Taxonomic sufficiency can vary depending upon the animal size fraction sampled and the measure used

  4. Monomeric Rhodopsin Is Sufficient for Normal Rhodopsin Kinase (GRK1) Phosphorylation and Arrestin-1 Binding*

    OpenAIRE

    Bayburt, Timothy H.; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A.; McLean, Mark A.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Huang, Chih-chin; Tesmer, John J. G.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Sligar, Stephen G.; Vsevolod V Gurevich

    2010-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization has been observed in a wide variety of experimental contexts, but the functional significance of this phenomenon at different stages of the life cycle of class A GPCRs remains to be elucidated. Rhodopsin (Rh), a prototypical class A GPCR of visual transduction, is also capable of forming dimers and higher order oligomers. The recent demonstration that Rh monomer is sufficient to activate its cognate G protein, transducin, prompted us to test w...

  5. Should Minimum Portfolio Sizes Be Prescribed for Achieving Sufficiently Well-Diversified Equity Portfolios?

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Kryzanowski, Shishir Singh

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses various (un)conditional metrics to measure the benefits of diversification to determine if a minimum portfolio size should be prescribed to achieve a naively but sufficiently well-diversified portfolio for various investment opportunity sets (un)differentiated by cross-listing status and market capitalization. Based on the population of stocks listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) for 1975-2003, the study finds that the minimum portfolio size depends upon the chosen inves...

  6. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  7. Sufficient competence in community elderly care? Results from a competence measurement of nursing staff

    OpenAIRE

    Bing-Jonsson, Pia C; Hofoss, Dag; Kirkevold, Marit; Bjørk, Ida T; Foss, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background Multi-morbidity, poly-pharmacy and cognitive impairment leave many old patients in a frail condition with a high risk of adverse outcomes if proper health care is not provided. Knowledge about available competence is necessary to evaluate whether we are able to offer equitable and balanced health care to older persons with acute and/or complex health care needs. This study investigates the sufficiency of nursing staff competence in Norwegian community elderly car...

  8. Psychosocial Factors Correlated with Sufficient Consumption Behavior of Students in Thailand and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Saran Pimthong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the structural equation model of psychosocial factors related to sufficient consumption behavior between students in Thailand and Malaysia. For the sample of this study, 364 undergraduate students from Thailand and 360 from Malaysia were recruited, a total of 724 students. A series of 8 structured questionnaires with summated rating scales and 1 questionnaire on demographic characteristics were used to measure the aforementioned constructs ...

  9. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Karki, Tika B.; Sah, Shrawan K.; Thapa, Resam B.; McDonald, Andrew J.; Davis, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs...

  10. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  11. ENERGY SELF-SUFFICIENT ECO-VILLAGE : Utilization of wind energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    There is clear demand for developing renewable energy due to global warming concern and increasing price of fossil fuel energy. Wind energy is considered as the most important and applicable renewable energy compared to other types of renewable energy system, such as solar energy and bioenergy. Energy self-sufficient eco-village has become the unique model because of the heat and electricity is supplied by renewable energy systems instead of conventional energy sources. This thesis is com...

  12. The bag-of-frames approach: a not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes

    OpenAIRE

    LAGRANGE, Mathieu; Lafay, Grégoire; Defreville, Boris; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-01-01

    The "bag-of-frames" approach (BOF), which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes) since its introduction in an influential 2007 article. The present paper describes a concep-tual replication of this seminal article using several new soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for t...

  13. Specific Tandem Repeats Are Sufficient for Paramutation-Induced Trans-Generational Silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Belele, Christiane L.; Lyudmila Sidorenko; Maike Stam; Rechien Bader; Arteaga-Vazquez, Mario A.; Chandler, Vicki L.

    2013-01-01

    Paramutation is a well-studied epigenetic phenomenon in which trans communication between two different alleles leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing of one of the alleles. Paramutation at the b1 locus involves RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing and requires specific tandem repeats that generate siRNAs. This study addressed three important questions: 1) are the tandem repeats sufficient for paramutation, 2) do they need to be in an allelic position to mediate paramutati...

  14. A necessary and sufficient condition for transforming autonomous systems into linear autonomous Birkhoffian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of transforming autonomous systems into Birkhoffian systems is studied. A reasonable form of linear autonomous Birkhoff equations is given. By combining them with the undetermined tensor method, a necessary and sufficient condition for an autonomous system to have a representation in terms of linear autonomous Birkhoff equations is obtained. The methods of constructing Birkhoffian dynamical functions are given. Two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Costa, M. Mafalda; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Donald E Canfield

    2016-01-01

    How have environmental constraints influenced the timing of animal evolution? It is often argued that oxygen first increased to sufficient levels for animal respiration during the Neoproterozoic Eon, 1,000 million to 542 million years ago, thus explaining the timing of animal evolution. We report geochemical evidence for deep-water oxygenation below an ancient oxygen minimum zone 1,400 million years ago. Oceanographic modeling constrains atmospheric oxygen to a minimum of ∼4% of today’s value...

  16. Good Postharvest-handling Application of Corn in Supporting Food Self-Sufficiency in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal

    2015-01-01

    Corn is one of potential commodity to support food self-sufficiency in Indonesia. Some regions use corn as alternative food substituting rice. The corn production tend to increase every year. However, the quality is still low because of poor postharvest-handling. The objective of this research was to compare the corn quality from different postharvest-handling between farmers and the good handling method. The observed parameters were the moisture, the damage grain, the broken grain, and the a...

  17. The Promoter of the Cereal VERNALIZATION1 Gene Is Sufficient for Transcriptional Induction by Prolonged Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Peral, María M.; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao Acerete, Cristina; Greenup, Aaron A.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization) to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare). A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expressio...

  18. Self-sufficiency of fuels for tractive power in small-scale organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, S.; Belfrage, K.

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale organic agriculture, with integrated crop and animal production has the potential of producing significant amounts of food. Self-sufficiency of fuel for farm work has been investigated closer in this study, based on a set of prerequisites that were identified as important for future sustainability. An implication of the study is that low-tech solutions are more likely to be renewable in the production. Fuel production for farm work at the farm also facilitates nutrient recycling. ...

  19. A necessary and sufficient condition for gelation of a reversible Markov process of polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reversible Markov process as a chemical polymerization model which permits the coagulation and fragmentation reactions is considered. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of a gelation in the process. We show that a gelation transition may or may not occur, depending on the value of the fragmentation strength, and, in the case that gelation takes place, a critical value for the occurrence of the gelation and the mass of the gel can be determined by close forms

  20. Necessary and sufficient conditions for discrete and differential inclusions of elliptic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudov, E. N.

    2006-11-01

    This paper deals for the first time with the Dirichlet problem for discrete (PD), discrete approximation problem on a uniform grid and differential (PC) inclusions of elliptic type. In the form of Euler-Lagrange inclusion necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality are derived for the problems under consideration on the basis of new concepts of locally adjoint mappings. The results obtained are generalized to the multidimensional case with a second order elliptic operator.

  1. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-jen Cheng; Chiu-Yue Lin; Chen-Yeon Chu; Shang-Yuan Chen

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient ene...

  2. The observation of applying topically fluoride varnishes to prevent deciduous teeth caries of children%局部应用氟保护漆对群体儿童乳牙龋防治的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋梅艳; 韦靖; 王小杰; 李敏瑜; 肖亦芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of fluoride varnishes to prevent deciduous teeth caries, thus to provide scientific basis for the establishment of oral health care. Methods: All of 2 463 children from 6 kindergartens in Liuzhou urban area were selected and divided into group A and group B randomly for the observational experiment for three years. The children in group A were taken the oral examination once a year and used the fluoride varnishes every 6 months. The others in group B were taken the oral examination once a year only. The SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze the data of caries incidence and new DMFS which were used as the statistical index. Results; Two years later, the caries incidence and the new DMFS of children in group A decreased, and the new DMFS decline 55.96% compared with those of group B. The both of the caries incidence and the new DMFS were significant differences between the two groups (P <0. 01) . Conclusion; The application of fluoride varnishes can effectively prevent deciduous teeth caries spreading and let mouth keep healthy.%目的:了解氟保护漆对群体儿童乳牙龋齿的防治效果,为口腔卫生保健工作提供参考依据.方法:在柳州市城区分别选择6所幼儿园的2 463名在园儿童进行连续3年的实验观察,并随机将其分成A、B两组,A组每年进行1次口腔检查及每6个月一次的口腔局部使用氟保护漆;B组只每年进行1次口腔检查.采用SPSS 13.0软件对数据进行统计分析,以龋病发病率和新增龋面均作为统计指标.结果:24个月后,A组较B组龋病发病率及新增龋面均均下降,其中A组儿童乳牙新增龋面均较B组下降了55.96%,两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:氟保护漆可有效预防群体儿童乳牙龋的发生.

  3. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  4. Sufficiency Economy as a Response to The Problem of Poverty in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Chalapati

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Thai King’s philosophy of ‘Sufficiency Economy’ as a means to alleviate poverty has recently been recognized by the United Nations in the presentation of the UNDP Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award. His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej has, since 1974, stressed the importance of economic self-reliance which is based on the Buddhist belief in the middle path to conduct ways of life to overcome poverty. Thailand learned many lessons from a financial crisis that followed the devaluation of the Thai baht in July 1997. The King’s philosophy of self-reliance has gained new credence, reflected in government development policies aimed at improving the country’s economic well being. Education and technology are being promoted as vital tools in line with an understanding of ‘Sufficiency Economy’ which implies moderation of aspirations and a balance between success and fulfilment. Education is the key to developing the full potential of the individual and is regarded by policy makers as instrumental in combating poverty. Human development as a concept and as a policy objective must encompass the economic, social and cultural dimensions of human life. This paper examines the importance of the King’s philosophy of ‘Sufficiency Economy’ to education reform as a poverty reduction strategy in Thailand in the context of rapid economic and technological changes.

  5. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results indicated iodine sufficiency in schoolchildren from the

  6. Paradoxes of Sahrawi Refugees' Educational Migration: Promoting Self-Sufficiency or Renewing Dependency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Education is often prioritised by refugee children and families, as well as by their political representatives and international actors alike. This article explores the specificities of the Sahrawi refugee education system, focusing in particular on the nature, motivations and implications of Sahrawi refugee youths' educational migration to Cuba…

  7. Extended Evaluations in Cases of Child Sexual Abuse: How Many Sessions Are Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new findings from a national study involving 18 forensic interview sites of 137 children who were randomly assigned to a four or eight session extended evaluation. Cases assigned to the eight session protocol were significantly more likely to be classified "credible disclosure" of sexual abuse (56.6%) than cases assigned to…

  8. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Griffel, DH

    2002-01-01

    A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the

  9. Motor development, physical fitness and health in children

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining a sufficient level of physical activity and fitness is a prerequisite for good health and well-being in adults as well as children. Motor competence has been seen as a possible determinant of physical activity and physical fitness among children. The papers aim to contribute to an understanding of how motor competence in children relates to physical fitness and different aspects of health and development in children.The four studies included in this thesis employed different study...

  10. Protecting children in research: Safer ways to research with children who may be experiencing violence or abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie; Anderson, Anna; Randall, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in research, like other children, may be being maltreated. There is also potential for exposure to abuse during research. Research training, practices and protocols to respond to disclosure and discovery of abuse to protect both researchers and children may not be sufficiently robust. Our aim was to compare and contrast research practices reported in the literature related to protecting children and to recommend safer ways to conduct research. The simultaneous increase ...

  11. A simple, sufficient, and consistent method to score the status of threats and demography of imperiled species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Jacob W; Webber, Whitney M; Li, Ya-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Managers of large, complex wildlife conservation programs need information on the conservation status of each of many species to help strategically allocate limited resources. Oversimplifying status data, however, runs the risk of missing information essential to strategic allocation. Conservation status consists of two components, the status of threats a species faces and the species' demographic status. Neither component alone is sufficient to characterize conservation status. Here we present a simple key for scoring threat and demographic changes for species using detailed information provided in free-form textual descriptions of conservation status. This key is easy to use (simple), captures the two components of conservation status without the cost of more detailed measures (sufficient), and can be applied by different personnel to any taxon (consistent). To evaluate the key's utility, we performed two analyses. First, we scored the threat and demographic status of 37 species recently recommended for reclassification under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and 15 control species, then compared our scores to two metrics used for decision-making and reports to Congress. Second, we scored the threat and demographic status of all non-plant ESA-listed species from Florida (54 spp.), and evaluated scoring repeatability for a subset of those. While the metrics reported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) are often consistent with our scores in the first analysis, the results highlight two problems with the oversimplified metrics. First, we show that both metrics can mask underlying demographic declines or threat increases; for example, ∼40% of species not recommended for reclassification had changes in threats or demography. Second, we show that neither metric is consistent with either threats or demography alone, but conflates the two. The second analysis illustrates how the scoring key can be applied to a substantial set of species to understand overall

  12. Neonatal astrocyte damage is sufficient to trigger progressive striatal degeneration in a rat model of glutaric acidemia-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Olivera-Bravo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have investigated whether an acute metabolic damage to astrocytes during the neonatal period may critically disrupt subsequent brain development, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. Astrocytes are vulnerable to glutaric acid (GA, a dicarboxylic acid that accumulates in millimolar concentrations in Glutaric Acidemia I (GA-I, an inherited neurometabolic childhood disease characterized by degeneration of striatal neurons. While GA induces astrocyte mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and subsequent increased proliferation, it is presently unknown whether such astrocytic dysfunction is sufficient to trigger striatal neuronal loss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single intracerebroventricular dose of GA was administered to rat pups at postnatal day 0 (P0 to induce an acute, transient rise of GA levels in the central nervous system (CNS. GA administration potently elicited proliferation of astrocytes expressing S100β followed by GFAP astrocytosis and nitrotyrosine staining lasting until P45. Remarkably, GA did not induce acute neuronal loss assessed by FluoroJade C and NeuN cell count. Instead, neuronal death appeared several days after GA treatment and progressively increased until P45, suggesting a delayed onset of striatal degeneration. The axonal bundles perforating the striatum were disorganized following GA administration. In cell cultures, GA did not affect survival of either striatal astrocytes or neurons, even at high concentrations. However, astrocytes activated by a short exposure to GA caused neuronal death through the production of soluble factors. Iron porphyrin antioxidants prevented GA-induced astrocyte proliferation and striatal degeneration in vivo, as well as astrocyte-mediated neuronal loss in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results indicate that a transient metabolic insult with GA induces long lasting phenotypic changes in astrocytes that cause them to promote striatal

  13. Specific tandem repeats are sufficient for paramutation-induced trans-generational silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane L Belele

    Full Text Available Paramutation is a well-studied epigenetic phenomenon in which trans communication between two different alleles leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing of one of the alleles. Paramutation at the b1 locus involves RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing and requires specific tandem repeats that generate siRNAs. This study addressed three important questions: 1 are the tandem repeats sufficient for paramutation, 2 do they need to be in an allelic position to mediate paramutation, and 3 is there an association between the ability to mediate paramutation and repeat DNA methylation levels? Paramutation was achieved using multiple transgenes containing the b1 tandem repeats, including events with tandem repeats of only one half of the repeat unit (413 bp, demonstrating that these sequences are sufficient for paramutation and an allelic position is not required for the repeats to communicate. Furthermore, the transgenic tandem repeats increased the expression of a reporter gene in maize, demonstrating the repeats contain transcriptional regulatory sequences. Transgene-mediated paramutation required the mediator of paramutation1 gene, which is necessary for endogenous paramutation, suggesting endogenous and transgene-mediated paramutation both require an RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing pathway. While all tested repeat transgenes produced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, not all transgenes induced paramutation suggesting that, as with endogenous alleles, siRNA production is not sufficient for paramutation. The repeat transgene-induced silencing was less efficiently transmitted than silencing induced by the repeats of endogenous b1 alleles, which is always 100% efficient. The variability in the strength of the repeat transgene-induced silencing enabled testing whether the extent of DNA methylation within the repeats correlated with differences in efficiency of paramutation. Transgene-induced paramutation does not require extensive

  14. Self-Sufficient Formaldehyde-to-Methanol Conversion by Organometallic Formaldehyde Dismutase Mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waals, Dominic; Heim, Leo E; Vallazza, Simona; Gedig, Christian; Deska, Jan; Prechtl, Martin H G

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic networks of methylotrophic organisms, featuring redox enzymes for the activation of one-carbon moieties, can serve as great inspiration in the development of novel homogeneously catalyzed pathways for the interconversion of C1 molecules at ambient conditions. An imidazolium-tagged arene-ruthenium complex was identified as an effective functional mimic of the bacterial formaldehyde dismutase, which provides a new and highly selective route for the conversion of formaldehyde to methanol in absence of any external reducing agents. Moreover, secondary amines are reductively methylated by the organometallic dismutase mimic in a redox self-sufficient manner with formaldehyde acting both as carbon source and reducing agent. PMID:27380865

  15. Monte Carlo based demonstration of sufficiently dimensioned shielding for a Co-60 testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical properties of electronic equipment can be changed in an ionized radiation field. The knowledge of these changes is necessary for applications in space, in air traffic and nuclear medicine. Experimental tests will be performed in Co-60 radiation fields in the irradiation facility (TEC facility) of the Seibersdorf Labor GmbH that is in construction. The contribution deals with a simulation that is aimed to calculate the local dose rate within and outside the building for demonstration of sufficient dimensioning of the shielding in compliance with the legal dose rate limits.

  16. Sufficient conditions for rate-independent hysteresis in autoregressive identified models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Samir Angelo Milani; Aguirre, Luis Antonio

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows how hysteresis can be described using polynomial models and what are the sufficient conditions to be met by the model in order to have hysteresis. Such conditions are related to the model equilibria, to the forcing function and to certain term clusters in the polynomial models. The main results of the paper are used in the identification and analysis of nonlinear models estimated from data produced by a magneto-rheological damper (MRD) model with Bouc-Wen rate-independent hysteresis. A striking feature of the identified model is its simplicity and this could turn out to be a key factor in controller design.

  17. On the necessity and sufficiency of local commutativity for causality in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contributes to the resolution of the question whether quantum mechanics admits an objectivistic interpretation if the description is restricted to the phenomenalistic domain of the quantum mechanical observables. Without touching the realism-phenomenalism dichotomy, this thesis investigates the possibility to disregard the influence of the measurement interaction on the qm measuring results. In the first part, the measuring process is studied and its influence on the objectivity of measuring results. The measurement of a local observable is interpreted as a local operation. Its local commutativity is a necessary condition for macrocausality. In the second part the converse question is studied, viz. Whether local commutativity is sufficient for macrocausality. (Auth.)

  18. Forty Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Regularity of Interval Matrices: A survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 500-512. E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * necessary and sufficient condition * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www. math .technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol18_pp500-512.pdf

  19. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-jen Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1 a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2 autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment.

  20. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab's set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions

  1. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  2. Some sufficient conditions for Hamiltonian property in terms of Wiener-type invariants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meijun Kuang; Guihua Huang; Hanyuan Deng

    2016-02-01

    The Wiener-type invariants of a simple connected graph = (,) can be expressed in terms of the quantities $W_{f} = \\sum_{\\{u,v\\}\\subseteq V} f (d_{G}(u, v))$ for various choices of the function (), where (, ) is the distance between vertices and in . In this paper, we give some sufficient conditions for a connected graph to be Hamiltonian, a connected graph to be traceable, and a connected bipartite graph to be Hamiltonian in terms of the Wiener-type invariants.

  3. Sufficiency conditions for pole assignment in column-regularizable implicit linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotka, Tetiana; Zagalak, Petr; Loiseau, J. J.; Kučera, V.

    Szczecin: West Pomeranian University of Technology, 2012, s. 457-1-457-6. ISBN 978-1-4673-2123-5. [17th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation & Robotics . Międzyzdroje (PL), 27.08.2012-30.08.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/12/2431 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Linear systems * state feedback * pole assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/zagalak-sufficiency conditions for pole assignment in column-regularizable implicit linear systems.pdf

  4. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  5. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  6. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  7. Non-self-sufficiency as a primary outcome measure in ALS trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Bianchi, Elisa; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Lunetta, Christian; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chiò, Adriano; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess non-self-sufficiency (NSS) in ALS as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. Using data from the control arm of two randomized trials and an observational study, associations between NSS (score ≤2 in the ALSFRS-R items for swallowing, cutting food and handling utensils, or walking) and the total ALSFRS-R score, forced vital capacity (FVC), and survival at selected time-points until death or 48 weeks, were assessed. These measures were used as surrogates of relevant functional impairment. Of 82 self-sufficient (SS) patients at baseline, 32 (39.0%) became NSS at four weeks and increased to 72 (87.8%) at the end of follow-up. A significant association was found between NSS, ALSFRS-R score and FVC at 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Thirty-four subjects died (41.5%). Compared to SS patients (median survival, 27.9 months), individuals becoming NSS at four weeks were at increased risk to die (median survival, 23.6 months, p = 0.02). NSS status at four weeks predicted survival even after adjustment for ALSFRS-R total score, age, gender, site of onset, disease duration, BMI, and FVC. 'Walking' was the only predictor of survival when adjusting for all covariates. In conclusion, NSS status is a possible endpoint to investigate short-term efficacy of treatments of ALS. PMID:26470831

  8. The promoter of the cereal VERNALIZATION1 gene is sufficient for transcriptional induction by prolonged cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Alonso-Peral

    Full Text Available The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1 gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare. A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expression in the leaves and shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. Fluorescence increased at the shoot apex prior to inflorescence initiation and was subsequently maintained in the developing inflorescence. The promoter was also sufficient for low-temperature induction of GFP expression. A naturally occurring insertion in the proximal promoter, which is associated with elevated VRN1 expression and early flowering in some spring wheats, did not abolish induction of VRN1 transcription by prolonged cold, however. A translational fusion of the promoter and transcribed regions of VRN1 to GFP, VRN1::GFP, was localised to nuclei of cells at the shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. The distribution of VRN1::GFP at the shoot apex was similar to the expression pattern of the VRN1 promoter-GFP reporter gene. Fluorescence from the VRN1::GFP fusion protein increased in the developing leaves after prolonged cold treatment. These observations suggest that the promoter of VRN1 is targeted by mechanisms that trigger vernalization-induced flowering in economically important temperate cereal crops.

  9. Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T Ulery

    Full Text Available Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization. When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination--not an objective metric--that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170 were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable information content of the prints: saying "the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked" is not the same as "the prints had N corresponding minutiae." More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework.

  10. Attended but unseen: visual attention is not sufficient for visual awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentridge, R W; Nijboer, T C W; Heywood, C A

    2008-02-12

    Does any one psychological process give rise to visual awareness? One candidate is selective attention-when we attend to something it seems we always see it. But if attention can selectively enhance our response to an unseen stimulus then attention cannot be a sufficient precondition for awareness. Kentridge, Heywood & Weiskrantz [Kentridge, R. W., Heywood, C. A., & Weiskrantz, L. (1999). Attention without awareness in blindsight. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266, 1805-1811; Kentridge, R. W., Heywood, C. A., & Weiskrantz, L. (2004). Spatial attention speeds discrimination without awareness in blindsight. Neuropsychologia, 42, 831-835.] demonstrated just such a dissociation in the blindsight subject GY. Here, we test whether the dissociation generalizes to the normal population. We presented observers with pairs of coloured discs, each masked by the subsequent presentation of a coloured annulus. The discs acted as primes, speeding discrimination of the colour of the annulus when they matched in colour and slowing it when they differed. We show that the location of attention modulated the size of this priming effect. However, the primes were rendered invisible by metacontrast-masking and remained unseen despite being attended. Visual attention could therefore facilitate processing of an invisible target and cannot, therefore, be a sufficient precondition for visual awareness. PMID:18237752

  11. Comparison of methods for calculating conditional expectations of sufficient statistics for continuous time Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tataru Paula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs is a widely used model for describing the evolution of DNA sequences on the nucleotide, amino acid or codon level. The sufficient statistics for CTMCs are the time spent in a state and the number of changes between any two states. In applications past evolutionary events (exact times and types of changes are unaccessible and the past must be inferred from DNA sequence data observed in the present. Results We describe and implement three algorithms for computing linear combinations of expected values of the sufficient statistics, conditioned on the end-points of the chain, and compare their performance with respect to accuracy and running time. The first algorithm is based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the rate matrix (EVD, the second on uniformization (UNI, and the third on integrals of matrix exponentials (EXPM. The implementation in R of the algorithms is available at http://www.birc.au.dk/~paula/. Conclusions We use two different models to analyze the accuracy and eight experiments to investigate the speed of the three algorithms. We find that they have similar accuracy and that EXPM is the slowest method. Furthermore we find that UNI is usually faster than EVD.

  12. Application of nitrogen sufficiency conversion strategy for microalgae-based ammonium-rich wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Zhou, Wenguang; Yang, Haizhen; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Ammonium ([Formula: see text]-N)-rich wastewater, a main cause for eutrophication, can serve as a promising medium for fast microalgae cultivation with efficient [Formula: see text]-N removal. To achieve this goal, a well-controlled three-stage treatment process was developed. Two trophic modes (mixotrophy and heterotrophy) in Stage 1 and Stage 2, with two nitrogen availability conditions (N sufficient and N deprived) in Stage 2, and different [Formula: see text]-N concentrations in Stage 3 were compared to investigate the effects of nitrogen sufficiency conversion on indigenous strain UMN266 for [Formula: see text]-N removal. Results showed that mixotrophic cultures in the first two stages with N deprivation in Stage 2 was the optimum treatment strategy, and higher [Formula: see text]-N concentration in Stage 3 facilitated both microalgal growth and [Formula: see text]-N removal, with average and maximum biomass productivity of 55.3 and 161.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), and corresponding removal rates of 4.2 and 15.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively, superior to previously published results. Observations of intracellular compositions confirmed the optimum treatment strategy, discovering excellent starch accumulating property of strain UMN266 as well. Combination of bioethanol production with the proposed three-stage process using various real wastewater streams at corresponding stages was suggested for future application. PMID:26979571

  13. Sufficient validation: the value of robustness in performance assessment and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative performance assessment relies on a chain of models describing the evolution of the entire repository system. Assessment models, along with their associated databases, have varying requirements for validation depending on the complexity of the system modelled, the temporal and spatial extrapolation required and the sensitivity of overall system performance to the specific processes being modelled. A model can be considered robust if we have confidence that the results are either correct or that they overpredict detriment. Validation is the process of confirming that a model is sufficiently close to the truth; an adequately validated model is therefore obviously robust. To derive a robust model of a real system, all potentially detrimental processes need to be explicitly considered but demonstrably favourable processes only need to be considered to the extent that they are required to provide sufficient performance. This simplification in modelling reality can decrease validation requirements. A robust model with no excessive demands on validation results from a combination of a simple, well understood system with large reserves of performance and a conservative approach to choice of methods and data. On a case by case basis, the feasibility of achieving reasonable validation needs to be examined. If acceptable validation is not achieved, either the conceptual model framework must be changed or the system itself must be improved. 5 figs

  14. A blueprint for complete energy self-sufficiency in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Endless Energy Project is a partnership between the Globe Foundation, BC Hydro, Day 4 Energy, the Power Technology Alliance, the National Research Council of Canada, and Western Economic Diversification. The purpose of the project is to examine British Columbia's potential to be energy self-sufficient from renewable sources by 2025. Background information on the Endless Energy Project was presented with reference to energy use in all sectors of the economy and energy supply from all sources indigenous to the province. The report discussed global drivers and scenarios as well as energy use trends specific to British Columbia. These trends were related to energy use for residential buildings; commercial sector; domestic transportation; gateway transportation; and industrial sources. The report also provided an outlook for each of these sectors. A large-scale supply outlook was also described for solar; geothermal; wind; hydro; biomass; forest waste to energy potential; ocean wave energy potential; and tidal current systems. The report concluded with a discussion of matching renewable energy supplies to demand. It was concluded that based on a combination of renewable energy supply, cleaner burning fuels, such as hydrogen and ethanol, and energy use reduction in homes, businesses, and public sector operations, British Columbia could reasonably achieve energy self-sufficiency by 2025. tabs., figs

  15. PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS’ VIEWS ON THE SUFFICIENCY LEVEL OF MENTOR TEACHERS’ USE OF CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKSİZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tried to evaluate prospective teachers’ perceptions of mentor teachers’ sufficiency level on the use of constructivist learning approach. Study group consisted of fourth year students enrolled at Fırat, Adıyaman, İnönü, Kilis 7 Aralık, Gaziantep, Dicle, Erzincan, Cumhuriyet, İbrahim Çeçen, Kafkas, Alpaslan, Hatay, Siirt, Atatürk and Van 100. Yıl Universities in the spring term of 2009-2010 academic year. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used for the study. For the quantitative part of the study, “Teachers’ Sufficiency Scale in Relation to Constructivist Learning”, developed by Karadağ (2007, was used as the data collection tool. An interview form including four semi-structured questions was used for the qualitative part of the study. Validity and reliability of the data collection tools were calculated (Alpha: 0.79, Spearman-Brown: 0.77, Gutmann Split-Half: 0.75 and the results proved that they were both valid and reliable. Mean score, standard deviation, Independent samples t test, one way ANOVA, Mann Whitney U and LSD tests and content analyses were used to analyze quantitative and qualitative data. Results with p

  16. A Sufficient Condition for Kernel Perfectness of a Digraph in Terms of Semikernels Modulo F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Camino BALBUENA; Hortensia GALEANA-S(A)NCHEZ; Mucuy-kak GUEVARA

    2012-01-01

    A kernel of a directed graph is a set of vertices which is both independent and absorbent.And a digraph is said to be kernel perfect if and only if any induced subdigraph has a kernel.Given a set of arcs F,a semikernel S modulo F is an independent set such that if some Sz-arc is not in F,then there exists a zS-arc.A sufficient condition on the digraph is given in terms of semikernel modulo F in order to guarantee that a digraph is kernel perfect.To do that we give a characterization of kernel perfectness which is a generalization of a previous result given by Neumann-Lara [Seminúcleos de una digráfica.Anales del Instituto de Matemáticas 2,Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,1971].And moreover,we show by means of an example that our result is independent of previous known sufficient conditions.

  17. High-rate nitrogen removal by the Anammox process with a sufficient inorganic carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachun; Zhang, Li; Fukuzaki, Yasuhiro; Hira, Daisuke; Furukawa, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    This study focused on high-rate nitrogen removal by the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process with a sufficient inorganic carbon (IC) source. Experiments were carried out in an up-flow column Anammox reactor fed with synthetic inorganic wastewater for 110 days. The IC source was added into the influent tank in the form of bicarbonate. The results confirmed the positive impact of inorganic matter on stimulating Anammox activity. After the addition of sufficient IC, the nitrogen removal rate sharply increased from 5.2 to 11.8 kg-Nm(-3)day(-1) within only 32 days. NO(2)-N inhibition was not observed even at NO(2)-N concentrations greater than 460 mgN/L, indicating the enriched Anammox consortium adapted to high NO(2)-N concentrations. The ratio of NO(2)-N removal, NO(3)-N production and NH(4)-N removal for the reactor was correspondingly changed from 1.21:0.21:1 to 1.24:0.18:1. Simultaneously, the sludge volume index of the Anammox granules decreased markedly from 36.8 to 21.5 mL/g, which was attributed to the implementation of proper operational strategy. In addition, DNA analysis revealed that a shift from the KSU-1 strain to the KU2 strain occurred in the Anammox community. PMID:20709538

  18. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  19. Sufficient conditions for globally asymptotic self-stability of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Self-stability analysis of the PWR is presented through the shifted-ectropy based approach. • Sufficient conditions for the globally asymptotic self-stability are established. • The correctness of the theoretic results are finally verified through numerical simulation. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident, safe, stable and efficient operation of reactors is very necessary for the development of nuclear power industry. Since pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the mostly widely used fission reactor, the improvement of its operation performance is quite meaningful. Self-stability is the most important dynamic feature of any reactors, and analyzing the self-stability can give the approach of improving the operation performance. With this in mind, the self-stability analysis of the PWR is presented through the shifted-ectropy based approach, and sufficient conditions for the globally asymptotic self-stability in cases of negative, zero and positive coolant temperature feedback coefficient are all established. The correctness of the theoretical results are finally verified through numerical simulation. The results of this paper give the way to not only guaranteeing self-stability through physical and thermal-hydraulic reactor design but also strengthening closed-loop stability and robustness by the means of feedback control

  20. Prophylactic cerebral irradiation in children with leukemia: In vivo evaluation of the irradiation dose applied to the thyroid during prophylactic cerebral irradiation delivered within the framework of the children leukemia treatment; Dosimetrie in vivo pour l`evaluation de la dose recue par la thyroide lors de l`irradiation cerebrale prophylactique delivree dans le cadre du traitement des leucemies de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, U.; Rossi, G.; Tessa, M.; Monetti, U.; Verna, R.; Urgesi, A.; Barisone, E.; Besenzon, L.; Corrias, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate by in vivo dosimetry, the dose received by the thyroid parenchyma during an encephalon irradiation for children having acute lymphoid leukemia, then to look for a correlation between the thyroid alterations ( hypothyroidism, second tumors) and the dosimetry data. (N.C.). 5 refs.

  1. Children's Places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Using a cross-cultural approach the book investigates children's places in different societies. "Children's Places" examines the ways in which children and adults, from their different vantage-points in society, negotiate proper places of children in both social and spatial terms. It looks at some...... of the recognised constructions of children, as well as examining contexts for them, from schools and kindergartens to inner cities and war-zones. The result gives insight into the notions of inclusion and exclusion, the placement and displacement of children within generational ranks and orders, and...... the kinds of places that children create for themselves....

  2. Applied Linguistics: Brazilian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Marilda C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present perspectives in Applied Linguistics (AL) against the background of a historical overview of the field in Brazil. I take the stance of looking at AL as a field of knowledge and as a professional area of research. This point of view directs my reflections towards research-based Applied Linguistics carried out from…

  3. Applying a potential across a biomembrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lomholt, Michael A; Hansen, Per Lyngs

    2007-01-01

    -tensor we find (1) in the small screening length limit, where the Debye screening length is smaller than the distance between the electrodes, the screening certifies that all electrostatic interactions are short range and the major effect of the applied potential is to decrease the membrane tension and...... increase the bending rigidity; explicit expressions for electrostatic contribution to the tension and bending rigidity are derived as a function of the applied potential, the Debye screening lengths, and the dielectric constants of the membrane and the solvents. For sufficiently large voltages the negative...... contribution to the tension is expected to cause a membrane stretching instability. (2) For the dielectric limit, i.e., no salt (and small wave vectors compared to the distance between the electrodes), when the dielectric constant on the two sides are different the applied potential induces an effective...

  4. Requirements on qualification, competence and sufficient number of personnel for NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe operation of NPPs presupposes qualified personnel on site in sufficient numbers. While the acquisition and preservation of technical expertise and the qualification of the shift personnel and other staff is well regulated by regulatory guidelines in Germany, there is a lack of such regulations with the exception for shift personnel - for the minimum number of technical personnel required for safe operation of a NPP. By order of the BMU, an attempt was made with this study to work out the requirements for qualification, competence and number of personnel to be maintained at the plant, representing the minimum requirements for safe operation of a NPP. The scope of the project was restricted to requirements for technical plant personnel. The aim was to work out requirements which would be as independent as possible of the existing organisation in a particular power plant. This study therefore does not assume a given organisational structure but was rather more oriented on the work processes in a NPP which are the basis for planning and performing routine work in the plant. For the study a work process model of typical tasks in a NPP had to be developed. Then, the tasks to be performed within the so defined work processes were described (task profiles) on the basis of existing manuals for plant organisation. From these task profiles such tasks were defined or selected which shall not be delegated to external personnel for specific reasons, and which were called vital competences. To keep these vital competences at the plant, an assessment and/or calculation of the necessary number of plant technical personnel was made using the task profiles for responsible personnel, but also by the evaluation of thousands of work orders for maintenance personnel. On the basis of these data, a proposal was made for the minimal number of technical personnel which is necessary to operate a NPP unit safely. Beside of this number, general criteria were developed which should be

  5. Two sufficient conditions for non-normal Cayley graphs and their applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A Cayley graph Cay(G, S) on a group G is said to be normal if the right regular representation R(G) of G is normal in the full automorphism group of Cay(G, S). In this paper, two sufficient conditions for non-normal Cayley graphs are given and by using the conditions, five infinite families of connected non-normal Cayley graphs are constructed. As an application, all connected non-normal Cayley graphs of valency 5 on A5 are determined, which generalizes a result about the normality of Cayley graphs of valency 3 or 4 on A5 determined by Xu and Xu. Further, we classify all non-CI Cayley graphs of valency 5 on A5, while Xu et al. have proved that As is a 4-CI group.

  6. An Arntl2-Driven Secretome Enables Lung Adenocarcinoma Metastatic Self-Sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer J; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Greenside, Peyton G; Rogers, Zoë N; Murray, Christopher W; Caswell, Deborah R; Hartmann, Ursula; Connolly, Andrew J; Sweet-Cordero, E Alejandro; Kundaje, Anshul; Winslow, Monte M

    2016-05-01

    The ability of cancer cells to establish lethal metastatic lesions requires the survival and expansion of single cancer cells at distant sites. The factors controlling the clonal growth ability of individual cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here, we show that high expression of the transcription factor ARNTL2 predicts poor lung adenocarcinoma patient outcome. Arntl2 is required for metastatic ability in vivo and clonal growth in cell culture. Arntl2 drives metastatic self-sufficiency by orchestrating the expression of a complex pro-metastatic secretome. We identify Clock as an Arntl2 partner and functionally validate the matricellular protein Smoc2 as a pro-metastatic secreted factor. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms that enable single cancer cells to form allochthonous tumors in foreign tissue environments. PMID:27150038

  7. Sufficient conditions for Hadamard well-posedness of a coupled thermo-chemo-poroelastic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Malysheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the well-posedness of a coupled parabolic-elliptic system modeling fully coupled thermal, chemical, hydraulic, and mechanical processes in porous formations that impact drilling and borehole stability. The underlying thermo-chemo-poroelastic model is a system of time-dependent parabolic equations describing thermal, solute, and fluid diffusions coupled with Navier-type elliptic equations that attempt to capture the elastic behavior of rock around a borehole. An existence and uniqueness theory for a corresponding initial-boundary value problem is an open problem in the field. We give sufficient conditions for the well-posedness in the sense of Hadamard of a weak solution to a fully coupled parabolic-elliptic initial-boundary value problem describing homogeneous and isotropic media.

  8. Role of sunshine vitamin and ldquo;D and rdquo; sufficiency in male and female infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Raja Kumari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a complex disorder which affects about 15% of couple. Animal and human studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency is involved in both male and female infertility. The expression levels of vitamin D receptors and CYP24A1 in human spermatozoa serve as positive predictive markers of semen quality. In women, vitamin D status has been associated with better IVF outcomes, anti Mullerian hormone production and maintenance of ovarian reserve. Serum [25(OH] D levels have a direct relationship with clinical pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing IVF. Women with sufficient levels of vitamin D show higher implantation rates, higher rates of clinical pregnancy in IVF and ET cycles. In women undergoing IVF, higher vitamin levels in their serum and follicular fluid are more likely to achieve clinical pregnancy. Its most important role in reproduction may be at the endometrial level. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 305-311

  9. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  10. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Gen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve.

  11. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J; Hammarlund, Emma U; Costa, M Mafalda; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2016-02-16

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon-oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves. PMID:26729865

  12. Nuclear stations: a sufficient safety standard and no demand for immediate outage, according to ASN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complementary safety assessments (CSA) that have been made for each nuclear station have shown, according to the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority), first that all nuclear power plants have a sufficient safety standard and secondly that some solutions exist to increase the safety margin. The ASN proposes: -) the setting of new measures, adapted to each nuclear plant for assuring the basic safety requirements in case of extreme situations as described in CSA; -) the setting of a force made of qualified teams and equipment to intervene on a nuclear accident very quickly; -) the reinforcing of dispositions for avoiding the dewatering of fuels in spent fuel pools; -) the carrying out of feasibility studies for reinforcing the protection of underground and surface waters in case of a major accident. (A.C.)

  13. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Lars; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of attitude estimation in fractionated spacecraft clusters. Each module in the cluster may have either a star-tracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. Using results in nonlinear ob- servability theory, we provide graph-theoretic sufficient conditions for the attitude of every module to be observable. In particular we show that the attitude of every module in the cluster can be observed if every module has either a star tracker with non-collinear stars, or there is a path through the sensing network from a module with a star tracker to the module without a star tracker, and each of the relative measurements along the path has either multiple non-collinear beacons or a single beacon that is not parallel to the rotation vector of the target module.

  14. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  15. A signal sequence is sufficient for green fluorescent protein to be routed to regulated secretory granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Meskini, R; Jin, L; Marx, R; Bruzzaniti, A; Lee, J; Emeson, R; Mains, R

    2001-02-01

    To investigate trafficking in neuroendocrine cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tags were fused to various portions of the preproneuropeptide Y (NPY) precursor. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells, along with primary anterior pituitary cells, were examined. Expression of chimeric constructs did not disrupt trafficking or regulated secretion of endogenous ACTH and prohormone convertase 1 in AtT-20 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that the chimeric constructs remained intact, as long as the Lys-Arg cleavage site within preproNPY was deleted. GFP was stored in, and released from, regulated granules in cells expressing half of the NPY precursor fused to GFP, and also in cells in which only the signal sequence of preproNPY was fused to GFP. Thus, in neuroendocrine cells, entering the lumen of the secretory pathway is sufficient to target GFP to regulated secretory granules. PMID:11159860

  16. A sufficient condition for the genus of an amalgamated 3-manifold not to go down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Let M i be a connected, compact, orientable 3-manifold, F i a boundary component of M i with g(F i ) 2, i = 1, 2, and F 1 ≌ F 2 . Let  : F 1 → F 2 be a homeomorphism, and M = M 1 ∪  M 2 , F = F 2 = (F 1 ). Then it is known that g(M ) g(M 1 ) + g(M 2 ) - g(F ). In the present paper, we give a sufficient condition for the genus of an amalgamated 3-manifold not to go down as follows: Suppose that there is no essential surface with boundary (Q i1 , Q i ) in (M i1 , F i ) satisfying χ(Q i ) > 3 - 2g(M i ), i = 1, 2. Then g(M ) = g(M 1 ) + g(M 2 ) - g(F ).

  17. The bag-of-frames approach: A not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, Mathieu; Lafay, Grégoire; Défréville, Boris; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-11-01

    The "bag-of-frames" (BOF) approach, which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes). The present paper describes a conceptual replication of a use of the BOF approach in a seminal article using several other soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for the task. As demonstrated in this paper, the good accuracy originally reported with BOF likely resulted from a particularly permissive dataset with low within-class variability. Soundscape modeling, therefore, may not be the closed case it was once thought to be. PMID:26627819

  18. G.A. Cohen and the Ethical Core of Socialism: Equality or Life-Sufficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Noonan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will critically examine G.A.’s Cohen understanding of equality as the normative foundation of socialism. Cohen consistently maintained that inequality was the primary social problem systematically generated by capitalism, and that equality was the primary normative foundation of the socialist alternative. The general question that I want to pose in this paper is: is Cohen’s understanding of equality as the normative foundation of socialism consistent with his general conception of socialism as a systemic alternative to capitalism? I will answer that it is not, because equality is not the best normative foundation for socialism conceived of as a systematic alternative to capitalism, and that elements of Cohen’s own work imply a deeper normative foundation in what I call the principle of life-sufficiency.

  19. Crude stocks OK but local refiners battle to maintain Australia's self-sufficiency in petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia in 1998 is about 80 per cent self-sufficient in liquid petroleum, which includes crude oil, condensate and naturally occurring LPG. Proven and probable oil and condensate reserves in the country's known fields are estimated to be 6.3 billion barrels, which at current production levels would last another 35 years. The country's natural gas reserves are much more abundant, with estimated proven and probable reserves of 120 trillion cubic feet (3.4 trillion m3) or 110 years of production. Continued supply of petroleum products from indigenous sources, however, is more problematic as local refiners battle economies of scale and a rising tide of imported products finding their way into the market

  20. Combustion of available fossil-fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, R.; Levermann, A.; Ridgwell, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 meters in global sea-level rise. Here we show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil-fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil-fuel emissions of 10 000 GtC, Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 meters per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West- and East Antarctica results in a threshold-increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.

  1. The necessary and sufficient conditions for returns to scale properties in generalized data envelopment analysis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Quanling(魏权龄); YU; Gang(于刚); LU; Jianshou(陆剑受)

    2002-01-01

    We give definitions on increasing, constant and decreasing returns to scale under thegeneralized data envelopment analysis (GDEA) model. The GDEA model possesses cone structures fordescribing evaluators' preferences toward different decision making units (DMU) and toward differentinput/output categories. The GDEA model contains many important DEA models as its subclasses.Based upon the definition, we discuss and rigorously prove the necessary and sufficient conditionsfor a DMU to have increasing, constant and decreasing returns to scale under a GDEA model, anddiscuss and clarify the differences and relationships of these conditions under different subclasses ofthe GDEA model. Furthermore, we describe a method based on a two-stage linear program to testreturns to scale properties.

  2. Goodbye to Universal Development and Call for Diversified, Democratic Sufficiency and Frugality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    There’s need for a new development concept that allows for the expected global population of 9 to 10 billion by 2050 to live within the ecological finite world. Since the concept of development became the Western countries’ mantra of human progress and modernisation, promising the undeveloped Third...... World countries materialistic welfare similarly to the developed countries, the poorest countries keep falling further behind in poverty. Rapidly growing emerging economies, however, that all together contain more than half of the world population, now adds up to existing mass consumerism and demand...... for development within a finite ecological planet calls for radical new thinking about development in terms of sufficiency, frugality and sustainability. The interdisciplinary approach of development studies can play a pertinent role in the necessary redefinition of development in rich and poor countries. This...

  3. West Nile Virus Viremia in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias striatus) Sufficient for Infecting Different Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Kenneth B.; Tucker, Bradley J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Blitvich, Bradley J; Fabiosa, Flor G.; BARTHOLOMAY, LYRIC C.; Rowley, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    In eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) inoculated intramuscularly with 101.5 to 105.7 PFU of West Nile virus (WNV), serum titers developed sufficient to infect Aedes triseriatus (Say), Ae. vexans (Meigen), and Culex pipiens (L.). Mean titers (95% confidence interval) of 8 chipmunks were 103.9(3.3–4.5), 106.7(6.4–7.0), and 105.8(4.1–7.5) PFU/mL on days 1–3 postinoculation (p.i.) and 105.8 PFU/mL in 1 chipmunk on day 4 p.i. Mean estimated days that WNV titers were >104.8 and >105.6 were 1.7 (1....

  4. From constraint to sufficiency. The decoupling of energy and carbon from human needs, 1975-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [Institute of Social Ecology, University of Klagenfurt, Vienna (Austria); Roberts, J. Timmons [Center for Environmental Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the relationship between human needs, energy consumption and carbon emissions for several indicators of human development: life expectancy, literacy, income and the Human Development Index. We find that high human development can be achieved at moderate energy and carbon levels; increasing energy and carbon past this level does not necessarily contribute to higher living standards. By conducting a novel longitudinal analysis from 1975 to 2005, we observe a previously undetected decoupling of the per capita energy and carbon required for human needs. If resources were equally distributed, current energy and carbon levels would be more than sufficient to satisfy global human needs at high levels of human development. By projecting current trends to 2030, we demonstrate that the global energy consumption and carbon emissions required to satisfy human needs will decrease with time, despite growth in population. (author)

  5. Sufficient and Necessary Condition to Decide Compatibility for a Class of Interorganizational Workflow Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interorganizational Workflow nets (IWF-nets can well model many concurrent systems such as web service composition, in which multiple processes interact via sending/receiving messages. Compatibility of IWF-nets is a crucial criterion for the correctness of these systems. It guarantees that a system has no deadlock, livelock, or dead tasks. In our previous work we proved that the compatibility problem is PSPACE-complete for safe IWF-nets. This paper defines a subclass of IWF-nets that can model many cases about interactions. Necessary and sufficient condition is presented to decide their compatibility, and it depends on the net structures only. Finally, an algorithm is developed based on the condition.

  6. Sufficient conditions for a period incrementing big bang bifurcation in one-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typically, big bang bifurcation occurs for one (or higher)-dimensional piecewise-defined discontinuous systems whenever two border collision bifurcation curves collide transversely in the parameter space. At that point, two (feasible) fixed points collide with one boundary in state space and become virtual, and, in the one-dimensional case, the map becomes continuous. Depending on the properties of the map near the codimension-two bifurcation point, there exist different scenarios regarding how the infinite number of periodic orbits are born, mainly the so-called period adding and period incrementing. In our work we prove that, in order to undergo a big bang bifurcation of the period incrementing type, it is sufficient for a piecewise-defined one-dimensional map that the colliding fixed points are attractive and with associated eigenvalues of different signs

  7. The medial prefrontal cortex is both necessary and sufficient for the acquisition of conditioned defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Chris M; Luckett, Cloe A; Huhman, Kim L

    2012-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key component of a neural circuit mediating memory formation for emotionally relevant stimuli in an ethologically-based model of conditioned fear, termed conditioned defeat (CD). In this model, subjects are socially defeated by a larger, more aggressive hamster. Upon subsequent exposure to a smaller, non-aggressive intruder, the defeated animal will show high levels of submissive behaviors and fail to defend its territory. Here we examined whether the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area with extensive connections with the amygdala, is also a component of this circuit. Temporary inactivation of the mPFC using muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, significantly enhanced the acquisition but not expression of CD, while blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the mPFC using bicuculline, a GABA(A) antagonist, impaired acquisition of CD. Given these findings, we next sought to test whether plasticity related to the defeat experience occurs in the mPFC. We infused anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, in the mPFC but this treatment did not alter the acquisition of CD. In our final experiment, we demonstrated that bicuculline failed to alter the acquisition of CD. Together, these results demonstrate for the first time that while the mPFC is both necessary and sufficient for the acquisition of CD, it does not appear to mediate plasticity related to the defeat experience. In contrast, while plasticity underlying CD does appear to occur in the BLA, GABAergic receptor inhibition in the BLA is not sufficient to enhance CD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:22001285

  8. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patricia J.; Jones, Laura N.; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C.; English, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  9. The Relationship Between Maternal Attachment, Perceived Social Support and Breast-Feeding Sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal attachment, perceived social support and breast-feeding sufficiency. Study Design: Descriptive correlational design. Place and Duration of Study: A state hospital and two family health centers in Sakarya, Turkey, between June to December 2011. Methodology: The sample was 122 voluntary mothers who had healthy babies of 1 - 2 months old. The data were collected by a Personal Information Form, Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The data collected were analysed by percentage distribution, mean square, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 25.01 ± 2.2 years, and 48.4% of them were primary school graduates. BSESSF was 61.02 ± 8.44 (16 - 70), MAI was 99.07 ± 7.19 (56 - 100) and MSPSS was 66.40 ± 13.58 (37 - 84). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total scores of BSES-SF and MAI (r=0.370, p < 0.001). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of BSES-SF and the score from family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.255, p < 0.01).There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of MAI and the total score of family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.339, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Successful maternal attachment and familial support positively affected the breast-feeding sufficiency of the mother. (author)

  10. Overexpression of ERβ is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo, E-mail: yjlee@sejong.ac.kr

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ERβ suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, we attempted to examine the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ERβ positive PC3 cells and ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ERβ specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ERβ was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ERβ significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ERβ. This result shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.

  11. Induction of ceruloplasmin synthesis by interleukin-1 in copper deficient and copper sufficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-containing plasma protein important in the body's acute phase defense system. In copper sufficient rats given two injections of interleukin-1 (IL-1) at 0 and 8 h, ceruloplasmin activity began to significantly increase within 6 h, but did not peak until at least 24 h. The 24 h stimulated activity was 84 +/- 2 umole p-phenylene diamine (pPD) oxidized x min-1 x L-1 compared to a control of 43 +/- 5. These rats were injected with 100uCi 3H-leucine (ip) 2 h before sacrifice to label newly synthesized proteins. When the 3H immunoprecipitated by rabbit anti-rat Cp serum is expressed as a percent of the 3H precipitated by trichloroacetic acid (TCA), the basal Cp synthesis rate was 3% of the total serum protein synthesis. The rate of Cp synthesis peaked 12 h after IL-1 injection at 7% of total serum protein synthesis and by 24 h was back to the basal rate. In copper deficient rats, IL-1 given with copper induced pPD oxidase activity, while IL-1 given alone did not stimulate activity. The basal Cp synthesis rate in these rats was 3%, the same as in the copper sufficient rats. In copper deficient rats, the Cp synthesis rate was induced by IL-1 with or without an injection of copper. Therefore, if dietary copper is in short supply, then although Cp synthesis is induced by this mediator of host defense mechanisms, Cp cannot carry out its functions

  12. Measuring What Latent Fingerprint Examiners Consider Sufficient Information for Individualization Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T.; Hicklin, R. Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination—not an objective metric—that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying “the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked” is not the same as “the prints had N corresponding minutiae.” More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework. PMID:25372036

  13. Repeatability of kinematic and electromyographical measures during standing and trunk motion: how many trials are sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; DiMonte, Stephen; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have recommended a minimum of five trials to produce repeatable kinematic and electromyography (EMG) measures during target postures or contraction levels. This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of kinematic and EMG measures that are of primary interest in the investigation of trunk movement, and to determine the number of trials required to achieve repeatability and reliability for these measures. Thirty participants performed ten trials of upright standing and maximum trunk ranges-of-motion. Mean (upright standing) and maximum (movement tasks) kinematic and EMG measures were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement, which were used to identify the minimum number of trials for each measure. The repeatability and reliability of the measures were generally high, with 64%, 77%, 85%, and 92% of measures producing repeatable and reliable values with two, three, four, and five trials, respectively. Ten trials were not sufficient for several upright standing angle measures and maximum twist lumbar angles. Further, several abdominal muscles during maximum flexion, as well as the left lower-thoracic erector spinae during maximum twist, required as many as five trials. These measures were typically those with very small amounts of motion, or muscles that did not act in the role of prime mover. These results suggest that as few as two trials may be sufficient for many of the kinematic and EMG measures of primary interest in the investigation of trunk movement, while the collection of four trials should produce repeatable and reliable values for over 80% of measures. These recommendations are intended to provide an acceptable trade-off between repeatable and reliable values and feasibility of the collection protocol. PMID:25661241

  14. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patricia J; Jones, Laura N; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C; English, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  15. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Ward

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2, we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2 to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555 was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour, one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-. We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons.

  16. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Help us raise awareness and ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs © 2013 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  17. Applied Mathematics Seminar 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the abstracts of the lectures delivered at 1982 Applied Mathematics Seminar of the DPD/LCC/CNPq and Colloquy on Applied Mathematics of LCC/CNPq. The Seminar comprised 36 conferences. Among these, 30 were presented by researchers associated to brazilian institutions, 9 of them to the LCC/CNPq, and the other 6 were given by visiting lecturers according to the following distribution: 4 from the USA, 1 from England and 1 from Venezuela. The 1981 Applied Mathematics Seminar was organized by Leon R. Sinay and Nelson do Valle Silva. The Colloquy on Applied Mathematics was held from october 1982 on, being organized by Ricardo S. Kubrusly and Leon R. Sinay. (Author)

  18. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  19. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  20. Physical activity of preschool children and their parents in the Medvode municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohorič, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our diploma thesis was to analyze the physical/sporting exercise in preschool children and their parents in the municipality of Medvode. We wanted to determine the intensity and variety of physical/sporting exercises in children and their parents as well as to determine whether children in urban areas receive a greater variety of physical/sporting exercises than children living in villages. We also wanted to know if parents and their children are sufficiently physically active ...

  1. Technical Basis for the Determination that Current Characterization Data and Processes are Sufficient to Ensure Safe Storage and to Design Waste Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix summarizes condensed phase sampling and uses a logical approach to determine whether the sampling was sufficient to meet the DNFSB Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan milestone 5.6.3.U. Milestone 5.6.3.1j states ''Core sample all tanks by 2002'' (DOE/RL 1996). The milestone was based on the need for characterization data for safe storage of the waste, to operate the tanks and their infrastructure safely, and to plan and implement retrieval and processing of the waste. From 1989 through October 1998,295 core, auger, and grab samples of the condensed phase tank waste have been obtained. The logic used to determine if the sampling was sufficient is presented in Section A2.0. In Section A3.0 the tanks that met the criteria for being considered core-sampled are presented. In total, 138 tanks had been sampled. Sampling from six tanks did not contain sufficient material to meet the criteria. There are 132 tanks that met the criteria. Section A4.0 presents results of the sampling analysis as it applies to safety screening criteria. Very few individual data points approach the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) safety limits. The few data points which had elevated total organic carbon also had greater than 20 percent water, thus putting all waste samples within the safety limits. The data is graphically portrayed in Section A4.0

  2. Financial Consumer Protection in the EU : Towards a Self-Sufficient European Contract Law for Consumer Financial Services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of European contract law in the field of consumer financial services gives rise to the question to what extent it is self-sufficient. A self-sufficient European contract law presupposes the existence of an EU-made and EU-enforced contract-related legal order which is largely dist

  3. 24 CFR 5.617 - Self-sufficiency incentives for persons with disabilities-Disallowance of increase in annual income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-sufficiency incentives for... Family Income § 5.617 Self-sufficiency incentives for persons with disabilities—Disallowance of increase... this section is applicable only to the following programs: HOME Investment Partnerships Program (24...

  4. 78 FR 9935 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Family Self-Sufficiency Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... is an evaluation of the Family Self-Sufficiency Program operated at Public Housing Agencies (PHAs... also lists the following information: Title of Proposed: Family Self-Sufficiency Program Demonstration... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Family...

  5. The Development of University Students' Self-Sufficiency Based on Interactive Technologies by Their Immersion in the Professional Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubimova, Elena Mikhaelovna; Galimullina, Elvira Zufarovna; Ibatullin, Rinat Rivkatovich

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of using web technologies in the development of self-sufficiency of University students. We hypothesize that real professional situations in which he/she is obliged to work independently on the basis of web technologies contribute to the development of students' self-sufficiency. It is shown that the activity…

  6. Assisting Young, Unmarried Mothers to Become Self-Sufficient: The Effects of Different Types of Early Economic Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jodi R.; Hill, Martha S.

    1996-01-01

    Considers how different types of economic support, received soon after the birth of a first child, contribute to the later self-sufficiency of young, unmarried mothers. Findings suggest that certain economic supports assist these mothers and that life choices they make after their child's birth are important to self-sufficiency. (RJM)

  7. Sufficient sleep duration contributes to lower cardiovascular disease risk in addition to four traditional lifestyle factors: the MORGEN study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of sufficient sleep duration to lower CVD risk in addition to sufficient physical activity, a healthy diet, (moderate) alcohol consumption, and non-smoking has not been investigated yet. Design The MORGEN study is a prospective cohort study including 8128 men and 9759 wom

  8. Children's Social Desirability and Dietary Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Litaker, Mark S.; BAGLIO, MICHELLE L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; SHAFFER, NICOLE M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated telephone administration of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD) scale and our adaptation for children of the Social Desirability for Food scale (C-SDF). Each of 100 4th-graders completed 2 telephone interviews 28 days apart. CSD scores had adequate internal consistency and test—retest reliability, and a 14-item subset was identified that sufficiently measures the same construct. Our C-SDF scale performed less well in terms of internal consistency and test—retest reliabili...

  9. Prevention of Vitamin D deficiency in infancy: daily 400 IU vitamin D is sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cizmecioglu Filiz M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Aim-objective Vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developing countries continues to be a major health problem. Additionally, the increase of cases of rickets in children of some ethnic groups in the United States and European countries has provided this issue to be updated. Obviously, powerful strategies are necessary to prevent vitamin D deficiency nation-wide. In 2005, a nationwide prevention program for vitamin D deficiency was initiated, recommending 400 IU vitamin D per a day. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the prevention program. Methods Eighty-five infants who were recalled as part of the national screening program for congenital hypothyroidism between February 2010 and August 2010 at Kocaeli University Children's Hospital were evaluated in terms of their vitamin D status as well. All babies had been provided with free vitamin D (Cholecalciferol solution and recommended to receive 400 IU (3 drops daily. Information regarding the age at start of supplementation, the dosage and compliance were obtained from the mothers with face-to-face interview. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D, alkaline phosphatase (AP, parathormone (PTH levels were measured. Results The mean age at which Vitamin D3 supplementation began was 16.5 ± 20.7 (3-120 days. Ninety percent of cases (n:76 were receiving 3 drops (400 IU vitamin D3 per day as recommended; 70% of cases (n:59 were given vitamin D3 regularly, the remainder had imperfect compliance. Among those children who are older than 12 months, only 20% continued vitamin D supplementation. No subject had clinical signs of rickets. The mean 25-OH-D level was 42,5 ± 25,8 (median: 38.3 ng/ml. Ten subjects (12% had their serum 25-OH-D levels lower than 20 ng/ml (6 between 15-20 ng/ml, 3 between 5-15 ng/ml and only one Conclusions 400 U/day vitamin D seems adequate to prevent vitamin D deficiency. However, we believe that the program for preventing vitamin D deficiency in Turkey, needs

  10. Treatment of pediatric overweight: an examination of feasibility and effectiveness in an applied clinical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and feasibility of an evidence-based treatment for weight loss in children. METHODS: A total of 41 children who were overweight and their families were provided a modified version of the Traffic Light Diet (TLD) in an applied setting. Children who received tr...

  11. A brief intervention is sufficient for many adolescents seeking help from low threshold adolescent psychiatric services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laukkanen Eila

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable increase in the need for psychiatric services for adolescents. Primary health care practitioners have a major role in detecting, screening and helping these adolescents. An intervention entitled SCREEN is described in this article. The SCREEN intervention was developed to help practitioners to detect and screen adolescent needs, to care for adolescents at the primary health care level and to facilitate the referral of adolescents to secondary care services in collaboration between primary and secondary health care. Secondly, the article presents the background and clinical characteristics of youths seeking help from the SCREEN services, and compares the background factors and clinical characteristics of those patients referred and not referred to secondary care services. Methods The SCREEN intervention consisted of 1 to 5 sessions, including assessment by a semi-structured anamnesis interview, the structured Global Assessment Scale, and by a structured priority rating scale, as well as a brief intervention for each adolescent's chosen problem. Parents took part in the assessment in 39% of cases involving girls and 50% involving boys. During 34 months, 2071 adolescents (69% females entered the intervention and 70% completed it. The mean age was 17.1 years for boys and 17.3 years for girls. Results For 69% of adolescents, this was the first contact with psychiatric services. The most common reasons for seeking services were depressive symptoms (31%. Self-harming behaviour had occurred in 25% of girls and 16% of boys. The intervention was sufficient for 37% of those who completed it. Psychosocial functioning improved during the intervention. Factors associated with referral for further treatment were female gender, anxiety as the main complaint, previous psychiatric treatment, self-harming behaviour, a previous need for child welfare services, poor psychosocial functioning and a high score in the

  12. Bilingual Learning for Second and Third Generation Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera; Al-Azami, Salman

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the English-speaking world, children from bilingual backgrounds are being educated in mainstream classrooms where they have little or no opportunity to use their mother tongue. Second and third generation children, in particular, are assumed to be learning sufficiently through English only. This study investigated how British…

  13. Applied Literature for Healing,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Marie Anderson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study interviews conducted with elite participants serve to reveal the underlying elements that unite the richly diverse emerging field of Applied Literature. The basic interpretative qualitative method included a thematic analysis of data from the interviews yielding numerous common elements that were then distilled into key themes that elucidated the beneficial effects of engaging consciously with literature. These themes included developing a stronger sense of self in balance with an increasing connection with community; providing a safe container to engage challenging and potentially overwhelming issues from a stance of empowered action; and fostering a healing space for creativity. The findings provide grounds for uniting the work being done in a range of helping professions into a cohesive field of Applied Literature, which offers effective tools for healing, transformation and empowerment.Keywords: Applied Literature, Bibliotherapy, Poetry Therapy, Arts in Corrections, Arts in Medicine

  14. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed. PMID:27428582

  15. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  16. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  17. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  18. Applied statistics with SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Huizingh, Eelko K R E

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, Applied Statistics Using SPSS is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. Based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, the text's self-help style is designed to boost the skills and confidence of those that will need to use SPSS in the course of doing their research project. The book is pedagogically well developed and contains many screen dumps and exercises, glossary terms and worked examples. Divided into two parts, Applied Statistics Using SPSS covers :

  19. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  20. Retransmission Steganography Applied

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the implementation of network steganography method called RSTEG (Retransmission Steganography). The main idea of RSTEG is to not acknowledge a successfully received packet to intentionally invoke retransmission. The retransmitted packet carries a steganogram instead of user data in the payload field. RSTEG can be applied to many network protocols that utilize retransmissions. We present experimental results for RSTEG applied to TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) as TCP is the most popular network protocol which ensures reliable data transfer. The main aim of the performed experiments was to estimate RSTEG steganographic bandwidth and detectability by observing its influence on the network retransmission level.

  1. Spirituality, hope, and self-sufficiency among low-income job seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Self-sufficiency (SS) is an important social welfare policy goal in the United States, yet little is known about the process that leads to SS. To address this gap in the literature, this study examined the relationship between spirituality, hope, and SS among a sample of low-income job seekers (N = 116). It was hypothesized that spirituality would be related to hope, and that hope, in turn, would be related to SS. Using survey data from two workforce development agencies, this hypothesis was confirmed-hope fully mediated the relationship between spirituality and SS. Of the two factors through which hope is commonly operationalized-agency and pathways-supplemental analysis suggested that spirituality only affects SS through the agency channel. To help foster hope in direct practice settings, it is suggested that social workers might employ spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocols. Macrostructural interventions that block the pathway component of hope are also suggested to help reverse exclusion from labor market entry. As such, hope needs to be addressed comprehensively-intrapsychically and macrostructurally-to effect bottom-up change for SS. Engendering hope may assist clients overcome some of the many challenges they encounter on the journey to SS. PMID:25929013

  2. The N-terminal 33 amino acid domain of Siva-1 is sufficient for nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva-1 induces apoptosis in multiple pathological processes and plays an important role in the suppression of tumor metastasis, protein degradation, and other functions. Although many studies have demonstrated that Siva-1 functions in the cytoplasm, a few have found that Siva-1 can relocate to the nucleus. In this study, we found that the first 33 amino acid residues of Siva-1 are required for its nuclear localization. Further study demonstrated that the green fluorescent protein can be imported into the nucleus after fusion with these 33 amino acid residues. Other Siva-1 regions and domains showed less effect on Siva-1 nuclear localization. By site-mutagenesis of all of these 33 amino acid residues, we found that mutants of the first 1-18 amino acids affected Siva-1 nuclear compartmentalization but could not complete this localization independently. In summary, we demonstrated that the N-terminal 33 amino acid residues were sufficient for Siva-1 nuclear localization, but the mechanism of this translocation needs additional investigation

  3. A sufficient condition for the lack of cellular convection in a dissipative plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-dimensional boundary-value problem of dissipative plasma equilibrium in a cylinder is formulated and analytically solved. As regards the data, axial symmetry and uniformity along the axis of the cylinder are assumed; as regards the solution(s), a given periodicity along the axis of the cylinder is imposed. Viscous stresses and resistance are the dissipation processes taken into account, while a particle source and an externally driven electric field sustain the pressure gradient in the plasma. Plasma density, coefficients of viscosity and resistivity are given smooth functions of the radius. After analytically solving the boundary-value problem, a functional setting of the equations is established and a problem for weak solutions is formulated. The main achievement of the analysis is a rigorous uniqueness and nonlinear stability result for the analytical solution found; since such a solution describes a merely radial flow of the plasma across nested magnetic surfaces, what is derived is a sufficient condition for the lack of cellular convection. Finally, the significance of the physical model introduced in this paper, and herein theoretically analysed, is pointed out in view of possible computational work which might yield valuable insight. (orig.)

  4. Mechano-insensitive nociceptors are sufficient to induce histamine-induced itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, Marcus; Rukwied, Roman; Blunk, James; Menzer, Christian; Konrad, Christoph; Dusch, Martin; Schmelz, Martin; Benrath, Justus

    2013-07-01

    The nerve fibres underlying histamine-induced itch have not been fully elucidated. We blocked the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and mapped the skin area unresponsive to mechanical stimulation, but still sensitive to electrically induced pain. Nerve block induced significantly larger anaesthetic areas to mechanical (100 mN pin-prick, 402 ± 61 cm²; brush, 393 ± 63 cm²) and heat pain stimuli (401 ± 53 cm²) compared with electrical stimulation (352 ± 62 cm², p iontophoresis (7.5 mC) at skin sites in which mechanical sensitivity was blocked, but electrical stimulation was still perceived 30 min after the nerve block (n = 9). In these areas iontophoresis of histamine provoked itching in 8/9 subjects with a mean maximum of 4.6 ± 1 (on an 11-point rating scale). Histamine-induced itch can thus be perceived at skin sites where input from mechano-sensitive polymodal nociceptors is blocked. In conclusion, input from mechano-insensitive nociceptors is sufficient to generate histamine-induced itch. PMID:23407896

  5. A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rummel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of `lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them -- the method of `K\\"ahler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading $\\alpha'$-correction -- allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the K\\"ahler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume.

  6. Energy self-sufficiency and sustainable development in Nigeria: The possible role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term energy security is an important determinant of development in any society. Nigeria currently grapples with the daunting problem of generating sufficient electricity to drive its development process. As part of the Federal Government's concerted effort to solve the problem, it has adopted a strategy which would strengthen generation as well as diversify the country's energy generation base beyond the current sources of oil, gas and hydro to include nuclear electricity. In this regard, a national nuclear power road map which would lead to the deployment of nuclear power plants for electricity generation has been approved. The Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC), the national focal agency development, has been mandated to implement the nuclear power road map. The road map, if meticulously implemented will position Nigeria to generate electricity from nuclear power plants in the next ten years. There are opportunities and challenges. The Nigeria Society of Engineers (NSE) is a major stakeholder, and the essence of the plenary lecture is to furnish the NSE with the expected benefits, the basic elements of the programme and current state of its implementation

  7. Stable kinetochore–microtubule attachment is sufficient to silence the spindle assembly checkpoint in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauchman, Eric C.; Boehm, Frederick J.; DeLuca, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    During mitosis, duplicated sister chromatids attach to microtubules emanating from opposing sides of the bipolar spindle through large protein complexes called kinetochores. In the absence of stable kinetochore–microtubule attachments, a cell surveillance mechanism known as the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) produces an inhibitory signal that prevents anaphase onset. Precisely how the inhibitory SAC signal is extinguished in response to microtubule attachment remains unresolved. To address this, we induced formation of hyper-stable kinetochore–microtubule attachments in human cells using a non-phosphorylatable version of the protein Hec1, a core component of the attachment machinery. We find that stable attachments are sufficient to silence the SAC in the absence of sister kinetochore bi-orientation and strikingly in the absence of detectable microtubule pulling forces or tension. Furthermore, we find that SAC satisfaction occurs despite the absence of large changes in intra-kinetochore distance, suggesting that substantial kinetochore stretching is not required for quenching the SAC signal. PMID:26620470

  8. Neuronal function is necessary but not sufficient for consciousness: Consciousness is necessary for will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nussbaum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural neuroscience has presented philosophers with the task of clarifying the relationship between neural determinism and free will. If neural functions encode information and govern decision-making, are the constructs of will, agency and indeed morality illusions of pre-scientific ignorance? This article will argue that neuronal function is necessary for representing distinct sensory-perceptual, cognitive, motivational, emotional states and motor functions. However, neural transmission and action potentials are simply chemical-physical representations of these informational states but are not the embodiment of consciousness itself. By some yet undiscovered mechanism, consciousness “reads” the neuronal events into conscious experience. Absent a particular specialized brain region or sufficient relevant transmitters and receptors, relevant information cannot be processed and the individual cannot be conscious of that informational state. In natural and many artificial communication systems, communications proceed bi-directionally. By an argument of symmetry, if neuronal activity can communicate with consciousness, there is no reason to preclude consciousness from communicating back and influencing neuronal function. In the intervening conscious moment, information from diverse perceptual, motivational, cognitive and emotional sources is weighted and resultant will results. This process then biases resultant neural processes to actualize the willed target. This approach is limited in terms of operationalization into an experimental study because at present, there is no method to measure consciousness independent of neuronal function and subjective report.

  9. Neuronal function is necessary but not sufficient for consciousness: consciousness is necessary for will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, David; Ibrahim, Khadija

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral neuroscience has presented philosophers with the task of clarifying the relationship between neural determinism and free will. If neural functions encode information and govern decision-making, are the constructs of will, agency and indeed morality illusions of pre-scientific ignorance? This article will argue that neuronal function is necessary for representing distinct sensory-perceptual, cognitive, motivational, emotional states, and motor functions. However, neural transmission and action potentials are simply chemical-physical representations of these informational states but are not the embodiment of consciousness itself. By some yet undiscovered mechanism, consciousness "reads" the neuronal events into conscious experience. Absent a particular specialized brain region or sufficient relevant transmitters and receptors, relevant information cannot be processed and the individual cannot be conscious of that informational state. In natural and many artificial communication systems, communications proceed bi-directionally. By an argument of symmetry, if neuronal activity can communicate with consciousness, there is no reason to preclude consciousness from communicating back and influencing neuronal function. In the intervening conscious moment, information from diverse perceptual, motivational, cognitive, and emotional sources is weighted and will results. This process then biases resultant neural processes to actualize the willed target. This approach is limited in terms of operationalization into an experimental study because at present, there is no method to measure consciousness-independent of neuronal function and subjective report. PMID:23181011

  10. The N-terminal 33 amino acid domain of Siva-1 is sufficient for nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.Y.; Yang, L.X. [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Z.F. [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Biochemistry, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Ministry of Education in China, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-12-02

    Siva-1 induces apoptosis in multiple pathological processes and plays an important role in the suppression of tumor metastasis, protein degradation, and other functions. Although many studies have demonstrated that Siva-1 functions in the cytoplasm, a few have found that Siva-1 can relocate to the nucleus. In this study, we found that the first 33 amino acid residues of Siva-1 are required for its nuclear localization. Further study demonstrated that the green fluorescent protein can be imported into the nucleus after fusion with these 33 amino acid residues. Other Siva-1 regions and domains showed less effect on Siva-1 nuclear localization. By site-mutagenesis of all of these 33 amino acid residues, we found that mutants of the first 1-18 amino acids affected Siva-1 nuclear compartmentalization but could not complete this localization independently. In summary, we demonstrated that the N-terminal 33 amino acid residues were sufficient for Siva-1 nuclear localization, but the mechanism of this translocation needs additional investigation.

  11. Pathological tendons maintain sufficient aligned fibrillar structure on ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, S I; Cook, J

    2016-06-01

    Structural disorganization in the tendon is associated with tendinopathy, with little research investigating whether disorganization overwhelms the overall structural integrity of the tendon. This study investigated the mean cross-sectional area (CSA) of aligned fibrillar structure as detected by ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) in the pathological and normal Achilles and patellar tendons. Ninety-one participants had their Achilles and/or patellar tendons scanned using UTC to capture a three-dimensional image of the tendon and allow a semi-quantification of the echopattern. The mean CSA of aligned fibrillar structure (echo type I + II) and disorganized structure (echo type III + IV) was calculated based on UTC algorithms. Each tendon was classified as either pathological or normal based solely on gray-scale ultrasound. The mean CSA of aligned fibrillar structure was significantly greater (P ≤ 0.001) in the pathological tendon compared with the normal tendon, despite the pathological tendon containing greater amounts of disorganized structure (P ≤ 0.001). A significant relationship was observed between the mean CSA of disorganized structure and anteroposterior diameter of the Achilles (R(2)  = 0.587) and patellar (R(2)  = 0.559) tendons. This study is the first to show that pathological tendons have sufficient levels of aligned fibrillar structure. Pathological tendons may compensate for areas of disorganization by increasing in tendon thickness. PMID:26059532

  12. Loss of Desmoglein Binding Is Not Sufficient for Keratinocyte Dissociation in Pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Waschke, Jens; Spindler, Volker

    2015-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a severe autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies against the desmosomal cell adhesion molecules desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and Dsg3 cause intraepidermal blister formation. Mechanistically, the fundamental question is still unresolved whether loss of cell cohesion is a result of (1) direct inhibition of Dsg interaction by autoantibodies or (2) intracellular signaling events, which are altered in response to antibody binding and finally cause desmosome destabilization. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to perform Dsg3 adhesion measurements on living keratinocytes to investigate the contributions of direct inhibition and signaling to loss of cell cohesion after autoantibody treatment. Dsg3 binding was rapidly blocked following antibody exposure under conditions where no depletion of surface Dsg3 was detectable, demonstrating direct inhibition of Dsg3 interaction. Inhibition of p38MAPK, a central signaling molecule in PV pathogenesis, abrogated loss of cell cohesion, but had a minor effect on loss of Dsg3 binding. Similarly, the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-MCD) fully blocked cell dissociation, but did not restore Dsg3 interactions or prevent the activation of p38MAPK. These results demonstrate that inhibition of Dsg3 binding is not sufficient to cause loss of cell cohesion, but rather alters signaling events which, in lipid raft-dependent manner, induce cell dissociation. PMID:26288352

  13. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Tika B; Sah, Shrawan K; Thapa, Resam B; McDonald, Andrew J; Davis, Adam S

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  14. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika B Karki

    Full Text Available Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District, Pang (Parbat District, and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District, with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods.

  15. Self-sufficient redox biotransformation of lignin-related benzoic acids with Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Martín A; Mascotti, María L; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Kurina-Sanz, Marcela

    2015-12-01

    Aromatic carboxylic acids are readily obtained from lignin in biomass processing facilities. However, efficient technologies for lignin valorization are missing. In this work, a microbial screening was conducted to find versatile biocatalysts capable of transforming several benzoic acids structurally related to lignin, employing vanillic acid as model substrate. The wild-type Aspergillus flavus growing cells exhibited exquisite selectivity towards the oxidative decarboxylation product, 2-methoxybenzene-1,4-diol. Interestingly, when assaying a set of structurally related substrates, the biocatalyst displayed the oxidative removal of the carboxyl moiety or its reduction to the primary alcohol whether electron withdrawing or donating groups were present in the aromatic ring, respectively. Additionally, A. flavus proved to be highly tolerant to vanillic acid increasing concentrations (up to 8 g/L), demonstrating its potential application in chemical synthesis. A. flavus growing cells were found to be efficient biotechnological tools to perform self-sufficient, structure-dependent redox reactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a biocatalyst exhibiting opposite redox transformations of the carboxylic acid moiety in benzoic acid derivatives, namely oxidative decarboxylation and carboxyl reduction, in a structure-dependent fashion. PMID:26445878

  16. Retinoic Acid Is Sufficient for the In Vitro Induction of Mouse Spermatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si; Wang, Xiuxia; Ma, Longfei; Lin, Xiwen; Zhang, Daoqin; Li, Zhen; Wu, Yujian; Zheng, Chunwei; Feng, Xue; Liao, Shangying; Feng, Yanmin; Chen, Jian; Hu, Xiangjing; Wang, Min; Han, Chunsheng

    2016-07-12

    Meiosis is the key step in gametogenesis. However, the mechanism of mammalian meiosis remains poorly understood due to the lack of an in vitro model. Here, we report that retinoic acid (RA) is sufficient for inducing leptotene/zygotene spermatocytes from cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Multiple genes regulated by RA were identified by RNA sequencing. RA in combination with pup Sertoli cell co-culture resulted in a higher induction efficiency of 28%. Comparisons in the transcriptomic profiles of the induced spermatogenic cells and the isolated ones revealed the progressive induction of the germ cells. Using this model, we showed that Stra8, Agpat3, Fam57a, Wdr91, and Sox30 contributed to the proliferation and meiosis initiation differentially. In conclusion, we have efficiently generated spermatocytes using an RA/pup Sertoli cell-based in vitro model and provided proof-of-concept evidence for its application in identifying genes involved in mammalian meiosis. PMID:27346680

  17. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kourouniotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF to EGF receptor (EGFR stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis.

  18. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  19. A sufficient condition for de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We derive a sufficient condition for realizing meta-stable de Sitter vacua with small positive cosmological constant within type IIB string theory flux compactifications with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. There are a number of 'lamp post' constructions of de Sitter vacua in type IIB string theory and supergravity. We show that one of them - the method of 'Kaehler uplifting' by F-terms from an interplay between non-perturbative effects and the leading {alpha}'-correction - allows for a more general parametric understanding of the existence of de Sitter vacua. The result is a condition on the values of the flux induced superpotential and the topological data of the Calabi-Yau compactification, which guarantees the existence of a meta-stable de Sitter vacuum if met. Our analysis explicitly includes the stabilization of all moduli, i.e. the Kaehler, dilaton and complex structure moduli, by the interplay of the leading perturbative and non-perturbative effects at parametrically large volume. (orig.)

  20. Overexpression of aromatase alone is sufficient for ovarian development in genetically male chicken embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S Lambeth

    Full Text Available Estrogens play a key role in sexual differentiation of both the gonads and external traits in birds. The production of estrogen occurs via a well-characterised steroidogenic pathway, which is a multi-step process involving several enzymes, including cytochrome P450 aromatase. In chicken embryos, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1 is expressed female-specifically from the time of gonadal sex differentiation. To further explore the role of aromatase in sex determination, we ectopically delivered this enzyme using the retroviral vector RCASBP in ovo. Aromatase overexpression in male chicken embryos induced gonadal sex-reversal characterised by an enlargement of the left gonad and development of ovarian structures such as a thickened outer cortex and medulla with lacunae. In addition, the expression of key male gonad developmental genes (DMRT1, SOX9 and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH was suppressed, and the distribution of germ cells in sex-reversed males followed the female pattern. The detection of SCP3 protein in late stage sex-reversed male embryonic gonads indicated that these genetically male germ cells had entered meiosis, a process that normally only occurs in female embryonic germ cells. This work shows for the first time that the addition of aromatase into a developing male embryo is sufficient to direct ovarian development, suggesting that male gonads have the complete capacity to develop as ovaries if provided with aromatase.

  1. Lgr5-Expressing Cells Are Sufficient and Necessary for Postnatal Mammary Gland Organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Plaks

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary epithelial stem cells are vital to tissue expansion and remodeling during various phases of postnatal mammary development. Basal mammary epithelial cells are enriched in Wnt-responsive cells and can reconstitute cleared mammary fat pads upon transplantation into mice. Lgr5 is a Wnt-regulated target gene and was identified as a major stem cell marker in the small intestine, colon, stomach, and hair follicle, as well as in kidney nephrons. Here, we demonstrate the outstanding regenerative potential of a rare population of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5+ mammary epithelial cells (MECs. We found that Lgr5+ cells reside within the basal population, are superior to other basal cells in regenerating functional mammary glands (MGs, are exceptionally efficient in reconstituting MGs from single cells, and exhibit regenerative capacity in serial transplantations. Loss-of-function and depletion experiments of Lgr5+ cells from transplanted MECs or from pubertal MGs revealed that these cells are not only sufficient but also necessary for postnatal mammary organogenesis.

  2. Lgr5-expressing cells are sufficient and necessary for postnatal mammary gland organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Vicki; Brenot, Audrey; Lawson, Devon A; Linnemann, Jelena R; Van Kappel, Eline C; Wong, Karren C; de Sauvage, Frederic; Klein, Ophir D; Werb, Zena

    2013-01-31

    Mammary epithelial stem cells are vital to tissue expansion and remodeling during various phases of postnatal mammary development. Basal mammary epithelial cells are enriched in Wnt-responsive cells and can reconstitute cleared mammary fat pads upon transplantation into mice. Lgr5 is a Wnt-regulated target gene and was identified as a major stem cell marker in the small intestine, colon, stomach, and hair follicle, as well as in kidney nephrons. Here, we demonstrate the outstanding regenerative potential of a rare population of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) mammary epithelial cells (MECs). We found that Lgr5(+) cells reside within the basal population, are superior to other basal cells in regenerating functional mammary glands (MGs), are exceptionally efficient in reconstituting MGs from single cells, and exhibit regenerative capacity in serial transplantations. Loss-of-function and depletion experiments of Lgr5(+) cells from transplanted MECs or from pubertal MGs revealed that these cells are not only sufficient but also necessary for postnatal mammary organogenesis. PMID:23352663

  3. MARKET SUPPLY RESPONSE AND DEMAND FOR LOCAL RICE IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SELF-SUFFICIENCY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAHJI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the supply response and demand for local rice in Nigeria between 1960 and 2004. A system of equations using secondary data was estimated by OLS and 2SLS techniques. Area planted with local rice is mainly affected by expected price of output, agriculture wage rate and by the partial adjustment coefficient. The short-run response elasticity is 0.077. The implied long-run response elasticity is 1.578. The partial adjustment measure is 0.049. This, points to the difficulty of supply response to changing economic conditions. The price elasticity of demand obtained is 0.841. The demand for local rice is thus price inelastic. Rice income elasticity is 0.3378. It is also inelastic. The ban on rice importation in Nigeria could be said to be a step in the right direction. This policy should be continued and policed. However, price, output and non-price incentives that can exert significant influence on rice supply response and demand are required if the self-sufficiency goal is to be achieved.

  4. Osteocalcin Signaling in Myofibers Is Necessary and Sufficient for Optimum Adaptation to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Paula; Laue, Kathrin; Ferron, Mathieu; Confavreux, Cyril; Wei, Jianwen; Galán-Díez, Marta; Lacampagne, Alain; Mitchell, Sarah J; Mattison, Julie A; Chen, Yun; Bacchetta, Justine; Szulc, Pawel; Kitsis, Richard N; de Cabo, Rafael; Friedman, Richard A; Torsitano, Christopher; McGraw, Timothy E; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kurland, Irwin; Karsenty, Gerard

    2016-06-14

    Circulating levels of undercarboxylated and bioactive osteocalcin double during aerobic exercise at the time levels of insulin decrease. In contrast, circulating levels of osteocalcin plummet early during adulthood in mice, monkeys, and humans of both genders. Exploring these observations revealed that osteocalcin signaling in myofibers is necessary for adaptation to exercise by favoring uptake and catabolism of glucose and fatty acids, the main nutrients of myofibers. Osteocalcin signaling in myofibers also accounts for most of the exercise-induced release of interleukin-6, a myokine that promotes adaptation to exercise in part by driving the generation of bioactive osteocalcin. We further show that exogenous osteocalcin is sufficient to enhance the exercise capacity of young mice and to restore to 15-month-old mice the exercise capacity of 3-month-old mice. This study uncovers a bone-to-muscle feedforward endocrine axis that favors adaptation to exercise and can reverse the age-induced decline in exercise capacity. PMID:27304508

  5. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourouniotis, George; Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ) and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. PMID:27463710

  6. Necessary and Sufficient Standards Closure Process pilot: F- and H-Area groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Standards Committee's Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) Standards Closure Process was piloted at SRS on the F- and H- Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Remediation Project. For this existing Environmental Restoration project, the set of N and S standards for design and safety documentation were identified, independently confirmed and approved. Implementation of these standards on the project can lead to a $2.8 Million cost savings on the design, construction/installation, and safety documentation scope of $18 Million. These savings were primarily from site design of power distribution and piping for the water treatment units. Also contributing to the savings were a more appropriate level of safety documentation and the alternate ''commercial'' bids made by vendors in response to a request for proposals for water treatment units. The use of the N and S Process on an ER activity, details on the cost savings, lessons learned and recommendations for broader implementation of the N and S Process are described herein

  7. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  8. Are world uranium resources sufficient to fuel global growth in nuclear generating capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased uranium prices since 2003 have produced more activity in the sector than the previous 20 years. Nuclear reactor construction is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and several, particularly in the developing world, are considering introducing nuclear power as a means of meeting rising electricity demand without increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Others have recently decided to either withdraw from the use of nuclear power or not proceed with development plans following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011. Since the mid-1960, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have jointly prepared a comprehensive update of global uranium resources, production and demand (commonly known as the 'Red Book'. The Red Book is based on government responses to a questionnaire that requests information on uranium exploration and mine development activity, resources and plans for nuclear development to 2035. This presentation provides an overview of the global situation based on the recently published 2011 edition. It features a compilation of global uranium resources, projected mine development and production capability in all the countries currently producing uranium or with plans to do so in the near future. This is compared to updated, post-Fukushima demand projections, reflecting nuclear phase-out plans announced in some countries and ambitious expansion plans of others. The 2011 Red Book shows that currently defined uranium resources are sufficient to meet high case projections of nuclear power development to 2035. (authors)

  9. Sufficient Condition for Estimation in Designing H∞ Filter-Based SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aqilah Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Kalman filter (EKF is often employed in determining the position of mobile robot and landmarks in simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. Nonetheless, there are some disadvantages of using EKF, namely, the requirement of Gaussian distribution for the state and noises, as well as the fact that it requires the smallest possible initial state covariance. This has led researchers to find alternative ways to mitigate the aforementioned shortcomings. Therefore, this study is conducted to propose an alternative technique by implementing H∞ filter in SLAM instead of EKF. In implementing H∞ filter in SLAM, the parameters of the filter especially γ need to be properly defined to prevent finite escape time problem. Hence, this study proposes a sufficient condition for the estimation purposes. Two distinct cases of initial state covariance are analysed considering an indoor environment to ensure the best solution for SLAM problem exists along with considerations of process and measurement noises statistical behaviour. If the prescribed conditions are not satisfied, then the estimation would exhibit unbounded uncertainties and consequently results in erroneous inference about the robot and landmarks estimation. The simulation results have shown the reliability and consistency as suggested by the theoretical analysis and our previous findings.

  10. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis. PMID:26227821

  11. TV Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费沃尔

    2003-01-01

    Many children act in TV shows.They work several hours everyday, 1 they cannot go to regular(正规的) 2.How dothey get their schooling?In Hollywood,about forty, 3 give lessons for the children.Theirwork iS very 4 .They make sure that the children 5 many differ-ent subjects.They make sure, 6 ,that the children get enough 7and play.

  12. Organic fertilization and sufficient nutrient status in prehistoric agriculture?--Indications from multi-proxy analyses of archaeological topsoil relicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Lauer

    Full Text Available Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i at assessing the overall nutrient status and the soil organic matter content of these arable topsoil relicts, and (ii at tracing ancient soil fertilizing practices by respective stable isotope and biomarker analyses. Prehistoric arable topsoils were preserved in archaeological pit fillings, whereas adjacent subsoils served as controls. One Early Weichselian humic zone represented the soil status before the introduction of agriculture. Recent topsoils served as an additional reference. The applied multi-proxy approach comprised total P and micronutrient contents, stable N isotope ratios, amino acid, steroid, and black carbon analyses as well as soil color measurements. Total contents of P and selected micronutrients (I, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn of the arable soil relicts were above the limits for which nutrient deficiencies could be assumed. All pit fillings exhibited elevated δ15N values close to those of recent topsoils (δ15N>6 to 7‰, giving first hints for prehistoric organic N-input. Ancient legume cultivation as a potential source for N input could not be verified by means of amino acid analysis. In contrast, bile acids as markers for faecal input exhibited larger concentrations in the pit fillings compared with the reference and control soils indicating faeces (i.e. manure input to Neolithic arable topsoils. Also black carbon contents were elevated, amounting up to 38% of soil organic carbon, therewith explaining the dark soil color in the pit fillings and pointing to inputs of burned biomass. The combination of different geochemical analyses revealed a sufficient nutrient status of prehistoric arable soils, as well as signs of amelioration (inputs of organic material like charcoal and faeces

  13. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  14. Applied singular integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, B N

    2011-01-01

    The book is devoted to varieties of linear singular integral equations, with special emphasis on their methods of solution. It introduces the singular integral equations and their applications to researchers as well as graduate students of this fascinating and growing branch of applied mathematics.

  15. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  16. Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

  17. Kentucky Child Poverty, 2000: One in Four Children Is Poor. Census Brief: Child Poverty in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graycarek, Rick; Hoye, Kathleen

    This census brief examines changes in the child poverty rate during the 1990s for the state of Kentucky. The brief notes that more than one in four children in Kentucky is living in poverty, with nearly half of Kentucky's children living in families that are not financially self-sufficient. The majority of poor children live in urban areas, most…

  18. Environmental sustainability of an energy self-sufficient sewage treatment plant: improvements through DEMON and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Dewulf, Jo; Boeckx, Pascal; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    It is still not proven that treatment of sewage in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is (in every case) environmentally friendly. To address this matter, we have applied a state-of-the-art life cycle assessment (LCA) to an energy self-sufficient WWTP in Strass (Austria), its supply chain and the valorization of its 'products': produced electricity out of biogas from sludge digestion and the associated stabilized digestate, applied as agricultural fertilizer. Prominent aspects of our study are: a holistic environmental impact assessment, measurement of greenhouse gas emissions (including N2O), and accounting for infrastructure, replacement of conventional fertilizers and toxicity of metals present in the stabilized digestate. Additionally, the environmental sustainability improvement by implementing one-stage partial nitritation/anammox (e.g. DEMON(®)) and co-digestion was also assessed. DEMON on the digesters reject water leads to a considerable saving of natural resources compared to nitritiation/denitritation (about 33% of the life cycle resource input), this through the lowering of sludge consumption for N-removal, and thus increasing electricity production via a higher sludge excess. However, its N2O emission could be restrained through further optimization as it represents a large share (30-66%) of the plants' damaging effect on human health, this through climate change. The co-substrate addition to the digester resulted in no significant improvement of the digestion process but induced net electricity generation. If respective amounts of conventional fertilizers are replaced, the land application of the stabilized digestate is environmentally friendly through prevention of natural resource consumption and diversity loss, but possibly not regarding human health impact due the presence of toxic heavy metals, mainly Zn, in the digestate. The outcomes show that the complete life cycle results in a prevention of resource extraction from nature and a potential

  19. New Education for Underprivileged Children: The Codification of Children's Rights in Japanese Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiko

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the educational concepts that were pursued for the benefit of underprivileged children in the era of the New Education Movement. Children's rights in Japanese modernity, as represented by the struggle to apply New Education principles to underprivileged children, are contrasted with the conventional view of childhood in the…

  20. Sufficient Statistics for Welfare Analysis: A Bridge Between Structural and Reduced-Form Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chetty, Nadarajan

    2009-01-01

    The debate between "structural" and "reduced-form" approaches has generated substantial controversy in applied economics. This article reviews a recent literature in public economics that combines the advantages of reduced-form strategies -- transparent and credible identification -- with an important advantage of structural models -- the ability to make predictions about counterfactual outcomes and welfare. This recent work has developed formulas for the welfare consequences of various polic...

  1. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  2. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jacobsson, Lars (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)); Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  3. Emergency management: does it have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding of decision-making, process and context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is now widely recognized in the social and management sciences that the effective support of decision-making requires a multi-disciplinary perspective, with businesses increasingly using inter-disciplinary teams. This trend is also seen in nuclear emergency management, for example in the UK inter-disciplinary groups are formed to focus on specific topics such as remediation where their recommendations are feed to the decision makers. The necessity of taking a multi-disciplinary perspective is particularly important for contexts in which the decision makers are likely to be under high stress and so could revert to instinctive patterns of behaviour and modes of communication found in their core disciplines. Yet when we look at the design of the information systems produced to support emergency management, we find a very partial set of disciplinary perspectives providing a strongly rationalistic, technocratic view. These systems have been developed by the technical community with little consultation with non-expert decision makers and limited understanding of emergency management processes across Europe and the social systems with which they interact. In this paper we have considered the Cynefin model, developed by IBM, which draws together much of the work on decision making and decision context over the past 30-40 years, describing the possible contexts in which decision-making may take place, the known, the knowable, the complex and the chaotic space. The known space is the realm of scientific knowledge where the cause and effect are understood. Next, there is the knowable space the realm of scientific enquiry where the cause and effect can be determined with sufficient data. In the complex space there are many interacting cause and effects, to the extent that we do not have sufficiently refined models to predict what will happen as a consequence of any particular actions and the cause and effect may only be explained after the event. In the chaotic

  4. Listeriolysin O is necessary and sufficient to induce autophagy during Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Meyer-Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that autophagy is utilized by cells as a protective mechanism against Listeria monocytogenes infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: However we find autophagy has no measurable role in vacuolar escape and intracellular growth in primary cultured bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs deficient for autophagy (atg5-/-. Nevertheless, we provide evidence that the pore forming activity of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO can induce autophagy subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes. Infection of BMDMs with L. monocytogenes induced microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3 lipidation, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO did not. Infection of BMDMs that express LC3-GFP demonstrated that wild-type L. monocytogenes was encapsulated by LC3-GFP, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO was not. Bacillus subtilis expressing either LLO or a related cytolysin, perfringolysin O (PFO, induced LC3 colocalization and LC3 lipidation. Further, LLO-containing liposomes also recruited LC3-GFP, indicating that LLO was sufficient to induce targeted autophagy in the absence of infection. The role of autophagy had variable effects depending on the cell type assayed. In atg5-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts, L. monocytogenes had a primary vacuole escape defect. However, the bacteria escaped and grew normally in atg5-/- BMDMs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that membrane damage, such as that caused by LLO, triggers bacterial-targeted autophagy, although autophagy does not affect the fate of wild-type intracellular L. monocytogenes in primary BMDMs.

  5. Soluble TL1A is sufficient for activation of death receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Sebastian; Knoll, Gertrud; Füllsack, Simone; Kurz, Maria; Wajant, Harald; Ehrenschwender, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Death receptor 3 (DR3) is a typical member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, and was initially identified as a T-cell co-stimulatory molecule. However, further studies revealed a more complex and partly dichotomous role for DR3 and its ligand TL1A under (patho)physiological conditions. TL1A and DR3 are not only a driving force in the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but also play an important role in counteracting these processes through an increase in the number of regulatory T cells. Ligands of the tumor necrosis factor family typically occur in two forms, membrane-bound and soluble, that can differ strikingly with respect to their efficacy in activating their corresponding receptor(s). Ligand-based approaches to activate the TL1A-DR3 pathway therefore require understanding of the molecular prerequisites of TL1A-based DR3 activation. To date, this has not been addressed. Here, we show that recombinant soluble trimeric TL1A is fully sufficient to strongly activate DR3-associated pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. In contrast to the TRAIL death receptors, which are much better activated by soluble TRAIL upon secondary ligand oligomerization, but similarly to the death receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, DR3 is efficiently activated by soluble TL1A trimers. Additionally, we have measured the affinity of TL1A-DR3 interaction in a cell-based system, and demonstrated TL1A-induced DR3 internalization. Identification of DR3 as a tumor necrosis factor receptor that responds to soluble ligand trimers without further oligomerization provides a basis for therapeutic exploitation of the TL1A-DR3 pathway. PMID:26509650

  6. Activating transcription factor 6 is necessary and sufficient for alcoholic fatty liver disease in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L Howarth

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease (FLD is characterized by lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and is accompanied by secretory pathway dysfunction, resulting in induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6, one of three main UPR sensors, functions to both promote FLD during acute stress and reduce FLD during chronic stress. There is little mechanistic understanding of how ATF6, or any other UPR factor, regulates hepatic lipid metabolism to cause disease. We addressed this using zebrafish genetics and biochemical analyses and demonstrate that Atf6 is necessary and sufficient for FLD. atf6 transcription is significantly upregulated in the liver of zebrafish with alcoholic FLD and morpholino-mediated atf6 depletion significantly reduced steatosis incidence caused by alcohol. Moreover, overexpression of active, nuclear Atf6 (nAtf6 in hepatocytes caused FLD in the absence of stress. mRNA-Seq and qPCR analyses of livers from five day old nAtf6 transgenic larvae revealed upregulation of genes promoting glyceroneogenesis and fatty acid elongation, including fatty acid synthase (fasn, and nAtf6 overexpression in both zebrafish larvae and human hepatoma cells increased the incorporation of 14C-acetate into lipids. Srebp transcription factors are key regulators of lipogenic enzymes, but reducing Srebp activation by scap morpholino injection neither prevented FLD in nAtf6 transgenics nor synergized with atf6 knockdown to reduce alcohol-induced FLD. In contrast, fasn morpholino injection reduced FLD in nAtf6 transgenic larvae and synergistically interacted with atf6 to reduce alcoholic FLD. Thus, our data demonstrate that Atf6 is required for alcoholic FLD and epistatically interacts with fasn to cause this disease, suggesting triglyceride biogenesis as the mechanism of UPR induced FLD.

  7. Disparate British Breast Reconstruction Utilization: Is Universal Coverage Sufficient to Ensure Expanded Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offodile, Anaeze C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Our intent is to improve the understanding of the ability of healthcare providers to deliver high-quality care as we approach an era of universal coverage. We adopted 2 unique vantage points in this article: (1) the mandated coverage for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) surgery as a microcosmic surrogate for universal coverage overall and (2) we then scrutinized the respective IBR utilization rates in a contemporaneous system of 2 healthcare delivery models in the United Kingdom, that is, the public National Health Service trust versus private-sector hospitals. A literature review was performed for IBR rates across public trust and private-sector hospitals in the United Kingdom. The IBR rate among public trust hospitals was 17% compared with 43% in the private sector. In the trust hospital setting, the enactment of 2 government mandates, intended to increase the access to cancer care, seemed to fall short in maximizing the ability of surgical practitioners to deliver quality care to patients. Among women who did not receive IBR, 65% felt that they had received the sufficient amount of information to appropriately inform their decision. In addition, only 46% of this same cohort reported a consultation with a reconstructive surgeon preoperatively. Private-sector hospitals delivered better IBR care because of the likely presence of infrastructure and financial incentives for physicians. These results serve as a call for a better alignment between policy initiatives designed to expand care access and the perogatives of physicians to ensure an optimized delivery of the expanded care such policy mandates.

  8. Profitability analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain exhibits a high level of energy dependence and has significant solar energy resources. These two facts have given rise to the prominence that renewable energy, particularly solar photovoltaic technology, has enjoyed in recent years, supported by a favorable regulatory framework. Currently, the Spanish Government is providing new ways in energy policy to enhance and accelerate the development of low-power photovoltaic generation facilities for self-consumption by introducing energy policies for feed-in payments of surplus electricity. Such facilities are an example of distributed electrical generation with important benefits for the environment and the rest of the electrical system because, when properly managed, they can help improve the system’s stability and reduce overall losses. By analyzing household demand and solar photovoltaic energy resources, the profitability of such facilities is considered in this article, taking into account the technical and economic impact of storage systems and proposing models for feed-in payments of surplus electricity, in an attempt to assess whether this method of electricity generation versus the method of conventionally supplied power from a grid at a regulated tariff can rival each other economically, in terms of parity. - Highlight: ► The use of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency is presented. ► The need for legal frameworks that include retributive mechanisms for the surplus energy is pointed out. ► Two models are proposed for the remuneration of surplus energy generated. ► Models show economic profitability without feed-in-tariff or compensations. ► Facilities described offer ancillary services for grid stability and smart-grid integration.

  9. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dewar

    Full Text Available People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.

  10. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  11. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools, with...... their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to...

  12. Do new and renovated schools and kindergartens secure sufficiently high indoor environmental quality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Hviid, Christian Anker; Skupien, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The present work is the part of the RENEW SCHOOL project granted by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme supported by European Commission. The aim is to promote sustainable renovation of educational buildings (schools and kindergartens) that use timber facades. The paper describes the measurem......The present work is the part of the RENEW SCHOOL project granted by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme supported by European Commission. The aim is to promote sustainable renovation of educational buildings (schools and kindergartens) that use timber facades. The paper describes the...... health symptoms. Additionally the teachers assessed the environment in these buildings. To create the reference, measurements were also carried out in five conventional educational buildings, where no renovations were performed. The results suggest that the renovated and new buildings perform more or...... less similar as their conventional counterparts as regards measured parameters of indoor environment. Subjective evaluations made by pupils and teachers did not always match the physical measurements. There were also differences in subjective evaluations made by children and by teachers. In conclusion...

  13. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  14. Essays in Applied Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Michèle A. Weynandt

    2014-01-01

    This thesis includes three essays in applied econometrics. The first and third chapters focus on labor market outcomes of minority group members, while the second focuses on education. Chapter 1 deals with the relationship between sexual orientation, gender, partnership, and labor outcomes. I suggest that if there are compensating differentials and a gender gap in potential wages, an income effect can lead partnered gay men to jobs with lower wages and higher amenities than partnered straight...

  15. Applied Economics in Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红萍

    2009-01-01

    This paper explains some plain phenomena in teaching and class management with an economic view. Some basic economic principles mentioned therein are: everything has its opportunity cost; the marginal utility of consumption of any kind is diminishing; Game theory is everywhere. By applying the economic theories to teaching, it is of great help for teachers to understand the students' behavior and thus improve the teaching effectiveness and efficiency.

  16. Methods of applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, Francis B

    1992-01-01

    This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.

  17. Applied Logic in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Spichkova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Logic not only helps to solve complicated and safety-critical problems, but also disciplines the mind and helps to develop abstract thinking, which is very important for any area of Engineering. In this technical report, we present an overview of common challenges in teaching of formal methods and discuss our experiences from the course Applied Logic in Engineering. This course was taught at TU Munich, Germany, in Winter Semester 2012/2013.

  18. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  19. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hoan Soo

    2013-01-01

    Empirical and theoretical topics in applied microeconomics are discussed in this dissertation. The first essay identifies and measures managerial advantages from access to high-quality deals in venture capital investments. The underlying social network of Harvard Business School MBA venture capitalists and entrepreneurs is used to proxy availability of deal access. Random section assignment of HBS MBA graduates provides a key exogenous variation for identification. Being socially connected to...

  20. Applied statistics for economists

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.

  1. Current guidelines applicable for the approval of topically applied dermatological drugs in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Myrjam Dorothea; Zesch, Achim

    2004-10-01

    Dermatologicals as well as other medicinal products are submitted to the rules governing medicinal products in the European Union (EU) (Directive 2001/83/EC). With appreciation of the EU enlargement those regulatories deserve a recent consideration with special regard to the peculiarities of external dermatological therapy, recently passed novel and future guidelines. As regards the criteria for authorization of a medicinal product it is set out in Regulation (EEC) 2309/93 Article 11(1) that a marketing authorization shall be refused if it appears that the quality, the safety or efficacy of the medicinal product have not been adequately or sufficiently demonstrated by the applicant. Article 26(1) of Council Directive 2001/83/EC is worded a little differently but the criteria are the same irrespective of the procedure for the marketing authorization. For the final evaluation of the benefit/risk profile of a topically applied dermatological medicinal product not only the active agent but the whole galenic formulation as well has to be taken into account as the extent of penetration of the active compound might be influenced by changing the non-active substances. Furthermore the vehicle itself - independent of the active agent - influence the dermatological disorder, often in dependence on the stage of the dermatopathy. With special concern to safety/tolerability the (photo)toxic and (photo)allergic potential of the dermatological drug have to be taken into consideration too. In case of total body therapy in children the differing percutaneous resorption due to another body surface/body weight relation deserves special concern. The following review gives a survey of the current most important EU-guidelines for the evaluation of the benefit/risk profile of topically applied dermatological medicinal drugs and an outlook on further developments. As systemically applied dermatological medicinal products are assessed like other systemically applied drugs they are not

  2. Estimating the number of species to attain sufficient representation in a random sample

    OpenAIRE

    Chao DENG; Smith, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    The statistical problem of using an initial sample to estimate the number of unique species in a larger sample has found important applications in fields far removed from ecology. Here we address the general problem of estimating the number of species that will be represented at least r times, for any r greater or equal to 1, in a future sample. We derive a procedure to construct estimators that apply universally for a given population: once constructed, they can be evaluated as a simple func...

  3. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Sastre, José B; Pérez Solís, David; Roqués Serradilla, Vicente; Fernández Colomer, Belén; Coto Cotallo, Gil D; Krauel Vidal, Xavier; Narbona López, Eduardo; García del Río, Manuel; Sánchez Luna, Manuel; Belaustegui Cueto, Antonio; Moro Serrano, Manuel; Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Álvaro Iglesias, Emilio; Cotero Lavín, Ángel; Martínez Vilalta, Eduardo; Jiménez Cobos, Bartolomé

    2006-01-01

    Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%); 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%), and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%). Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of sepsis, but would be

  4. Prospect of Cattle Development to Support Self Sufficiency of Meat in North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Rifai Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of beef supply to meet national needs is also found locally in North Sumatera Province. The trend for beef in this area was triggered by the increasing of population, economic improvement and desire for better nutrient comsumption. Level of beef consumption is increased 17% from year 2004 to 2008, so in the same period the number of cattle entered into the North Sumatera Province also increased. Some efforts had been conducted to develop beef cattle program in North Sumatera Self Sufficiency Program in Beef through technical and policy approaches. Several programs have been developed to accelerate the development of productivity and the population in North Sumatra, among others, 1 Agribusiness Development Program, 2 Food Security Improvement Program, 3 Farmer's Welfare Program; which are financed by both central and local budgets. Institutional aspects that have been developed to support the PSDS-2014 is the Regional Artificial Insemination Center to serve the needs of semen for districts and municipalities in the Province of North Sumatera. In the year 2008, it has been distributed as many as 44 000 doses of semen for frozen semen to meet the demands of 11 Districts. The amount of land resources for development indicated the availability of pastural land area of 1,311,159 ha from oil palm and rubber plantation, area of 1,192,172 ha for crops and livestock integration system. It is estimated that biomass production of rice straw, bean straw and sugarcane straw reaches 7,062,227; 68 145 and 14 664 tons per year, respectively. Also available as many as 689,478 tons of rice bran and palm oil industry waste as much as 4,159,203 tons per year. Some challenges in the North Sumatera PSDS programs in accordance with a predetermined time include: 1 Not all of the stakeholders get a complete information about the program, 2 the difficulties to prevent productive cows being slaughtered, 3 limited capital in an effort to pick up and redistribute

  5. Unwanted scour holes in morphodynamic experiments: seeking necessary and sufficient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Maarten; Marra, Wouter; Leuven, Jasper; Braat, Lisanne; Baar, Anne; Nabi, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Morphodynamic landscape experiments of river reaches, deltas and estuaries often feature unrealistically large scour holes, which are on average 2 cm deep and 5 cm long. Such scours occur under similar conditions as current ripples (as opposed to other bedforms such as dunes. It has long been suspected that they form on hydraulically smooth boundaries, which occur at low boundary Reynolds numbers, typically induced in fine sand and under relatively low sediment mobility. Until now three strategies exist to prevent the unwanted scour holes. The first is to use use coarser sand to disrupt the laminar sublayer, but this means low or no mobility. The second is to use fine but poorly sorted sand where the coarser material disrupts the laminar sublayer and the small caliber causes higher mobility, and the third is to use coarse granular material which has a low-density that increases mobility. However, we lack systematic study to determine causes of the scour holes, on which to base experimental design and material choice. Here we present experiments in which we systematically varied sediment types and used various methods to provoke scour holes or removal thereof. We also conducted model runs of Computational Fluid Dynamics and sediment transport in which bedforms automatically emerge. All model runs and most experiments confirm that ripples and scour holes both form in hydraulic smooth conditions induced by low boundary Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, they are absent in coarser sediment and poorly sorted sediment. The experiments also show that scours can be provoked by perturbations even below generalised sediment motion. However, granular material of intermediate density and poor sorting deviated in behaviour: this formed scours despite the addition of coarser fractions that were sufficient to prevent scours in the case of sand. We observed this unexplained behaviour also in channelisation experiments, where peculiar, sharp bends with unrealistically deep outer

  6. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  7. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chang Soo; Freidoony, Leila

    2016-01-01

    The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173) participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT) was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD) and about one-third had poor IQ (economic status (p Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI. PMID:27417241

  8. First microbiota assessments of children's paddling pool waters evaluated using 16S rRNA gene-based metagenome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawabe, Toko; Suda, Wataru; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient chloric sterilization of children's paddling pool waters increases the risk of diarrheal illness. Therefore, we investigated the microbiota changes after children use pools. First, we applied 16S rRNA gene-based metagenome analysis to understand the dynamics of microbiota in pool water, especially with respect to the bio-contamination by potential pathogens. Proteobacteria were major taxa detected in every pool water sample after children spent time in the pool. In more detail, Gammaproteobacteria comprised the dominant class, which was followed by Betaproteobacteria. Five phyla, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus phyla were minor groups. The pool water microbiota are likely to be a consortium of intestinal and skin microbiota from humans. Interestingly, the ratio of Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria differed according to the age of the children who used the pool, which means the pool water was additionally contaminated by soil microbiota as a result of the children's behavior. Furthermore, potential pathogens, such as Campylobacter spp., Comamonas testosteroni and Burkholderia pseudomallei, were also found. Considering the standard plate counts, the abundances of these human pathogens are unlikely to be a sufficiently infectious dose. We suggest the importance of sanitary measures in paddling pool waters to reduce bio-contamination from both humans and the environment. PMID:26671497

  9. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance among 9- to 11-year-old Swedish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Dencker, M; Ward, L;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Predictive equations for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) among Scandinavian children are lacking. In the present study, equations for estimation of fat-free body mass (FFM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were developed and cross-validated from BIA using dual...... linear regression and cross-validated against DXA measurements of body composition. RESULTS: FFM was predicted from BIA and anthropometric variables with an adjusted R(2)= 0.95 and root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.84 kg, and LTM was predicted with an adjusted R(2)= 0.95 and RMSE = 0.87 kg. Cross......-validation revealed a mean RMSE = 0.95 kg FFM and a mean RMSE = 0.96 kg LTM. Prediction of body composition from equations developed in previous literature was mixed when applied to the present cohort of children. CONCLUSIONS: FFM and LTM are predicted with sufficient accuracy at the population level. We recommend...

  10. The transcension hypothesis: Sufficiently advanced civilizations invariably leave our universe, and implications for METI and SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John M.

    2012-09-01

    The emerging science of evolutionary developmental ("evo devo") biology can aid us in thinking about our universe as both an evolutionary system, where most processes are unpredictable and creative, and a developmental system, where a special few processes are predictable and constrained to produce far-future-specific emergent order, just as we see in the common developmental processes in two stars of an identical population type, or in two genetically identical twins in biology. The transcension hypothesis proposes that a universal process of evolutionary development guides all sufficiently advanced civilizations into what may be called "inner space," a computationally optimal domain of increasingly dense, productive, miniaturized, and efficient scales of space, time, energy, and matter, and eventually, to a black-hole-like destination. Transcension as a developmental destiny might also contribute to the solution to the Fermi paradox, the question of why we have not seen evidence of or received beacons from intelligent civilizations. A few potential evolutionary, developmental, and information theoretic reasons, mechanisms, and models for constrained transcension of advanced intelligence are briefly considered. In particular, we introduce arguments that black holes may be a developmental destiny and standard attractor for all higher intelligence, as they appear to some to be ideal computing, learning, forward time travel, energy harvesting, civilization merger, natural selection, and universe replication devices. In the transcension hypothesis, simpler civilizations that succeed in resisting transcension by staying in outer (normal) space would be developmental failures, which are statistically very rare late in the life cycle of any biological developing system. If transcension is a developmental process, we may expect brief broadcasts or subtle forms of galactic engineering to occur in small portions of a few galaxies, the handiwork of young and immature

  11. The influence of the TV and Videogames in Education of Children: Violence and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2003-01-01

    We have chosen this topic for research as we consider it a transcendental problem in the lives of children today, considering the importance which television now has toward childhood behavior and the increase of programming in new channels and the widespread use of videogames. Nowadays television hasn`t got sufficiently stipulated timetables; therefore children frequently watch violent scenes which are inappropriate for their age, with the added danger that they may want to imitate those scen...

  12. [Speech perception test in Italian language for profoundly deaf children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, E; Orzan, E; Turrini, M; Babighian, G; Arslan, E

    1995-10-01

    Speech perception tests are an important part of procedures for diagnosing pre-verbal hearing loss. Merely establishing a child's hearing threshold with and without a hearing aid is not sufficient to ensure an adequate evaluation with a view to selecting cases suitable for cochlear implants because it fails to indicate the real benefit obtained from using a conventional hearing aid reliably. Speech perception tests have proved useful not only for patient selection, but also for subsequent evaluation of the efficacy of new hearing aids, such as tactile devices and cochlear implants. In clinical practice, the tests most commonly adopted with small children are: The Auditory Comprehension Test (ACT), Discrimination after Training (DAT), Monosyllable, Trochee, Spondee tests (MTS), Glendonald Auditory Screening Priocedure (GASP), Early Speech Perception Test (ESP), Rather than considering specific results achieved in individual cases, reference is generally made to the four speech perception classes proposed by Moog and Geers of the CID of St. Louis. The purpose of this classification, made on the results obtained with suitably differentiated tests according to the child's age and language ability, is to detect differences in perception of a spoken message in ideal listening conditions. To date, no italian language speech perception test has been designed to establish the assessment of speech perception level in children with profound hearing impairment. We attempted, therefore, to adapt the existing English tests to the Italian language taking into consideration the differences between the two languages. Our attention focused on the ESP test since it can be applied to even very small children (2 years old). The ESP is proposed in a standard version for hearing-impaired children over the age of 6 years and in a simplified version for younger children. The rationale we used for selecting Italian words reflect the rationale established for the original version, but the

  13. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  14. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20...... homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation...... as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority...

  15. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2005-01-01

    Master linear regression techniques with a new edition of a classic text Reviews of the Second Edition: ""I found it enjoyable reading and so full of interesting material that even the well-informed reader will probably find something new . . . a necessity for all of those who do linear regression."" -Technometrics, February 1987 ""Overall, I feel that the book is a valuable addition to the now considerable list of texts on applied linear regression. It should be a strong contender as the leading text for a first serious course in regression analysis."" -American Scientist, May-June 1987

  16. Applied impulsive mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Stamova, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    Using the theory of impulsive differential equations, this book focuses on mathematical models which reflect current research in biology, population dynamics, neural networks and economics. The authors provide the basic background from the fundamental theory and give a systematic exposition of recent results related to the qualitative analysis of impulsive mathematical models. Consisting of six chapters, the book presents many applicable techniques, making them available in a single source easily accessible to researchers interested in mathematical models and their applications. Serving as a valuable reference, this text is addressed to a wide audience of professionals, including mathematicians, applied researchers and practitioners.

  17. Applied logistic regression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, David W; Sturdivant, Rodney X

    2013-01-01

     A new edition of the definitive guide to logistic regression modeling for health science and other applications This thoroughly expanded Third Edition provides an easily accessible introduction to the logistic regression (LR) model and highlights the power of this model by examining the relationship between a dichotomous outcome and a set of covariables. Applied Logistic Regression, Third Edition emphasizes applications in the health sciences and handpicks topics that best suit the use of modern statistical software. The book provides readers with state-of-

  18. SIFT applied to CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is a challenging task. Common approaches use only low-level features. Notwithstanding, such CBIR solutions fail on capturing some local features representing the details and nuances of scenes. Many techniques in image processing and computer vision can capture these scene semantics. Among them, the Scale Invariant Features Transform~(SIFT has been widely used in a lot of applications. This approach relies on the choice of several parameters which directly impact its effectiveness when applied to retrieve images. In this paper, we discuss the results obtained in several experiments proposed to evaluate the application of the SIFT in CBIR tasks.

  19. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  20. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  1. Applied nonparametric statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sprent, Peter

    2007-01-01

    While preserving the clear, accessible style of previous editions, Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods, Fourth Edition reflects the latest developments in computer-intensive methods that deal with intractable analytical problems and unwieldy data sets. Reorganized and with additional material, this edition begins with a brief summary of some relevant general statistical concepts and an introduction to basic ideas of nonparametric or distribution-free methods. Designed experiments, including those with factorial treatment structures, are now the focus of an entire chapter. The text also e

  2. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  3. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  4. Is Advanced Real-Time Energy Metering Sufficient to Persuade People to Save Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, L.; Leite, H.; Ponce de Leão, T.

    2012-10-01

    In order to promote a low-carbon economy, EU citizens may soon be able to check their electricity consumption from smart meter. It is hoped that smart meter can, by providing real-time consumption and pricing information to residential users, help reducing demand for electricity. It is argued in this paper that, according the Elaborative Likelihood Model (ELM), these methods are most likely to be effective when consumers perceive the issue of energy conservation relevant to their lives. Nevertheless, some fundamental characteristics of these methods result in limited amount of perceived personal relevance; for instance, energy expenditure expense may be relatively small comparing to other household expenditure like mortgage and consumption information does not enhance interpersonal trust. In this paper, it is suggested that smart meter can apply the "nudge" approaches which respond to ELM as the use of simple rules to make decision, which include the change of feedback delivery and device design.

  5. Is Advanced Real-Time Energy Metering Sufficient to Persuade People to Save Energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote a low-carbon economy, EU citizens may soon be able to check their electricity consumption from smart meter. It is hoped that smart meter can, by providing real-time consumption and pricing information to residential users, help reducing demand for electricity. It is argued in this paper that, according the Elaborative Likelihood Model (ELM, these methods are most likely to be effective when consumers perceive the issue of energy conservation relevant to their lives. Nevertheless, some fundamental characteristics of these methods result in limited amount of perceived personal relevance; for instance, energy expenditure expense may be relatively small comparing to other household expenditure like mortgage and consumption information does not enhance interpersonal trust. In this paper, it is suggested that smart meter can apply the “nudge” approaches which respond to ELM as the use of simple rules to make decision, which include the change of feedback delivery and device design.

  6. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1999-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) among children and adolescents seems to be low. However, many children have dermatitis, most often atopic dermatitis. In selected cases, ACD is suspected, and the child is tested. The question remains, whether the...... prevalence of ACD in children really is low or whether the possibility of ACD is not sufficiently considered. During the last decade, reports have appeared on series of children and adolescents with contact allergy and ACD. Few cases have been reported in infants, but the development of contact allergy and...... ACD increases with age. Most studies include selected groups of children and adolescents with suspected ACD. Few studies have examined unselected populations, and most consider only the prevalence of contact allergy without evaluating the clinical relevance, e.g., the prevalence of ACD. Furthermore...

  8. Sufficient Condition for Monotonicity in Constructing the Distribution Function With Bernoulli Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedenyapin Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2015-11-01

    by the function r(x, kmin: Pnk=Сnk[P(r(x, kmin]k[1-P(r(x, kmin]n-k. We defined the probability that the total index change will be in the section [x, nS] as the sum of the probabilities of incompatible events, for which the number of successes satisfies to entered inequality. Then obviously we defined the probability that the total index changing will be in the interval [nI, x. Then the function F(x was introduced, defined on the whole line, which is identical to the amount (probability that the total index changing will be in the interval in the interval (nI, nS], and is identical to zero and one in the additions. Some properties of the distribution function F(x are satisfied automatically. A sufficient condition for the monotonicity is presented in the form of Theorem 2.

  9. Educational intervention applied in children from 5 to 11 years of age with deforming oral habits Intervención educativa aplicada en niños de 5 a11 años portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Alvarez Mora

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are complex neuromuscular patterns learnt by frequent repetition and act as unnatural forces that may cause dental maxillofacial defects. Objective: To assess the intervention of educative measures applied to children with deforming buccal habits in the primary school Raúl Suárez Martínez from the zone “Rafaelito”. Methods: A cuasi-experimental study was developed, with before-after intervention without control group including 253 children from December 2006 to November 2007. We applied the program “To Happily Smile” with a weekly frequency. Surveys were applied to children, parents and teachers after the educational actions to achieve the reduction ofincorrect habits. The studied variables were: age, sex, deforming habits frequency before and after the intervention. Results: The knowledge level of children, parents and teachers was significantly improved. Risk factors were eradicated in more than 50% of the children being the most frequent: lingual protraction, baby bottle suction, mainly among females. Conclusions: The intervention was successful for the reduction of deforming oral habits, and the high level of knowledge acquired. After the intervention it was shown that the educative process is a key tool for the General Comprehensive Dentist.

     

    Fundamento: Los hábitos son patrones neuromusculares de naturaleza compleja que se aprenden por su repetición frecuente, y sin ser funcionales ni necesarios hacen que actúen fuerzas no naturales sobre los dientes que pueden causar

  10. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  11. Contributions to Applied Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Pavić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the increasing awareness of the importance, advantagesand feasibility of representing/visualizing spatial relations and spatial content through corresponding cartography –maps are becoming increasingly more frequent and elaborate when one needs to represent some aspect of reality from various standpoints: economical, natural scientific or politological. Some contents practically impose the need for applied cartography which is especially true of international-political, military, geopolitical and transport issues. Therefore, mass communication media have been increasingly accepting and adopting specific cartography as significant content which successfully compete with the importance of the text itself – this is the case everywhere, including in Croatia. The French geographical-political-cartographic school is the model and exceptional accomplishment. It also has predecessors in the German/Nazi geopolitical school from the first half of the 20th century.

  12. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  13. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  14. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Porgram. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. Fusion Plasma Theory has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under Experimental Plasma Research, we are developing the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  15. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  16. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  17. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  18. Applied statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The book guides the reader from the foundations of statisti- cal thermodynamics including the theory of intermolecular forces to modern computer-aided applications in chemical en- gineering and physical chemistry. The approach is new. The foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics are presen- ted in a simple way and their applications to the prediction of fluid phase behavior of real systems are demonstrated. A particular effort is made to introduce the reader to expli- cit formulations of intermolecular interaction models and to show how these models influence the properties of fluid sy- stems. The established methods of statistical mechanics - computer simulation, perturbation theory, and numerical in- tegration - are discussed in a style appropriate for newcom- ers and are extensively applied. Numerous worked examples illustrate how practical calculations should be carried out.

  19. Essays in applied microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucas William

    2005-11-01

    The first essay measures the impact of an outbreak of pediatric leukemia on local housing values. A model of residential location choice is used to describe conditions under which the gradient of the hedonic price function with respect to health risk is equal to household marginal willingness to pay to avoid pediatric leukemia risk. This equalizing differential is estimated using property-level sales records from a county in Nevada where residents have recently experienced a severe increase in pediatric leukemia. Housing values are compared before and after the increase with a nearby county acting as a control group. The results indicate that housing values decreased 15.6% during the period of maximum risk. Results are similar for alternative measures of risk and across houses of different sizes. With risk estimates derived using a Bayesian learning model the results imply a statistical value of pediatric leukemia of $5.6 million. The results from the paper provide some of the first market-based estimates of the value of health for children. The second essay evaluates the cost-effectiveness of public incentives that encourage households to purchase high-efficiency durable goods. The demand for durable goods and the demand for energy and other inputs are modeled jointly as the solution to a household production problem. The empirical analysis focuses on the case of clothes washers. The production technology and utilization decision are estimated using household-level data from field trials in which participants received front-loading clothes washers free of charge. The estimation strategy exploits this quasi-random replacement of washers to derive robust estimates of the utilization decision. The results indicate a price elasticity, -.06, that is statistically different from zero across specifications. The parameters from the utilization decision are used to estimate the purchase decision using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, 1994-2002. Households

  20. A self-sufficient method for calibration of Varian electronic portal imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baozhou; Yaddanapudi, Sridhar; Goddu, Sreekrishna M.; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is currently used for dosimetric verification of IMRT fields and linac quality assurance (QA). It is critical to understand the dosimetric response and perform an accurate and robust calibration of EPID. We present the implementation of an efficient method for the calibration and the validation of a Varian EPID, which relies only on data collected with that specific device. The calibration method is based on images obtained with five shifts of EPID panel. With this method, the relative gain (sensitivity) of each element of a detector matrix is calculated and applied on top of the calibration determined with the flood-field procedure. The calibration procedure was verified using a physical wedge inserted in the beam line and the corrected profile shows consistent results with the measurements using a calibrated 2D array. This method does not rely on the beam profile used in the flood-field calibration process, which allows EPID calibration in 10 minutes with no additional equipment compared to at least 2 hours to obtain beam profile and scanning beam equipment requirement with the conventional method.

  1. A self-sufficient method for calibration of Varian electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is currently used for dosimetric verification of IMRT fields and linac quality assurance (QA). It is critical to understand the dosimetric response and perform an accurate and robust calibration of EPID. We present the implementation of an efficient method for the calibration and the validation of a Varian EPID, which relies only on data collected with that specific device. The calibration method is based on images obtained with five shifts of EPID panel. With this method, the relative gain (sensitivity) of each element of a detector matrix is calculated and applied on top of the calibration determined with the flood-field procedure. The calibration procedure was verified using a physical wedge inserted in the beam line and the corrected profile shows consistent results with the measurements using a calibrated 2D array. This method does not rely on the beam profile used in the flood-field calibration process, which allows EPID calibration in 10 minutes with no additional equipment compared to at least 2 hours to obtain beam profile and scanning beam equipment requirement with the conventional method

  2. Assessment of bacterial community structure in nitrifying biofilm under inorganic carbon-sufficient and -limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyokwan; Chung, Yun-Chul; Yang, Heejeong; Lee, Changsoo; Aryapratama, Rio; Yoo, Young J; Lee, Seockheon

    2015-01-01

    In this work, nitrification and changes in the composition of the total bacterial community under inorganic carbon (IC)-limited conditions, in a nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor, was investigated. A culture-independent analysis of cloning and sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene was applied to quantify the bacterial diversity and to determine bacterial taxonomic assignment. IC concentrations had significant effects on the stability of ammonia-oxidation as indicated by the reduction of the nitrogen conversion rate with high NH4(+)-N loadings. The predominance of Nitrosomonas europaea was maintained in spite of changes in the IC concentration. In contrast, heterotrophic bacterial species contributed to a high bacterial diversity, and to a dynamic shift in the bacterial community structure, under IC-limited conditions. In this study, individual functions of heterotrophic bacteria were estimated based on taxonomic information. Possible key roles of coexisting heterotrophic bacteria are the assimilation of organic compounds of extracellular polymeric substances produced by nitrifiers, and biofilm formation by providing a filamentous structure and aggregation properties. PMID:25560266

  3. Technical Basis for the Determination that Current Characterization Data and Processes are Sufficient to Ensure Safe Storage and to Design Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMPSON, B.C.

    1999-08-12

    This document presents the technical basis for closure of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan milestone 5.6.3.13, ''Core sample all tanks by 2002'' (DOE-RL 1996). The milestone was based on the need for characterization data to ensure safe storage of the waste, to operate the tanks safely, and to plan and implement retrieval and processing of the waste. Sufficient tank characterization data have been obtained to ensure that existing controls are adequate for safe storage of the waste in the 177 waste tanks at the Hanford Site. In addition, a process has been developed, executed, and institutionalized to systemically identify information needs, to integrate and prioritize the needs, and to reliably obtain and analyze the associated samples. This document provides a technical case that the remaining 45 incompletely sampled tanks no longer require sampling to support the intent of the Implementation Plan milestone. Sufficient data have been obtained to close the Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQs), and to ensure that existing hazard controls are adequate and appropriately applied. However, in the future, additional characterization of tanks at the site will be required to support identified information needs. Closure of this milestone allows sampling and analytical data to be obtained in a manner that is consistent with the integrated priority process.

  4. Behavior of conduct disordered children in interaction with each other and with normal peers

    OpenAIRE

    Matthys, W.; VANLOO, P; PACHEN, [No Value; de Vries, Han; VANHOOFF, JARAM; VANENGELAND, H

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the behavior of children with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) in interaction with each other and with normal control (NC) children in a semi-standardized setting over a period of 25 minutes. This short time turned out to be sufficient to demonstrate the behavioral manifestations of CD/ODD in children's interactions with peers. In addition, the role of the interactional partner on antisocial behavior of CD/ODD children became apparent.

  5. Reconciling self-sufficiency and renewable energy targets in a hydro dominated system: The view from British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and a natural gas development strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 21 TWh to 33 TWh. To ascertain the BC's supply position, a mathematical programming model of the physical workings of BC's hydroelectric generating system is developed, with head heights at the two dominant power stations treated as variable. Using historical water inflow and reservoir level data, the model is used to investigate whether BC is capable of meeting its self-sufficiency goals under various water supply and electricity demand scenarios. - Highlights: • Model of British Columbia's hydroelectric system with variable head heights. • Variable water conditions simulate drought conditions. • Estimates of import dependence with increased oil/gas demand. • British Columbia cannot be both self-sufficient and meet its 93% RPS goal

  6. [Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study. PMID:23155599

  7. 12th International Congress of Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenti, Walter

    1969-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Applied Mechanics, held at Stanford University on August 26 to 31, 1968. The Congress was organized by the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics; members of the IUTAM Congress Committee and Bureau are listed under Congress Organization. The members of the Stanford Organizing Committee, which was responsible for the detailed organization of the Congress, are also given, as are the names of the sponsors and the industrial and educational organizations that contributed so generously to the financial support of the meeting. Those attending the Congress came from 32 countries and totaled 1337 persons, plus wives and children. A list of the registered participants is included in the volume. The technical sessions of the Congress comprised four General Lectures and 281 contributed papers, the latter being presented in groups of five simultaneous sessions. The final choice of the contributed papers was made on the basis o...

  8. Seven major genomic deletions of vaccinia virus Tiantan strain are sufficient to decrease pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiquan; Sheng, Yuan; Chu, Yunjie; Ji, Huifan; Jiang, Shuang; Lan, Tian; Li, Min; Chen, Shuang; Fan, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenjie; Li, Xiao; Sun, Lili; Jin, Ningyi

    2016-05-01

    Attenuated strain TTVAC7, as a multi-gene-deleted vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (VTT), was constructed by knocking out parts of non-essential genes related to virulence, host range and immunomodulation of VTT, and by combining double marker screening with exogenous selectable marker knockout techniques. In this study, shuttle vector plasmids pTC-EGFP, pTA35-EGFP, pTA66-EGFP, pTE-EGFP, pTB-EGFP, pTI-EGFP and pTJ-EGFP were constructed, which contained seven pairs of recombinant arms linked to the early and late strong promoter pE/L, as well as to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as an exogenous selectable marker. BHK cells were co-transfected/infected successively with the above plasmids and VTT or gene-deleted VTT, and homologous recombination and fluorescence plaque screening methods were used to knock out the gene fragments (TC: TC7L ∼ TK2L; TA35: TA35L; TA66: TA66R; TE: TE3L ∼ TE4L; TB: TB13R; TI: TI4L; TJ: TJ2R). The Cre/LoxP system was then applied to knock out the exogenous selectable marker, and ultimately the gene-deleted attenuated strain TTVAC7 was obtained. A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that not only the host range of TTVAC7 could be narrowed and its toxicity weakened significantly, but its high immunogenicity was maintained at the same time. These results support the potential of TTVAC7 to be developed as a safe viral vector or vaccine. PMID:26821204

  9. Application of "taxocene surrogation" and "taxonomic sufficiency" concepts to fish farming environmental monitoring. Comparison of BOPA index versus polychaete assemblage structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Giménez, F; Gairín, J I; Martinez-Garcia, E; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V; Ballester Moltó, M; Cerezo-Valverde, J; Sanchez-Jerez, P

    2015-02-01

    "Taxocene surrogation" and "taxonomic sufficiency" concepts were applied to the monitoring of soft bottoms macrobenthic assemblages influenced by fish farming following two approaches. Polychaete assemblage evaluation through multivariate analysis and the benthic index BOPA were compared. Six fish farms along the Spanish Mediterranean coast were monitored. Polychaete assemblage provided a suitable picture of the impact gradient, being correlated with total free sulphides. BOPA did not support the impact gradient described by the polychaete assemblage, providing erroneous categorizations. The inclusion of several polychaete families, which were locally identified as indicative of affection to recalculate BOPA, resulted in an improved diagnosis and correlation with the impact gradient. Nevertheless, frequent misclassifications occurred. These results suggest that the structure of polychaete families, sulphides and granulometry conform an appropriate strategy for fish farming monitoring. Biotic indices need to be specifically designed for concrete activities, and regionally validated, because of the environmental plasticity of benthic invertebrates. PMID:25460059

  10. From self-sufficiency to dependence on imported food-grain in Leh District (Ladakh, Indian Trans-Himalaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimiro Pelliciardi

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries the population of Ladakh (Indian Trans-Himalaya) has led a self-reliant existence mainly based upon subsistence agriculture (self-sufficient in food-grainproduction), pastoralism and caravan trade. Since several decades, Leh District, a part ofLadakh, whose population is doubled from about 70000 in 1981 to 145000 in 2011, is nomore self-sufficient in food-grain production. To overcome the demand-supply imbalancea large quantity of rice and flour wheat is imported every year...

  11. Necessary and sufficient conditions on n-qudit state for perfect teleportation of an arbitrary single qudit state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang-Guan, Li-Ying; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2009-12-01

    Firstly, we investigate the necessary and sufficient conditions that an entangled channel of n-qubits should satisfy to carry out perfect teleportation of an arbitrary single qubit state and dense coding. It is shown that the sender can transmit two classical bits of information by sending one qubit. Further, the case of high-dimension quantum state is also considered. Utilizing n-qudit state as quantum channel, it is proposed that the necessary and sufficient conditions are {(d+2)(d-1)}/{2} in all to teleport an arbitrary single qudit state. The sender can transmit 2log2d classical bits of information to the receiver conditioned on the constraints.

  12. "Borderline" Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The use of the diagnosis "borderline" was evaluated with 16 children (6 to 13 years old) who were referred for comprehensive evaluation. None met DSM III criteria for borderline personality disorder. The borderline label had a negative impact on some children and was not helpful for treatment planning or disposition. (Author/SEW)

  13. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  14. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  15. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  16. Sufficient virus-neutralizing antibody in the central nerve system improves the survival of rabid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Pi-Hung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is known to be lethal in human. Treatment with passive immunity for the rabies is effective only when the patients have not shown the central nerve system (CNS signs. The blood–brain barrier (BBB is a complex functional barrier that may compromise the therapeutic development in neurological diseases. The goal of this study is to determine the change of BBB integrity and to assess the therapeutic possibility of enhancing BBB permeability combined with passive immunity in the late stage of rabies virus infection. Methods The integrity of BBB permeability in rats was measured by quantitative ELISA for total IgG and albumin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and by exogenously applying Evans blue as a tracer. Western blotting of occludin and ZO-1, two tight junction proteins, was used to assess the molecular change of BBB structure. The breakdown of BBB with hypertonic arabinose, recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rTNF-γ, and focused ultrasound (FUS were used to compare the extent of BBB disruption with rabies virus infection. Specific humoral immunity was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb 8-10E was administered to rats with hypertonic breakdown of BBB as a passive immunotherapy to prevent the death from rabies. Results The BBB permeability was altered on day 7 post-infection. Increased BBB permeability induced by rabies virus infection was observed primarily in the cerebellum and spinal cord. Occludin was significantly decreased in both the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The rabies virus-specific antibody was not strongly elicited even in the presence of clinical signs. Disruption of BBB had no direct association with the lethal outcome of rabies. Passive immunotherapy with virus-neutralizing mAb 8-10E with the hypertonic breakdown of BBB prolonged the survival of rabies virus-infected rats. Conclusions We demonstrated

  17. Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal education is strongly associated with young child nutrition outcomes. However, the threshold of the level of maternal education that reduces the level of undernutrition in children is not well established. This paper investigates the level of threshold of maternal education that influences child nutrition outcomes using Demographic and Health Survey data from Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009–10) and Zimbabwe (2005–06). Methods The total number of children (weighted sample) wa...

  18. Essays in applied microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting

    In this dissertation I use Microeconomic theory to study firms' behavior. Chapter One introduces the motivations and main findings of this dissertation. Chapter Two studies the issue of information provision through advertisement when markets are segmented and consumers' price information is incomplete. Firms compete in prices and advertising strategies for consumers with transportation costs. High advertising costs contribute to market segmentation. Low advertising costs promote price competition among firms and improves consumer welfare. Chapter Three also investigates market power as a result of consumers' switching costs. A potential entrant can offer a new product bundled with an existing product to compensate consumers for their switching cost. If the primary market is competitive, bundling simply plays the role of price discrimination, and it does not dominate unbundled sales in the process of entry. If the entrant has market power in the primary market, then bundling also plays the role of leveraging market power and it dominates unbundled sales. The market for electric power generation has been opened to competition in recent years. Chapter Four looks at issues involved in the deregulated electricity market. By comparing the performance of the competitive market with the social optimum, we identify the conditions under which market equilibrium generates socially efficient levels of electric power. Chapter Two to Four investigate the strategic behavior among firms. Chapter Five studies the interaction between firms and unemployed workers in a frictional labor market. We set up an asymmetric job auction model, where two types of workers apply for two types of job openings by bidding in auctions and firms hire the applicant offering them the most profits. The job auction model internalizes the determination of the share of surplus from a match, therefore endogenously generates incentives for an efficient division of the matching surplus. Microeconomic

  19. Applied large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paul G; Lardeau, Sylvain

    2009-07-28

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is now seen more and more as a viable alternative to current industrial practice, usually based on problem-specific Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods. Access to detailed flow physics is attractive to industry, especially in an environment in which computer modelling is bound to play an ever increasing role. However, the improvement in accuracy and flow detail has substantial cost. This has so far prevented wider industrial use of LES. The purpose of the applied LES discussion meeting was to address questions regarding what is achievable and what is not, given the current technology and knowledge, for an industrial practitioner who is interested in using LES. The use of LES was explored in an application-centred context between diverse fields. The general flow-governing equation form was explored along with various LES models. The errors occurring in LES were analysed. Also, the hybridization of RANS and LES was considered. The importance of modelling relative to boundary conditions, problem definition and other more mundane aspects were examined. It was to an extent concluded that for LES to make most rapid industrial impact, pragmatic hybrid use of LES, implicit LES and RANS elements will probably be needed. Added to this further, highly industrial sector model parametrizations will be required with clear thought on the key target design parameter(s). The combination of good numerical modelling expertise, a sound understanding of turbulence, along with artistry, pragmatism and the use of recent developments in computer science should dramatically add impetus to the industrial uptake of LES. In the light of the numerous technical challenges that remain it appears that for some time to come LES will have echoes of the high levels of technical knowledge required for safe use of RANS but with much greater fidelity. PMID:19531503

  20. A Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Products of Quasi-Positive Definite Matrices and Generalization of Schur's Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A quasi-positive definite matrix is the generalization of a positive definite matrix. A necessary and sufficient condition of quasi-positive definite matrix is obtained in this paper for the Kronecker product and Hadamard product of two quasi-positive definite matrices, and Schur's achievements in Hadamard product of the positive definite matrix is generalized to quasi-positive definite matrix theory.

  1. Resource use and food self-sufficiency at farm scale within two agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucagu, C.; Vanlauwe, B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Resource use and management are major determinants of the food self-sufficiency of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was conducted in Rwanda in two contrasting agro-ecological zones (Central plateau and Buberuka) to characterise farms, quantify their resource flows, and evaluate the

  2. Influence of Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems on Self-Consumption and Self-Sufficiency of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötzinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the behavior of residential solar-powered electrical energy storage systems. For this purpose, a simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is developed. Investigating both short-time and seasonal hydrogen-based storage systems, simulations on the basis of real weather data are processed on a timescale of 15 min for a consideration period of 3 years. A sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to identify the most important system parameters concerning the proportion of consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency. Therefore, the influences of storage capacity and of storage efficiencies are discussed. A short-time storage system can increase the proportion of consumption by up to 35 percentage points compared to a self-consumption system without storage. However, the seasonal storing system uses almost the entire energy produced by the photovoltaic (PV system (nearly 100% self-consumption. Thereby, the energy drawn from the grid can be reduced and a degree of self-sufficiency of about 90% is achieved. Based on these findings, some scenarios to reach self-sufficiency are analyzed. The results show that full self-sufficiency will be possible with a seasonal hydrogen-based storage system if PV area and initial storage level are appropriate.

  3. The Development of Economic Self-Sufficiency among Former Welfare Recipients: Lessons Learned from Wisconsin's Welfare to Work Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.; Martin, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the US Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, changing the culture of welfare from a system of dependency to one of personal responsibility and economic self-sufficiency through workplace participation. Through the expert views of case managers and area employers of Wisconsin, this research…

  4. Tritium self-sufficiency time and inventory evolution for solid-type breeding blanket materials for DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, L. W.; Pampin, R.; Zheng, S.

    2011-10-01

    One of the primary functions of a fusion blanket is to generate enough tritium to make a fusion power plant (FPP) self-sufficient. To ensure that there is satisfactory tritium production in a real plant the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in the blanket must be greater than 1 + M, where M is the breeding margin. For solid-type blanket designs, the initial TBR must be significantly higher than 1 + M, since the blanket TBR will be reduced over time as the lithium fuel is consumed. The rate of TBR reduction will impact on the overall blanket self-sufficiency time, the time in which the net tritium inventory of the system is positive. DEMO relevant blanket materials, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2TiO 3, are investigated by computational simulation using radiation transport tools coupled with time-dependent inventory calculations. The results include tritium inventory assessments and depletion of breeding materials over time, which enable self-sufficiency times and maximum surplus tritium inventories to be evaluated, which are essential quantities to determine to allow one to design a credible FPP using solid-type breeding material concepts. The blanket concepts investigated show self-sufficiency times of several years in some cases and maximum surplus inventories of up to a few tens of kg.

  5. 83 Level of Self-Sufficiency of Young People with Down Syndrome (Age 16–19 Years Old) Oral presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekkes, M.; Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Becoming independent is for young people with Down syndrome (DS) not a standard development, because of their intellectual impairment. Parents often wonder what level their child with DS might reach. This study aims to measure the level of self-sufficiency and problem behaviour i

  6. The Energy Master Plan: Transition to self-sufficient city regions by means of an approach to local energy potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Broersma, S.; Tillie, N.M.J.D.; Fremouw, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    City regions and metropolitan areas form the scale on which the battle for will be won or lost, and the level at which cities can become resilient and even self-sufficient. A master plan for a sustainable energy system for city regions is not a luxury anymore. An energy master plan will be based on

  7. Apparent Retrocausation as a Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    CERN Document Server

    Stapp, Henry P

    2011-01-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at...

  8. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate The Principle of Sufficient Reason

    CERN Document Server

    Stapp, Henry P

    2011-01-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at...

  9. Sufficient Condition over the Number of Parity Checks for Burst Error Detection/Correction in Linear Lee Weight Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sapna Jain; K.P. Shum

    2007-01-01

    Lee weight is more appropriate for some practical situations than Hamming weight as it takes into account the magnitude of each digit of the word.In this paper, weobtain a sufficient bound over the number of parity check digits for codes detecting burst errors and also for codes correcting burst errors with Lee weight.

  10. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of equilibrium in abstract non-autonomous functional differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    non-autonomous finite-delay functional differential equations without any monotone conditions assumed.A minimal set is constructed in terms of which necessary and sufficient conditions for a continuous equilibrium to exist are also obtained.Several illustrative examples are employed to demonstrate our results.

  11. The State of the Science of Employment and Economic Self-Sufficiency for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Derek; Luecking, Richard; Mank, David; Kiernan, William; Wray, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Employment, career advancement, and financial independence are highly valued in the United States. As expectations, they are often instilled at a young age and incentivized throughout adulthood. Despite their importance, employment and economic sufficiency continue to be out of reach for most people with intellectual and developmental disabilities…

  12. Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet? The case of Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.; Hartog, den A.P.; Mwadime, R.K.; Staveren, van W.A.; Foeken, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined whether street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet. It was hypothesized that vendors sold only low-cost food groups to enable the buyer to afford the food while the vendor also made a profit. A structured questionnaire was administered to 580 vend

  13. Energy Self-sufficiency from an Emergy Perspective Exemplified by a Model System of a Danish Farm Cooperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads Ville

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary food production is highly dependent on fossil fuel for production of fertilizer and as diesel for field operations. One way to enhance agricultural resilience is to increase self-sufficiency at the farm level with necessities such as energy, food, fodder, nutrients and seed. It is ev...

  14. The Adequacy of the Information that Students Utilize when Choosing a College: An Attribute Importance and Information Sufficiency Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed a college student sample to retrospectively assess the adequacy of the college-related attribute information they received when deciding to attend college. The assessment separately considered males and females in the study's information sufficiency-importance framework with resulting strategies. The results suggest that when…

  15. PHONICS WITH CONTEXT CLUES AS APPLIED TO LANGUAGE ARTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUFFEY, MARY DEMAREE

    A SIMPLIFIED METHOD OF PHONICS UTILIZING THE GESTALT METHOD OF LEARNING IS PRESENTED. THE WORDS IN THIS COURSE IN PHONICS ARE TO BE TAUGHT AT A TIME DIFFERENT FROM THE READING CLASSES, BUT THE PRINCIPLES DEVELOPED ARE TO BE APPLIED WITHIN THE READING CLASSES. THE COURSE CAN BE USED WITH ANY BASIC TEXT AND STRESSES THE ABILITY OF CHILDREN TO…

  16. Essays in applied economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  17. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  18. Research You Can Use: Marketing to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines marketing literature for profit-oriented organizations and discusses how those principles can be applied to public library services for children. Topics addressed include children as a source of revenue; market research; product development; promotion; retailing; and implications for public libraries, including population trends and…

  19. Children's Constitutional Rights: Interpretations and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sametz, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a brief historical overview of constitutional law as it applies to children, delineated in the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Emphasizes the need for school psychologists and educators to have an understanding of children's developing legal rights. Specific court cases are cited. (Author/JAC)

  20. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  1. Daycare Children of Divorce and Their Helpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Klara; Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad

    2013-01-01

    Caring for children of divorce may prevent emotional and behavioural problems. This study investigates daycare staff's beliefs about caring for young children who have experienced parental divorce. Q methodology was applied for this purpose, and 33 participants sorted 40 subjective statements. The Q factor analyses resulted in four factors or…

  2. Adaptive Robotic Systems Design in University of Applied Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Gunsing Jos; Gijselhart Fons; Hagemans Nyke; Jonkers Hans; Kivits Eric; Klijn Peter; Kapteijns Bart; Kroeske Diederich; Langen Hans; Oerlemans Bart; Oostindie Jan; van Stuijvenberg Joost

    2016-01-01

    In the industry for highly specialized machine building (small series with high variety and high complexity) and in healthcare a demand for adaptive robotics is rapidly coming up. Technically skilled people are not always available in sufficient numbers. A lot of know how with respect to the required technologies is available but successful adaptive robotic system designs are still rare. In our research at the university of applied sciences we incorporate new available technologies in our edu...

  3. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  4. Do young children understand relative value comparisons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce F Benenson

    Full Text Available Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.

  5. Childrens testimony

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Rickard L

    2002-01-01

    Background: Most cases of child sexual use are identified through statements made by children and in many cases such statements constitute the only evidence available that abuse occurred. Despite its importance the use of children's testimonies is however complicated by the fact that a substantial proportion of victims delay disclosure of abuse or even deny such experiences when asked for them directly. A further complicating factor, highlighted by an abundance of experiment...

  6. Street children

    OpenAIRE

    Rončević Nevenka; Stojadinović Aleksandra; Batrnek­antonić Daliborka

    2013-01-01

    According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, thes...

  7. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children. PMID:26016017

  8. Towards a general method for estimating the unbalanced magnetic pull in mixed eccentricities motion including sufficiently large eccentricities in a hydropower generator and their validation against EM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing; Jauregui, Ricardo; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) analysis of hydropower generators is common practice but rotor whirling is little studied. This paper suggests a novel semi-analytical method for estimating the steady state unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) when the rotor centre is undergoing mixed eccentricities motion. The ability to estimate the UMP for mixed eccentricities motion in finite element method (FEM)-based modelling software packages is rare. The proposed methodology in its formulation takes advantage of the fact that a purely dynamic eccentricity motion including non-synchronous whirling and a purely static eccentricity motion can be more amenable to implement in existing FEM-based EM modelling software products for UMP estimation. After these initial separate UMP results are obtained, the proposed method can be applied for virtually any mixed eccentricities motion cases up to sufficiently large eccentricities for quick analysis instead of running the mixed eccentricities simulations directly in a FEM-based software package. Good agreement between the UMP from the actual EM mixed eccentricities motion simulations in a commercial FEM-based software package and the UMP estimations by the novel method is made for a wide range of eccentricities that may commonly occur in practice. A modified feature selective validation (FSV) method, the FSV-UPC, is applied to assess the similarities and the differences in the UMP computations.

  9. 41 CFR 102-5.95 - Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? 102-5... sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? No, the comfort and/or convenience of an employee is not considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation....

  10. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Patrick S; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used to examine trajectories of externalizing behavior problems in relation to children's experience of their parents' divorce. Participants included 35...

  11. Linear and Ponderal Growth Trajectories in Well-Nourished, Iron-Sufficient Infants Are Unimpaired by Iron Supplementation12

    OpenAIRE

    Gahagan, Sheila; Yu, Sunkyung; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and supplementation is recommended during periods of high risk, including infancy. However, questions have been raised about possible adverse effects of iron on growth in iron-sufficient (IS) infants and the advisability of across-the-board iron supplementation. This study examined whether short- or long-term growth was impaired in IS infants who received iron supplementation. From a longitudinal study of healthy, breast...

  12. Is the current management system at Statoil sufficient to prevent potential major accidents from happening at the Snorre A platform?

    OpenAIRE

    Mork, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Only small margins prevented the gas-blow out at one of Statoil's platforms, Snorre A, to develop into a major accident in 2004. The underlying reasons of the accident showed extensive improvement areas, including Statoil's management system. The purpose is to find out whether the current management system at Statoil is sufficient to prevent potential major accidents from happening at the Snorre A platform again. As a guidance, four questions have been deduced. These include if...

  13. Retrocausal Effects As A Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined To Accommodate The Principle Of Sufficient Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-11-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  14. PRE-1, a cis element sufficient to enhance cone- and rod- specific expression in differentiating zebrafish photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley James B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate transcriptional regulation is required for cone photoreceptor development and integrity. To date, only a few cis-regulatory elements that control cone photoreceptor-specific expression have been characterised. The alpha-subunit of cone transducin (TαC is specifically expressed in cone photoreceptors and is required for colour vision. In order to better understand the molecular genetics controlling the initiation of cone photoreceptor-specific expression in vivo, we have utilised zebrafish to identify cis-regulatory elements in the upstream promoter region of the TαC gene. Results A 0.5 kb TαC promoter fragment is sufficient to direct cone-specific expression in transgenic larvae. Within this minimal promoter, we identify photoreceptor regulatory element-1 (PRE-1, a unique 41 bp sequence. PRE-1 specifically binds nuclear factors expressed in ocular tissue. PRE-1 is not required for cone-specific expression directed from a 2.5 kb TαC promoter. However, PRE-1-like sequences, with potential functional redundancy, are located in this 2.5 kb promoter. PRE-1-rho which has the highest sequence and structural homology to PRE-1 is located in the rhodopsin promoter. Surprisingly, PRE-1 and PRE-1-rho are functionally distinct. We demonstrate that PRE-1, but not PRE-1-rho, is sufficient to enhance expression from a heterologous UV cone promoter. PRE-1 is also sufficient to enhance expression from a heterologous rhodopsin promoter without altering its rod photoreceptor specificity. Finally, mutations in consensus E-box and Otx sites prevent PRE-1 from forming complexes with eye nuclear protein and enhancing photoreceptor expression. Conclusions PRE-1 is a novel cis-regulatory module that is sufficient to enhance the initiation of photoreceptor-specific gene expression in differentiating rod and cone photoreceptors.

  15. Using Paraffin PCM to Make Optical Communication Type of Payloads Thermally Self-Sufficient for Operation in Orion Crew Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative concept of using paraffin phase change material with a melting point of 28 C to make Optical Communication type of payload thermally self-sufficient for operation in the Orion Crew Module is presented. It stores the waste heat of the payload and permits it to operate for about one hour by maintaining its temperature within the maximum operating limit. It overcomes the problem of relying on the availability of cold plate heat sink in the Orion Crew Module.

  16. Sufficient Number of Providers of Primary Prevention of Risky Behaviour in the Town of Příbram

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVŮGEROVÁ, Hana

    2011-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is called ?Sufficient Number of Providers of Primary Prevention of Risky Behaviour in the Town of Příbram?. The aim of the primary prevention is to prevent occurrence of risky behaviour or to postpone the first experience with it as latest as possible. The aim is to prevent from increasing occurrence of risky behaviour. Primary prevention is provided by school methodologists of prevention who choose prevention activities which are used to improve social skills at schools fo...

  17. Sufficient Criteria for Existence of Pullback Attractors for Stochastic Lattice Dynamical Systems with Deterministic Non-autonomous Terms

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Anhui; Li, Yangrong

    2014-01-01

    We consider the pullback attractors for non-autonomous dynamical systems generated by stochastic lattice differential equations with non-autonomous deterministic terms. We first establish a sufficient condition for existence of pullback attractors of lattice dynamical systems with both non-autonomous deterministic and random forcing terms. As an application of the abstract theory, we prove the existence of a unique pullback attractor for the first-order lattice dynamical systems with both det...

  18. PPARalpha siRNA-treated expression profiles uncover the causal sufficiency network for compound-induced liver hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Dai

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering pathways underlying drug-induced toxicity is a fundamental objective in the field of toxicogenomics. Developing mechanism-based toxicity biomarkers requires the identification of such novel pathways and the order of their sufficiency in causing a phenotypic response. Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi phenotypic screening has emerged as an effective tool in unveiling the genes essential for specific cellular functions and biological activities. However, eliciting the relative contribution of and sufficiency relationships among the genes identified remains challenging. In the rodent, the most widely used animal model in preclinical studies, it is unrealistic to exhaustively examine all potential interactions by RNAi screening. Application of existing computational approaches to infer regulatory networks with biological outcomes in the rodent is limited by the requirements for a large number of targeted permutations. Therefore, we developed a two-step relay method that requires only one targeted perturbation for genome-wide de novo pathway discovery. Using expression profiles in response to small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against the gene for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara, our method unveiled the potential causal sufficiency order network for liver hypertrophy in the rodent. The validity of the inferred 16 causal transcripts or 15 known genes for PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy is supported by their ability to predict non-PPARalpha-induced liver hypertrophy with 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Simulation shows that the probability of achieving such predictive accuracy without the inferred causal relationship is exceedingly small (p < 0.005. Five of the most sufficient causal genes have been previously disrupted in mouse models; the resulting phenotypic changes in the liver support the inferred causal roles in liver hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of defining pathways mediating drug

  19. New language outcome measures for Mandarin speaking children with hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueman Liu; Jill de Villiers; Wendy Lee; Chunyan Ning; Eric Rolfhus; Teresa Hutchings; Fan Jiang; Yiwen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The paper discusses recent evidence on the assessment of language outcomes in children with hearing loss acquiring oral language. Methods: Research emphasizes that language tests must be specific enough to capture subtle deficits in vocabulary and grammar learning at different developmental ages. The Diagnostic Receptive and Expressive Assessment of Mandarin (DREAM) was carefully designed to be a comprehensive standardized Mandarin assessment normed in Mainland China. Results:This paper summarizes the evidence-based item design process and validity and reliability results of DREAM. A pilot study reported here shows that DREAM provided detailed information about hearing impaired children's language abilities and can be used to aid intervention planning to maximize progress. Conclusion: DREAM represents an example of translational science, transferring methods from empirical studies of language acquisition in research environments into applied domains such as assessment and intervention. Research on outcomes in China will advance significantly with the availability of evidence-based comprehensive language tests that measure a sufficient age range of skills, are normed on Mandarin speaking children in mainland China, and are designed to capture features central to Mandarin language acquisition.

  20. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...