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Sample records for children receiving solid

  1. B19 parvovirus infection in children with malignant solid tumors receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S P; Miller, S T; Cohen, B J

    1994-01-01

    Two children with rhabdomyosarcoma developed severe anemia following chemotherapy; anemia was more severe compared to that observed following earlier chemotherapy cycles. While one patient had a brisk reticulocytosis, the other had no demonstrable reticulocytes. Both patients had evidence of acute B19 parovirus infection and subsequently developed appropriate antibody response. A diagnosis of B19 parvovirus infection should be considered in any patient who develops persistent or severe anemia while on chemotherapy.

  2. Ototoxicity in children receiving cisplatin chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Jang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Cisplatin is highly effective for the treatment of solid tumors in children. However, the clinical use of cisplatin is limited by its ototoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ototoxicity in children treated with cisplatin. Methods : We performed a single institution retrospective analysis of pediatric oncology patients who received cisplatin therapy between January 2001 and January 2008. Thirty-seven patients with sufficient medical and audiologic data were included in this study. Results : The median age at the time of diagnosis was 10.7 (range 3.8–16.7 years. There were 16 males and 21 females. The underlying diseases were osteosarcoma (15 cases, medulloblastoma (14 cases, germ cell tumors (7 cases, and hepatoblastoma (1 case. The median individual dose was 100 mg/m2/cycle (56-200. The median cumulative dose was 480 mg/m2 (200-1,490. Sixteen patients (43% received cranial radiotherapy. Of the 37 patients, 17 developed hearing loss, leading to an overall incidence of 46%. Logistic regression showed that age at treatment (P=0.04 and cumulative dose of cisplatin (P=0.005 were the significant risk factors in predicting hearing loss in children treated with cisplatin. In all the patients who had hearing loss, there was neither improvement nor aggravation during the follow-up (3–68 months. Conclusion : The cumulative dose of cisplatin (>500 mg/m2 and younger age at treatment (<12 years were 2 most important risk factors for ototoxicity in patients treated with cisplatin. Serial audiometric evaluations are needed in the patients with risk factors during and after cisplatin treatment.

  3. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  4. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  5. Improving child support enforcement for children receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschke, S

    Less than half of all children who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and live in a single-parent home receive child support services. Although filing for child support is a condition of eligibility for income assistance programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), it is not a condition of eligibility for SSI benefits. Requiring single custodial parents applying for SSI on behalf of their children to pursue child support payments might result in more children on SSI receiving child support, and since the Social Security Administration (SSA) excludes one-third of child support when determining benefit amounts, increased receipt of child support would enhance the financial well-being of SSI children. Improving access to data on child support would enhance the integrity of the SSI program by reducing overpayments to children receiving child support. This article looks at the child support provisions in SSI and other means-tested programs and discusses policy options for improving receipt of child support and access to related data. Requiring cooperation with child support enforcement agencies would be consistent with the philosophy that the SSI program should serve as a program of last resort. Whenever possible, both parents should take primary responsibility for their children. While such a requirement has the potential to improve the financial status of children receiving SSI, factors such as their low-income status and their involvement with the TANF program raise questions about how much those children will actually benefit from such a requirement. Even if many additional children do not receive child support, the requirement demonstrates SSA's dedication to the stewardship of the SSI program. However, if custodial parents fail to comply with the requirement, children may be worse off as a result of the requirement. SSA should carefully pursue a requirement to induce cooperation while protecting children to the greatest extent

  6. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-06-06

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995.

  7. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  8. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  9. Should children with inherited metabolic disorders receive varicella vaccination?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varghese, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to determine the rate of varicella infection and complications in children with disorders of intermediary metabolism (IEM) between the ages of 1 and 16 years attending our national metabolic referral centre. Of 126 children identified, a response was received from 122. A history of previous varicella infection was identified in 64 cases (53%) and of varicella vaccination in 5 (4%). Fifty-three (43%) patients apparently did not have a history of clinical varicella infection. Of the 64 children with a history of varicella infection, five required hospitalisation for complications, including life-threatening lactic acidosis in one patient with mitochondrial disease and metabolic decompensation in four patients. In conclusion, varicella infection may cause an increased risk of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEMs. We propose that a trial of varicella vaccination be considered for this cohort of patients with monitoring of its safety and efficacy.

  10. Should children with inherited metabolic disorders receive varicella vaccination?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varghese, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to determine the rate of varicella infection and complications in children with disorders of intermediary metabolism (IEM) between the ages of 1 and 16 years attending our national metabolic referral centre. Of 126 children identified, a response was received from 122. A history of previous varicella infection was identified in 64 cases (53%) and of varicella vaccination in 5 (4%). Fifty-three (43%) patients apparently did not have a history of clinical varicella infection. Of the 64 children with a history of varicella infection, five required hospitalisation for complications, including life-threatening lactic acidosis in one patient with mitochondrial disease and metabolic decompensation in four patients. In conclusion, varicella infection may cause an increased risk of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEMs. We propose that a trial of varicella vaccination be considered for this cohort of patients with monitoring of its safety and efficacy.

  11. Zecotk receives MPD solid-state photo detector order from Institute of high energy physics research

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Zecotk Photonics Inc., (TSX VENTURE: ZMS)(FRANKFURT:W11), formerly Zecotek Medical Systems Int., today announced that it has received an order for a supply of its proprietary Micro-pixel Avalanche Photo Diodes (MAPD) solid-state photo detectors from the Institute of High Energy Physics Research (INR). (2/3 page)

  12. Zecotek receives MAPD solid-state photo detector order from Institute of High Energy Physics Research

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Zecotk Photonics Inc., (TSX VENTURE: ZMS)(FRANKFURT:W11), formerly Zecotek Medical Systems Int., today announced that it has received an order for a supply of its proprietary Micro-pixel Avalanche Photo Diodes (MAPD) solid-state photo detectors from the Institute of High Energy Physics Research (INR). (2/3 page)

  13. Zecotk receives MAPD solid-state photo detector order from Institute of high energy physics research

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Zecotek Photonics Inc. (TSX VENTURE:ZMS)(FRANKFURT;W11), formerly Zecotek Medical Systemps Inc., today announced that it has received an order for a supply if its proprietary Micro-pixel Avalanche Photo Diodes (MAPD) solid-state photo detectors from the Institute of High Energy Physics Research (INR). (1 page)

  14. 25 CFR 20.400 - Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.400 Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and...

  15. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving Anticonvulsive Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl MAHYAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Hosseini SM, Daneshi Kohan MM. Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Epileptic Children Receiving AnticonvulsiveDrugs. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2011;5(4:21-24.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate serum thyroid hormone levels in epileptic children receiving anticonvulsive drugs.Materials & MethodsIn this case- control study, 30 epileptic children who were receiving anticonvulsive drugs (case group were compared with 30 healthy children (control group. This study was carried out in the Qazvin Children's Hospital (Qazvin, Iran from October to December 2007. Both groups were matched for age and sex. Thyroid hormone levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Student's t-tests.ResultsThe mean serum T3 and T4 levels in the case group were 2.36 ± 0.73 nmol/L and 95.96 ± 27.01 nmol/L, respectively, and the corresponding values in the control group were 1.88 ± 0.93 nmol/L and 147.46 ± 35.77 nmol/L, respectively. The mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in the case and control groups were 2.73±0.73 mIU/mL and 2.49 ± 2.17mIU/mL, respectively.ConclusionThis study revealed that long-term consumption of anticonvulsive drugs resulted in a decline in serum T4 levels and an increase in serum T3 levels, but had no effect on TSH levels. 1. Johnston M. Neurodegenerative disorders of childhood;Spingolipidoses. Nelson textbook of pediatrics, 17th edPhiladelphia: Saunders; 2004.P.2031-2.2. Sankar R, Koh S, Wu J, Menkes J. Paroxysmal disorders.In(eds: Menkes JH, Sarnat HB, Maria BL. ChildNeurology; 2006.P.7:877.3. Shiva S, Ashrafi M, Mostafavi F, Abasi F, RahbariA, Shabanian R. Effects of anticonvulsant drugs onthyroid function tests. Iranian Journal of pediatrics2003;13(02:101.4. Kimura M, Yoshino K, Suzuki N, Maeoka Y. Effect ofantiepileptic drugs on thyroid function. Psychiatry andclinical neurosciences

  16. Characteristics and Types of Services Received by Children with Two Types of Attention Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Melissa; Stebbins, Molly S.; McIntosh, David E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the types of medical and educational services received by children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children with Undifferentiated Attention Deficit Disorder (UADD). Children with ADHD were reportedly diagnosed more than one year earlier than were children with UADD. Even though children were differentially…

  17. Incidence of anemia in patients diagnosed with solid tumors receiving chemotherapy, 2010–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu H

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hairong Xu,1 Lanfang Xu,2 John H Page,1 Kim Cannavale,2 Olivia Sattayapiwat,2 Roberto Rodriguez,3 Chun Chao2 1Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 2Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA, USA; 3Department of Hematology Oncology, Los Angeles Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Psadena, CA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and characterize the risk of anemia during the course of chemotherapy among patients with five common types of solid tumors. Patients and methods: Patients diagnosed with incident cancers of breast, lung, colon/rectum, stomach, and ovary who received chemotherapy were identified from Kaiser Permanente Southern California Health Plan (2010–2012. All clinical data were collected from the health plan’s electronic medical records. Incidence proportions of patients developing anemia and 95% confidence intervals were calculated overall and by anemia severity and type, as well as by stage at cancer diagnosis, and by chemotherapy regimen and cycle. Results: A total of 4,426 patients who received chemotherapy were included. Across cancers, 3,962 (89.5% patients developed anemia during the course of chemotherapy (normocytic 85%, macrocytic 10%, microcytic 5%; normochromic 47%, hyperchromic 44%, hypochromic 9%. The anemia grades were distributed as follows: 58% were grade 1, 34% grade 2, 8% grade 3, and <1% grade 4. The incidence of grade 2+ anemia ranged from 26.3% in colorectal cancer patients to 59.2% in ovarian cancer patients. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia increased from 29% in stage I to 49% in stage IV. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia varied from 18.2% in breast cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide + docetaxel regimen to 59.7% in patients with ovarian cancer receiving carboplatin + paclitaxel regimen. Conclusion: The incidence of moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin <10 g/dL remained considerably

  18. Cryptosporidial infections after solid organ transplantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, D A; Green, M; Jaffe, R; Greenberg, D; Mazariegos, G; Reyes, J

    2000-02-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients is often a challenge because of the variety of infectious and non-infectious causes. The morbidity associated with this clinical condition is of particular significance in the pediatric population where malnutrition may lead to poor growth and development. Rarely, Cryptosporidium has been identified as the cause of clinically significant diarrhea in pediatric solid organ transplant patients. A retrospective review identified cases of cryptosporidiosis among the 1160 non-renal, abdominal organ transplant recipients cared for at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between 1981 and June 1998. Four cases of clinically significant diarrhea were identified in three liver transplant recipients and one small bowel transplant recipient. Endoscopy and biopsy with histologic confirmation diagnosed three cases; ova and parasitic examination of stool specimens identified the fourth case. Therapy varied among the patients depending on when they had been diagnosed as, over the years, different and newer agents have been indicated for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. All four patients resolved their infections. Hence, endoscopy and biopsy is recommended for pediatric transplant patients who present with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology. The patients who may be at a higher risk for cryptosporidial infections include those with an increased immunosuppressive state (i.e. pre-existing immunodeficiency, malignancy, re-transplantation, and those receiving higher doses of immunosuppressive therapy). While cryptosporidiosis is a non-lethal complication, it allows the clinician to gain further insight into the degree of immunosuppression of their patient.

  19. Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children receiving stimulant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, M G; Bowers, T G

    1993-12-01

    10 children receiving stimulant medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were compared to normal children on cognitive and neuropsychological dimensions in a pilot study. When compared with 10 normal children the ADHD children showed significant differences on cognitive measures, including the Wechsler Developmental Index, the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test, and the Benton Revised Visual Retention Test. Elevated levels of polyspike EEG activity were also noted for these children. Analysis suggested that ADHD children receiving stimulant medications may have persisting neuropsychological difficulty. Further research on the neuropsychological correlates of ADHD seems warranted.

  20. A study of solid particle flow characterization in solar particle receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kibum [Mechanical Engineering Department, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa-3 dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Kyeonggi-do, 426-791 (Korea); Siegel, Nathan; Kolb, Greg [Sandia National Laboratories Solar Technologies Department, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1127 (United States); Rangaswamy, Vijayarangan; Moujaes, Samir F [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Pkwy Las Vegas, NV 89154-4027 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The solid particle receiver (SPR) is a direct absorption receiver in which solar energy heats a curtain of falling ceramic particle to a temperature in excess of 1000 C. A small scale test platform was built to investigate particle flow properties. The curtain was comprised of approximately 697 {mu}m ceramic particles that were dropped within the receiver cavity of the test platform. Tests were conducted to experimentally determine the distribution of particles velocity, curtain thickness, and curtain opacity along a drop length of approximately 3 m. Velocity data were measured using a high speed digital camera to obtain images of the particle flow at 1000 frames per second with an exposure time of 100 {mu}s. Five mass flow rates ranging from 1 kg/s-m to 22 kg/s-m were examined, and it was found that all flows approached a terminal velocity of about 6-7 m/s in a vertical drop distance of 3 m. The experimental results were validated with computational results and were found in excellent agreement with the simulation results. In addition, a similar study was performed with various sizes of the particles to better understand how the particle flow characteristics were affected by the size of the particles. (author)

  1. Incidence of anemia in patients diagnosed with solid tumors receiving chemotherapy, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hairong; Xu, Lanfang; Page, John H; Cannavale, Kim; Sattayapiwat, Olivia; Rodriguez, Roberto; Chao, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate and characterize the risk of anemia during the course of chemotherapy among patients with five common types of solid tumors. Patients and methods Patients diagnosed with incident cancers of breast, lung, colon/rectum, stomach, and ovary who received chemotherapy were identified from Kaiser Permanente Southern California Health Plan (2010–2012). All clinical data were collected from the health plan’s electronic medical records. Incidence proportions of patients developing anemia and 95% confidence intervals were calculated overall and by anemia severity and type, as well as by stage at cancer diagnosis, and by chemotherapy regimen and cycle. Results A total of 4,426 patients who received chemotherapy were included. Across cancers, 3,962 (89.5%) patients developed anemia during the course of chemotherapy (normocytic 85%, macrocytic 10%, microcytic 5%; normochromic 47%, hyperchromic 44%, hypochromic 9%). The anemia grades were distributed as follows: 58% were grade 1, 34% grade 2, 8% grade 3, and anemia ranged from 26.3% in colorectal cancer patients to 59.2% in ovarian cancer patients. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia increased from 29% in stage I to 49% in stage IV. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia varied from 18.2% in breast cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide + docetaxel regimen to 59.7% in patients with ovarian cancer receiving carboplatin + paclitaxel regimen. Conclusion The incidence of moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin anemia was greater in patients with distant metastasis. PMID:27186078

  2. Predicting the sorption of fatty alcohols and alcohol ethoxylates to effluent and receiving water solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, R; McAvoy, D C; Sherren, A; Wind, T; Cano, M L; Belanger, S E; Dorn, P B; Kerr, K M

    2006-05-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AEs) are an important group of nonionic surfactants. Commercial AEs consist of a mixture of several homologues of varying carbon chain length (Cx) and degree of ethoxylation (EOy). The major disposal route of AE is down the drain to municipal wastewater treatment plants that discharge into receiving surface waters. Sorption of AE homologues onto activated sludge and river water solids is an important factor in assessing exposure of AE in the environment. This study presents the experimental determination of sorption coefficients for a wide array of AE homologues including five alcohols under environmentally relevant conditions and combines these data with literature data to generate a predictive model for the sorption of AEs in the environment. These results demonstrate that sorption can be effectively modeled using a log Kd vs. Cx and EOy predictive equation having the form log Kd = 0.331C - 0.00897EO - 1.126(R2 = 0.64).

  3. Children and terror casualties receive preference in ICU admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Rozenfeld, Michael; Dolev, Eran

    2012-03-01

    Trauma casualties caused by terror-related events and children injured as a result of trauma may be given preference in hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to their perceived importance. We investigated whether there are differences in the treatment and hospitalization of terror-related casualties compared to other types of injury events and between children and adults injured in terror-related events. Retrospective study of 121 608 trauma patients from the Israel Trauma Registry during the period of October 2000-December 2005. Of the 10 hospitals included in the registry, 6 were level I trauma centers and 4 were regional trauma centers. Patients who were hospitalized or died in the ED or were transferred between hospitals were included in the registry. All analyses were controlled for Injury Severity Score (ISS). All patients with ISS 1-24 terror casualties had the highest frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions when compared with patients after road traffic accidents (RTA) and other trauma. Among patients with terror-related casualties, children were admitted to ICU disproportionally to the severity of their injury. Logistic regression adjusted for injury severity and trauma type showed that both terror casualties and children have a higher probability of being admitted to the ICU. Injured children are admitted to ICU more often than other age groups. Also, terror-related casualties are more frequently admitted to the ICU compared to those from other types of injury events. These differences were not directly related to a higher proportion of severe injuries among the preferred groups.

  4. Differences in health-related quality of life in children with sickle cell disease receiving hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Courtney D; Calatroni, Agustin; Panepinto, Julie A

    2011-05-01

    Hydroxyurea is a safe and efficacious medication for children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our objective was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) between children taking hydroxyurea and those not taking hydroxyurea. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with SCD who had completed the PedsQL 4.0 at Duke University Medical Center or the Midwest Sickle Cell Center. Our primary outcome was HRQL in children receiving hydroxyurea therapy compared with those not receiving hydroxyurea. One hundred and ninety-one children with SCD were included in the study. Children in the hydroxyurea group had higher self-reported Total PedsQL median scores than children in the no hydroxyurea group (P=0.04). Child self-reported physical functioning scores were significantly higher for children in the hydroxyurea group (P=0.01). In conclusion, children with SCD who received hydroxyurea therapy reported better overall HRQL and better physical HRQL than children who did not receive this therapy despite disease severity. Further research assessing the impact of hydroxyurea therapy on HRQL, such as prospective assessment over time, would aid in our understanding of the effectiveness of hydroxyurea for individual children. Ultimately, this may aid in decreasing the barriers to the use of hydroxyurea.

  5. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered......INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent......-administered paracetamol in toddlers during a winter-period in relation to symptoms, doctor contacts and severity-rated illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as a prospective diary study covering a three-month winter-period. It comprised a cohort of 183 infants born in February 2001 in a district...... of the capital area in Denmark. RESULTS: According to the parents, a total of 119 toddlers (65%) received paracetamol at least once during the study period; 9.3% of the toddlers received paracetamol for more than ten days. The administration of paracetamol rose as the number of symptoms increased. Paracetamol...

  6. Giving toys to children reduces their anxiety about receiving premedication for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Leonard; Pagala, Murali; Sukhavasi, Sujatha; Nagpal, Dheeraj; Ahmad, Ayeesha; Mahanta, Aruna

    2006-04-01

    Children have increased anxiety during the preoperative period. The administration of oral premedication to children is often met with apprehension, reluctance, or refusal. We sought to determine whether giving a small toy to the children would decrease the anxiety associated with taking oral premedication. This was a prospective study involving 100 children 3-6 yr of age randomized into two equal groups. The anxiety of each child was assessed using the Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. The results showed significantly less anxiety in children who received a toy before oral administration of midazolam.

  7. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents Dr. ... Children research volunteers receive care and help advance knowledge I f one smile can light up a ...

  8. Progress and Outcomes for Children with Autism Receiving Parent-Managed Intensive Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeseth, Svein; Martin, Neil T.; Mudford, Oliver C.; Reeves, David

    2001-01-01

    Data were analyzed from 66 young children with autism served by 25 different early intervention consultants and receiving parent-managed interventions. Parent-managed intensive interventions resulted in progress for 60 children for mental age, adaptive behavior, and language skills. Interventions did not reproduce results from clinic-based…

  9. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  10. Abnormal Myocardial Strain Indices in Children Receiving Anthracycline Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Ricardo H; Ghazi, Payam; Reddy, S Chandra-Bose; Thompson, Patrick; Cui, Qiqiong; Castro, Jacqueline; Okcu, Mehmet F; Jefferies, John Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Anthracycline chemotherapy (AC) is associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function. LV ejection fraction (EF %) obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography is the current gold standard for detection and monitoring of LV systolic function. However, dependence on LVEF has been shown to be unreliable due to its inherent limitations. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) measures myocardial strain and is a sensitive method to detect LV systolic dysfunction with demonstrated utility in such detection in adult and pediatric cohort studies. Compare myocardial strain indices derived by STE with LVEF to detect ACT-induced LV systolic dysfunction. Prospective, cross-sectional measurements of LV myocardial strain indices derived from STE with LVEF. Pediatric cohort of 25 patients (pts): 17 females, eight males with a mean age 9.8 ± 5.8 years, who received anthracyclines (AC); median cumulative dose ≥150 ± 124.4 mg/m(2), range 60-450 mg/m(2) showing normal LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) and normal LVEF (≥55 %) underwent STE to obtain LV myocardial strain indices: strain and strain rate. The inter- and intraobserver variability for the strain indices was 5 %. Fifteen of 25 pts (60 %) showed abnormal global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLPSS) and 19/25 pts (76 %) showed abnormal peak circumferential strain (PCS) compared to age-matched controls (p = 0.005). In contrast, no significant differences was observed in either indices with the dose of AC. Likewise, no significant changes in the systolic or diastolic strain rate were noted with the dose of AC (r (2) = 0.0076 for peak E, r (2) = 0.072 for peak A, p = NS). GLPSS and PCS were diminished and, however, correlated poorly with the cumulative dose of AC. These observations indicate an early onset of LV systolic dysfunction by the strain indices in pts who continue to show a normal LVEF implying presence of occult LV systolic dysfunction. These novel strain indices may assist in

  11. Meropenem in children receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: clinical trial simulations using realistic covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehus, Edward J; Mouksassi, Samer; Vinks, Alexander A; Goldstein, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    Meropenem is frequently prescribed in children receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Fluid overload is often present in critically ill children and affects drug disposition. The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model to (1) evaluate target attainment of meropenem dosing regimens against P. aeruginosa in children receiving CRRT and (2) estimate the effect of fluid overload on target attainment. Clinical trial simulations were employed to evaluate target attainment of meropenem in various age groups and degrees of fluid overload in children receiving CRRT. Pharmacokinetic parameters were extracted from published literature, and 287 patients from the prospective pediatric CRRT registry database provided realistic clinical covariates including patient weight, fluid overload, and CRRT prescription characteristics. Target attainment at 40% and 75% time above the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Clinical trial simulations demonstrated that children greater than 5 years of age achieved acceptable target attainment with a dosing regimen of 20 mg/kg every 12 hours. In children less than 5, however, increased dosing of 20 mg/kg every 8 hours was needed to optimize target attainment. Fluid overload did not affect target attainment. These in silico model predictions will need to be verified in vivo in children receiving meropenem and CRRT. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, D.L.

    1998-06-25

    Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1997. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Cafeteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  13. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-05-21

    Rust Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1996. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  14. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, D.L.

    1998-06-25

    Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1997. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Cafeteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  15. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-05-21

    Rust Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1996. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  16. Contrasting two models of academic self-efficacy--domain-specific versus cross-domain--in children receiving and not receiving special instruction in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas; Hesser, Hugo; Träff, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is domain-specific. An alternative model, the cross-domain influence model, would predict that self-efficacy beliefs in one domain might influence performance in other domains. Research has also found that children who receive special instruction are not good at estimating their performance. The aim was to test two models of how self-efficacy beliefs influence achievement, and to contrast children receiving special instruction in mathematics with normally-achieving children. The participants were 73 fifth-grade children who receive special instruction and 70 children who do not receive any special instruction. In year four and five, the children's skills in mathematics and reading were assessed by national curriculum tests, and in their fifth year, self-efficacy in mathematics and reading were measured. Structural equation modeling showed that in domains where children do not receive special instruction in mathematics, self-efficacy is a mediating variable between earlier and later achievement in the same domain. Achievement in mathematics was not mediated by self-efficacy in mathematics for children who receive special instruction. For normal achieving children, earlier achievement in the language domain had an influence on later self-efficacy in the mathematics domain, and self-efficacy beliefs in different domains were correlated. Self-efficacy is mostly domain specific, but may play a different role in academic performance depending on whether children receive special instruction. The results of the present study provided some support of the Cross-Domain Influence Model for normal achieving children. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sleep habits and fatigue of children receiving maintenance chemotherapy for ALL and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanec, Sue; Jones, Heather; Stremler, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    The study of potential contributors to fatigue, such as sleep disturbance, has been identified as a research priority in pediatric cancer. The primary objective of this descriptive study was to explore relationships between sleep habits, sleep disturbance, and fatigue for children receiving maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study also described sleep habits, sleep disturbance, and fatigue of parents of children and adolescents with ALL and determined if relationships existed between parent and child sleep disturbance and fatigue. Using a descriptive, cross-sectional design, children aged 4-18 years receiving maintenance chemotherapy for ALL and their parents completed questionnaires about their sleep and fatigue. Sleep disturbance was common in both children (87%) and parents (48%) and sleep disturbance scores were positively correlated with fatigue scores. From qualitative written responses to open-ended questions, 9 themes emerged related to sleep for children undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for ALL. Sleep differences noted since diagnosis included (1) sleep is disturbed, (2) sleep habits have changed, and (3) sleep is unchanged or improved. Things that got in the way of children sleeping well included (4) side effects of medication, especially dexamethasone; and (5) medication schedules. Things that helped children get sleep at night were (6) sleeping with someone, (7) comforting activities or routine, (8) medications, and (9) food and drink. Sleep disturbance in children on ALL maintenance and their parents is common and likely contributes to increased fatigue and is a potential target for nursing interventions.

  18. The effect of chewing gum on oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakcı, Ayşe Ferda; Ayverdi, Didem; Ekim, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral mucositis is an important clinical problem, resulting in significant patient morbidity, a change in health-related quality of life, and supportive care. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chewing gum on children, who are receiving chemotherapy regimens, for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Method and Material: The study sample consisted of 60 children (30 study group-30 control group) between the ages 6-...

  19. Dominican Children with HIV Not Receiving Antiretrovirals: Massage Therapy Influences their Behavior and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez-Reif

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight children (M age = 4.8 years infected with HIV/AIDS and living in the Dominican Republic were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a play session control group. The children in the massage therapy group received two weekly 20-min massages for 12 weeks; the children in the control group participated in a play session (coloring, playing with blocks for the same duration and length as the massage therapy group. Overall, the children in the massage therapy group improved in self-help abilities and communication, suggesting that massage therapy may enhance daily functioning for children with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the HIV infected children who were six or older also showed a decrease in internalizing behaviors; specifically depressive/anxious behaviors and negative thoughts were reduced. Additionally, baseline assessments revealed IQ equivalence below normal functioning for 70% of the HIV infected children and very high incidences of mood problems (depression, withdrawn for 40% of the children and anxiety problems for 20% of the children, suggesting the need for better monitoring and alternative interventions in countries with limited resources to improve cognition and the mental health status of children infected with HIV/AIDS.

  20. Fear of repeated injections in children younger than 4 years receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Gabriele; Shankar, Viswanathan; Nazari, Ramin; Kooragayalu, Shravan; Smith, Mitchell; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenstreich, David

    2012-12-01

    Allergy immunotherapy during early childhood may have potential benefits for the prevention of asthma and allergy morbidity. However, subcutaneous immunotherapy has not yet been prospectively researched in children younger than 4 years, primarily because of safety concerns, including the fear and psychological distress young children may experience with repeated needle injections. To quantify fear in atopic children younger than 4 years with a history of wheezing who are receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy. Fear of injection was graded during a total of 788 immunotherapy injection visits in 18 children (age, 37 months; SD, 9 months) receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy. The parent and the injection nurse assigned fear scores on a scale of 0 to 10 after each injection visit. At the time of analysis, children had a median of 49 injection visits (range, 12-88) during a median study period of 81.5 weeks (range, 15-165 weeks). Fifteen children (83%) lost their fear of injections during the study. A fear score of 0 was achieved after a mean of 8.4 visits (SD, 7.4). The more injection visits were missed, the more likely children were to retain fear of injections (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-1.02; P=.05). Age, adverse events, number of injections at each visit, and change of injection personnel were not associated with increased fear. Our analysis suggests that most children receiving weekly subcutaneous immunotherapy lose their fear of injections during the treatment course. Children with increased intervals between visits may be at higher risk of experiencing fear of injections. clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT01028560. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gregory J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-07

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  2. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Stephanie; Chamley, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This is the first part of two articles exploring oral health problems and treatments for children receiving palliative care, successful management of which can improve considerably the quality of life for this group of children and young people. Part one includes an adapted oral health assessment tool for use in children and young people with complex and palliative healthcare needs that has the potential to help nurses identify and monitor oral health problems and prevent or minimise oral problems from developing. Part two--to be published next month--focuses on basic oral hygiene and the management of specific oral health problems.

  3. Dyslipidemia in a cohort of HIV-infected Latin American children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa; Hazra, Rohan

    2011-10-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =  2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9-6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART.

  4. Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART. PMID:20889625

  5. Nutritional status changes in HIV-infected children receiving combined antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, P; Donelli, E; Boni, S; Pontali, E; Tramalloni, R; Bassetti, D

    2000-11-01

    Maintaining linear growth and weight gain in HIV-infected children is often difficult. Nutritional evaluation and support are recognised as important factors to improve their quality of life. Combination antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (HAART) reduces HIV-viral load and improves survival, quality of life and nutritional status. Our study aimed to determine changes in nutrional status based on body weight, height and nutritional habits, of HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Possible side effects of lipid metabolism were also studied. Twenty five children, 13 treated with HAART (group B) were followed up for 12 months. We did not observe statistically significant differences in nutritional status over that time or between groups A and B. Inadequate energy intake was more common in patients with advanced HIV-disease. Hyperlipidemia was found in 70% of children receiving ritonavir and in approximately 50% of children receiving nelfinavir. We observed an important although not statistically significative modification in the height of those in group B.

  6. Children's spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Mandy; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children's level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children's happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children's expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize.

  7. Satisfaction in different life domains in children receiving home parenteral nutrition and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottrand, Frédéric; Staszewski, Pierre; Colomb, Virginie; Loras-Duclaux, Irène; Guimber, Dominique; Marinier, Evelyne; Breton, Anne; Magnificat, Sabine

    2005-06-01

    To assess the quality-of-life (QOL) of children receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). A national multicenter study of 72 patients (median age 4 years) presenting with a digestive disease requiring HPN, and 90 siblings, 67 fathers, and 69 mothers of these children. Median duration of HPN was 2 years (3 months-18 years). QOL was measured using validated, nondisease-specific questionnaires appropriate to the children's ages. The QOL scores were high in patients of all ages and were not significantly different from scores in a reference population of healthy children and adolescents. Lower QOL scores were recorded in the domains related to hospital, health, doctors, medications, and obligations. The QOL was not affected in siblings but was significantly impaired in parents, especially in mothers, who showed a lower level of satisfaction than did fathers for items related to work, inner life, and freedom. Presence of an ileostomy was the only factor that influenced QOL, especially of adolescents. QOL of HPN-dependent children and siblings is not different from that of healthy children, suggesting that these children actively use effective coping strategies. In contrast, the QOL of parents of HPN-dependent children is low.

  8. Frequency diversity wideband digital receiver and signal processor for solid-state dual-polarimetric weather radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kumar Vijay

    The recent spate in the use of solid-state transmitters for weather radar systems has unexceptionably revolutionized the research in meteorology. The solid-state transmitters allow transmission of low peak powers without losing the radar range resolution by allowing the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this research, a novel frequency-diversity wideband waveform is proposed and realized to extenuate the low sensitivity of solid-state radars and mitigate the blind range problem tied with the longer pulse compression waveforms. The latest developments in the computing landscape have permitted the design of wideband digital receivers which can process this novel waveform on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips. In terms of signal processing, wideband systems are generally characterized by the fact that the bandwidth of the signal of interest is comparable to the sampled bandwidth; that is, a band of frequencies must be selected and filtered out from a comparable spectral window in which the signal might occur. The development of such a wideband digital receiver opens a window for exciting research opportunities for improved estimation of precipitation measurements for higher frequency systems such as X, Ku and Ka bands, satellite-borne radars and other solid-state ground-based radars. This research describes various unique challenges associated with the design of a multi-channel wideband receiver. The receiver consists of twelve channels which simultaneously downconvert and filter the digitized intermediate-frequency (IF) signal for radar data processing. The product processing for the multi-channel digital receiver mandates a software and network architecture which provides for generating and archiving a single meteorological product profile culled from multi-pulse profiles at an increased data date. The multi-channel digital receiver also continuously samples the transmit pulse for calibration of radar receiver gain and transmit power. The multi

  9. Factors related to the institutionalization of children and adolescents received in the district of Uberaba - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tavares Gontijo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the socio-demographic profile and factors related to the institutionalization of children and adolescents received in the District of Uberaba in 2009. Methods: Descriptive, documental, retrospective study, which included all children and adolescents who have been housed, by judicial decision, in the District of Uberaba-MG, Brazil, in 2009. Data collected from the judicial proceedings was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of 169 children and adolescents received in 2009, 82 (51.47% were female. Ages between 4 and 6 (33 - 19.53% and between 13 to 15 (30 - 17.75% were the most prevalent age groups. Among school-age children, only 41(24.26% had education level appropriate to age. In 109 (65.08% of cases, the father figure was not identified as present within the family composition. The main reasons for institutional sheltering were negligence, socio-economic conditions of the family, use of alcohol and drugs by those responsible, abuse, abandonment, physical violence and sexual violence. Conclusions: Data point to the process of social vulnerability experienced by families, which raises the articulation and strengthening of policies and intersectoral actions, with active partipation of the society, seeking the promotion of better living and health conditions for children and adolescents.

  10. Assessment of antibody titers and immunity to Hepatitis B in children receiving chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Shahemabadi, A; Salehi, F; Hashemi, A; Vakili, M; Zare, F; Esphandyari, N; Kashanian, S

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a decrease in vaccine-specific antibody to certain vaccine-preventable diseases in children after chemotherapy, but the frequency of non-immune patients is not clear. In the present case-control study, was taken under investigation protection level to Hepatitis B infection in children 6 months after completing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods In this study 68 patients with cancer and 68 healthy children were enrolled. Patients were 1.5 -12 years old with completed standard chemotherapy at least for 6 months. All the patients and healthy children were negative for HBsAg and HBeAg and had received Hepatitis B vaccination. IgG antibody concentrations against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) were determined in the patients receiving chemotrapy and healthy subjects serum by ELISA method. IgG antibody titer > 10 mIU/ml was considered as baseline protective titer for preventing HBV infection. Results Anti-HBs antibody titer in 19.12% of patients was less than 10 mIU/ml and 11.76% of the patients had borderline antibody titer (10-20 mIU/ml). In healthy subjects, 2.94% and 5.88% had antibody titer < 10 mIU/ml and 10-20 mIU/ml, respectively. According to statistical analysis, frequency of non immune subjects in children with cancer was significantly higher than those in healthy children (P-value=0.024). Conclusion HBV vaccination post-intensive chemotherapy in the children with cancer is strongly recommended. PMID:24575253

  11. Quality-of-Life Differences among Diagnostic Subgroups of Children Receiving Ventilating Tubes for Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse; Faber, Christian Emil; Johansen, Eva Charlotte Jung; Godballe, Christian

    2015-10-01

    The pathological picture may differ considerably between diagnostic subgroups of children with otitis media receiving ventilating tubes. The aims of this study are to investigate differences in quality of life among diagnostic subgroups of children treated with ventilating tubes and to investigate possible predictors for clinical success. Longitudinal observational study. Secondary care units. Four hundred ninety-one families were enrolled in the study. The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire was applied in the assessment of child quality of life. Caregivers completed questionnaires at 7 time points from before treatment to 18-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate possible predictors for clinical success. Response rates ranged from 96% to 81%; diagnostic distribution: 15% recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM), 47% otitis media with effusion (OME), and 38% mixed diagnosis of rAOM and OME (rAOM/OME). There were no significant differences between children diagnosed with rAOM and children diagnosed with rAOM/OME. However, these children had a significantly poorer quality of life at baseline compared with children diagnosed with only OME. Factors associated with clinical success included a diagnosis of rAOM, number of interrupted nights, physician visits, and canceled social activities due to OM. Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between diagnostic subgroups of children having ventilating tube treatment. A diagnosis of rAOM was found to predict baseline quality of life. Children with rAOM with or without OME were found to suffer significantly more than children with only OME before treatment. Factors associated with disease severity were found to predict clinical success. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  12. SOLID CYSTIC PAPILLARY TUMOR OF PANCREAS IN EIGHT CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-ren Zhang; Hui-min Jia; Hong Shu; Xin-yuan Li

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the clinical and pathological features of pancreatic solid cystic papillary tumor (SCPT) in children.Methods From 2000 to 2005 , 8 cases with SCPT of the pancreas were analyzed retrospectively. All cases but one were females. Average age was 12.8 years. By case review, we discussed the clinical and pathological features of SCPT in children.Results The chief complains were abdominal pain and palpable mass. There were 3 cases in the head, 1 case in the body, and 4 cases in the tail of pancreas. The procedures employed included local resection (1 case), distal pancre-atectomy (5 cases) , pancreaticoduodenectomy (1 case) , and biopsy (1 case). Histological examination showed solid with cystic areas and papillary protrusions in the 8 cases; as for immunohistochemical examinations, the positive rate was 100% for ct-antitrypsin (AACT) , 87.5% for vinmentin, and 62.5% for neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The patients were followed up for 2 months to 4 years but one was lost by follow-up and all were alive postoperatively. SCPT in 2 cases relapsed.Conclusion Occurring predominantly in young females, SCPT is usually curable by surgical resection with a favorable prognosis.

  13. [Nosocomial infection in patients receiving a solid organ transplant or haematopoietic stem cell transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Camacho, Asunción; Ruiz Camps, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are the most common infections in solid organ transplant recipients. These infections occur mainly in the first month after transplantation and are hospital-acquired. Nosocomial infections cause significant morbidity and are the most common cause of mortality in this early period of transplantation. These infections are caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, mainly Gram-negative enterobacteria, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, enterococci, and staphylococci. The patients at risk of developing nosocomial bacterial infections are those previously colonized with MDR bacteria while on the transplant waiting list. Intravascular catheters, the urinary tract, the lungs, and surgical wounds are the most frequent sources of infection. Preventive measures are the same as those applied in non-immunocompromised, hospitalized patients except in patients at high risk for developing fungal infection. These patients need antifungal therapy during their hospitalization, and for preventing some bacterial infections in the early transplant period, patients need vaccinations on the waiting list according to the current recommendations. Although morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases have decreased during the last few years in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, they are still one of the most important complications in this population. Furthermore, as occurs in the general population, the incidence of nosocomial infections has increased during the different phases of transplantation. It is difficult to establish general preventive measures in these patients, as there are many risk factors conditioning these infections. Firstly, they undergo multiple antibiotic treatments and interventions; secondly, there is a wide variability in the degree of neutropenia and immunosuppression among patients, and finally they combine hospital and home stay during the transplant process. However, some simple measures could be

  14. A profile of children with disabilities receiving SSI: highlights from the National Survey of SSI Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman; Davies, Paul S; Newcomb, Chad; Iams, Howard; Becker, Carrie; Mulpuru, Shanti; Ressler, Stephen; Romig, Kathleen; Miller, Baylor

    This article provides a nationally representative profile of noninstitutionalized children 0 to 17 years of age who were receiving support from the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program because of a disability. To assess the role of the SSI program in providing assistance to low-income children with disabilities and their families, it is important to obtain detailed information on demographic characteristics, income and assets, health and disabilities, and health care utilization. Yet administrative records of the Social Security Administration do not contain many of the relevant data items, and the records provide only an incomplete picture of the family relationships affecting the lives of children with disabilities. The National Survey of SSI Children and Families fills this gap. This summary article is based on survey interviews conducted between July 2001 and June 2002 and provides some highlights characterizing children with disabilities who were receiving SSI and their families. Most children receiving SSI (hereafter referred to as "SSI children") lived in a family headed by a single mother, and less than one in three lived with both parents. A very high proportion, about half, were living in a household with at least one other individual reported to have had a disability. About 70 percent of children received some kind of special education. SSI support was the most important source of family income, with earnings a close second. On average, SSI payments accounted for nearly half of the income for the children's families, and earnings accounted for almost 40 percent. When all sources of family income were considered, slightly more than half (54 percent) of SSI children lived in families above the poverty threshold, a notable fact given that the federal SSI program guarantees only a subpoverty level of income. However, beyond these averages there was substantial variation, with some children living in families with income well below the poverty threshold

  15. Paediatric solid tumours in Nigerian children: A changing pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Na′anlep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood cancer is fast becoming an important paediatric problem in Nigeria and several parts of Africa, with the progressive decline of infectious and nutritional diseases. The following study was a 5-year retrospective review of paediatric solid tumours as seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Objective: To determine the relative frequencies of childhood solid malignant tumours in Jos, Central Nigeria and compare with reports of previous studies both locally and abroad. Materials and Methods: Cancer registers and medical records of patients were used to extract demographic data, specimen number and/or codes. Archival materials were retrieved from the histopathology laboratory and sections were made from paraffin embedded blocks of these specimens. Slides of these histological sections were reviewed and reclassified where necessary. The relative frequencies were then determined. Results: One hundred and eighty one solid tumours of children were diagnosed within the study period. Ninety-four (51% were benign and 87 (49% malignant. Male: Female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest malignant tumour diagnosed was rhabdomyosarcoma which accounted for 27 (31%, comprising of 15 (55.6%, 11 (40.7% and 1 (3.7% embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas, respectively. Non Hodgkin lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma accounted for 17 (19.5% and 12 (13.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the result of our study, we conclude that the commonest solid malignancy of childhood in Jos, Nigeria is rhabdomyosarcoma. This has implications for diagnosis, management and prognosis of theses soft tissue sarcomas in our paediatric population.

  16. Pancreatic resections for solid or cystic pancreatic masses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, C O; Guérin, F; Goldzmidt, D; Fouquet, V; Franchi-Abella, S; Fabre, M; Branchereau, S; Martelli, H; Gauthier, F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the diagnosis and management of solid pancreatic neoplasm in children and the type of surgical treatment, focusing on short- and long-term outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all children who had undergone pancreatic resection for suspicion of pancreatic tumor in Kremlin Bicêtre Hospital, Paris, between 1986 and 2008. We studied the symptoms at diagnosis, the type of surgery, and the short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Of 18 patients identified, there were 7 pseudopapillary tumors, 3 neuroblastomas, 2 rhabdomyosarcomas, 1 acinar cell carcinoma, 1 endocrine cell carcinoma, 1 renal angiomyolipoma, and 3 pancreatic cysts. Symptoms at diagnosis were abdominal trauma, abdominal mass, and jaundice. Operative procedures were duodenopancreatectomy (11), mid-pancreatic resections (2), splenopancreatectomy (2), distal pancreatectomy (1), and tumorectomy (2). There were no deaths related to surgery. The postoperative morbidity rate was 45%, including 2 cases of fistula (11%) occurring after a mid-pancreatic resection and a pancreaticoduodenectomy. The median follow-up was 4.2 years (range 2-11). There was no diabetes mellitus, but there was 1 case of fat diet intolerance requiring pancreatic enzyme substitution. All of the children had a growth curve within normal limits. In this experience, pancreatic resections have proven to be a safe and efficient procedure, with low long-term morbidity, for the treatment of tumoral and selected nontumoral pancreatic masses.

  17. Transient occult cardiotoxicity in children receiving continuous beta-agonist therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher L Carroll; Melinda Coro; Allison Cowl; Kathleen A Sala; Craig M Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Background: Continuous beta-agonist therapy, typically in the form of inhaled albuterol, is the first line therapy for the treatment of acute and severe bronchospasm in children. Although this treatment is commonly used, concerns about cardiotoxicity have been raised. We aimed to investigate the cardiotoxic effects of continuous beta-agonist therapy in children. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 2008 and April 2009, who were treated with continuous beta-agonist therapy (intravenous and nebulized). Results: Twenty of the 36 children treated with continuous albuterol had repeated serum troponin-T and lactate levels measured. Eleven patients (55%) were also treated with continuous intravenous terbutaline. Elevated levels of troponin-T levels were found in 25% of children, and elevated lactate levels were found in 60%. However, all returned to normal levels within 48 hours of ICU admission, despite continued beta-agonist therapy. No children experienced arrhythmias during therapy. There was no association between intravenous terbutaline use and elevated troponin-T [odds ratio (OR), 1.3; 95% CI, 0.2-10.3] or with elevated serum lactate (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-3.7). There was also no association between elevated troponin-T or lactate and ICU or hospital length of stay. Conclusions: In this small study, a significant proportion of children had elevated serum troponin-T and lactate levels while receiving inhaled continuous beta-agonist therapy, irrespective of intravenous therapy. However, these abnormal values all returned to normal within 48 hours of ICU admission and were not associated with increased duration of hospitalization.

  18. Reconstitution of antimycobacterial immune responses in HIV-infected children receiving HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Beate; Tena-Coki, Gwen N; Nicol, Mark P; Levin, Michael; Eley, Brian

    2006-04-24

    Recent epidemiological studies in adults suggest that HAART can prevent the development of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood and no data exist in children. We investigated whether changes in mycobacterial-specific immune responses can be demonstrated in children after commencing antiretroviral therapy. We measured mycobacterial growth in vitro using a novel whole-blood assay employing reporter-gene tagged bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in a prospective cohort study in the tuberculosis-endemic environment of South Africa. Key cytokines were measured in supernatants collected from the whole-blood assay using cytometric bead array. A cohort of 15 BCG-vaccinated HIV-infected children was evaluated prospectively for in-vitro antimycobacterial immune responses before and during the first year of HAART. All children had advanced HIV disease. Nine children completed all study timepoints. Before HAART, blood from children showed limited ability to restrict the growth of mycobacteria in the functional whole-blood assay. The introduction of HAART was followed by rapid and sustained reconstitution of specific antimycobacterial immune responses, measured as the decreased growth of mycobacteria. IFN-gamma levels in culture supernatants did not reflect this response; however, a decline in TNF-alpha was observed. This is the first study using a functional in-vitro assay to assess the effect of HAART on immune responses to mycobacteria in HIV-infected children. Our in-vitro data mirror the in-vivo observation of decreased susceptibility to tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral agents. This model may be useful for further characterizing immune reconstitution after HAART.

  19. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  20. [Evaluation of bone mineral density using digital image processing in children receiving anticonvulsants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiko; Ueda, Satoru; Umezu, Ryouji; Matsuoka, Hisafumi; Sugihara, Shigetaka

    2007-09-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) increases rapidly in a biphasic manner in childhood. During and after adolescence, BMD correlates more closely with bone age than chronological age. Digital image processing (DIP) allows the rapid assessment of BMD and bone age on one X-ray film. Herein, using DIP methods, the effects of various anticonvulsants on chronological and bone age were evaluated in 98 epilepsy patients (age range, 3-15 years) with no intellectual or motor disorders or diseases affecting bone metabolism. All patients were taking one or a combination of the following anticonvulsants: valproate sodium (VPA); carbamazepine (CBZ); and phenobarbital (PB). Bone maturation scores for radius-ulnar-short bones (RUS) were calculated using Tanner-Whitehouse 2 methods. Bone age was determined based on standard Japanese bone-maturation scores. In each patient, Z-scores for chronological and bone ages were calculated by subtracting standard BMD for gender and age from each BMD, then dividing the result by the standard deviation. The Z-score for each drug in relation to the administration period was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. For chronological age, significant differences in BMD were observed regarding the administration periods in children taking multiple drugs, but not in children on VPA, CBZ, or PB monotherapy. For bone age, no significant differences in BMD were observed regarding the administration periods for all drugs. Children taking multiple drugs showed a significant negative correlation between administration period and Z-scores for BMD calculated based on chronological age (Spearman rank correlation: - 0.457, p = 0.008), but not bone age. Among children receiving long-term VPA administration, bone age was delayed approximately 1 year, and bone maturation may have been delayed. No delay in bone age was noted among children receiving long-term administration of multiple drugs, suggesting that these anticonvulsants do not influence bone maturity. These

  1. Low blood and plasma carnitine levels in children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, K A; Ament, M E; Moukarzel, A; Vinton, N E; Cederblad, G

    1990-10-01

    Total and free carnitine and acylcarnitine concentrations were analyzed in whole blood and plasma in 12 children with a mean age of 68.4 +/- 42.9 months who had received carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for an average of 4 years. The purpose of the study was to see if the children had become carnitine deficient and, if so, whether this correlated with poor lipid clearance. Compared to controls, the TPN-dependent children had significantly decreased concentrations of total and free carnitine in blood (26.6 +/- 9.4 (SD) mumols/L vs. 43.3 +/- 9.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and 17.1 +/- 7.7 mumols/L vs. 35.2 +/- 8.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). Similar results were found in plasma (total carnitine of 19.0 +/- 8.0 mumols/L vs. 41.9 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and free carnitine of 15.7 +/- 7.3 mumols/L vs. 36.1 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). The acylcarnitine concentration in plasma was decreased in the TPN children (3.3 +/- 1.5 mumols/L vs. 5.8 +/- 3.0 mumols/L, p less than 0.01) compared to controls. Despite the low carnitine concentrations, serum triglyceride levels and serum free fatty acid levels were within the normal range. There was no correlation between carnitine concentrations in plasma and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Our data show that children receiving carnitine-free TPN for many years developed markedly decreased concentrations of carnitine in blood and plasma. However, no adverse effects of the low carnitine levels were found on triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism under stable conditions.

  2. Formocresol blood levels in children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jeffrey; Easton, Jillian; Johnson, Gillian; Zuk, Jeannie; Wilson, Stephen; Galinkin, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of formocresol in the plasma of children undergoing oral rehabilitation involving pulp therapy under general anesthesia. Thirty 2- to 6-year-old preschool children were enrolled in the study. Preoperative, intra-operative, and postoperative peripheral venous samples were collected from each child. All samples were analyzed for formaldehyde and cresol levels using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Eighty-five pulpotomies were performed ranging from 1 to 5 per child. Three hundred twelve blood samples were collected. Analysis revealed that formaldehyde was undetectable above baseline plasma concentration and cresol was undetectable in all samples. Benzyl alcohol (a byproduct of cresol metabolism) was present in all samples except the baseline preoperative samples. Benzyl alcohol concentrations ranged from 0 to 1 mg/ml. Formaldehyde was undetectable above baseline plasma concentration, and cresol was undetectable in subjects receiving pulpotomy treatment under general anesthesia. Benzyl alcohol was detected in the plasma of all subjects receiving pulpotomy treatment. The levels present were far below the Food and Drug Administration's recommended daily allowance. It is unlikely that formocresol, when used in the doses typically employed for a vital pulpotomy procedure, poses any risk to children.

  3. Impaired Phenotype and Function of T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1-Infected Children Receiving ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Yonas; Amu, Sylvie; Bobosha, Kidist; Lantto, Rebecka; Nilsson, Anna; Endale, Birtukan; Gebre, Meseret; Aseffa, Abraham; Rethi, Bence; Howe, Rawleigh; Chiodi, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important components in development of specific humoral immune responses; whether the number and biology of Tfh cells is impaired in HIV-1-infected children is not yet studied.The frequency, phenotype, and function of Tfh cells and B cells were determined in blood of HIV-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and age-matched controls. Flow cytometry was used to characterize the frequency of Tfh cells and B cell subsets. Cytokine expression was measured after in vitro activation of Tfh cells.A reduced frequency of memory Tfh cells (P < 0.001) was identified in HIV-1-infected children and, on these cells, a reduced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). Upon activation, the capacity of Tfh cells to express IL-4, an important cytokine for B cell function, was impaired in HIV-1-infected children.B cell subpopulations in HIV-1-infected children displayed significant differences from the control group: the frequency of resting memory (RM) B cells was reduced (P < 0.01) whereas the frequency of exhausted memory B cells increased (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the decline of RM cells correlated with the reduction of memory Tfh cells (P = 0.02).Our study shows that function and phenotype of Tfh cells, pivotal cells for establishment of adaptive B cell responses, are impaired during HIV-1 infection in children. A consistent reduction of memory Tfh cells is associated with declined frequencies of RM B cells, creating a novel link between dysfunctional features of these cell types, major players in establishment of humoral immunity.

  4. Educational clowning – a serious development in the educational work with children receiving inpatient hospital treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wertgen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and youth, receiving inpatient hospital treatment, are living under exceptional physical, psychological, and social circumstances. The engagement of clinic clowns has recently been established as an educational outreach program in many hospitals. Clinic clowns are responsive to the special educational needs of young patients and, according to experience, are able to lastingly influence their state of health in a positive way. Based on an anecdote of a visit from a clinic clown, a description of the professional role of a clown, respectively a clinic clown, the effects and the beneficial results of clowns’ work are explained. The article ends with a discussion on how and to what extent educational clowning can be considered as a new discipline in the extracurricular educational work with sick children.

  5. Guatemalan caregivers' perceptions of receiving and using wheelchairs donated for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumac, Lorraine K; Pennington, Sandra L; Sweeney, Jane K; Leavitt, Ronnie L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences, perceptions, and needs of caregivers receiving wheelchairs donated for nonambulatory children in a less-resourced country. A phenomenological research design was used with purposeful sampling of 14 participants living in urban and rural areas of Guatemala. Data were collected primarily by interviews and supplemented with observations in natural settings, photographs, and record reviews. Eight themes emerged uncovering the meaning and essence of caregivers' experiences: value of the wheelchair, relief for caregivers, enhancement of child participation, wheelchair as a form of "therapy," improvement of learning opportunities, challenges to inadequate disability awareness, impact of contextual barriers, and need for community-based supports. Caregivers in this sample perceived donated wheelchairs as beneficial to themselves and to their children. Support was found for the need to provide wheelchairs in collaboration with local services to support wheelchair use.

  6. Cortical thickness in children receiving intensive therapy for idiopathic apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadis, Darren S; Goshulak, Debra; Namasivayam, Aravind; Pukonen, Margit; Kroll, Robert; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W; Lerch, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Children with idiopathic apraxia experience difficulties planning the movements necessary for intelligible speech. There is increasing evidence that targeted early interventions, such as Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT), can be effective in treating these disorders. In this study, we investigate possible cortical thickness correlates of idiopathic apraxia of speech in childhood, and changes associated with participation in an 8-week block of PROMPT therapy. We found that children with idiopathic apraxia (n = 11), aged 3-6 years, had significantly thicker left supramarginal gyri than a group of typically-developing age-matched controls (n = 11), t(20) = 2.84, p ≤ 0.05. Over the course of therapy, the children with apraxia (n = 9) experienced significant thinning of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (canonical Wernicke's area), t(8) = 2.42, p ≤ 0.05. This is the first study to demonstrate experience-dependent structural plasticity in children receiving therapy for speech sound disorders.

  7. An All-Solid-State, Room-Temperature, Heterodyne Receiver for Atmospheric Spectroscopy at 1.2 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Jose V.; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Gulkis, Samuel; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Lin, Robert H.; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Thomas, Bertrand; Maestrini, Alain E.

    2013-01-01

    Heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths have played a major role in astrophysics as well as Earth and planetary remote sensing. All-solid-state heterodyne receivers using both MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) Schottky-diode-based LO (local oscillator) sources and mixers are uniquely suited for long-term planetary missions or Earth climate monitoring missions as they can operate for decades without the need for any active cryogenic cooling. However, the main concern in using Schottky-diode-based mixers at frequencies beyond 1 THz has been the lack of enough LO power to drive the devices because 1 to 3 mW are required to properly pump Schottky diode mixers. Recent progress in HEMT- (high-electron-mobility- transistor) based power amplifier technology, with output power levels in excess of 1 W recently demonstrated at W-band, as well as advances in MMIC Schottky diode circuit technology, have led to measured output powers up to 1.4 mW at 0.9 THz. Here the first room-temperature tunable, all-planar, Schottky-diode-based receiver is reported that is operating at 1.2 THz over a wide (˜20%) bandwidth. The receiver front-end (see figure) consists of a Schottky-diode-based 540 to 640 GHz multiplied LO chain (featuring a cascade of W-band power amplifiers providing around 120 to 180 mW at W-band), a 200-GHz MMIC frequency doubler, and a 600-GHz MMIC frequency tripler, plus a biasable 1.2-THz MMIC sub-harmonic Schottky-diode mixer. The LO chain has been designed, fabricated, and tested at JPL and provides around 1 to 1.5 mW at 540 o 640 GHz. The sub-harmonic mixer consists of two Schottky diodes on a thin GaAs membrane in an anti-parallel configuration. An integrated metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor has been included on-chip to allow dc bias for the Schottky diodes. A bias voltage of around 0.5 V/diode is necessary to reduce the LO power required down to the 1 to 1.5 mW available from the LO chain. The epilayer thickness and doping profiles have

  8. Solid organ transplants following hematopoietic stem cell transplant in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Nancy; Guzikowski, Virginia; Rand, Elizabeth R; Goldfarb, Samuel; Baluarte, Jorge; Meyers, Kevin; Olthoff, Kim M

    2010-12-01

    SOT may be indicated for a select group of pediatric patients who experience permanent organ failure following HSCT. However, there is limited information available about outcomes. We identified eight children at our center who received an SOT following an HSCT. Patients were six months to 18 yr at HSCT. Diseases for which children underwent HSCT included thalassemia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Shwachman-Diamond/bone marrow failure, sickle cell disease (SCD), erythropoietic porphyria (EP), ALL, chronic granulomatous disease, and neuroblastoma. Time from HSCT to SOT was 13 days to seven yr (median, 27 months. Lung SOT was performed for two patients with BO, kidney transplants for three patients, and liver transplants for three patients (VOD, chronic GVHD). Seven patients are alive with functioning allografts 6-180 months from SOT. Advances in organ procurement, operative technique, immunosuppressant therapy, and infection control may allow SOT for a select group of patients post-HSCT. However, scarcity of donor organs available in a timely fashion continues to be a limiting factor. Children who have undergone HSCT and develop single organ failure should be considered for an SOT if there is a high likelihood of cure of the primary disease.

  9. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, S; Chamley, C

    2013-04-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. This article covers basic oral hygiene and management of oral health problems: oral candidiasis, coated tongue/dirty mouth, dry mouth, hypersalivation, ulceration, painful mouth, stomatitis and mucositis. The article also covers treating patients who are immunocompromised and the need to educate families and carers in the basic principles of oral care, including the importance of preventing cross-infection. Part one outlined oral assessment and discussed the adaptation of the Nottingham Oral Health Assessment Tool (Freer 2000).

  10. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  11. Sufentanil reduces emergence agitation in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for adenotonsillectomy compared with fentanyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; HUANG Zhi-lian; ZHANG Xu-tong; LUO Ke; ZHANG Zhan-qin; MAO Yi; ZHUANG Xiao-biao; LIAN Qing-quan; CAO Hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Emergence agitation is a common problem in pediatric anesthesia,especially after sevoflurane induction and maintenance anesthesia.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sufentanil to reduce emergence agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy compared with fentanyl.Methods One hundred and five children,aged 3-11 years,were randomly allocated to receive normal saline (control group),sufentanil 0.2 μg/kg (S2) or fentanyl 2 μg/kg (F2) 1 minute after loss of the eyelash reflex.Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane.Time to tracheal extubation,recovery time,Paediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale,and emergence behavior were assessed.Results The incidence of severe agitation was significantly lower in S2 and F2 groups vs.the control group,4/32 and 15/34 vs.24/34 respectively,(P=0.002,0.009,respectively).PAED scales were significantly different among three groups (P=0.007),and lower in the S2 and F2 groups than in the control group (P=0.007 and P=0.025,respectively).And the incidence of severe agitation and the PAED scale score was significantly different between the S2 and F2 groups (P=0.007,P=0.019,respectively).Time to tracheal extubation and recovery time were similar in all three groups.Conclusions Administration of sufentanil at 0.2 μg/kg after induction of anesthesia reduced emergence agitation in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for adenotonsillectomy compared with fentanyl.This was without delaying the recovery time or causing significant hypotension.

  12. [Motor problems in children with ADHD receive too little attention in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, Ellen A; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not only display hyperactive motor behaviour, but half of them are also clumsy when executing motor skills. Alongside displaying hyperactivity and poor concentration skills, they have difficulty with writing, tying shoelaces, eating properly using fork and knife, and playing games and sports. This is known as dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Poor performance in sports and games is, just as ADHD, an important negative predictor of a child's popularity within the peer group. Children with a combination of ADHD and poor motor performance are doubly disadvantaged. A dopamine-induced imbalance in the neuronal circuits of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum is a possible cause of ADHD-DCD. On the basis of family and twin studies, there are also indications that ADHD and DCD have a common genetic background. In daily practice, DCD receives too little attention during diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Screening for motor problems in children with ADHD, followed by referral to a physiotherapist or occupational therapist if necessary, is useful, because treatment with cognitive-oriented and task-oriented physiotherapy can help.

  13. Solid Fuel in Kitchen and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Among Under Five Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison......This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short....... About 84.6 % of the families used solid fuel as a primary fuel. Approximately 4.5 % children had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks before the survey. About 3.4 and 4.9 % of children from the families using cleaner fuel and solid fuel respectively had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks preceding survey. After...

  14. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  15. Percentage of Children Aged 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability, United States, 2007--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability,* by Race/Ethnicity † and Family Income Group § --- National ... professional ever told you that [child] had a learning disability?" † White and black children are non-Hispanic children ...

  16. Scores on the eysenck personality questionnaire for a sample of children and adolescents receiving psychological treatment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrata, Jose Luis; Rosa, Abraham; Mendez, Viviana

    2003-08-01

    Personality questionnaire scores obtained by children and adolescents (n = 28) receiving psychological treatment at a health facility in Humacao, Puerto Rico were examined. The scores were compared with those of regular school children of the same age, of Gurabo, Puerto Rico, who were not in treatment (n = 30). The children in treatment obtained higher scores on Psychoticism, lower scores on Extraversion, and similar scores on Neuroticism and Dissimulation by comparison with regular students.

  17. Recommendations for the clinical management of children with refractory epilepsy receiving the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, María J; Agustinho, Ariela; Argumedo, Laura; Armeno, Marisa; Blanco, Virginia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Cabrera, Analía; Caraballo, Roberto; Caramuta, Luciana; Cresta, Araceli; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; De Martini, Martha G; Diez, Cecilia; Dlugoszewski, Corina; Escobal, Nidia; Ferrero, Hilario; Galicchio, Santiago; Gambarini, Victoria; Gamboni, Beatriz; Guisande, Silvina; Hassan, Amal; Matarrese, Pablo; Mestre, Graciela; Pesce, Laura; Ríos, Viviana; Sosa, Patricia; Vaccarezza, María; Viollaz, Rocío; Panico, Luis

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet, a non-drug treatment with proven effectiveness, has been the most commonly used therapy in the past decade for the management of refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population. Compared to adding a new drug to a pre-existing treatment, the ketogenic diet is highly effective and reduces the number of seizures by 50-90% in approximately 45-60% of children after six months of treatment. For this reason, the Argentine Society of Pediatric Neurology established the Ketogenic Diet Working Group. It is integrated by pediatric dietitians, pediatricians, pediatric neurologists and B.S. in Nutrition, who developed recommendations for the optimal management of patients receiving the classical ketogenic diet based on expert consensus and scientific publications in this field.

  18. Carnitine status of children receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition: a longitudinal prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukarzel, A A; Dahlstrom, K A; Buchman, A L; Ament, M E

    1992-05-01

    Nine children receiving carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition for 7.2 +/- 2.6 years since birth were prospectively studied for 3 years. Plasma values of total and free carnitine were 50% lower than those of age-matched healthy control subjects (p less than 0.02) but did not decrease further during the 3-year period. No significant abnormalities in free fatty acids, triglycerides, or cholesterol were found. The mean levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and of alkaline phosphatase were slightly increased (p less than 0.02) at the initiation of the study but remained in the same range 3 years later. The low plasma carnitine values appeared to be without clinical consequence after 10 years of carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition.

  19. Shortcomings of adherence counselling provided to caregivers of children receiving antiretroviral therapy in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Bronwyne; Kagee, Ashraf; Bland, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    In order to achieve optimal benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), caregivers of children receiving ART are required to attend routine clinic visits monthly and administer medication to the child as prescribed. Yet, the level of adherence to these behaviours varies considerably in many settings. As a way to achieve optimal adherence in rural KwaZulu-Natal, caregivers are required to attend routine counselling sessions at HIV treatment clinics that are centred on imparting information, motivation, and behavioural skills related to medication administration. According to the information-motivation-behavioural skills model, information related to adherence, motivation, and behavioural skills are necessary and fundamental determinants of adherence to ART. The purpose of the study was to observe and document the content of adherence counselling sessions that caregivers attending rural clinics in KwaZulu Natal receive. We observed 25 adherence counselling sessions, which lasted on average 8.1 minutes. Counselling typically consisted of counsellors recording patient attendance, reporting CD4 count and viral load results to caregivers, emphasising dose times, and asking caregivers to name their medications and dosage amounts. Patients were seldom asked to demonstrate how they measure the medication. They were also not probed for problems regarding treatment, even when an unsuppressed VL was reported to a caregiver. This paper calls attention to the sub-optimal level of counselling provided to patients on ART and the urgent need to standardise and improve the training, support, and debriefing provided to counsellors.

  20. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  1. Assessment of water quality of Sembilang River receiving effluent from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Ibrahim, T. N. B.; Othman, F.; Mahmood, N. Z.

    2017-06-01

    Most of the landfills in Malaysia are situated near to the main river basin that supplies almost 90% of water requirement. This includes landfills in Selangor where a total of 20 landfill sites are situated in 5 main river basins and the highest number of operating landfills (three) are at the Selangor River Basin (Jeram, Bukit Tagar and Kuang Inert landfills). This situation has caused wide concern over the water safety, even the leachate has been treated. The leachate itself still contains contaminants that are difficult to treat. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect on water quality of Sembilang River that receives effluent from the nearby landfill. In this study, we analyzed samples of water from ten sampling stations starting from the upstream to downstream of Sembilang River. The water quality was evaluated by the Water Quality Index (WQI) depending on in-situ and laboratory analysis. 11 water quality variables are selected for the quality assessment; temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphate and nitrate. The result indicated that, when the effluent mixed with the river water, the water quality decreased gradually and was found to be lower at a few stations. The water quality of Sembilang River falls under Class III of Water Quality Index with ranges between 68.03 to 43.46 mg/L. It is revealed that the present scenario of water quality of Sembilang River is due to the effect of effluent from the landfill.

  2. Looking Outside: Summer Camp for Children Who Have Undergone a Solid-Organ Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilhartz, Jacob L; Drayton, Amy K; Shieck, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    A high-quality critical care team is an essential component of any successful organ transplant program. From pretransplant care to the crucial postoperative period, its importance cannot be discounted. However, because of the focused nature of work in an intensive care unit (ICU), all too often members of the ICU team are not able to see and appreciate the ultimate fruits of their labor. These are factors that can contribute to the high rates of burnout and turnover among ICU teams. This article presents the concept of a summer camp for children who have received a solid-organ transplant. We discuss a vehicle by which ICU staff as well as other members of a patient's care team can gain a better appreciation of the full nature of both medical and, perhaps more importantly in this situation, nonmedical goals and outcomes in pediatric transplantation. We review our institutional experience running a summer camp for these children, discuss some of the important points in making such a camp successful, and discuss potential benefits to the campers as well as those taking care of them.

  3. Time Spent Caregiving and Help Received by Spouses and Adult Children of Brain-Impaired Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 233 family caregivers for brain-impaired adults. Spousal caregivers (both husbands and wives) devoted much time to caregiving. Most caregivers received little assistance from other family members and friends, but husbands received more than others. Employed spouses received more paid help than unemployed spouses; employment did not affect…

  4. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  5. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  6. Factors Associated With Chronic Hepatitis in Patients With Hepatitis E Virus Infection Who Have Received Solid Organ Transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamar, Nassim; Garrouste, Cyril; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Garrigue, Valerie; Pischke, Sven; Chauvet, Cecile; Dumortier, Jerome; Cannesson, Amelie; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Thervet, Eric; Conti, Filomena; Lebray, Pascal; Dalton, Harry R.; Santella, Robert; Kanaan, Nada; Essig, Marie; Mousson, Christiane; Radenne, Sylvie; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Izopet, Jacques; Rostaing, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause chronic hepatitis in recipients of solid organ transplants. However, the factors that contribute to chronic infection and the outcomes of these patients are incompletely understood. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 17 c

  7. Factors Associated With Chronic Hepatitis in Patients With Hepatitis E Virus Infection Who Have Received Solid Organ Transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamar, Nassim; Garrouste, Cyril; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Garrigue, Valerie; Pischke, Sven; Chauvet, Cecile; Dumortier, Jerome; Cannesson, Amelie; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Thervet, Eric; Conti, Filomena; Lebray, Pascal; Dalton, Harry R.; Santella, Robert; Kanaan, Nada; Essig, Marie; Mousson, Christiane; Radenne, Sylvie; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Izopet, Jacques; Rostaing, Lionel

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause chronic hepatitis in recipients of solid organ transplants. However, the factors that contribute to chronic infection and the outcomes of these patients are incompletely understood. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 17

  8. Asking, Giving, Receiving: Friendship as Survival Strategy among Accra's Street Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizen, Phillip; Ofosu-Kusi, Yaw

    2010-01-01

    This article considers friendship among street children in Accra. Drawing upon the findings of a three-year qualitative research project, the article argues that friendship is a neglected element of research yet cooperation, mutuality and exchange between friends are essential to street children's survival. Living within the extremities of the…

  9. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  10. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  11. Enhanced cis-platinum ototoxicity in children with brain tumours who have received simultaneous or prior cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A.; Pillow, J.; Waters, K.D.; Keir, E.

    1989-01-01

    We report on four children who received cis-platinum simultaneously with, or in one case 10 months after, cranial irradiation and experienced exaggerated ototoxicity affecting all audible frequencies. The hearing loss was severe, affecting the critical areas for speech perception, and necessitated the provision of bilateral hearing aids. The audiograms of these patients are shown and compared to those of four children who had received cis-platinum as part of their treatment for neuroblastoma but without cranial irradiation. The precipitation of the exaggerated hearing loss with the administration of cis-platinum in one patient 10 months after finishing cranial irradiation suggests that care should be taken in the timing of cis-platinum administration in relation to concurrent or previous cranial irradiation.

  12. Migration background is associated with caries in Viennese school children, even if parents have received a higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvikl, Barbara; Haubenberger-Praml, Gertraud; Drabo, Petra; Hagmann, Michael; Gruber, Reinhard; Moritz, Andreas; Nell, Andrea

    2014-05-09

    A low level of education and the migration background of parents are associated with the development of caries in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a higher educational level of parents can overcome risks for the development of caries in immigrants in Vienna, Austria. The educational level of the parents, the school type, and the caries status of 736 randomly selected twelve-year-old children with and without migration background was determined in this cross sectional study. In children attending school in Vienna the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was determined. For statistical analysis, a mixed negative-binomial-model was used. The caries status of the children with migration background was significantly worse compared to that of the native Viennese population. A significant interaction was found between migration background and the educational level of the parents (p = 0.045). No interaction was found between the school type and either the migration background (p = 0.220) or the education level of the parents (p = 0.08). In parents with a higher scholarly education level, migration background (p parents with a low education level, however, migration background and school type had no significant association with DMFT values. These data indicate that children with a migration background are at higher risk to acquire caries than other Viennese children, even when the parents have received a higher education.

  13. Eliciting adaptive emotion in conversations with parents of children receiving therapy for leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Pillon, Marta; Schiavo, Simone; Carli, Modesto

    2011-01-01

    Clinician-parent communication may often be difficult, especially soon after the diagnosis. The aims of this article are to identify the communication strategies associated with expressions of adaptive emotions in parents and to explore the effect of the type of leukemia and of parent's gender on parents' expressions of emotions. The data are obtained from 4.622 conversational turns of 20 videotaped interviews with 10 mothers and 10 fathers of children at their first hospitalization for leukemia. A coding scheme for parent emotional expressions was reliably applied by two independent judges. An original self-report questionnaire on parents' emotional states was used before and after the interview. Positive politeness of interviewer elicits adaptive emotional expressions in parents. Mothers of children with acute myeloid leukemia and fathers of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia appear more distressed during the interview. This interview can be identified as an innovative technique of communication with parents of children with cancer.

  14. Nurses' uniform color and feelings/emotions in school-aged children receiving health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Burke, Jane; Bena, James F; Morrison, Shannon M; Forney, Jennifer; Krajewski, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Children may fear nurses wearing white uniforms. When emotions and uniform color were studied in 233 children, many positive emotions were most often associated with blue, bold pink-patterned, or yellow-patterned tops (all p ≤ .002). Negative emotions were not associated with uniform top colors (all p color does not matter," 8 negative emotions were most often associated with white uniform color (p emotions were associated with nurse uniform color.

  15. Transient focal liver scan defects in children receiving chemotherapy (pseudometastases): work in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, S.J.; Barash, F.S.; Seldin, D.W.; Berdon, W.E.

    1984-03-01

    Three pediatric patients with tumors (two rhabdomyosarcoma, one Wilms tumor) had significant focal defects on Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans while receiving chemotherapy (all three had received chemotherapy, including actinomycin D, within ten days prior to scanning). In all three, the defects resolved spontaneously; one biopsy showed fibrosis of a mild degree. The finding of defects on liver scans of pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy must not be automatically assumed to be metastatic disease; the changes may relate to hepatic response to recently administered chemotherapy.

  16. Comparison of Environmental Attitudes and Experiences of Five-Year-Old Children Receiving Preschool Education in the Village and City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Nazmi; Güngör, Hande; Fetihi, Leyla; Erol, Ahmet; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare environmental attitudes and experiences of five-year-old children receiving preschool education in the village and city centre. The first group comprised 54 five-year-old children who received preschool education and attended kindergartens of two primary schools in the Karateke and Kocabas villages of Honaz…

  17. Incidence and survival analyses in children with solid tumours diagnosed in Sweden between 1983 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Gustaf; Jakobson, Ake; Behrendtz, Mikael; Ek, Torben; Friberg, Lars-Göran; Hjalmars, Ulf; Hjorth, Lars; Lindh, Jack; Pal, Niklas; Sandstedt, Bengt; Österlundh, Gustaf; Gustafsson, Göran

    2011-05-01

    Solid tumours constitute 40% of childhood malignancies. The Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry is population based and includes all children with cancer reported from the six paediatric oncology centres in Sweden. The aim was to investigate incidence and survival. We used the new WHO ICCC-3 for reclassification of the patients. Incidence and survival analyses were performed in the study population. Two thousand four hundred and eighty-seven children (<15 years) were diagnosed with solid tumours in Sweden between 1983 and 2007. The distribution of diagnoses was similar to that reported in other studies. The annual incidence was 65.3 per million children. The survival rates at 10 years of follow-up have improved significantly when comparing the two time periods, 1983-1995 and 1995-2007 (76 vs. 82%; p < 0.01). The mean annual incidence of solid tumours in children was 65.3/million and has been stable during the study period. Survival rates for solid tumours at 5, 10 and 20 years follow-up were 80, 79 and 76%, respectively. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Irinotecan in Treating Children With Refractory Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Children's schemes for anticipating the validity of nets for solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken

    2017-06-01

    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were interviewed on two occasions about their anticipation of whether or not given nets for the cube- and square-based pyramid would fold to form the target solid. Vergnaud's (Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 167-181, 1998, Human Development, 52, 83-94, 2009) four characteristics of schemes were used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data. Successful schemes depended on the interaction of operational invariants, such as strategic choice of the base, rules for action, particularly rotation of shapes, and anticipations of composites of polygons in the net forming arrangements of faces in the solid. Inferences were rare. These data suggest that students need teacher support to make inferences, in order to create transferable schemes.

  20. Children's schemes for anticipating the validity of nets for solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken

    2017-09-01

    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were interviewed on two occasions about their anticipation of whether or not given nets for the cube- and square-based pyramid would fold to form the target solid. Vergnaud's ( Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 167-181, 1998, Human Development, 52, 83-94, 2009) four characteristics of schemes were used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data. Successful schemes depended on the interaction of operational invariants, such as strategic choice of the base, rules for action, particularly rotation of shapes, and anticipations of composites of polygons in the net forming arrangements of faces in the solid. Inferences were rare. These data suggest that students need teacher support to make inferences, in order to create transferable schemes.

  1. Attrition and Mortality of Children Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment through the Universal Coverage Health Program in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeraananchai, Sirinya; Kerr, Stephen J; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Chaivooth, Suchada; Law, Matthew G; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2017-09-01

    To assess mortality and loss to follow-up of children with HIV infection who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the Universal Coverage Health Program (UC) in Thailand. Children with HIV infection who initiated ART at age Thailand were included in the study. Median age at ART initiation was 9 years (IQR, 6-12 years), and the median duration of tracking was 4.1 years (a total of 18 817 person-years). Three hundred and ninety-five children (9%) died, for a mortality rate of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.9-2.3) per 100 person-years, and 525 children (11%) were lost to follow-up, for a lost to follow-up rate of 2.9 (95% CI, 2.7-3.2) per 100 person-years. The cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up increased from 4% at 1 year to 8.8% at 3 years. Children who started ART at age ≥12 years were at the greatest risk of loss to follow-up. The probability of death was 3.2% at 6 months and 6.4% at 3 years. Age ≥12 years at ART initiation, lower baseline CD4%, advanced HIV staging, and loss to follow-up were associated with mortality. The Thai national HIV treatment program has been very effective in treating children with HIV infection, with low mortality and modest rates of loss to follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Rivas, Wyatt H

    2004-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, may involve autoimmune pathogenesis. Since mercury is potentially a risk factor for autoimmunity, we conducted a study of mercury-induced antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by different immunoassays showed that the serum level of these two autoimmune markers did not significantly differ between autistic and normal children. This finding suggests that the mercury as in thimerosal-containing vaccines is likely not related to autoimmune phenomenon in autism.

  3. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

    2007-01-01

    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  4. Perceptions and Needs of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Parents of Children Receiving Learning Disabilities Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Burgo, Nydia I.; Reyes-Wasson, Pamela; Brusca-Vega, Rita

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 50 Hispanic and non-Hispanic parents of children with learning disabilities examined treatment of the two groups of parents in the special education process, parents' involvement in the process, and how parental treatment compared to the mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA). Strategies are suggested to maximize…

  5. Perceptions and Needs of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Parents of Children Receiving Learning Disabilities Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Burgo, Nydia I.; Reyes-Wasson, Pamela; Brusca-Vega, Rita

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 50 Hispanic and non-Hispanic parents of children with learning disabilities examined treatment of the two groups of parents in the special education process, parents' involvement in the process, and how parental treatment compared to the mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA). Strategies are suggested to maximize…

  6. Children with FASD- Related Disabilities Receiving Services from Child Welfare Agencies in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Don; Burnside, Linda; Marchenski, Sheila; Mudry, Andria

    2010-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious social and health problem for the child welfare, health and education systems in North America and other parts of the world. This article describes the population of children in care of the child welfare system in Manitoba. Also this article will highlight the relevance of these research findings…

  7. Services Received and Parental Perception of Quality of Life for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Judith Marie

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase in the rate of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), there has been a surge in treatment interventions and outcome measures. Treatment interventions consist of evidence-based practices and programs that lack scientific validation. Parents' selection of a treatment or multiple treatments is often based on…

  8. Impact on parents of receiving individualized feedback of psychological testing conducted with children as part of a research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kelly; Fernandez, Conrad V; Chambers, Christine T; Bandstra, Nancy F; Parker, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    While many researchers accept the principle that participants have a right to receive information learned from their participation in research, there are few studies examining the impact of receiving results on participants. This study was developed to examine the impact on parents of the receipt of individual results of research-based psychological testing of their children. A summary of the child's individual results of standardized measures of language and development was sent by mail with the questionnaire designed to assess the impact of receiving results. Response rate from the mailed questionnaire was 55.6% (n=74/133). Most parents reported the results as helpful and positive. The majority would receive results again. Overall, the sharing of individualized feedback from psychological testing conducted as part of a research study was well accepted by parents. This practice appears ethically permissible with appropriate support options for addressing participant concerns upon receiving the results as well options for clinical follow-up for the child.

  9. Parental beliefs and practices regarding early introduction of solid foods to their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Michael; Dudas, Robert; Krugman, Scott

    2004-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional survey of primary female caregivers during their child's 4-month well-child visit. Our objectives were to document current caregiver awareness of infant feeding guidelines, and calculate the frequency of and reasons for early introduction of solid foods. Questionnaires were completed for 102 children. Forty-five respondents (44%) introduced solids at less than 4 months of age. Hispanic caregivers, OR 0.2 (0.07-0.9), and those who breastfed (partial or exclusive), OR 0.4 (0.2-0.9), were less likely to introduce cereal at less than 4 months of age. Among caregivers who introduced solids at less than 4 months, 36 (80%) stated that the child was not satisfied with formula or breast milk alone and 24 (53%) stated that solids helped the child sleep better at night. Thirty-four caregivers (76%) who started solids at less than 4 months were aware of guidelines regarding proper infant feeding practices. Despite knowledge of infant feeding guidelines, female caregivers frequently introduce solids at less than 4 months of age. Early targeted anticipatory guidance is needed to address the most common reasons caregivers begin solid foods before the recommended age.

  10. Risk of infection among patients with non-metastatic solid tumors or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and antimicrobial prophylaxis in US clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weycker, Derek; Chandler, David; Barron, Rich; Xu, Hairong; Wu, Hongsheng; Edelsberg, John; Lyman, Gary H

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines generally do not recommend oral antimicrobials for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-related infections in patients with solid tumors. Evidence on antimicrobial prophylaxis use, and associated chemotherapy-related infection risk, in US clinical practice is limited. Methods A retrospective cohort design and data from two US private healthcare claims repositories (2008-2011) were employed. Study population included adults who received myelosuppressive chemotherapy for non-metastatic cancer of the breast, colon/rectum, or lung, or for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For each subject, the first chemotherapy course was characterized, and within the first course, each chemotherapy cycle and chemotherapy-related infection episode was identified. Use of prophylaxis with oral antimicrobials and colony-stimulating factors in each cycle also was identified. Results A total of 7116 (22% of all) non-metastatic breast cancer, 1833 (15%) non-metastatic colorectal cancer, 1999 (15%) non-metastatic lung cancer, and 1949 (21%) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients received antimicrobial prophylaxis in ≥1 cycle. Mean number of antimicrobial prophylaxis cycles during the course among these patients was typically <2, with little difference across cancers and chemotherapy regimens. Fluoroquinolones were the most commonly received class of antimicrobials, accounting for 20%-50% all antimicrobials administered. Among subjects who received first-cycle antimicrobial prophylaxis, chemotherapy-related infection risk in that cycle ranged from 3% to 6% across cancer types. Among patients who received first-cycle antimicrobial prophylaxis and developed chemotherapy-related infections, 38%-67% required inpatient care. Chemotherapy-related infection risk in subsequent cycles with antimicrobial prophylaxis was comparable. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that use of antimicrobial prophylaxis during myelosuppressive chemotherapy is far from uncommon in clinical practice. The

  11. a 530-590 GHZ Schottky Heterodyne Receiver for High-Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy with Lille's Fast-Scan Fully Solid-State DDS Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkina, A.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Wiedner, Martina C.; Maestrini, Alain; Defrance, Fabien

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory spectroscopy, especially at THz and mm-wave ranges require the advances in instrumentation techniques to provide high resolution of the recorded spectra with precise frequency measurement that facilitates the mathematical treatment. We report the first implementation of a Schottky heterodyne receiver, operating at room temperature and covering the range between 530 and 590 GHz, for molecular laboratory spectroscopy. A 530-590 GHz non-cryogenic Schottky solid-state receiver was designed at LERMA, Observatoire de Paris and fabricated in partnership with LPN- CNRS (Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures), and was initially developed for ESA Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE), intended to observe Jupiter and its icy moon atmospheres. It is based on a sub-harmonic Schottky diode mixer, designed and fabricated at LERMA-LPN, pumped by a Local Oscillator (LO), consisting of a frequency Amplifier/Multiplier chains (AMCs) from RPG (Radiometer Physics GmBh). The performance of the receiver was demonstrated by absorption spectroscopy of CH_3CH_2CN with Lille's fast-scan DDS spectrometer. A series of test measurements showed the receiver's good sensitivity, stability and frequency accuracy comparable to those of 4K QMC bolometers, thus making room-temperature Schottky receiver a competitive alternative to 4K QMC bolometers to laboratory spectroscopy applications. We will present the first results with such a combination of a compact room temperature Schottky heterodyne receiver and a fast-scan DDS spectrometer. J. Treuttel, L. Gatilova, A. Maestrini et al., 2016, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science and Tech., 6, 148-155. This work was funded by the French ANR under the Contract No. ANR-13-BS05-0008-02 IMOLABS.

  12. Protection against gastroenteritis in US households with children who received rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Margaret M; Dahl, Rebecca Moritz; Curns, Aaron T; Parashar, Umesh D

    2015-02-15

    We used Truven Health Marketscan claims database (2008-2011) to compare gastroenteritis rates during January-June among households whose child had received rotavirus vaccine with those whose child did not receive vaccine. Statistically significantly lower rates of hospitalization with a rotavirus gastroenteritis or unspecified-gastroenteritis discharge code occurred in vaccinated households among persons 20-29 years and females 20-29 years (2008/2009), and males 30-39 years (2009/2010). Lower emergency department gastroenteritis rates occurred in vaccinated households among females 20-29 years (2009/2010) and individuals 5-19 years (2010/2011). These data suggest rotavirus vaccination of infants provides indirect protection against moderate-to-severe rotavirus disease in young parents and older siblings.

  13. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  14. [Dynamics of tooth decay prevalence in children receiving long-term preventive program in school dental facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.

  15. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  16. Approach to optimizing growth, rehabilitation, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children after solid-organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Saeed; Alonso, Estella M

    2010-04-01

    One of the most critical differences between the posttransplant care of children and adults is the requirement in children to maintain a state of health that supports normal physical and psychological growth and development. Most children with organ failure have some degree of growth failure and developmental delay, which is not quickly reversed after successful transplantation. The challenge for clinicians caring for these children is to use strategies that minimize these deficits before transplantation and provide maximal opportunity for recovery of normal developmental processes during posttransplant rehabilitation. The effect of chronic organ failure, frequently complicated by malnutrition, on growth potential and cognitive development is poorly understood. This review presents a summary of what is known regarding risk factors for suboptimal growth and development following solid-organ transplant and describe possible strategies to improve these outcomes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders in children who have received food oral immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría-Zudaire, L Á; Fernández-Fernández, S; Rayo-Fernández, A; Muñóz-Archidona, C; Checa-Rodriguez, R

    Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) involves the administration of the food allergen causing the symptoms, in order to induce tolerance. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (PEGDs) are characterised by an eosinophil-rich inflammation affecting different locations of the digestive tract. We present a series of patients with PEGDs in a group of children following OIT with milk and/or egg. A prospective study during the period 2006-2014 was performed in paediatric patients subjected to OIT with milk and/or egg. When these children present persistent gastrointestinal symptoms, they are referred to the Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit for evaluation. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders were diagnosed in eight of the 128 cases of OIT (6.25%). The time to PEGDs development was variable: two cases showed symptoms during OIT, and the rest with a median time of 29 months (15-48 months). Food treatment discontinuation was not required in four of the five cases of eosinophilic oesophagitis, although food removal was necessary in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We report the highest prevalence of PEGDs in children subjected to OIT, and the first cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis following food OIT. The monitoring of new digestive signs and symptoms after OIT is crucial for the diagnosis of these disorders, and prolonged follow-up is required. The management of such patients and the need or not to eliminate the food should be assessed on an individualised basis, according to the severity of the condition, its evolution and response to different treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Complications in the surgical management of children with malignant solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Andrew M; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel

    2016-12-01

    With improvement in the outcomes for children with cancer has come an increasing focus on minimizing the morbidity from therapeutic interventions, including surgical procedures, while continuing to have a high likelihood of cure. Thus, an appreciation for the potential complications of surgery, both acute and long term, is critical when considering the risks and benefits of any procedure performed on a child with cancer. Although not meant to be an exhaustive review, here we discuss the most common and significant surgical complications that may occur when performing diagnostic, therapeutic, or supportive procedures in children with the most common malignant solid tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid versus solid energy intake in relation to body composition among Australian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M; Allman-Farinelli, M; Heitmann, B L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The debate about whether energy consumed in liquid form is more obesogenic than energy consumed in solid form remains equivocal. We aimed to evaluate the effects of liquid versus solid energy intake and different beverage types on changes in childhood adiposity. METHODS: Our analyses...... included 8-year-old Australian children (n = 158) participating in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study. Dietary information was collected using three 24-h recalls at age 9 years. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of liquid versus solid energy intake and different beverage...... types on changes in body mass index (BMI) Z-score from ages 8 to 11.5 years (△BMIz8-11.5y ) and percentage body fat (%BF) at age 11.5 years (%BF11.5y ). Substitution models were used to evaluate the effects of substituting other beverage types for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). RESULTS: Liquid energy...

  20. Rare severe mycotic infections in children receiving empirical caspofungin treatment for febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEmpirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11-19 days. Trichosporon asahii was detected in the blood culture of two patients and Geotrichum capitatum in the other two (one patient also had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture. Because the patients' clinical situation worsened, voriconazole was empirically added for two patients three and five days before the agent was detected. The first sterile blood culture was obtained 3-7 days of voriconazole treatment. All patients reached clear cultures but one patient died. One patient with central nervous system infection with G. capitatum had severe neurological sequelae. Very severe fungal infections can occur during empirical caspofungin therapy. Therefore, patients should be followed closely.

  1. Impact of varied center volume categories on volume-outcome relationship in children receiving ECMO for heart operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Seib, Paul M; Robertson, Michael J; Wilcox, Andrew; Gupta, Punkaj

    2016-09-01

    To study the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), different studies from different databases use different volume categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate if different center volume categories impact the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving ECMO for heart operations. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from an existing national database, the Pediatric Health Information System. Centers were classified into five different volume categories using different cut-offs and different variables. Mortality rates were compared between the varied volume categories using a mixed effects logistic regression model after adjusting for patient- and center-level risk factors. Data collection included demographic information, baseline characteristics, pre-ECMO risk factors, operation details, patient diagnoses, and center data. In unadjusted analysis, there was a significant relationship between center volume and mortality, with low-and medium-volume centers associated with higher mortality rates compared to high-volume centers in all volume categories, except the hierarchical clustering volume category. In contrast, there was no significant association between center-volume and mortality among all volume categories in adjusted analysis. We concluded that high-volume centers were not associated with improved outcomes for the majority of the categorization schemes despite using different cut-offs and different variables for volume categorization.

  2. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek; Skiba, Elzbieta; Tobolczyk, Jolanta; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2005-12-07

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of potent serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. We determined the serum level of apolipoprotein A-I (APO A-I), haptoglobin (HPT) and a-2 macroglobulin (A2M) with an automatic nephelometer in 63 children (age range 4-17 years, mean 10 years) with biopsy-verified chronic HBeAg-positive hepatitis B. Fibrosis stage and inflammation grade were assessed in a blinded fashion according to Batts and Ludwig. We defined mild liver fibrosis as a score < or =2 and advanced fibrosis as a score equal to 3. ROC analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect advanced liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada). Serum concentrations of APO A-I, HPT and A2M were not significantly different in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared to controls. However, APO A-I level of 1.19 ng/L had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 60.7% (AUC = 0.7117, P = 0.035) to predict advanced fibrosis. All other serum biochemical markers and their combination did not allow a useful prediction. None of these markers was a good predictor of histologic inflammation. Apolipoprotein A-I may be a suitable serum marker to predict advanced liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn; El(z)bieta Skiba; Jolanta Tobolczyk; Maria El(z)bieta Sobaniec-Lotowska; Maciej Kaczmarski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of potent serum biochemical fibrosis markers in children with chronic hepatitis B evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.METHODS: We determined the serum level of apolipoprotein A-I (APO A-I), haptoglobin (HPT) and a-2macroglobulin (A2M) with an automatic nephelometer in 63 children (age range 4-17 years, mean 10 years)with biopsy-verified chronic HBeAg-positive hepatitis B.Fibrosis stage and inflammation grade were assessed in a blinded fashion according to Batts and Ludwig. We defined mild liver fibrosis as a score ≤2 and advanced fibrosis as a score equal to 3. ROC analysis was used to calculate the power of the assays to detect advanced liver fibrosis (AccuROC, Canada).RESULTS: Serum concentrations of APO A-I, HPT and A2M were not significantly different in patients with chronic hepatitis B compared to controls. However, APO A-I level of 1.19 ng/L had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 60.7% (AUC = 0.7117, P = 0.035) to predict advanced fibrosis. All other serum biochemical markers and their combination did not allow a useful prediction.None of these markers was a good predictor of histologic inflammation.CONCLUSION: Apolipoprotein A-I may be a suitable serum marker to predict advanced liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis B.

  5. [Estimates of trace elements requirements of children receiving total parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricour, C; Duhamel, J F; Gros, J; Mazière, B; Comar, D

    1977-01-01

    Ten children on total parenteral nutrition were studied. Plasma copper, zinc, manganese and selenium levels were determined by neutron activation and gamma spectrometry, every 10 days. With a copper intake of 20 microgram/kg/24 h, the average level 120 microgram% (94-144) was normal (N: 118 microgram +/- 11%). With a manganese intake of 40 microgram/kg/24 h, the level increased to 2.6 microgram% (1.3-4.5) (N: 1.1 microgram +/- 0.2%). With a zinc intake of 30 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 45.9 microgram % (20-63) (N: 83 microgram +/- 28%); with an intake of 50 microgram/kg/24 h the level remained under normal. With a selenium intake of 1 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 10.6 ng/ml (3.6-21.6) (N: 38.2 ng/ml +/- 11.9), but was normalized with an intake of 3 microgram/kg/24 h. From these results, with all reserves that estimation implies, the authors suggest that the disorders due to deficit or excess of trace elements could be avoided by daily intakes per kg of body weight: copper 20 microgram, zinc 100 microgram, manganese 10 microgram and selenium 3 microgram, with supplementation of iron, iodine and fluoride.

  6. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  7. Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Nancy K; O'Dea Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from...

  8. Photons or protons for non-central nervous system solid malignancies in children: a historical perspective and important highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Najat C; Mahajan, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, major advances have occurred in radiotherapy techniques, delivery, and treatment planning. Although radiotherapy is an integral treatment component of pediatric solid tumors, it is associated with potential acute and long-term untoward effects and risk of secondary malignancy particularly in growing children. Two major advances in external beam radiotherapy are intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton beam radiotherapy. Their use in the treatment of children with cancer has been steadily increasing. IMRT uses multiple modulated radiation fields that enhance the conformality of the dose distribution to the target volume and avoid high doses to normal tissues. However, IMRT may be associated with increased volume of normal tissue that receives low doses and potential risk of secondary malignancy. Contrary to IMRT, proton beam radiotherapy uses a few beams and a fast dose fall-off distal to the target volume. Although both modalities require substantial personnel time and effort, the very high cost and limited availability of proton radiotherapy have constrained its widespread use. It is anticipated that both modalities may markedly improve tumor control and quality of life for long-term cancer survivors. Clinical trials with long-term follow-up are needed to confirm the premise that proton beam therapy will decrease late effects and secondary malignancies without compromising local control in pediatric patients with cancer.

  9. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  10. The effective and dust free receiving station and handling for the low calorific value solid fuels; Tehokas ja poelytoen seospolttoaineiden vastaanottoasema sekae kaesittely- ja kuljetinjaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojonen, O. [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jaervinen, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Use

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the project was to get higher automatization level and improve dust preventing in solid fuel receiving stations. There are two general types of receiving stations in the Finnish power plants: large unloading stations for the side tipping devices of trucks and small ones for the rear tipping devices of trucks. In the first ones the trucks empty their load (approx. 100 m{sup 3} loose bulk density) divided by hauling unit and trailer within few (5-10) minutes into a rectangular box, which depth is approx. 3 m. The discharging causes a strong counter current air and dust flow (20-40 m{sup 3}/s) upwards and the dust will easily spread out all over the station. In the second ones the discharging takes place from the rear of truck and trailer using loadspace conveyor of the vehicle within 20 minutes. The material falls on a (belt) conveyor, which is on the floor level. The problems in side tipping system are connected with dust and surplus time, which is needed for the preparation and completion of unloading and sampling. For the fine dust control has also been tested water spray (fog) nozzles and tried to utilise a settling chamber for the dust stream. Also the using the settling chamber equipped with air suction connections and cyclone separation may be effective. In the rear tipping system are also applied bag filters because of smaller air quantities. The rapid truck positioning and control in the receiving station is one of the presupposition for the fast and accurate unloading. This can be done using ultrasonic sensing methods. Also the ensuring of accurate discharging can be based on the modern technology. One of the basic things is the enlarging of video control (CCD -cameras)

  11. Incidence of colonization and bloodstream infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Desiree; Cesaro, Simone; Fagioli, Franca; Carraro, Francesca; Ziino, Ottavio; Zanazzo, Giulio; Meazza, Cristina; Colombini, Antonella; Castagnola, Elio

    2016-02-01

    Few data are available on the incidence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) infection or colonization in children receiving anticancer chemotherapy. We performed a nationwide survey among centers participating in the pediatric hematology-oncology cooperative study group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, AIEOP). During a 2-year observation period, we observed a threefold increase in the colonization rate, and a fourfold increase of bloodstream infection episodes, caused by CPE, with a 90-day mortality of 14%. This first nationwide Italian pediatric survey shows that the circulation of CPE strains in the pediatric hematology-oncology environment is increasing. Given the mortality rate, which is higher than for other bacterial strains, specific monitoring should be applied and the results should have implications for health-care practice in pediatric hematology-oncology.

  12. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Who Received Early Intensification Chemotherapy and an Autologous Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Arellano-Galindo, José; Medrano-Ortíz-De-Zárate, María Elena; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Berges-García, Adolfina; Solís-Labastida, Karina; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Espinoza-Hernández, Laura; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Franco-Ornelas, Sergio; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy Xavier; Martínez Villegas, Octavio; Palomares, Teresa Marin; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy. PMID:25821830

  13. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Who Received Early Intensification Chemotherapy and an Autologous Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Jiménez-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients, diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients, diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P=0.041. Overall survival for Group A (18, 90% was higher than that for Group B (60%. Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy.

  14. An Ethnographic Observational Study to Evaluate and Optimize the Use of Respiratory Acoustic Monitoring in Children Receiving Postoperative Opioid Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görges, Matthias; West, Nicholas C; Christopher, Nancy A; Koch, Jennifer L; Brodie, Sonia M; Lowlaavar, Nasim; Lauder, Gillian R; Ansermino, J Mark

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory depression in children receiving postoperative opioid infusions is a significant risk because of the interindividual variability in analgesic requirement. Detection of respiratory depression (or apnea) in these children may be improved with the introduction of automated acoustic respiratory rate (RR) monitoring. However, early detection of adverse events must be balanced with the risk of alarm fatigue. Our objective was to evaluate the use of acoustic RR monitoring in children receiving opioid infusions on a postsurgical ward and identify the causes of false alarm and optimal alarm thresholds. A video ethnographic study was performed using an observational, mixed methods approach. After surgery, an acoustic RR sensor was placed on the participant's neck and attached to a Rad87 monitor. The monitor was networked with paging for alarms. Vital signs data and paging notification logs were obtained from the central monitoring system. Webcam videos of the participant, infusion pump, and Rad87 monitor were recorded, stored on a secure server, and subsequently analyzed by 2 research nurses to identify the cause of the alarm, response, and effectiveness. Alarms occurring within a 90-second window were grouped into a single-alarm response opportunity. Data from 49 patients (30 females) with median age 14 (range, 4.4-18.8) years were analyzed. The 896 bedside vital sign threshold alarms resulted in 160 alarm response opportunities (44 low RR, 74 high RR, and 42 low SpO2). In 141 periods (88% of total), for which video was available, 65% of alarms were deemed effective (followed by an alarm-related action within 10 minutes). Nurses were the sole responders in 55% of effective alarms and the patient or parent in 20%. Episodes of desaturation (SpO2 10 bpm in 6 of 9 patients. Based on all RR samples observed, the default alarm thresholds, to serve as a starting point for each patient, would be a low RR of 6 (>10 years of age) and 10 (4-9 years of age). In this study

  15. Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A; Amy, Nancy K

    2011-06-26

    Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents. The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents. The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children differ from children of other weights in that thin children are less

  16. Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nancy K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents. Methods The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents. Results The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. Conclusions Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children

  17. Dose finding study of oral PSC 833 combined with weekly intravenous etoposide in children with relapsed or refractory solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pein, F; Pinkerton, R; Berthaud, P; Pritchard-Jones, K; Dick, G; Vassal, G

    2007-09-01

    PSC 833 is an effective MDR1 reversal agent in vitro, including studies with paediatric cancer cell lines such as neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. This study was performed to determine the safety profile, dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in children with solid tumours and to determine the influence of PSC 833 on the pharmacokinetics of co-administered etoposide. Each patient received one cycle of intravenous etoposide (100 mg/m2 daily for 3 days on three consecutive weeks) to document baseline pharmacokinetics, and subsequently the same schedule using a dose of 50 mg/m2 was given combined with PSC 833 given orally every 6h at a starting dose of 4 mg/kg. Thirty two eligible patients (23 male, median age 8.3 years) were enrolled. Neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma were the common disease types. Brain tumours were excluded. DLT was defined as any non-haematological grade 3-4 toxicity (common toxicity criteria) and using a specific toxicity scale for cerebellar toxicity. The MDT was defined as the first dose below which 2 or more patients per dose level experienced DLT. Grade 1-2 ataxia occurred in cohorts 2 and 3 (4 and 5 mg/kg, respectively). Three patients developed grade 3 neurotoxicity in the 6 mg/kg cohort and this defined the MTD. Six responses were observed (2 CR, 4 PR). Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the clearance of etoposide was reduced by approximately 50% when combined with PSC 833. It is concluded that the toxicity profile and MDT is similar in both children and adults, as is the effect on etoposide metabolism. The study demonstrated the feasibility and safety of carrying out a paediatric phase 1 trial across European boundaries and acts as a model for future cooperative studies in rare cancers among children.

  18. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

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    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  19. Prevalence of Café-au-Lait Spots in children with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anna Claudia Evangelista Dos; Heck, Benjamin; Camargo, Beatriz De; Vargas, Fernando Regla

    2016-05-24

    Cafe-au-lait maculae (CALM) are frequently observed in humans, and usually are present as a solitary spot. Multiple CALMs are present in a smaller fraction of the population and are usually associated with other congenital anomalies as part of many syndromes. Most of these syndromes carry an increased risk of cancer development. Previous studies have indicated that minor congenital anomalies may be more prevalent in children with cancer. We investigated the prevalence of CALMs in two samples of Brazilian patients with childhood solid tumors, totaling 307 individuals. Additionally, 176 school children without diagnosis of cancer, or of a cancer predisposing syndrome, were investigated for the presence of CALMs. The prevalence of solitary CALM was similar in both study groups (18% and 19%) and also in the group of children without cancer. Multiple CALMs were more frequently observed in one of the study groups (Z = 2.1). However, when both groups were analyzed together, the significance disappeared (Z = 1.5). The additional morphological abnormalities in children with multiple CALMs were analyzed and compared to the findings observed in the literature. The nosologic entities associated with CALMs are reviewed.

  20. Partially neutralizing potency against emerging genotype I virus among children received formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine.

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    Yi-Chin Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genotype I (GI Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV that replaced GIII virus has become the dominant circulating virus in Asia. Currently, all registered live and inactivated JEV vaccines are derived from genotype III viruses. In Taiwan, the compulsory JEV vaccination policy recommends that children receives four doses of formalin-inactivated Nakayama (GIII JEV vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the influence of genotype replacement on the post-vaccination viral neutralizing ability by GIII and GI viruses, the small panel of vaccinated-children serum specimens was assembled, and the reciprocal 50% plaque-reduction neutralizing antibody titers (PRNT(50 were measured against Nakayama vaccine strain, CJN GIII human brain isolate and TC2009-1 GI mosquito isolate. The seropositivity rate (PRNT(50 ≥ 1:10 and geometric mean titers (GMT against the TC2009-1 virus were the lowest among the three viruses. The protective threshold against the CJN and TC2009-1 viruses could only be achieved when the GMT against Nakayama virus was ≥ 1:20 or ≥ 1:80, respectively. Using undiluted vaccinees' sera, the enhancement of JEV infection in K562 cells was observed in some low or non-neutralizing serum specimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our preliminary study has shown that neutralizing antibodies, elicited by the mouse brain-derived and formalin-inactivated JEV Nakayama vaccine among a limited number of vaccinees, have reduced neutralizing capacity against circulating GI virus, but more detailed studies are needed to address the potential impact on the future vaccine policy.

  1. THE PECULARITIES OF THE SOLID PHASE OF BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGES IN CHILDREN WITH THE LUNG DISEASES

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    Yuliya Modna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The acute destructive pneumonias (ADP occupy up to 80% of the total number of pneumonias. They require constant improvement of treatment strategy. Nowadays the use of surfactants is a part of most treatment protocols. The aim was to study the features of the solid phase bronchoalveolar lavage in children with the ADPs in the dynamics of complex treatment with exogenous surfactant.Material and methods: We examined 39 patients of contaminated surgery. We identified 2 groups of patients. The patients of first group (n=27 had pulmonary pleural form of ADP, the second group (n=12 had pulmonary form of ADP. All patients got classical treatment and the earlier draining of pleural cavity. We used as an antiseptic reamberin 1.5% by 10 ml/kg and endobronchially injected exogenous surfactant Bl in dose12 mg/kg body weight a day, 6 mg/kg every 12 hours. All the children were made a bronchoscopy to obtain BAL to study the crystallization properties. The solid phase of BAL was studied by method of cuneal dehydration.Results: All facies before treatment were divided into two groups according to classification of facies of biological fluids. Only the facies of the second and the third types were detected there. It was revealed that the sizes of the zones of the facies were different in the comparison groups before treatment and after. And the level of crystalline structures and amorphous aggregates were different in the groups with different degrees of inflammation.Conclusion: So, we can assume that the change in surfactant system is characterized by changes in the morphological structure of solids phases of BAL. And the morphological structure of BAL depends on the chemical composition of BAL.

  2. Does a prophylactic dose of propofol reduce emergence agitation in children receiving anesthesia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoff, Sophia L; O'Neill, Elizabeth S; Cohen, Lianna C; Collins, Brian A

    2015-07-01

    Emergence agitation (EA) is common after sevoflurane anesthesia in children, and can lead to distressing inconsolability, agitation, crying, and injury. Use of a single dose of the short-acting sedative-hypnotic agent propofol at the end of a procedure has shown promise for preventing EA, but evidence evaluating the efficacy and safety of this approach has not been formally summarized. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of a prophylactic dose of propofol vs placebo on the incidence and severity of EA in children age 0-13 years receiving general inhalational anesthesia. We searched PubMed (1946-2013) via Medline, CENTRAL (1898-2013), and Web of Science (1900-2013) without limits or language restrictions; we also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists. We reviewed abstracts from the 2012 and 2013 Society for Pediatric Anesthesia meetings and pediatric anesthesia-related abstracts from the 2012 and 2013 International Anesthesia Research Society meetings. We assessed randomized, double-blind trials evaluating the efficacy of a prophylactic dose of propofol (1 mg·kg(-1) ) vs placebo given at the end of inhalational anesthesia to prevent EA in pediatric patients. Studies were required to follow patients through recovery and report at least one prespecified outcome. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from included studies. We contacted study authors regarding any missing data. We used the random effects models to calculate pooled relative risks (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD). We collected Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale scores from included studies. PAED scale scores can range from 0 to 20. Of 276 studies screened, nine trials involving 997 children met all inclusion criteria. All were considered low risk of bias. For one non-English trial, we obtained a full-text translation and for one non-English trial, we used the English-language abstract, tables, and figures. Based on

  3. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS diagnostic disclosure to HIV infected children receiving HAART: a multi-center study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnostic disclosure of HIV/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common issue in clinical practice. Nevertheless, some parents and health care professionals are reluctant to inform children about their HIV infection status. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of children who have knowledge of their serostatus and factors associated with disclosure in HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five hospitals in Addis Ababa from February 18, 2008-April 28, 2008. The study populations were parents/caretakers and children living with HIV/AIDS who were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 390 children/caretaker pairs were included in the study. Two hundred forty three children (62.3% were between 6-9 years of age. HIV/AIDS status was known by 68 (17.4% children, 93 (29% caretakers reported knowing the child's serostatus two years prior to our survey, 180 (46.2% respondents said that the child should be told about his/her HIV/AIDS status when he/she is older than 14 years of age. Children less than 9 years of age and those living with educated caregivers are less likely to know their results than their counterparts. Children referred from hospital's in-patient ward before attending the HIV clinic and private clinic were more likely to know their results than those from community clinic. CONCLUSION: The proportion of disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis to HIV-infected children is low. Strengthening referral linkage and health education tailored to educated caregivers are recommended to increase the rate of disclosure.

  4. Caregiver perceptions and motivation for disclosing or concealing the diagnosis of HIV infection to children receiving HIV care in Mbarara, Uganda: a qualitative study.

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    Julius Kiwanuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV to HIV-infected children is challenging for caregivers. Despite current recommendations, data suggest that levels of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children receiving care in resource-limited settings are very low. Few studies describe the disclosure process for children in these settings, particularly the motivators, antecedent goals, and immediate outcomes of disclosure to HIV-infected children. This study examined caregivers' perception of the disclosure concept prior to disclosure, their motivation towards or away from disclosure, and their short- and long-term intentions for disclosure to their HIV-infected children. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of 40 HIV-infected children (ages 5-15 years who were receiving HIV care but did not know their HIV status. RESULTS: Caregivers of HIV-infected children mainly perceived disclosure as a single event rather than a process of gradual delivery of information about the child's illness. They viewed disclosure as potentially beneficial both to children and themselves, as well as an opportunity to explain the parents' role in the transmission of HIV to the children. Caregivers desired to personally conduct the disclosure; however, most reported being over-whelmed with fear of negative outcomes and revealed a lack of self-efficacy towards managing the disclosure process. Consequently, most cope by deception to avoid or delay disclosure until they perceive their own readiness to disclose. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for HIV disclosure should consider that caregivers may desire to be directly responsible for disclosure to children under their care. They, however, need to be empowered with practical skills to recognize opportunities to initiate the disclosure process early, as well as supported to manage it in a phased, developmentally appropriate manner. The potential role for peer counselors in the disclosure

  5. Benzodiazepine prescribing in children under 15 years of age receiving free medical care on the General Medical Services scheme in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K

    2015-06-01

    To examine the prevalence and secular trends in benzodiazepine (BZD) prescribing in the Irish paediatric population. In addition, we examine coprescribing of antiepileptic, antipsychotic, antidepressant and psychostimulants in children receiving BZD drugs and compare BZD prescribing in Ireland to that in other European countries.

  6. Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

  7. Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

  8. Symptomatic chronic strongyloidiasis in children following treatment for solid organ malignancies: case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsarwany, M; Abdelrahman, Z; Rahmah, N; Ariffin, N; Norsyahida, A; Madihah, B; Zeehaida, M

    2012-09-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.

  9. Group-Wide, Prospective Study of Ototoxicity Assessment in Children Receiving Cisplatin Chemotherapy (ACCL05C1): A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kristin R; Chen, Lu; Freyer, David; Aplenc, Richard; Bancroft, Mary; Bliss, Bonnie; Dang, Ha; Gillmeister, Biljana; Hendershot, Eleanor; Kraemer, Dale F; Lindenfeld, Lanie; Meza, Jane; Neuwelt, Edward A; Pollock, Brad H; Sung, Lillian

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Optimal assessment methods and criteria for reporting hearing outcomes in children who receive treatment with cisplatin are uncertain. The objectives of our study were to compare different ototoxicity classification systems, to evaluate the feasibility of including otoacoustic emissions and extended high frequency audiometry, and to evaluate a central review mechanism for audiologic results for cisplatin-treated children in the cooperative group setting. Patients and Methods Eligible participants were 1 to 30 years, with planned cisplatin-containing treatment. Hearing evaluations were conducted at baseline, before each cisplatin cycle, and at the end of therapy. Audiologic results were assessed and graded by the testing audiologist and by two central review audiologists using the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Ototoxicity Criteria (ASHA), Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE), and Brock Ototoxicity Grades (Brock). One central reviewer also used the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Ototoxicity Scale (SIOP). Results At the end of treatment, the prevalence of any degree of ototoxicity ranged from 40% to 56%, and severe ototoxicity ranged from 7% to 22%. Compared with CTCAE, SIOP detected significantly more ototoxicity ( P = .004), whereas Brock criteria detected significantly fewer patients with any or severe ototoxicity ( P ototoxicity earlier than did the other scales. Agreement between the central reviewers and the institutional audiologist was almost perfect for ASHA and Brock, whereas the poorest agreement occurred with CTCAE. Conclusion The SIOP scale may be superior to ASHA, Brock, and CTCAE scales for classifying ototoxicity in pediatric patients who were treated with cisplatin. Future studies should evaluate inter-rater reliability of the SIOP scale.

  10. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Insulin Glargine and Insulin Detemir with NPH Insulin in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Receiving Intensive Insulin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dündar, Bumin Nuri; Dündar, Nihal; Eren, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine and detemir with NPH insulin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Thirty four children and adolescents with type 1 DM (mean age 12.7 ± 3.4 years, diabetes duration 5.4 ± 3.0 years) were included in the study. All patients had been receiving intensive insulin therapy with insulin aspart and NPH for at least 6 months before switching from NPH to insulin glargine (G...

  11. The Serum Anti-HBs Level Among Children Who Received Routine Hepatitis B Vaccination During Infancy in Mianyang City, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fang; Ma, Yuan-ji; Zhou, Tao-you; Duan, Jin-chao; Wang, Jun-feng; Ji, Yu-lin; Li, Hong; Zhang, Ju-ying; Tang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence has declined remarkably in children due to nationwide universal vaccination program for HBV in China. However, the persistence of immune response against HBV infection and the optimal time point when a booster vaccination should be performed remain to be elucidated. To assess the persistence and level of antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) in a representative population of age 15 and younger who received routine hepatitis B vaccination in Mianyang City, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. One thousand five hundred twenty-six children of age 15 and younger who received three doses of 5 μg hepatitis B vaccine series during infancy but did not receive a booster vaccination later were enrolled. Of the 1,526 children, the mean age was 8.2 ± 4.1 and 739 children were male. The median anti-HBs level was 23.0 mIU/mL, and the total percentage of anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL was 60.9%. With an increase of age, median anti-HBs level, percentage of anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL, and percentage of anti-HBs levels ≥100 mIU/mL declined remarkably in the early period and reached the lowest level at the age of 3 and then remained relatively stable. The median anti-HBs level, the percentage of anti-HBs levels ≥10 mIU/mL, and the percentage of anti-HBs levels ≥100 mIU/mL in 1- and 2-year-old children were much higher than that in children aged 3-15 (p < 0.05, respectively). Immunity against HBV infection gradually decreased in early ages of children of 15 and younger who received three doses of 5 μg hepatitis B vaccine series during infancy in China. Three dosages of 10 μg hepatitis B vaccine for infants and repeated vaccination or additional booster vaccination for some children at or before age 3 should be provided to get much more powerful immunity to HBV.

  12. Genotype 3b of human parvovirus B19 detected from hospitalized children with solid malignancies in a North Indian tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amita; Jain, Parul; Prakash, Shantanu; Kumar, Archana; Khan, Danish N; Seth, Akansha; Gupta, Shikha; Kant, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is known to cause serious consequences in immuno-compromized individuals. The present cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence and genotype distribution of B19V in children receiving chemotherapy for solid malignancies at a tertiary care hospital in North India during October 2013 to May 2015. Serum samples from all the patients were tested for anti-B19V IgM and IgG antibodies and for B19V-DNA as soon as received. Samples testing positive for B19V-DNA were subjected to viral load estimation and to genotype determination by sequencing. Total 96 children were enrolled of which 9 (9.3%), 32 (33.3%), and 25 (26%) tested positive for anti-B19V IgM, anti-B19V IgG, and B19V-DNA, respectively. The viral load of B19V-DNA positive children ranged from 5.5 × 10(2) to 3.5 × 10(12) copies/ml. Accordingly children were divided into three groups: group I, with acute infection (n = 25); group II, previously exposed (n = 27), and group III, negative for B19V infection or with inappropriate antibody response (n = 44). B19V positivity was significantly associated (P-value < 0.0001) with a history of blood transfusion in the past 6 months, severe anemia (hemoglobin levels <6 gm%) and thrombocytopenia (platelets <150,000/cu.mm.). Sequence analysis of 21 of 25 DNA positive samples showed that all of them were Genotype 3b that clustered into three groups. All the sequences within each cluster were identical. The nucleotide identity of the sequences suggests a nosocomial outbreak of B19V during the study period. Children on chemotherapy for solid tumors should be routinely screened for B19V infection by both serology and PCR. J. Med. Virol. 88:1922-1929, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of providing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on the I status of young Burkinabe children. In total, thirty-four communities were assigned to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). IC children were randomly assigned to receive 20 g lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)/d containing 90 µg I with 0 or 10 mg Zn from 9 to 18 months of age, and NIC children received no SQ-LNS. All the children were exposed to iodised salt through the national salt iodization programme. Spot urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in dried blood spots as well as plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations were assessed at 9 and 18 months of age among 123 IC and fifty-six NIC children. At baseline and at 18 months, UI, TSH and T4 did not differ between cohorts. Tg concentration was higher in the NIC v. IC at baseline, but this difference did not persist at 18 months of age. In both cohorts combined, the geometric mean of UI was 339·2 (95% CI 298·6, 385·2) µg/l, TSH 0·8 (95% CI 0·7, 0·8) mU/l, T4 118 (95 % CI 114, 122) nmol/l and Tg 26·0 (95% CI 24·3, 27·7) µg/l at 18 months of age. None of the children had elevated TSH at 18 months of age. Marginally more children in NIC (8·9%) had low T4 (15 ppm). A reduction of SQ-LNS I content could be considered in settings with similarly successful salt iodisation programmes.

  14. High rates of virological failure and drug resistance in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving lifelong antiretroviral therapy in routine clinics in Togo

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    Mounerou Salou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving ART in Togo. Methods: HIV viral load (VL testing was consecutively proposed to all children and adolescents who were on ART for at least 12 months when attending HIV healthcare services for their routine follow-up visit (June to September 2014. Plasma HIV-1 VL was measured using the m2000 RealTime HIV-1 assay (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA. Genotypic drug resistance was done for all samples with VL>1000 copies/ml. Results and discussion: Among 283 perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents included, 167 (59% were adolescents and 116 (41% were children. The median duration on ART was 48 months (interquartile range: 28 to 68 months. For 228 (80.6%, the current ART combination consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs (zidovudine and lamivudine and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz. Only 28 (9.9% were on a protease inhibitor (PI-based regimen. VL was below the detection limit (i.e. 40 copies/ml for 102 (36%, between 40 and 1000 copies/ml for 35 (12.4% and above 1000 copies/ml for 146 (51.6%. Genotypic drug-resistance testing was successful for 125/146 (85.6%; 110/125 (88.0% were resistant to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, 1/125 (0.8% to NRTIs only, 4/125 (3.2% to NNRTIs only and three harboured viruses resistant to reverse transcriptase and PIs. Overall, 86% (108/125 of children and adolescents experiencing VF and successfully genotyped, corresponding thus to at least 38% of the study population, had either no effective ART or had only a single effective drug in

  15. High rates of virological failure and drug resistance in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving lifelong antiretroviral therapy in routine clinics in Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salou, Mounerou; Dagnra, Anoumou Y; Butel, Christelle; Vidal, Nicole; Serrano, Laetitia; Takassi, Elom; Konou, Abla A; Houndenou, Spero; Dapam, Nina; Singo-Tokofaï, Assetina; Pitche, Palokinam; Atakouma, Yao; Prince-David, Mireille; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF) and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving ART in Togo. Methods HIV viral load (VL) testing was consecutively proposed to all children and adolescents who were on ART for at least 12 months when attending HIV healthcare services for their routine follow-up visit (June to September 2014). Plasma HIV-1 VL was measured using the m2000 RealTime HIV-1 assay (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA). Genotypic drug resistance was done for all samples with VL>1000 copies/ml. Results and discussion Among 283 perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents included, 167 (59%) were adolescents and 116 (41%) were children. The median duration on ART was 48 months (interquartile range: 28 to 68 months). For 228 (80.6%), the current ART combination consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (zidovudine and lamivudine) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (nevirapine or efavirenz). Only 28 (9.9%) were on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen. VL was below the detection limit (i.e. 40 copies/ml) for 102 (36%), between 40 and 1000 copies/ml for 35 (12.4%) and above 1000 copies/ml for 146 (51.6%). Genotypic drug-resistance testing was successful for 125/146 (85.6%); 110/125 (88.0%) were resistant to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, 1/125 (0.8%) to NRTIs only, 4/125 (3.2%) to NNRTIs only and three harboured viruses resistant to reverse transcriptase and PIs. Overall, 86% (108/125) of children and adolescents experiencing VF and successfully genotyped, corresponding thus to at least 38% of the study population, had either no effective ART or had only a single effective drug in

  16. The Impacts of Hinged and Solid Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Standing and Walking in Children with Spastic Diplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALVAND, Hamid; DEHGHAN, Leila; FEIZI, Awat; HOSSEINI, Seyed Ali; AMIRSALARI, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of hinged and solid anklefoot orthoses (AFOs) on standing and walking abilities in children with spastic diplegia. Materials & Methods In a quasi-experimental design, 30 children with spastic diplegia, aged 4-6 years were recruited. They were matched in terms of age, IQ, and level of GMFCS E&R. Children were randomly assigned into 3 groups: a hinged AFO group (n=10) plus occupational therapy (OT), a solid AFO group (n=10) plus OT, a control group who used only OT for three months. Gross motor abilities were measured using Gross Motor Measure Function (GMFM). Results We obtained statistically significant differences in the values between baseline and after treatment in all groups. The groups were also significantly different in total GMFM after intervention. Furthermore, there were differences between hinged AFOs and solid AFOs groups, and between hinged AFOs and control groups. Conclusion We concluded that gross motor function was improved in all groups; however, hinged AFOs group appears to improve the gross motor function better than solid AFOs and control groups. PMID:24665312

  17. Estimating Tuberculin Skin Test Reactions among Children and Teenagers Who Received the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination at Birth: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Abedi, Siavosh; Afshari, Mahdi; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculin skin reaction size is one indicator of bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin (BCG) vaccine efficacy and a way to diagnose latent infection. Several primary studies have examined this issue. Combining the results of these studies using a meta-analysis will provide reliable evidence regarding this indicator for policymakers. This study aimed to estimate the total frequency of different tuberculin skin test reactions among Iranian children and teenagers who received the BCG vaccination ...

  18. Health and social outcomes among children in low-income families and families receiving social assistance--a Swedish national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Hjern, Anders; Batljan, Ilija; Vinnerljung, Bo

    2008-01-01

    We examined health and social outcomes among children related to parental disposable income and receipt of social assistance. Swedish national registry data were used in a longitudinal design. We estimated relative risks and odds ratios for health and social outcomes in Poisson and logistic regressions among 1.2 million children between 1993 and 2002, and adjusted for factors that might affect the associations. Children in families receiving long-term social assistance showed considerably less satisfactory future prospects regarding health-related outcomes--all-cause mortality, suicide attempt, alcohol and drug misuse. Also, and to an even greater extent, the children experienced low educational attainment and social assistance in young adulthood compared with the rest of the population, and also in comparison with other low-income families. Low income was also associated with risk increases, but to a lesser extent. After taking into account the greater proportion of social-assistance recipients in low-income groups, attenuated risk increases remained only regarding future prospects of low education and social assistance. Regarding both low income and months receiving social assistance there was a gradient, at least in the age-adjusted analyses; there were greater risk increases among long-term recipients and among those with low incomes, and lower risk increases among short-term recipients and among those with high incomes. The results indicate that growing up in a family on long-term social assistance is a robust risk marker for compromised long-term development. A policy whereby children and parents receiving long-term assistance are offered access to evidence-based prevention programs in the areas of health, education and skills training appears to be important.

  19. Changes in cellular immune activation and memory T-cell subsets in HIV-infected Zambian children receiving HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Nkamba, Hope; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Moore, Carolyn B; Margolick, Joseph; Moss, William J

    2014-12-15

    Increased exposure to a broad array of pathogens in children residing in sub-Saharan Africa may lead to heightened immune activation and increased proportions of memory T cells. Changes in the size of these cellular subsets have implications for restoration of normal immune function after treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and are not well characterized in young sub-Saharan African children. CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry in 157 HIV-infected Zambian children before and at 3-month intervals during HAART for up to 30 months and in 34 control children at a single study visit. Before HAART, HIV-infected children had higher levels of activated and effector memory (EM) CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells, and lower levels of naive T cells and CD8⁺ T cells expressing IL-7Rα, compared with control children. The median duration of follow-up was 14.9 months (interquartile range, 6.4-23.2) among 120 HIV-infected children with at least 1 study follow-up visit. Levels of immune activation and EM CD4⁺ T cells declined within 6 months of HAART, but the percentages of EM CD4 T cells and effector CD8⁺ T cells remained elevated through 30 months of HAART. IL-7Rα-expressing CD8⁺ T cells increased with HAART, suggesting expansion of memory capacity. HAART significantly reduced levels of immune activation and EM CD4⁺ T cells, and promoted reconstitution of naive T cells and IL-7Rα-expressing CD8⁺ T cells. However, persistently high levels of EM CD4⁺ T cells in HIV-infected children may reflect chronic perturbations in T-cell subset composition.

  20. A physical fitness follow-up in children with cerebral palsy receiving 12-week individualized exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Shiau-Chian; Yeh, Kuo-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Alice M K; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Physical fitness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is lower than in their peers. A 12-week individualized home-based exercise program completed by 11 children with CP 10 years earlier showed a favorable effect on physical fitness performance. We follow-up the physical fitness of those 11 children with CP, and compare their physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) to children with CP without exercise training matched with age and motor levels. Eleven children with CP in the 2003 program as a follow-up group (FUG) and 12 volunteers recruited as a control group (CG) participated in this study. Physical fitness measures, including cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle strength, body mass index (BMI), flexibility, agility, balance, and the SF-36 Taiwan version, were assessed in both groups. After 10 years, the FUG showed better physical fitness in cardiopulmonary endurance and muscle strength (pexercise training is beneficial for children with CP. Over 10 years, the FUG was more devoted to physical activity than was the CG. Physical exercise may not directly affect the HRQoL in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurodevelopmental investigation of the mirror neurone system in children of women receiving opioid maintenance therapy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) is generally recommended for pregnant opioid-dependent women. Previous studies investigating the long-term effects of OMT on children's cognitive development found that children of women in OMT have an increased risk of developing deficits in motor and visual perceptual skills, which are important aspects of the mirror neurone system (MNS), a complex neural circuit involved in learning and social interactions. The aim of the current study was to investigate aspects of the MNS in children of women in OMT. A 2 (control group versus OMT group) × 2 (human versus mechanic) mixed factorial design. The Cognitive Developmental Research Unit at the University of Oslo, Norway. Fifteen children of women in OMT and 15 non-exposed children participated. Goal-directed eye movements were recorded using a Tobii 1750 eye tracker. Neurocognitive tests were employed to map children's cognitive development. The OMT group made fewer proactive goal-directed eye movements [mean = -37.73, standard deviation (SD) = 208.56] compared to the control group (mean = 181.47, SD = 228.65), F((1,28)) = 7.53, P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.21. No differences were found on tests of visual perception or goal understanding. Use of opioid maintenance therapy during pregnancy appears to be associated with impaired goal-directed eye movements in the 4-year-old infant which may affect later social adjustment adversely. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Endaryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.

  3. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  4. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Campbell

    Full Text Available Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%, the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool. Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.

  5. Lower systolic blood pressure at age 7 y in low-birth-weight children who received iron supplements in infancy: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Josefine; Norman, Mikael; Westrup, Björn; Domellöf, Magnus; Berglund, Staffan K

    2017-08-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) (≤2500 g) is associated with iron deficiency in infancy and high blood pressure (BP) later in life.Objective: We investigated the effect of iron supplementation that was given to LBW infants on midchildhood BP.Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial that included 285 marginally LBW (2000-2500-g) infants at 2 Swedish centers between May 2004 and November 2007. The infants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) from 6 wk to 6 mo of age. In secondary analyses at the age of 7 y, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the prevalence of children with BP within the hypertensive range (>90th percentile) were compared between the groups.Results: BP was analyzed via intention to treat in 189 children (66%). The mean ± SD SBP was 103 ± 8.1, 101 ± 7.5, and 101 ± 7.8 mm Hg in children who had received the placebo (n = 70), 1 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 54), or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 65), respectively. When the iron-supplemented groups were combined in covariate-adjusted analyses, the mean SBP in LBW children who had received iron supplementation in infancy was 2.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.3, 4.2 mm Hg) lower than in those who were unsupplemented (P = 0.026). Multivariate logistic regression showed that iron supplementation in infancy reduced the odds of having an SBP within the hypertensive range at 7 y of age (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.96). For DBP, there were no significant differences between the intervention groups.Conclusions: LBW children who receive iron supplementation (1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1)) in infancy have lower SBP at 7 y. This (to our knowledge) novel observation suggests that the increased risk of hypertension that is observed in children and adults who are born small might be reduced with early micronutrient interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00558454. © 2017 American Society for

  6. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Carter, Knute D; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended parallel process model was used as a theoretical framework for this research. This model suggests that people will act if the perceived threat (severity and susceptibility) is high enough and if efficacy levels (self-efficacy and response efficacy) are likewise high. Following Witte's method of categorizing people's perceptions and emotions into one of four categories based on levels of threat and efficacy, this article describes four groups (high threat/high efficacy, high threat/low efficacy, low threat/high efficacy, and low threat/low efficacy) of parents and how they compare to each other. Using logistic regression to model if a child had a preventive visit, results indicate that parents with low threat/high efficacy and parents with high threat/high efficacy had approximately 2.5 times the odds of having a child with a preventive oral health visit compared to parents with low threat/low efficacy, when controlling for perceived oral health status, health literacy, and child's age. The importance of efficacy needs to be incorporated in interventions aimed at increasing preventive dental visits for young children.

  7. Is the NBN gene mutation I171V a potential risk factor for malignant solid tumors in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jerzy; Mosor, Maria; Nowicka, Karina; Rembowska, Jolanta; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

    2011-08-01

    NBN gene is considered as one of the low-to-moderate cancer susceptibility gene. At least 4 germline NBN mutations have been found in several malignancies in adults. In our studies, we observed the high incidence of germline mutation I171V of NBN gene in breast, colorectal, larynx cancer, and in multiple primary tumors. In this study, we would like to answer the question whether I171V germline mutation of NBN gene may constitute risk factor for solid tumors in children. The frequency of this mutation has been analyzed in patients with neuroblastoma (n=66), Wilms tumor (n=54), medulloblastoma (n=57), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n=82) hospitalized in Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Department in the years between 1987 and 2010. About 2947 anonymous blood samples collected on Guthrie cards drawn from the newborn screening program of the Wielkopolska region have been used as controls. All the patients and controls came from the same geographical region. I171V mutation of the NBN gene has been observed in 5 controls. Among children with solid tumors only in 1 child with medulloblastoma I171V variant has been found. In conclusion, I171V germline mutation in contrary to adults cannot be considered as a risk factor for children malignancies. However, owing to low number of patients with solid tumors the possibility of a Type II error may exist.

  8. The Development and Validation of an Auditory Perception Test in Spanish for Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish auditory perception test, La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, was developed and administered to 158 Spanish-speaking Latino children, kindergarten through grade 3. Psychometric data for the test are presented, including its relationship to SOBER, a criterion-referenced Spanish reading measure. (Author/BW)

  9. A Qualitative Exploration of Therapeutic Relationships from the Perspective of Six Children Receiving Speech-Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert; Crowley, Niamh; Oliviera, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Although some studies have explored the adult therapeutic relationship in speech-language pathology, few, if any, have examined it with regard to children. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic relationship in pediatric speech and language therapy, focusing on the child's experience. Accordingly, the study was qualitative and involved the…

  10. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1-5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1-5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need.

  11. Valproic acid reduces the tolerability of temsirolimus in children and adolescents with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Don W; Walko, Christine; Patel, Jai; Moats-Staats, Billie M; McFadden, Andrew; Smith, Scott V; Khan, Wasiuddin A; Bridges, Arlene S; Deal, Allison M; Oesterheld, Javier; Davis, Ian J; Blatt, Julie

    2013-04-01

    A pediatric study has established a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for temsirolimus (Tem) of more than 150 mg/m intravenously/week. A phase I trial was conducted to establish the MTD for Tem in combination with valproic acid (VPA) in children and adolescents with refractory solid tumors. The secondary aims included expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) markers on archival tumor tissue; Tem pharmacokinetics; assessment of histone acetylation (HA); and tumor response. Patients were treated with VPA (5 mg/kg orally three times daily) with a target serum level of 75-100 mcg/ml. Tem was started at an initial dose of 60 mg/m/week. Pharmacokinetics and HA measurements were performed during weeks 1 and 5. Two of the first three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 mucositis). Tem at 35 mg/m/week was found to be tolerable. Peak Tem concentrations were higher in all patients compared with those in previously published reports of single agent Tem. Increases in HA are correlated with VPA levels. All tumor samples expressed mTORC1 and mTORC2. An objective response was observed in one patient (melanoma), whereas transient stable disease was observed in four other patients (spinal cord ependymoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma). The MTD of Tem when administered with VPA is considerably lower than when used as a single agent, with mucositis the major dose-limiting toxicity. The combination merits further study and may have activity in melanoma. Attention to drug-drug interactions will be important in future multiagent trials including Tem.

  12. [Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Zeni Drubi; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Leite, Maria Efigênia de Queiroz; Kiya, Márcia Miyuki; Amorim, Tatiana; Fonseca, Silvana Fahel da

    2015-01-01

    To study breastfeeding history (BF) and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SS and SC hemoglobinopathies aged between 2 and 6 years old receiving regular follow-up at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS) between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and sex. The average (SD) age was 3.7 (1.1) years, 52.9% were boys and 53.5% had SS hemoglobinopathy. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBR) up to six months of age was 31.5%, the median EBR times (p25-p75) was 90.0 (24.0-180.0) days and the median weaning ages (p25-p75) was 360.0 (90.0-20.0) days respectively. Normal W/H children experienced EBR for an average duration almost four times longer than malnourished children (p=0.01), and were weaned later (p<0.05). Height deficit was found in 5.0% of children, while all the children with severe short stature had SS hemoglobinopathy and were over 4 years of age. EBR time and weaning age were greater than found in the literature, which is a possible effect of the multidisciplinary follow-up. Duration of EBR and later weaning were associated with improved anthropometric indicators. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Food and drink consumption among 1-5-year-old Los Angeles County children from households receiving dual SNAP and WIC v. only WIC benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane; Kuo, Tony; Jiang, Lu; Robles, Brenda; Whaley, Shannon E

    2017-10-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are two of the more well-known food assistance programmes in the USA. The current study describes food consumption patterns of children aged 1-5 years living in households dually enrolled in these two programmes v. households enrolled only in WIC. Food consumption and SNAP participation were assessed using data from the 2014 Survey of Los Angeles County (LAC) WIC Participants and the Follow-Up Survey of the same households that were also SNAP beneficiaries. Telephone interviews were conducted with WIC parents regarding each child's (i.e. beneficiary's) food consumption patterns. Follow-up interviews were conducted with those who reported receiving SNAP. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between food and beverage consumption and dual v. single food assistance programme participation. LAC, California. Children of WIC-enrolled households in LAC during 2014 (n 3248). This included a sub-sample of dual WIC- and SNAP-enrolled households (n 1295). Survey participants were the beneficiaries' parents. Children from dually enrolled households consumed 1·03 (Pfoods 1·04 more times daily (Pconsumption of both healthy foods and foods containing minimal nutritional value. Complementary nutrition education efforts across the two programmes may help beneficiaries maximize healthful food purchases with SNAP dollars.

  14. Increased Risk of Autism Development in Children Whose Mothers Experienced Birth Complications or Received Labor and Delivery Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Smallwood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a perplexing and pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social difficulties, communicative deficits, and repetitive behavior. The increased rate of ASD diagnosis has raised questions concerning the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of this disorder; meanwhile, the cause of ASD remains unknown. This study surveyed mothers of ASD and non-ASD children to determine possible effects of labor and delivery (L&D drugs on the development of ASD. The survey was administered to mothers; however, the results were analyzed by child, as the study focused on the development of autism. Furthermore, an independent ASD dataset from the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center was analyzed and compared. Indeed, L&D drugs are associated with ASD (p = .039. Moreover, the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center dataset shows that the labor induction drug, Pitocin, is significantly associated with ASD (p = .004. We also observed a synergistic effect between administrations of L&D drugs and experiencing a birth complication, in which both obstetrics factors occurring together increased the likelihood of the fetus developing ASD later in life (p = .0003. The present study shows the possible effects of L&D drugs, such as Pitocin labor-inducing and analgesic drugs, on children and ASD.

  15. Increased Risk of Autism Development in Children Whose Mothers Experienced Birth Complications or Received Labor and Delivery Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Melissa; Sareen, Ashley; Baker, Emma; Hannusch, Rachel; Kwessi, Eddy; Williams, Tyisha

    2016-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a perplexing and pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social difficulties, communicative deficits, and repetitive behavior. The increased rate of ASD diagnosis has raised questions concerning the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of this disorder; meanwhile, the cause of ASD remains unknown. This study surveyed mothers of ASD and non-ASD children to determine possible effects of labor and delivery (L&D) drugs on the development of ASD. The survey was administered to mothers; however, the results were analyzed by child, as the study focused on the development of autism. Furthermore, an independent ASD dataset from the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center was analyzed and compared. Indeed, L&D drugs are associated with ASD (p = .039). Moreover, the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center dataset shows that the labor induction drug, Pitocin, is significantly associated with ASD (p = .004). We also observed a synergistic effect between administrations of L&D drugs and experiencing a birth complication, in which both obstetrics factors occurring together increased the likelihood of the fetus developing ASD later in life (p = .0003). The present study shows the possible effects of L&D drugs, such as Pitocin labor-inducing and analgesic drugs, on children and ASD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. The Impacts of Hinged and Solid Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Standing and Walking in Children with Spastic Diplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid DALVAND

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Dalvand H, Dehghan L, Feizi A, Hosseini SA, Amirsalari S. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:12-19.AbstractObjective The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of hinged and solid anklefoot orthoses (AFOs on standing and walking abilities in children with spastic diplegia.Materials & MethodsIn a quasi-experimental design, 30 children with spastic diplegia, aged 4-6 years were recruited. They were matched in terms of age, IQ, and level of GMFCS E&R. Children were randomly assigned into 3 groups: a hinged AFO group (n=10 plus occupational therapy (OT, a solid AFO group (n=10 plus OT, a control group who used only OT for three months. Gross motor abilities weremeasured using Gross Motor Measure Function (GMFM.ResultsWe obtained statistically significant differences in the values between baseline and after treatment in all groups. The groups were also significantly different in total GMFM after intervention. Furthermore, there were differences between hinged AFOs and solid AFOs groups, and between hinged AFOs and control groups.ConclusionWe concluded that gross motor function was improved in all groups; however, hinged AFOs group appears to improve the gross motor function better than solid AFOs and control groups.ReferencesMiller F. Cerebral palsy. 1st ed. New York: Springer Science & Business Media; 2005.Wren TL, Rethlefsen S, Kay RM. Prevalence of specific gait abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy: Influence of cerebral palsy subtype, age, and previous surgery. J Pediat Orthoped 2005;25(1:79-83.Knutosn L, Clark D. Orthotic devices for ambulation in children with cerebral palsy and myelomeningocele. Phys Ther 1991;71:947-60.Figueiredo EM, Ferreira GB, Maia Moreira RC, Kirkwood R, Fetters L. Efficacy of Ankle-Foot Orthoses on Gait of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Systematic Review of Literature. Pediat Phys Ther 2008; 20(3:207-23.Brehm MA, Harlaar J, Schwartz M. Effect of ankle

  17. Solid fuel in kitchen and acute respiratory tract infection among under five children: evidence from Nepal demographic and health survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short/rapid breath and chest problem within 2 weeks before survey was considered as the symptoms of ARI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds of being suffered from ARI among the children from households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel. About 84.6% of the families used solid fuel as a primary fuel. Approximately 4.5% children had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks before the survey. About 3.4 and 4.9% of children from the families using cleaner fuel and solid fuel respectively had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks preceding survey. After adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel (95% CI 1.02, 3.14). This study found the use of solid fuel in the kitchen has as a risk factor for ARI among under five children in Nepal. Longitudinal studies with direct measurement of indoor air pollution and clinical ARI cases can be future research priority.

  18. Comparison of long-term outcomes between children with aplastic anemia and refractory cytopenia of childhood who received immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Ito, Masafumi; Narita, Atsushi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Etsuro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization classification proposed a new entity in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, refractory cytopenia of childhood. However, it is unclear whether this morphological classification reflects clinical outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed bone marrow morphology in 186 children (median age 8 years; range 1-16 years) who were enrolled in the prospective study and received horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine between July 1999 and November 2008. The median follow-up period was 87 months (range 1-146 months). Out of 186 patients, 62 (33%) were classified with aplastic anemia, 94 (49%) with refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 34 (18%) with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia. Aplastic anemia patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor more frequently and for longer durations than other patients (Paplastic anemia, 4 patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 3 patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia. Although the cumulative incidence of total clonal evolution at ten years was not significantly different among the 3 groups, the cumulative incidence of monosomy 7 development was significantly higher in aplastic anemia than in the other groups (P=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed that only granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration duration of 40 days or more was a significant risk factor for monosomy 7 development (P=0.02). These findings suggest that even the introduction of a strict morphological distinction from hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome cannot eradicate clonal evolution in children with aplastic anemia.

  19. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Two Thermal Energy Storage Tank Design Concepts for Use with a Solid Particle Receiver-Based Solar Power Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman El-Leathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an extensive study of two thermal energy storage (TES systems. The goal of the research is to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of electricity. A small-scale TES system was first built. The inner to outer layers were made of firebrick (FB, autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC and reinforced concrete brick (CB. The experiments were conducted at temperatures of up to 1000 °C for sustained periods of time. AAC was found to be prone to cracking at temperatures exceeding 900 °C; as a result, AAC was eliminated from the second TES system. The second, larger-scale TES system was subsequently built of multiple layers of readily available materials, namely, insulating firebrick (IFB, perlite concrete (PC, expansion joint (EJ, and CB. All of the surfaces were instrumented with thermocouples to estimate the heat loss from the system. The temperature was maintained at approximately 800 °C to approximate steady state conditions closely. The steady state heat loss was determined to be approximately 4.4% for a day. The results indicate that high-temperature TES systems can be constructed of readily available materials while meeting the heat loss requirements for a falling particle receiver system, thereby contributing to reducing the overall cost of concentrating solar power systems.

  20. Commercial baby food consumption and dietary variety in a statewide sample of infants receiving benefits from the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-10-01

    Dietary variety and exposure to fruits and vegetables in infancy have been associated with nutritional benefits and later acceptance of these foods. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable commercial baby food consumption and its relation to dietary variety during infancy. A cross-sectional statewide telephone survey of 733 Maryland mothers and infants receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was conducted between July 2004 and July 2005. A 24-hour dietary recall was examined to assess infant dietary variety. Among infants from birth to age 5 months, 54% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 60% received commercial baby foods. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, 98% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 81% received commercial baby foods. In the latter age range, the average daily number of different types of fruits and vegetables consumed was 1.5±1.2, range 0 to 6). In a multivariate model, infants aged 6 to 12 months who received commercial baby foods consumed a greater variety of fruits and vegetables (β=.54, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84; Pbaby food is consumed by a majority of WIC infants, although many mothers introduce it before the recommended age of 6 months. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, commercial baby food is associated with dietary variety in fruits and vegetables. By encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables after 6 months of age, either through the provision of commercial baby foods and/or education and resources related to the preparation of fruits and vegetables for infants, WIC can increase dietary variety and appropriate introduction of complementary foods among infants. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sealant versus Fluoride in Primary Molars of Kindergarten Children Regularly Receiving Fluoride Varnish: One-Year Randomized Clinical Trial Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sisko; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Shyama, Maddi; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha A; Boodai, Hanan; Honkala, Eino

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the caries preventive effect of sealants applied to occlusal surfaces of primary molars compared to fluoride varnish applications, and to assess the retention rate of sealants after 1 year. 147 first-grade pupils from two kindergarten schools in Kuwait, whose parents gave their written consent, were included. The children were examined by one dentist using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. After the examination, sealants and fluoride varnish were applied on the selected occlusal surfaces of primary molars by another dentist. The jaw quadrant for intervention was selected randomly; molars on the contralateral side of the mouth received the contralateral intervention. Examinations and intervention were provided on the school premises in the mobile dental unit with a portable spotlight. Moisture was controlled by cotton rolls, suction and air drying. The follow-up examinations were conducted after 1 year. All children received fluoride varnish before and 6 months after the intervention. From 267 matched pairs of occlusal surfaces of primary molars, varnished surfaces were significantly more likely to develop new caries lesions than the sealed ones (odds ratio = 2.92; 95% confidence interval = 1.82-4.71) during the 1-year follow-up. The majority (73.0%) of the sealants were completely retained and 15.1% partially. Sealing fissures seems to be better in preventing occlusal caries lesions in primary molars than applying only fluoride varnish. After 1 year, the majority of sealants were retained sound. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

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    Spjut Jansson B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta Spjut Jansson,1–3 Carmela Miniscalco,1,4 Joakim Westerlund,1,5 Anne-Katrin Kantzer,1,6 Elisabeth Fernell,1 Christopher Gillberg1 1Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Habilitation, 3Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 4Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Organization, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular and only home-based (IL Modified and eclectic interventions.Results: There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion: The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preschool children, early intervention, ABA, cognitive function, follow-up

  3. Evaluation of the Electrically Evoked Action Potential Threshold Changes in Three Months after Receiving the Device in Children with Cochlear Implant

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    Alireza Pourjavid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In neural response telemetry (NRT, intracochlear electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve and record the neural responses. The electrical stimulation send to the auditory nerve by an electrode and the resulted response, called electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP, is recorded by an adjacent electrode. The most important clinical applications of this test are evaluation and monitoring the intra and postoperative responses of auditory nerve and help to primary setting of speech processor. The aim of this study was evaluating of the potential's threshold changes in three monthes after receiving the devise in pediatric cochlear implant recipients.Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study evaluated the potential's threshold in four given electrodes in four sessions after receiving the device by approximately one months intervals in children implanted in Amir Alam and Hazrat-e-Rasoul hospitals in 2007, July to December.Results: ECAP mean threshold level of each electrode did not significantly change in differnent sessions, while there was significant difference between apical and basal electrodes’ responses in every session(p<0.001.Conclusion: The reliabiliy of the responses result in more certainty of clinician to fit the speech processor for a long time. Better responses in apical electrodes may lead to develope an effective coding strategy.

  4. 人工耳蜗植入围手术期的心理护理探讨%Perioperative Psychological Nursing in Children Receiving Cochlear Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金伟; 宁丽丽; 刘燕京; 高小宁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of perioperative psychological nursing in children receiving cochlear implant. Methods One hundred twenty seven parents of deaf children who were to receive cochlear implant completed a questionnaire for assessment of their psychological conditions and personality characteristics and for scoring anxiety levels. Games, health knowledge forum, group discussion and successful case presentation were administered as targeted nursing intervention to help the children and parents overcome negative psychological difficulties before, during and after the im⁃plant procedure. Results Anxiety was identified in 116 parents (91.3%), seemingly correlated to the level of their education and professions. The chochlear implant procedure was successful in all children in this study, with good results. All parents were willing to continue the speech and language rehabilitation in cooperation with medical stuff, with boosted confidence in acquisition of language ability both in the children and parents. Conclusion Systematic psychological nursing is not only an important factor for successful operation, but also an important measure to lessen the negative psychological influence on parents. It is also beneficial to postoperative speech and language rehabilitation.%  目的探讨心理护理在人工耳蜗植入患儿围手术期的作用.方法对127例患儿父母进行问卷调查,收集基本资料和对焦虑水平进行评分,分别采用导入式游戏、开展健康知识讲座、召开沟通座谈会、成功病例介绍等形式帮助患儿及父母在手术前、术中及术后各期存在负性心理时给予针对性心理护理干预.结果116名(91.3%)患儿父母存在焦虑,父母文化程度高及职业为干部者焦虑比例高.所有人工耳蜗植入患儿都能顺利地完成手术,术后效果好,同时患儿家长也都愿意积极的配合医护人员做好后期的言语康复训练,提高了患儿及家

  5. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3 genotype in children receiving HAART: an eight-year retrospective study.

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    Carlos A Rocco

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes have shown to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Our objective was to confirm the association between the APOC3 genotype and plasma lipid levels in an HIV-1-infected pediatric cohort exposed to HAART. A total of 130 HIV-1-infected children/adolescents that attended a reference center in Argentina were selected for an 8-year longitudinal study with retrospective data collection. Longitudinal measurements of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed under linear or generalized linear mixed models. The contribution of the APOC3 genotype at sites -482, -455 and 3238 to plasma lipid levels prediction was tested after adjusting for potential confounders. Four major APOC3 haplotypes were observed for sites -482/-455/3238, with estimated frequencies of 0.60 (C/T/C, 0.14 (T/C/C, 0.11 (C/C/C, and 0.11 (T/C/G. The APOC3 genotype showed a significant effect only for the prediction of total cholesterol levels (p<0.0001. However, the magnitude of the differences observed was dependent on the drug combination (p = 0.0007 and the drug exposure duration at the time of the plasma lipid measurement (p = 0.0002. A lower risk of hypercholesterolemia was predicted for double and triple heterozygous individuals, mainly at the first few months after the initiation of Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. We report for the first time a significant contribution of the genotype to total cholesterol levels in a pediatric cohort under HAART. The genetic determination of APOC3 might have an impact on a large portion of HIV-1-infected children at the time of choosing the treatment regimens or on the counter-measures against the adverse effects of drugs.

  6. Long-term anti-HBs antibody persistence and immune memory in children and adolescents who received routine childhood hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, Ulrich; Bleckmann, Gerhard; Crasta, Priya Diana; Leyssen, Maarten; Messier, Marc; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie; Hardt, Karin

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents data from two studies that evaluated 5-y and 10-y persistence of antibodies against hepatitis B (HBV) surface antigen (anti-HBs) and immune response to an HBV vaccine challenge in children and adolescents who had received three doses of a HBV vaccine in infancy as part of routine clinical practice [NCT00519649/NCT00984139]. Anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥ 10 mIU/ml persisted in 83.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.5–87.5) and 78.3% (95% CI: 73.1–83.0) of subjects aged 7–8 y and 12–13 y, respectively 5–10 y after infant vaccination. One month postchallenge dose, 98.2% (95% CI: 95.9–99.4) and 93.7% (95% CI: 90.2–96.2) of subjects in the two age groups, respectively had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥ 100 mIU/ml. Overall, 99.6% (95% CI: 98–100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 94.5–98.8) of subjects aged 7–8 y and 12–13 y mounted an anamnestic response to the HBV challenge dose, which was well-tolerated. Healthy children aged 7–8 y and adolescents aged 12–13 y received three doses of a monovalent pediatric HBV vaccine (10 μg of HBsAg) before 18 mo of age. Serum samples collected before and one month post-HBV vaccine challenge dose were tested for anti-HBs antibody concentrations. Safety assessments were made for the HBV vaccine challenge dose. A three-dose childhood HBV immunization regimen induced persistence of antibodies against HBV infection for 10 y, up to adolescence. This vaccination regimen also conferred long-term immune memory against HBV as evidenced by the strong anamnestic response to the HBV vaccine challenge, despite waning anti-HBs antibody levels.

  7. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange May Improve Hemodynamics and Organ Failure Among Children with Sepsis-Induced Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Receiving Extracorporeal Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yu; Cornell, Timothy T.; Cooley, Elaine G.; Beckman, Craig N.; Baldridge, Paula K.; Mottes, Theresa A.; Luckritz, Kera E.; Plomaritas, Kathryn S.; Meade, J. Michael; Odetola, Folafoluwa O.; Han, Yong Y.; Blatt, Neal B.; Annich, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on hemodynamics, organ failure, and survival in children with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to sepsis requiring extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Design A retrospective analysis. Setting A pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in an academic children’s hospital. Patients 14 consecutive children with sepsis and MODS who received TPE while on ECLS from 2005 to 2013. Interventions Median of 3 cycles of TPE with median of 1.0 times the estimated plasma volume per exchange. Measurements and Main Results Organ Failure Index (OFI) and Vasoactive-Inotropic Score (VIS) were measured before and after TPE use. PICU survival in our cohort was 71.4%. OFI decreased in patients following TPE [pre: 4.1 ± 0.7 vs. post: 2.9 ± 0.9 (mean ±SD); p = 0.0004]. Patients showed improved VIS following TPE [pre: 24.5 (13.0–69.8) vs. post: 5.0 (1.5–7.0), median (25th–75th); p = 0.0002]. Among all patients, the change in OFI was greater for early TPE use than late use [pre: −1.7 ±1.2 vs. post: −0.9 ±0.6; p = 0.14], similar to the change in VIS [pre: −67.5 (28.0–171.2) vs. post: −12.0 (7.2–18.5); p = 0.02]. Among survivors, the change in OFI was greater among early TPE use than late use [early: −2.3 ±1.0 vs. late: −0.8 ± 0.8; p = 0.03], as was the change in VIS [early: −42.0 (16.0–76.3) vs. late: −12.0 (5.3–29.0); p=0.17]. The mean duration of ECLS after TPE according to timing of TPE was not statistically different among all patients or among survivors. Conclusions The use of TPE in children on ECLS with sepsis-induced MODS is associated with organ failure recovery and improved hemodynamic status. Initiating TPE early in the hospital course was associated with greater improvement in organ dysfunction and decreased requirement for vasoactive and/or inotropic agents. PMID:25599148

  8. FR901228 in Treating Children With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors or Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. Flavopiridol in Treating Children With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors or Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Retinoblastoma; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  10. Immune Activation and Viral Replication after Vaccination with an Influenza A H1N1 2009 Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

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    Nattawat Onlamoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group. The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.

  11. Testing the effectiveness of in-home behavioral economics strategies to increase vegetable intake, liking, and variety among children residing in households that receive food assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Swenson, Alison; Vickers, Zata; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph P; Rendahl, Aaron; Reicks, Marla

    2015-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of behavioral economics strategies for increasing vegetable intake, variety, and liking among children residing in homes receiving food assistance. A randomized controlled trial with data collected at baseline, once weekly for 6 weeks, and at study conclusion. Family homes. Families with a child (9-12 years) will be recruited through community organizations and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 36) or control (n = 10) group. The intervention group will incorporate a new behavioral economics strategy during home dinner meal occasions each week for 6 weeks. Strategies are simple and low-cost. The primary dependent variable will be child's dinner meal vegetable consumption based on weekly reports by caregivers. Fixed independent variables will include the strategy and week of strategy implementation. Secondary dependent variables will include vegetable liking and variety of vegetables consumed based on data collected at baseline and study conclusion. Mean vegetable intake for each strategy across families will be compared using a mixed-model analysis of variance with a random effect for child. In additionally, overall mean changes in vegetable consumption, variety, and liking will be compared between intervention and control groups. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. No evidence of chromosome damage in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after receiving {sup 131}I radiometabolic therapy, as evaluated by micronucleus assay and microarray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, Giovanni; Fiore, Lisa; Massart, Francesco; Saggese, Giuseppe [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pisa (Italy); Boni, Giuseppe; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Mariani, Giuliano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Fabiani, Barbara; Verola, Carmela; Scarpato, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Unit of Genetics, Mutagenesis and Environmental Epidemiology, Pisa (Italy); Traino, Claudio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Health Physics Service, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    As {sup 131}I therapy, used to achieve ablation of thyroid gland remnant, can cause chromosome damage in cultured peripheral lymphocytes especially, we investigated whether administration of radioiodine may induce early genome damage in peripheral T lymphocytes of adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We studied 11 patients, aged 14.8 {+-} 3.1 years, who assumed {sup 131}I (range: 1.11-4.44 GBq) to ablate thyroid remnant. A blood sample for micronucleus assay and for evaluating expression of some genes involved in the DNA repair or the apoptosis pathways was obtained from each patient 1 h before (T{sub 0}) and 24 (T{sub 1}) and 48 h (T{sub 2}) post-radioiodine administration. Compared to T{sub 0}, we did not find any difference in the number of micronucleated cells at both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} in any subject. Nine out of 11 patients had altered expression levels in a majority of the DNA repair and apoptosis genes at T{sub 1}, which decreased at T{sub 2}. We demonstrated for the first time that peripheral cells of DTC children and adolescents who received {sup 131}I at a mean dosage of 3.50 {+-} 0.37 GBq did not show chromosome damage within 48 h from the end of radiometabolic therapy. This may be due to a prompt activation of the cell machinery that maintains the integrity of the genome to prevent harmful double-strand breaks from progressing to chromosome mutations, either by repairing the lesions or by eliminating the most seriously damaged cells via apoptosis. (orig.)

  13. Solid tumors of the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation: from the radiologic pathology archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ellen M; Biko, David M; Arzamendi, Aaron M; Meldrum, Jaren T; Stocker, J Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal solid tumors are far less common in children than in adults, and the histologic spectrum of neoplasms of the peritoneum and its specialized folds in young patients differs from that in older patients. Localized masses may be caused by inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, Castleman disease, mesenteric fibromatosis, or other mesenchymal masses. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a mesenchymal tumor of borderline biologic potential that appears as a solitary circumscribed mass, possibly with central calcification. Castleman disease is an idiopathic lymphoproliferative disorder that appears as a circumscribed, intensely enhancing mass in the mesentery. Mesenteric fibromatosis, or intra-abdominal desmoid tumor, is a benign tumor of mesenchymal origin associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Mesenteric fibromatosis appears as a mildly enhancing, circumscribed solitary mass without metastases. Diffuse peritoneal disease may be due to desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or rhabdomyosarcoma. DSRCT is a rare member of the small round blue cell tumor family that causes diffuse peritoneal masses without a visible primary tumor. A dominant mass is typically found in the retrovesical space. Burkitt lymphoma is a pediatric tumor that manifests with extensive disease because of its short doubling time. The bowel and adjacent mesentery are commonly involved. Rhabdomyosarcoma may arise as a primary tumor of the omentum or may spread from a primary tumor in the bladder, prostate, or scrotum. Knowledge of this spectrum of disease allows the radiologist to provide an appropriate differential diagnosis and suggest proper patient management.

  14. Children who received PCV-10 vaccine from a two-dose vial without preservative are not more likely to develop injection site abscess compared with those who received pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine: a longitudinal multi-site study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemane Berhane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The single dose pneumonia ten-valent vaccine has been widely used and is highly efficacious against selected strains Streptococcus pneumonia. A two-dose vial without preservative is being introduced in developing countries to reduce the cost of the vaccine. In routine settings improper immunization practice could result in microbial contamination leading to adverse events following immunization. OBJECTIVE: To monitor adverse events following immunization recommended for routine administration during infancy by comparing the rate of injection-site abscess between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and children who received the Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine. METHODS: A longitudinal population-based multi-site observational study was conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The study was conducted in four existing Health and Demographic Surveillance sites run by public universities of Abraminch, Haramaya, Gondar and Mekelle. Adverse events following Immunization were monitored by trained data collectors. Children were identified at the time of vaccination and followed at home at 48 hour and 7 day following immunization. Incidence of abscess and relative risk with the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated to examine the risk difference in the comparison groups. RESULTS: A total of 55, 268 PCV and 37, 480 Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccinations were observed. A total of 19 adverse events following immunization, 10 abscesses and 9 deaths, were observed during the one year study period. The risk of developing abscess was not statistically different between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and those received Pentavalent (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 0.576-12.770, and between children who received the first aliquot of PCV and those received the second aliquot of PCV (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.485-6.091. CONCLUSION: No significant increase in the risk of injection site abscess was observed between the injection sites of PCV

  15. Erratum to "Progress and Outcomes for Children with Autism Receiving Parent-Managed Intensive Interventions" [Research in Developmental Disabilities 22 (2001) 425-447].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Peter; Eikeseth, Svein; Martin, Neil T.; Mudford, Oliver C.; Reeves, David

    2002-01-01

    This corrected article on parent-managed interventions with children with autism reports on analysis of data on 66 children. Findings generally indicated that, after 31.6 months of intervention, IQ scores had not changed but adaptive behavior scores had increased significantly (n=21). However, overall interventions did not reproduce results from…

  16. Received, Understanding and Satisfaction of National Health Insurance Premium Subsidy Scheme by Families of Children with Disabilities: A Census Study in Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Ya-Wen; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chwo, Miao-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to provide the first data on utilization, understanding and satisfaction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) premium subsidy for families of children with disabilities in Taipei. Data from the 2001 Taipei Early Intervention Utilization and Evaluation Survey for Aged 0-6 Children with Disabilities were…

  17. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. Methods The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of su...

  18. Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Drubi Nogueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the breastfeeding history (BF and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SCD aged between 2 and 6 years, regularly followed at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and gender. RESULTS: The mean (SD age was 3.7 (1.1 years, 52.9% were boys and 53.5% had SCA (hemoglobin SS. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBR up to six months of age was 31.5%, the median EBR times (p25-p75 was 90.0 (24.0-180.0 days and the median weaning ages (p25-p75 was 360.0 (90.0-720.0 days respectively. Normal W/H children experienced EBR for a mean duration almost four times longer than malnourished children (p=0.01, and were weaned later (p<0.05. Height deficit was found in 5.0% of children, while all the children with severe short stature had had SCA (hemoglobin SS and were older than 4 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: EBF time and weaning age were greater than that found in the literature, which is a possible effect of the multidisciplinary follow-up. Duration of EBF and later weaning were associated with improved anthropometric indicators.

  19. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  20. My partner wants a child: A cross-sectional study of the determinants of the desire for children among mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples receiving care in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirembe Florence

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The percentages of couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships range from 5 to 31% in the various countries of Africa. Given the importance of procreation and the lack of assisted reproduction to avoid partner transmission, members of these couples are faced with a serious dilemma even after the challenge of disclosing their HIV status to their spouses. Identifying the determinants of the decision to have children among sero-discordant couples will help in setting reproductive intervention priorities in resource-poor countries. Methods We conducted a survey among 114 mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples (228 individuals receiving HIV care at four centres in Greater Kampala, between June and December 2007. The data we collected was classified according to whether the man or the woman was HIV-positive. We carried out multivariate logistic regression modelling to determine factors (age, gender, and the influences of relatives and of health workers, ART knowledge, and disclosure that are independently associated with a desire for children. Results The majority, 59%, of the participants, desired to have children. The belief that their partner wanted children was a major determinant of the desire to have children, irrespective of the HIV sero-status (adjusted odds ratio 24.0 (95% CI 9.15, 105.4. Among couples in which the woman was HIV-positive, young age and relatives' expectations for children were significantly associated with increased fertility desire, while among couples in which the man was positive; knowledge of ART effectiveness was associated with increased fertility desire. Availability of information on contraception was associated with decreased fertility desire. Conclusions The gender of the positive partner affects the factors associated with a desire for children. Interventions targeting sero-discordant couples should explore contraceptive choices, the cultural importance of children, and partner

  1. The Swiss iodized salt program provides adequate iodine for school children and pregnant women, but weaning infants not receiving iodine-containing complementary foods as well as their mothers are iodine deficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Maria; Aeberli, Isabelle; Wüst, Nadja; Piacenza, Alberta M; Bucher, Tamara; Henschen, Isabelle; Haldimann, Max; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2010-12-01

    If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine fortification of infant formula milk (IFM) and complementary foods (CF) is likely important. The objective of the study was to first confirm that Swiss school children and pregnant women remain iodine sufficient and then to assess iodine status in infancy and the relative contribution of breast milk and IFM/CF to their iodine intakes. We measured urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in national cross-sectional samples of: 1) pregnant women (n=648); 2) school children (n=916); 3) infants at three time points: at 3-4 d after birth and at 6 and 12 months (n=875); and 4) breast-feeding mothers (n=507). We measured breast milk iodine concentrations in the mothers, assessed iodine sources in infant diets, and analyzed iodine content of commercial IFM/CFs (n=22) and salt samples from the school children's households (n=266). Median (m) UICs in pregnant women (162 μg/liter) and school children (120 μg/liter) were sufficient, and 80% of the household salt was adequately iodized (≥15 ppm). However, mUICs in infants not receiving IFM/CF were not sufficient: 1) mUIC in breast-fed infants (82 μg/liter) was lower than in non-breast-fed infants (105 μg/liter) (P<0.001) and 2) mUIC in breast-fed weaning infants not receiving IFM/CF (70 μg/liter) was lower than infants receiving IFM (109 μg/liter) (P<0.01). mUIC was low in lactating mothers (67 μg/liter) and median breast milk iodine concentration was 49 μg/kg. In countries in which iodized salt programs supply sufficient iodine to older children and pregnant women, weaning infants, particularly those not receiving iodine-containing IFM, may be at risk of inadequate iodine intakes.

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW van; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results with respect to immunogenicity as well as reactogenicity of a monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccine (MonoMen) used as booster vaccination in children previously vaccinated with a hexavalent MenB vaccine. The participants in this study were immunised in 1995-1996 with hexav

  3. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  4. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  5. Short-term risk of disease progression in HIV-1-infected children receiving no antiretroviral therapy or zidovudine monotherapy : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunn, DT; Gibb, DM; Duong, T; Babiker, AG; Bulterys, M; Gabiano, C; Galli, L; Giaquinto, C; Harris, DR; Hughes, M; McKinney, R; Mofenson, L; Moye, J; Newell, ML; Pahwa, S; Palumbo, P; Rudin, C; Schluchter, M; Sharland, M; Shearer, W; Thompson, B; Tookey, P

    2003-01-01

    Background Data on the short-term risk of disease progression in HIV-1-infected children are needed to address the question of when to begin combination antiretroviral therapy. We estimated 12-month risks of progression to AIDS and death, by age and most recent measurement of CD4 T-cell percentage (

  6. Number and Controllability of Reinforcers as Predictors of Individual Outcome for Children with Autism Receiving Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall, Lars; Eikeseth, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Although Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is an effective treatment for many children with autism, there is a substantial individual difference in outcome. This study was designed to investigate whether treatment gains were associated with the number and type of stimuli that function as reinforcers for 21 preschool-aged children…

  7. Evaluation of viral load thresholds for predicting new World Health Organization stage 3 and 4 events in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siberry, George K; Harris, D Robert; Oliveira, Ricardo Hugo; Krauss, Margot R; Hofer, Cristina B; Tiraboschi, Adriana Aparecida; Marques, Heloisa; Succi, Regina C; Abreu, Thalita; Della Negra, Marinella; Mofenson, Lynne M; Hazra, Rohan

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated a wide range of viral load (VL) thresholds to identify a cut-point that best predicts new clinical events in children on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to assess the adjusted risk for World Health Organization stage 3 or 4 clinical events (WHO events) as a function of time-varying CD4, VL, and hemoglobin values in a cohort study of Latin American children on HAART ≥6 months. Models were fit using different VL cut-points between 400 and 50,000 copies per milliliter, with model fit evaluated on the basis of the minimum Akaike information criterion value, a standard model fit statistic. Models were based on 67 subjects with WHO events out of 550 subjects on study. The VL cut-points of >2600 and >32,000 copies per milliliter corresponded to the lowest Akaike information criterion values and were associated with the highest hazard ratios (2.0, P = 0.015; and 2.1, P = 0.0058, respectively) for WHO events. In HIV-infected Latin American children on stable HAART, 2 distinct VL thresholds (>2600 and >32,000 copies/mL) were identified for predicting children at significantly increased risk for HIV-related clinical illness, after accounting for CD4 level, hemoglobin level, and other significant factors.

  8. Bilingual Vocabulary Production in Young Children Receiving Maltese-Dominant Exposure: Individual Differences and the Influence of Demographic and Language Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    This study explored individual variability in the bilingual vocabularies of 65 Maltese children aged 23-27 months (N = 33) and 30-34 months (N = 32). Most of the participants' direct input consisted of Maltese sentences embedding English words. Bilingualism was present at the societal level. Word production was measured through parental report,…

  9. Bilingual Vocabulary Production in Young Children Receiving Maltese-Dominant Exposure: Individual Differences and the Influence of Demographic and Language Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    This study explored individual variability in the bilingual vocabularies of 65 Maltese children aged 23-27 months (N = 33) and 30-34 months (N = 32). Most of the participants' direct input consisted of Maltese sentences embedding English words. Bilingualism was present at the societal level. Word production was measured through parental report,…

  10. Evaluation of viral load thresholds for predicting new WHO Stage 3 and 4 events in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siberry, George K; Harris, D. Robert; Oliveira, Ricardo Hugo; Krauss, Margot R.; Hofer, Cristina B.; Tiraboschi, Adriana Aparecida; Marques, Heloisa; Succi, Regina C.; Abreu, Thalita; Negra, Marinella Della; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Hazra, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a wide range of viral load (VL) thresholds to identify a cut-point that best predicts new clinical events in children on stable highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to assess the adjusted risk of World Health Organization stage 3 or 4 clinical events (WHO events) as a function of time-varying CD4, VL, and hemoglobin values in a cohort study of Latin American children on HAART ≥ 6 months. Models were fit using different VL cut-points between 400 and 50,000 copies/mL, with model fit evaluated on the basis of the minimum Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) value, a standard model fit statistic. Results Models were based on 67 subjects with WHO events out of 550 subjects on study. The VL cutpoints of > 2600 copies/mL and > 32,000 copies/mL corresponded to the lowest AIC values and were associated with the highest hazard ratios [2.0 (p = 0.015) and 2.1 (p = 0.0058), respectively] for WHO events. Conclusions In HIV-infected Latin American children on stable HAART, two distinct VL thresholds (> 2,600 copies/mL and > 32,000 copies/mL) were identified for predicting children at significantly increased risk of HIV-related clinical illness, after accounting for CD4 level, hemoglobin level, and other significant factors. PMID:22343177

  11. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.; Matee, M.I.N.; Simon, E.N.; Kikwilu, E.; Moshi, M.J.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+

  12. Oral health status of children with special health care needs receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia at the dental clinic of Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chen

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Unmet dental needs and caries experience indices remain high in CSHCN, regardless of the types and severity of disability. However, the younger the age at which CSHCN received their first dental treatment, the more effective the dental rehabilitation was. Parental education regarding early dental intervention and a preventive approach for enhanced oral care is mandatory.

  13. Validity of Measures Reflecting Visual Discrimination and Linguistic Constructs for a Sample of Second-Grade Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1984-01-01

    The concurrent and discriminant validity of La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, a Spanish auditory perception test, and the validity of the perceptual deficit hypothesis and of hypotheses derived from verbal processing theory were evaluated in a sample of 114 second-grade Hispanic pupils receiving reading instruction in Spanish. (Author/BW)

  14. Knemometry Assessment of Short-term Growth in Children With Asthma Receiving Fluticasone Furoate for 2 Weeks: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthers, Ole D; Stone, Sally; Bareille, Philippe; Tomkins, Susan; Khindri, Sanjeev

    2017-06-01

    A dry powder inhaler formulation of the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate (FF) is being evaluated for use in children. An important potential risk associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids in children is growth suppression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the short-term lower leg growth in children with asthma treated for 2 weeks with inhaled FF versus placebo from the ELLIPTA inhaler. Prepubertal children with persistent asthma (n = 60; aged 5 to <12 years) were recruited into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover, noninferiority study. The study consisted of four 2-week periods: run-in, 2 treatment periods, 1 washout period, and a 1-week follow-up period. Interventions were FF 50 µg and placebo once daily in the evening. Lower leg length was measured by using knemometry. The randomized ITT population comprised 36 boys and 24 girls with a mean age of 8.7 (standard deviation, 1.5; range, 5-11) years; 58% had a duration of asthma ≥5 years. Fifty-eight subjects completed both treatment periods. The least squares mean growth rate was 0.31 mm/week during treatment with FF and 0.36 mm/week during the placebo period. The difference in adjusted least squares mean growth rates between FF and placebo was -0.052 mm/week with a 95% CI of -0.122 to 0.018. This finding was greater than the prespecified noninferiority margin of -0.20 mm/week. The overall incidence of adverse events was 35% with placebo and 22% with FF. Inhaled FF 50 µg provided once daily for 2 weeks was noninferior to placebo in terms of effects on short-term lower leg growth in children with asthma. To further quantify the risk of growth suppression in children, intermediate-term growth studies should be conducted. Inhaled FF 50 µg was well tolerated in this study population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02502734. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of treatment failure and time to detection and switching in HIV-infected Ethiopian children receiving first line anti-retroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Tigist; Tilahun, Birkneh; Worku, Alemayehu

    2012-08-24

    The emergence of resistance to first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen leads to the need for more expensive and less tolerable second line drugs. Hence, it is essential to identify and address factors associated with an increased probability of first line ART regimen failure. The objective of this article is to report on the predictors of first line ART regimen failure, the detection rate of ART regime failure, and the delay in switching to second line ART drugs. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2005 to 2011. All HIV infected children under the age of 15 who took first line ART for at least six months at the four major hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were included. Data were collected, entered and analyzed using Epi info/ENA version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16. The Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the predictors of first line ART failure. Data of 1186 children were analyzed. Five hundred seventy seven (48.8%) were males with a mean age of 6.22 (SD = 3.10) years. Of the 167(14.1%) children who had treatment failure, 70 (5.9%) had only clinical failure, 79 (6.7%) had only immunologic failure, and 18 (1.5%) had both clinical and immunologic failure. Patients who had height for age in the third percentile or less at initiation of ART were found to have higher probability of ART treatment failure [Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR), 3.25 95% CI, 1.00-10.58]. Patients who were less than three years old [AHR, 1.85 95% CI, 1.24-2.76], chronic diarrhea after initiation of antiretroviral treatment [AHR, 3.44 95% CI, 1.37-8.62], ART drug substitution [AHR, 1.70 95% CI, 1.05-2.73] and base line CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 [AHR, 2.30 95% CI, 1.28-4.14] were also found to be at higher risk of treatment failure. Of all the 167 first line ART failure cases, only 24 (14.4%) were switched to second line ART with a mean delay of 24 (SD = 11.67) months. The remaining 143 (85.6%) cases were diagnosed to have treatment failure retrospectively by the

  16. Predictors of treatment failure and time to detection and switching in HIV-infected Ethiopian children receiving first line anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Tigist

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of resistance to first line antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen leads to the need for more expensive and less tolerable second line drugs. Hence, it is essential to identify and address factors associated with an increased probability of first line ART regimen failure. The objective of this article is to report on the predictors of first line ART regimen failure, the detection rate of ART regime failure, and the delay in switching to second line ART drugs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2005 to 2011. All HIV infected children under the age of 15 who took first line ART for at least six months at the four major hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were included. Data were collected, entered and analyzed using Epi info/ENA version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16. The Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the predictors of first line ART failure. Results Data of 1186 children were analyzed. Five hundred seventy seven (48.8% were males with a mean age of 6.22 (SD = 3.10 years. Of the 167(14.1% children who had treatment failure, 70 (5.9% had only clinical failure, 79 (6.7% had only immunologic failure, and 18 (1.5% had both clinical and immunologic failure. Patients who had height for age in the third percentile or less at initiation of ART were found to have higher probability of ART treatment failure [Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR, 3.25 95% CI, 1.00-10.58]. Patients who were less than three years old [AHR, 1.85 95% CI, 1.24-2.76], chronic diarrhea after initiation of antiretroviral treatment [AHR, 3.44 95% CI, 1.37-8.62], ART drug substitution [AHR, 1.70 95% CI, 1.05-2.73] and base line CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 [AHR, 2.30 95% CI, 1.28-4.14] were also found to be at higher risk of treatment failure. Of all the 167 first line ART failure cases, only 24 (14.4% were switched to second line ART with a mean delay of 24 (SD = 11.67 months. The remaining 143 (85.6% cases were diagnosed

  17. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months......, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective...... than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558....

  18. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  19. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  20. Mortality risk disparities in children receiving chronic renal replacement therapy for the treatment of end-stage renal disease across Europe: an ESPN-ERA/EDTA registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Schaefer, Franz; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Holman, Rebecca; Baiko, Sergey; Baskın, Esra; Bjerre, Anna; Cloarec, Sylvie; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A M; Espinosa, Laura; Heaf, James; Stone, Rosário; Shtiza, Diamant; Zagozdzon, Ilona; Harambat, Jérôme; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W; van Stralen, Karlijn J

    2017-05-27

    We explored the variation in country mortality rates in the paediatric population receiving renal replacement therapy across Europe, and estimated how much of this variation could be explained by patient-level and country-level factors. In this registry analysis, we extracted patient data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry for 32 European countries. We included incident patients younger than 19 years receiving renal replacement therapy. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and the explained variation were modelled for patient-level and country-level factors with multilevel Cox regression. The primary outcome studied was all-cause mortality while on renal replacement therapy. Between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2013, the overall 5 year renal replacement therapy mortality rate was 15·8 deaths per 1000 patient-years (IQR 6·4-16·4). France had a mortality rate (9·2) of more than 3 SDs better, and Russia (35·2), Poland (39·9), Romania (47·4), and Bulgaria (68·6) had mortality rates more than 3 SDs worse than the European average. Public health expenditure was inversely associated with mortality risk (per SD increase, aHR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52-0·91) and explained 67% of the variation in renal replacement therapy mortality rates between countries. Child mortality rates showed a significant association with renal replacement therapy mortality, albeit mediated by macroeconomics (eg, neonatal mortality reduced from 1·31 [95% CI 1·13-1·53], p=0·0005, to 1·21 [0·97-1·51], p=0·10). After accounting for country distributions of patient age, the variation in renal replacement therapy mortality rates between countries increased by 21%. Substantial international variation exists in paediatric renal replacement therapy mortality rates across Europe, most of which was explained by disparities in public health expenditure, which seems to limit the availability and

  1. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Sharp, Susan E.; Gelfand, Michael J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Turpin, Brian K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  2. 儿童髓母细胞瘤34例三维适形放射治疗的疗效分析%The follow-up of 34 children with medulloblastoma who received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfeng He; Siheng Ha; Changsheng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In our investigation, we studied the patients with medulloblastoma who received 3-dimensional con- formal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and recorded their effects, side effects and failure reasons. Methods: From August 2001 to August 2007, 34 children with medulloblastoma were treated in our hospital. The age at diagnosis was 3-16 years old, and the mean age at diagnosis was 9.5 years old. Among all the patients, 16 cases were included in the high risk group and 18cases were included in the low risk group. All the patients were performed total resection or subtotal resection and no patientsreceived radiotherapy or chemotherapy before operation. All patients received 3DCRT within 3 weeks after resection. The dose of 30 Gy were given to the whole brain and whole spine, followed by 20-25 Gy boosted to the posterior brain fossa. The median fraction dose was 180 cGy. Every patient received the chemotherapy scheme of the Lomustine, Cisplatinum and Vincristine. Nobody received intrathecal chemotherapy. The tests of the complete blood count, blood biochemistry, hepatic and renal functions were required before every cycle of chemotherapy. Results: 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were 71% and 62% respectively. The median follow-up time was 36.5 months. The 5-year OS of the high risk group was 71% compared to 62% of the low risk group. There were significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.01). There were 13 failure cases in all the patients. Of these 13 patients, 10 were dead and the other 3 were alive with tumor. The complete remission (CR) rate was 70.5% and the partial remission (PR) rate was 14%. Among the failure patients, there were 3 patients (8.8%) with the recurrences located in the brain of cribriform region. The 5-year OS of the patients with preoperative metastases was 12.5% (1/8), and which of the patients with residual tumor volume > 1.5 cm3 was 0% (0/5). Through the statistic analysis, it was found that both

  3. Demonstration of the reproducibility of free-breathing diffusion-weighted MRI and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in children with solid tumours: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Keiko; Jerome, Neil P.; Collins, David J.; Orton, Matthew R.; D' Arcy, James A.; Leach, Martin O. [Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre at The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, Toni; Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, London, England (United Kingdom); Moreno, Lucas [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Divisions of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Clinical Research Programme, Madrid (Spain); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Marshall, Lynley V.; Carceller, Fernando; Zacharoulis, Stergios [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Divisions of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    The objectives are to examine the reproducibility of functional MR imaging in children with solid tumours using quantitative parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW-) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-) MRI. Patients under 16-years-of age with confirmed diagnosis of solid tumours (n = 17) underwent free-breathing DW-MRI and DCE-MRI on a 1.5 T system, repeated 24 hours later. DW-MRI (6 b-values, 0-1000 sec/mm{sup 2}) enabled monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient estimation using all (ADC{sub 0-1000}) and only ≥100 sec/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 100-1000}) b-values. DCE-MRI was used to derive the transfer constant (K{sup trans}), the efflux constant (k{sub ep}), the extracellular extravascular volume (v{sub e}), and the plasma fraction (v{sub p}), using a study cohort arterial input function (AIF) and the extended Tofts model. Initial area under the gadolinium enhancement curve and pre-contrast T{sub 1} were also calculated. Percentage coefficients of variation (CV) of all parameters were calculated. The most reproducible cohort parameters were ADC{sub 100-1000} (CV = 3.26 %), pre-contrast T{sub 1} (CV = 6.21 %), and K{sup trans} (CV = 15.23 %). The ADC{sub 100-1000} was more reproducible than ADC{sub 0-1000}, especially extracranially (CV = 2.40 % vs. 2.78 %). The AIF (n = 9) derived from this paediatric population exhibited sharper and earlier first-pass and recirculation peaks compared with the literature's adult population average. Free-breathing functional imaging protocols including DW-MRI and DCE-MRI are well-tolerated in children aged 6 - 15 with good to moderate measurement reproducibility. (orig.)

  4. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  5. Developing Children's Awareness of the Human-Animal Bond: An Assessment of the Experiences and Benefits that Children Receive in the United Animal Nation's Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the United Animal Nations (UAN) launched the Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR), an innovation that focused on mitigation of animal suffering through education. In the HEAR program, adult volunteers read carefully selected story books to children in grades 3-6 in schools or other educational settings, and hold discussions with the…

  6. Musical therapy for children receiving venous transfusion in outpatient department%浅析音乐治疗在儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗患儿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建华; 张婧雯; 张倩丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过分析患儿在北京新世纪儿童医院儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗时接受音乐治疗前后行为及言语紧张度数据,积累音乐治疗在儿科静脉穿刺输液治疗中的应用经验.方法 北京新世纪儿童医院门诊接受静脉穿刺输液治疗同时接受音乐治疗的患儿23名,采取行为评价量表和家长问卷评价患儿接受音乐治疗前后的行为和语言指标.结果 在儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗时接受音乐治疗可以使患儿语言恐惧表达率和紧张性肢体动作出现率降低,差异有统计学意义.结论 音乐治疗可以减轻静脉穿刺输液治疗对儿童的不良情绪刺激.%Objective To share the experience of musical therapy for children who receive venous transfusion in outpatient department. Methods Behavior scales and parents questionnaire were developed to obtain data before and after musical therapy for children receiving venous transfusion. Results Musical therapy could significantly reduce fearful language expression and tonic limb action. Conclusion Musical therapy was effective in reducing anxiety and distress.

  7. Application of virtual reality to children receiving removal of baby teeth%虚拟现实技术在儿童乳牙拔除术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晓菊; 毛靖

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of virtual reality as a distraction method on pain relief during baby teeth removal. Methods Totally. 120 children aged 5 - 12 years old who needed to have their baby teeth removed were recruited and divided into an observation group of 60 and a control group of 60 according to their order of treatment. Children in the control group received conventional treatment, while those in the observation group were asked to wear visual-aiding device of virtual reality system during the process of teeth removal. Results The observation group perceived less severe pain during the process of teeth removal than the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion The application of virtual reality as a distraction method can effectively relieve pain during the process of baby teeth removal for children. However, the game imbedded in the virtual reality system is claimed by some children to be too simple, which makes development of varied games in catering to children in different age groups a necessity.%目的 探索虚拟现实技术分散注意力疗法缓解儿童乳牙拔除术中疼痛的效果.方法 将120例5~12岁需拔除乳牙的患儿纳入试验,按就诊先后顺序分配到观察组和对照组各60例.对照组患儿接受常规方法拔牙,观察组患儿在常规拔牙的基础上于拔牙前5 min使用虚拟现实系统直至拔牙结束.结果 观察组患儿拔牙时疼痛程度显著低于对照组(P<0.01).结论 虚拟现实技术分散注意力疗法能有效缓解患儿乳牙拔除术中的疼痛,但游戏方法稍显简单,应针对不同年龄患儿研发适合的游戏.

  8. Diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the incidence of diabetes in HIV-infected adults receiving ART is between ... 6 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital of ... of HIV and DM in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana.

  9. Infectious Complications during Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Children with High-Risk or Recurrent Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Man; Lee, Ji Won; Yoo, Keon Hee; Kim, Yae-Jean; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed infectious complications during tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) in children and adolescents with high-risk or recurrent solid tumors. A total of 324 patients underwent their first HDCT/auto-SCT between October 2004 and September 2014, and 283 of them proceeded to their second HDCT/auto-SCT (a total of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs). During the early transplant period of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs (from the beginning of HDCT to day 30 post-transplant), bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI), respiratory virus infection, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation occurred in 7.1%, 2.3%, 13.0%, and 2.5% of HDCT/auto-SCTs, respectively. The early transplant period of the second HDCT/auto-SCT had infectious complications similar to the first HDCT/auto-SCT. During the late transplant period of HDCT/auto-SCT (from day 31 to 1 year post-transplant), bacteremia, UTI, and VZV reactivation occurred in 7.5%, 2.5%, and 3.9% of patients, respectively. Most infectious complications in the late transplant period occurred during the first 6 months post-transplant. There were no invasive fungal infections during the study period. Six patients died from infectious complications (4 from bacterial sepsis and 2 from respiratory virus infection). Our study suggests that infectious complications are similar following second and first HDCT/auto-SCT in children. PMID:27627440

  10. 毫米波多像元固态阵列接收机系统方案及关键技术%The System Solutions and Key Technology of a Millimeter-Wave Multi-Pixel Solid-State Array Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翔; 李小军; 陈振华; 葛俊祥

    2016-01-01

    The basic concept and principle of multi-pixel array receivers are introduced in this paper. A G-band multi-pixel array receiver for space application is proposed, of which the structure and performance are presented, and the key technology of the receiver is discussed. Using integrated design method, a 2 × 2 multi-pixel array receiver operating at 183GHz is designed based on solid state nonlinear devices. The input local oscillator is Ku band signal, sideband separating is adopted in this array receiver. The whole receiver is integrated and compact, which can be widely used in many kinds of passive millimeter-wave imaging system.%文章介绍了毫米波多像元阵列接收机原理、技术优势及发展现状。针对空间应用,提出了一种基于固态器件的G波段毫米波多像元阵列接收机结构,并介绍了其关键技术。以固态器件为核心,通过本振变频一体化集成设计思想,设计实现一种中心频率183GHz的2×2像元固态阵列接收机。本振输入为Ku波段信号,接收机采用直接边带分离混频方式。整个接收机模块小型紧凑,可靠性高,可用于各种空间毫米波、亚毫米波无源探测系统中。

  11. Evaluation of two educational interventions regarding prevention of early childhood caries on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-year-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Razeghi

    2017-02-01

    (pamphlet and pamphlet along with reminder on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-years-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia was assessed. Thirty seven couples of children and mothers in two groups were randomly selected. Before and three months after interventions, a standard questionnaire regarding self-reported practice of mothers on prevention of early childhood caries was completed by respondents. Moreover, oral examination including Simplified oral hygiene index (S-OHI, dmft, and white spot lesions were rerecorded at the beginning and three months after interventions. At this time in one of the groups reminder phone calls were made every month. Finally, the answers were scored and data were statistically analyzed to be compared in pre- and post-test. Results: Comparing each of the groups before and after interventions showed that in both groups there were significant differences in mothers’ perception of perceived ability to make child brush his teeth twice a day (P=0.001, and child’s tooth brushing frequency more than once a day (P=0.03. S-OHI had no significant difference after the intervention between two groups. But each group had a significant decrease three months after intervention (P=0.003. Also the mean number of white spots showed a significant decrease before and after intervention in each groups. Regarding mothers’ self-reported practice no significant difference was observed between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Using pamphlets along with or without reminder as educational measures had similar enhancing effects on the mothers’ self-reported practice on oral health of children within three months.

  12. 我国流动人口子女平等受教育权的立法保障问题探讨%Discussion about Protection of Migrant Childrens' Equal Rights to Receive Education in Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯罗妮娜

    2015-01-01

    There are many inequalities in enrolment conditions, education fees and sharing public education resources when comparing migrant children with residential children at present, which infringe the former's equal rights to receive education. As a constitutional right, kinds of social problems will arise if it is unrealized. By analyzing this problem, the article suggests from the aspect of legislative protection that the legislature record migration freedom into constitution, reform the household registration system, and enact education law and statutes aiming at protecting migrant children.%当前流动人口子女与城镇常住人口子女相比,在入学条件、费用负担、公共教育资源享用等方面存在着诸多不平等现象,平等受教育权受到严重侵害。平等受教育权是我国宪法规定的一项基本权利,而基本权利得不到实现容易导致诸多社会问题的产生。在对此问题的现状进行分析与探讨后,从立法保障层面提出了在宪法中增加“迁徙自由权”、改革户籍制度、制定专门保护流动人口子女的教育法规等建议。

  13. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  14. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  15. 哮喘患儿吸入糖皮质激素治疗5年后过敏原变化观察%Allergen sensitization changes in asthmatic children receiving inhaled corticosteroid therapy for five years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤正珍; 郑跃杰; 王和平; 宋萍; 刘晓莉; 刘萍; 白大明; 王莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解哮喘患儿吸入糖皮质激素(ICS)治疗5年后的过敏原变化情况.方法 对2003-2004年在深圳市儿童医院哮喘门诊登记且登记时均行皮肤点刺实验(SPT)并给予ICS治疗的133例哮喘患儿,进行现场回顾性调查.现场调查包括填写调查表和复查SPT.结果 133例哮喘患儿完成了5年前后的2次SPT检测,5年前121例(91%)SPT阳性,12例(9%)SPT阴性;5年后133例中119例 (89.5%)SPT检测阳性,14例(10.5%)SPT阴性,与5年前比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).5年后吸入性过敏原和食物过敏原的阳性率均无明显变化,但蟑螂和树花粉明显增加(P>0.05),牛奶、鸡蛋明显减少(P>0.05).结论 哮喘患儿5年后过敏率变化不大,吸入性过敏有所增加,食物过敏有减少趋势.屋尘螨和粉尘螨仍然是主要过敏原.ICS治疗与否对过敏情况无明显影响.%Objective To assess the allergen -sensitization changes in asthmatic children receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy for 5 years. Methods . The retrospective study was carried out in 133 asthmatic children receiving treatment of ICS from 2003-2004 in Shenzhen Children' s Hospital. The patients were assessed by questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPT).Results Totally 133 patients finished the SPT before and after five years. The positive rate of SPT in 133 cases was 91% before five years,which was not significantly different(P > 0.05)from that of the patients (89.5%)af-ter five years . There was no significant increase in food and inhalant hypersensitivity (P > 0.05) ,but Cockroach and Tree-pollen increased obviously, and milk and eggs were reduced significantly.Conclusions Allergen sensitization changes in asthmatic children received inhaled corticosteroid therapy for five years are small.Inhalant allergens increase obviously, but the tendency of food hypersensitivity is reduced.Dermatophagoldes pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farina are still the main allergen.

  16. 授权式教育在行PICC化疗患儿家属健康教育中的应用%Application of empowerment education in health education of families of children receiving chemotherapy with percutaneously inserted central catheter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈燕; 周玉峰; 王娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the application effects of empowerment education in health education for families of children receiving chemotherapy with percutaneously inserted central catheter .Method Thirty five families of chil-dren diagnosed with malignancy and placed with percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) were enrolled in this study .Anxiety indexes of families of children before and after placed with PICC were assessed by Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) established by Zung .Knowledge level of before and after PICC placement was evaluated by homemade health education evaluation .Result Compared with the parents of children before PICC treatment ,they known better of PICC after empowerment education (P< 0 .05) .Parents'anxiety was significantly reduced after PICC treatment ,There was significant differences between the two (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Empowerment education makes the families to participate in all aspects of health care ,changing their behavior and mental fitness and impro-ving their autonomy participation significantly .%目的:探讨授权式教育在行PICC化疗患儿家属健康教育中应用的效果。方法选取确诊为恶性肿瘤患儿行PICC置管的家属35例,分别在置管前和置管后采用Zung焦虑自评量表(SAS)测定家属焦虑指数,应用自制健康教育评价表观察比较置管前后家属对置管相关知识的掌握情况。结果置管后患儿家属对授权式教育获得的PICC知识掌握情况优于置管前(P<0.05),焦虑情绪明显减轻,与置管前相比差异有显著意义(P<0.05)。结论授权式教育让家庭参与健康照顾的各个方面,改变患儿家属行为方式和心理适应度,明显提升了患儿家属的自主性和参与性。

  17. Development and linear growth in diabetic children who receiving insulin pigment%强化胰岛素治疗后1型糖尿病儿童生长发育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛莉; 陆卫平; 季峰; 吕述军

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain if there is difference between the development and linear growth of children diagnosed with diabetes who have been receiving insulin pigment and unaffected children. Methods:Retrospective analysis of 57 children with diabetes who were diagnosed from the ages of 6 to 10 years old (26 boys and 31 girls),record their height and weight until they reached their 18th birthday. Results: At the onset of diabetes,diabetic children were slightly taller than unaffected children. When they reached their finial height,they were slightly shorter than unaffectd people,however,there was no significant difference between the two groups both in these two periods. The onset of puberty was delayed significantly both in boys and girls. The median age of onset of puberty was 12.62(95%CI 11.54~12.50) years in diabetic boys versus 10.55(10.27~10.79) years in general-population boys and 11.13 (95%CI 10.8~11.46) years versus 9.2 (9.06~9.32) years in girls,with the menarche of diabetic girls starting at 14.15 (13.64~14.65) years versus 12.27 (12.16~12.39) years. All the children with diabetes were thinner than the general-population children when they were diagnosed [male BMI:(14.45 ± 1.35) kg/m2 versus (16.08 ± 0.59) kg/m2,t = -0.63,P 0.05;female BMI (23.95 ± 2.37) kg/m2 versus(20.30 ± 0.00) kg/m2,t = 8.60,P < 0.05]. Conclusion:The development of patients with diabetes who have been receiving insulin pigment were still adversely affected but the finial height haven't been affected significantly. All the children, especially girls,became fatter when they reached their finial height.%目的:调查接受胰岛素治疗、血糖控制良好的1型糖尿病患儿的生长发育与一般人群是否存在差异。方法:选取自1993年1月~2003年1月于本院首次确诊的1型糖尿病患儿57例(男26例,女31例,起病年龄6~10岁)。记录并进行回顾分析其自起病至成年的身高、体重以及青春启动年龄和女性患儿

  18. [Determination of migration of 15 N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatable substances from children's latex articles by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pi; Bai, Hua; Li, Haiyu; Chen, Ming; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using solid phase extraction (SPE) has been developed for the determination of 15 N-nitrosamines from children's latex articles. Artificial saliva was used as the migration solution to extract N-nitrosamines in children' s latex articles. And then a polar modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (Chromabond Easy) was used for the selective SPE of the analytes in the migration solution. The analytes were then separated on an HP-5MS UI GC column and determined by MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Good linearity ranged from 5 microg/L to 2 000 microg/L was observed for all the compounds (R2 > 0.998) and the limits of quantification for the 15 N-nitrosamines were 0.625 - 12.50 microg/kg (S/N = 10), which were lower than the limits required by the EU 2009/48/EC Directive. The average recoveries of the target analytes at low, medium, and high spiked levels were in the ranges of 53.8% - 116.2%, 52.7% - 105.1% and 49.5% - 102.9%, respectively. The average within-day and between-day RSDs were from 1.3% to 14.0% (n = 6) and from 1.6% to 7.6% (n = 4), respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor N-nitrosamines in baby nipples and balloons, and N-nitrosamines were found in some samples. The total contents of the 15 N-nitrosamines in the analyzed nipples and balloons samples ranged from 0.049 9 mg/kg to 41.2 mg/kg. And the total contents of the N-nitrosatable substances in the analyzed samples ranged from 0.026 4 mg/kg to 12.5 mg/kg.

  19. A Phase 1 Trial of Imetelstat in Children with Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors: A Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 Consortium Study (ADVL1112)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patrick A.; Drissi, Rachid; Muscal, Jodi A.; Panditharatna, Eshini; Fouladi, Maryam; Ingle, Ashish M.; Ahern, Charlotte H.; Reid, Joel M.; Lin, Tong; Weigel, Brenda J.; Blaney, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Imetelstat is a covalently-lipidated 13-mer thiophosphoramidate oligonucleotide that acts as a potent specific inhibitor of telomerase. It binds with high affinity to the template region of the RNA component of human telomerase (hTERC ) and is a competitive inhibitor of telomerase enzymatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of imetelstat in children with recurrent or refractory solid tumors. Experimental Design Imetelstat was administered intravenously over two hours on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. Dose levels of 225, 285, and 360 mg/m2 were evaluated, using the rolling-six design. Imetelstat pharmacokinetic and correlative biology studies were also performed during the first cycle. Results Twenty subjects were enrolled (median age 14 yrs; range 3–21). Seventeen were evaluable for toxicity. The most common toxicities were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia, with dose-limiting myelosuppression in two of six patients at 360 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetics were dose dependent with a lower clearance at the highest dose level. Telomerase inhibition was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 285 and 360 mg/m2. Two confirmed partial responses osteosarcoma (n=1) and Ewing sarcoma (n=1) were observed. Conclusions The recommended phase 2 dose of imetelstat given on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycle is 285 mg/m2. PMID:24097866

  20. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  1. Percepción y expectativas de cuidadoras de niños con gran discapacidad: Sobre la atención sanitaria recibida Perception and expectations of mothers with seriously disable children on received sanitary attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Cruz-Escobosa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: (1 Conocer la percepción que tienen las cuidadoras principales de niños con Gran Discapacidad respecto a la atención recibida dentro del Sistema Sanitario Público de Andalucía. (2 Identificar propuestas de mejora para la atención integral tanto de los niños, como de sus cuidadoras. Metodología: estudio cualitativo mediante Grupo Focal con madres/padres de niños y niñas diagnosticados de patologías crónicas que generan gran dependencia con edades comprendidas entre 4 y 12 años. Resultados: las repercusiones de la enfermedad de sus hijos en sus familias y en ellas supusieron un impacto total. Expresan una falta de apoyo familiar efectivo y de tiempo para su autocuidado. Perciben un trato y una atención mejorable por parte de algunos de los profesionales de Atención Especializada. En el Centro de Salud ven muy positivo el trato de los profesionales, la accesibilidad, las facilidades que encuentran ante cualquier problema que les surge y ahora el plan de atención a cuidadoras de grandes discapacitados. Conclusiones: es necesario tener en cuenta la visión de las madres en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de sus hijos. Asumirla por los profesionales como una información valiosa va a producir una mejora en la calidad prestada. Valoran que se les informe con claridad y no técnicamente. Cualquier intervención del sistema socio-sanitario debe abarcar al paciente, a la cuidadora y a la familia, aumentar las prestaciones ofrecidas, especialmente el tratamiento rehabilitador y facilitar recursos para minimizar la sobrecarga económica y emocional.Objectives: (1 To know the perception which they have the main nursemaids of children with seriously disabilities about the attention received within the Public System Sanitary of Andalusia, identifying strong and weak points. (2 To as much identify proposals of improvement for the integral attention of the children, as of its nursemaids. Methodology: qualitative study by means of Focal

  2. Analysis on detection results of trace elements in 2 963 children receiving physical examination in Chengdu city%成都市2963例体检儿童微量元素检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 甘春玉; 李文胜; 沈川; 柳晓琴; 石华

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解成都地区0 ~14岁儿童体内微量元素的含量,分析其异常的原因,探讨干预措施及纠正方法.方法:原子吸收光谱法检测2 963例正常儿童全血微量元素(铜、锌、钙、镁、铁、铅、镉)含量,比较年龄、性别对微量元素异常的影响.结果:成都地区正常体检儿童血锌、钙、铁和铅的异常率相对较高,血铅有随年龄增加异常率增加的趋势,血铁及血钙5岁以下组与5岁以上组异常率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),各微量元素测定结果无性别差异.结论:儿童微量元素含量与生理周期及喂养习惯有密切关系,婴儿期应注意补铁,幼儿期侧重补钙,良好的生活环境及个人卫生习惯可以预防铅中毒的发生.%Objective: To understand the contents of trace elements in 0 - 14 years old children in Chengdu city, analyze the causes of abnormal trace elements contents, and explore the interventional measures and correction methods.Methods: Atomic absorption spec-trometry was used to detect the contents of copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, lead, and cadmium in whole blood of 2 963 normal children, the effects of age and gender on abnormal trace elements.Results: The abnormal rates of blood zinc, calcium, iron, and lead in children receiving physical examination in Chengdu city were relatively high, the abnormal rate of blood lead showed an increasing trend with age, there were statistically significant differences in abnormal rates of blood iron and calcium between under 5 years old group and more than 5 years old group ( P < 0.05 ) , there was no gender difference in detection results of trace elements.Conclusion: The contents of trace elements in children are correlated with physiological cycle and feeding habits.Iron supplementation during infant period should be paid more attention, and calcium supplementation should be focused on during toddle period.Good living environment and personal health habits can

  3. Zero-power receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W.

    2016-10-04

    An unpowered signal receiver and a method for signal reception detects and responds to very weak signals using pyroelectric devices as impedance transformers and/or demodulators. In some embodiments, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW) are also used. Illustrative embodiments include satellite and long distance terrestrial communications applications.

  4. Sender-Receiver Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the

  5. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p-trend fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  6. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  7. Solid propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles underlying propulsion by rocket motor are examined together with the configuration of a solid propellant motor. Solid propellants and their preparation are discussed, giving attention to homogeneous propellants, composite propellants, energetic considerations in choosing a solid propellant, the processing of composite propellants, and some examples of new developments. The performance of solid propellants is investigated, taking into account characteristics velocity, the specific impulse, and performance calculations. Aspects of propellant development considered include nonperformance requirements for solid propellants, the approach to development, propellant mechanical properties, and future trends.

  8. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Calixto FRAIZ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there was no significant difference between the preschool children who presented with caries and those who did not present with caries. However, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the upper incisors was strongly associated with the presence of dental caries. Other factors associated with the presence of caries were: period of formal education of the father or of both parents equal or inferior to 8 years, high sugar consumption and bottle-feeding during sleep. In the studied population, the dietary pattern is still the main cause of carious lesions. In addition, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the labial surface of the upper incisors must be considered as an important clinical sign, often associated with inadequate patterns of diet and oral hygiene.Esta pesquisa estudou os fatores associados com o desenvolvimento de cárie dentária em pré-escolares que recebem acompanhamento e intervenção odontológica. O estudo abrangeu 200 crianças, de 24 a 48 meses de idade, que participavam do programa da Bebê-Clínica (Universidade Estadual de Londrina havia pelo menos 12 meses. A comparação entre as crianças com cárie e sem cárie não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes com relação aos hábitos de higiene bucal. No entanto, a presença de placa visível nos incisivos superiores esteve fortemente associada com a presença de cárie dentária. Outros fatores relacionados à presença de cárie foram a educação formal

  9. Endoscopic cystoventriculostomy and ventriculocysternostomy using a recently developed 2.0-micron fiber-guided high-power diode-pumped solid state laser in children with hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Hans C.; Kruschat, Thomas; Knobloch, Torsten; Rostasy, Kevin; Buchfelder, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Preterm infants have a high incidence of post hemorrhagic or post infectious hydrocephalus often associated with ventricular or arachnoic cysts which carry a high risk of entrapment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In these cases fenestration and opening of windows within the separating membranes are neurosurgical options. Although Nd:YAG- and diode-lasers have already been used in neuroendoscopic procedures, neurosurgeons avoid the use of high energy lasers in proximity to vital structures because of potential side effects. We have used a recently developed diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser emitting light at a wavelength of 2.0 μm (Revolix TM LISA laser products, Katlenburg, Germany), which can be delivered through silica fibres towards endoscopic targets. From July 2002 until June 2004 fourteen endoscopic procedures in 12 consecutive patients (age 3 months to 12 years old) were performed. Most children suffered from complex post hemorrhagic and post infectious hydrocephalus, in whom ventriculoperitoneal shunt devices failed to restore a CSF equilibrium due to entrapment of CSF pathways by the cysts. We used two different endoscopes, a 6 mm Neuroendoscope (Braun Aesculap, Melsungen, Germany; a 4 mm miniature Neuroscope (Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). The endoscopes were connected to a standard camera and TV monitor, the laser energy was introduced through a 365 μm core diameter bare ended silica fibre (PercuFib, LISA laser products, Katlenburg, Germany) through the endoscope"s working channel. The continuous wave laser was operated at power levels from 5 to 15 Watt in continuous and chopped mode. The frequency of the laser in chopped mode was varied between 5 and 20 Hz. All patients tolerated the procedure well. No immediate or long term side effects were noted. In 3 patients with cystic compression of the 4th ventricle, insertion of a shunt device could be avoided. The authors conclude that the use of the new RevolixTM laser enables safe and effective procedures

  10. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  11. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  12. Solid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  13. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  14. Subjective discomfort in children receiving 3 T MRI and experienced adults’ perspective on children’s tolerability of 7 T: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, I-Jun; Tench, Christopher R.; Gowland, Penny; Jaspan, Tim; Dineen, Rob A; Evangelou, Nikos; Abdel-Fahim, Rasha; Whitehouse, William P; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the possible discomfort perceived by children participating in 7 T MRI research, and the age range in which children are most likely to tolerate it well. Design A cross-sectional survey using age-appropriate questionnaires containing six measures of subjective discomfort (general discomfort, dizziness, noisiness, claustrophobia and feeling of cold or warm). Setting For children, 3 T clinical scanner in a tertiary referral teaching hospital; for adults, 3 and 7 T scanner ...

  15. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  16. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Rehm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001, added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001, SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL/day; p-trend < 0.001, and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001. Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  17. Incidencia de bacteriemia asociada a catéter en niños hospitalizados que reciben nutrición parenteral Blood-stream catheter related infection in inpatient children receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vaquero Sosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones relacionadas con el catéter son la complicación más grave en los pacientes portadores de un catéter venoso central. Se considera que la nutrición parenteral (NP constituye un factor de riesgo de desarrollar una infección relacionada con el catéter (IRCat. Material y métodos: para conocer la tasa de infección y poder establecer estrategias de prevención de la infección nosocomial, se revisaron todas las historias de los 120 pacientes que recibieron NP a lo largo de 2008. Todas las historias de los pacientes con un episodio fiebre y hemocultivo positivo fueron consideradas. La tasa de infección se definió como número de episodios por cada 1000 días de NP. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 48 hemocultivos positivos. La tasa global de bacteriemia asociada a catéter fue de 37,8/1000 días de NP. La incidencia fue significativamente mayor en lactantes menores de 2 años de edad. Los gérmenes que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia fueron Estafilococo coagulasa negativo (56,8%, seguidos de bacilos Gram (20,8%, Staph aureus (12,5% y los hongos (12,5%. No encontramos diferencias en la tasa de infección cuando ajustamos por la enfermedad de base o la duración de la NP. Conclusiones: La tasa de infección en niños con NP en el hospital es considerablemente elevada. La NP parece constituir un factor de riesgo de desarrollar IRCat. Es necesario establecer políticas adecuadas y continuadas para conseguir disminuir la tasa de infección nosocomial.Blood-stream catheter related infection is the most severe complication in patients carrying a central venous catheter. Parenteral nutrition (PN use seems to be a risk factor for developing a catheter-related infection (CRI. Material & methods: In order to know the incidence of CRI in children to further implement policies to reduce nosocomial infection, we review all charts of children (1 month to 17 years who received parenteral nutrition while in hospital. All episodes of fever

  18. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  19. Solid consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  20. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  1. Analysis of physiological indexes of 128 healthy children receiving cardiopulmonary exercise testing%健康儿童128例心肺运动试验生理指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相婷; 杨巧芝

    2015-01-01

    评价运动能力的有价值指标之一.%Objective To study the physiological indexes of children receiving cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in order to provide some data for establishing the normal CPET reference value in Chinese children.Methods One hundred and twenty-eight healthy children underwent the CPET with the standard scheme.All children were divided into 3 groups according to ages:3-6 years old, >6-10 years old and > 10-14 years old.The physiological indexes of CPET were collected, including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max/kg) , oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (VO2/kg@AT), maximal tolerance power (Pmax), maximal heart rate (HRmax), peak respiratory minute volume to CO2 (peak VE/VCO2), slope of respiratory minute volume to CO2 (VE/VCO2 slope), maximal tidal volume (VTmax) and the maximal minute ventilation (VEmax).The range in normal values for physiological CPET variables was recorded.Results The VO2max/kg was (31.71 ± 7.31) mL/(min · kg), (31.05 ± 5.96) mL/(min · kg), and (34.10 ±8.72) mL/(min · kg) in the 3-6 years old group, >6-10 years old group and > 10-14 years old group of boys.The VO2/kg@AT was (28.32 ± 10.20) mL/ (min · kg), (23.13 ± 9.56) mL/(min · kg), and (22.18 ± 7.72) mL/(min · kg)in the 3-6 years old group, >6-10 years old group and > 10-14 years old group of boys.The VO2 max/kg was (29.27 ± 4.19) mL/(min · kg), (30.67 ± 5.59) mL/ (min · kg) (29.18 ± 6.56) mL/ (min · kg) in the 3-6 years old group, > 6-10 years old group and > 10-14 years old group of girls.The VO2@AT was (26.64 ±9.49) mL/(min · kg) ,(20.53 ±7.66) mL/(min · kg) ,(17.83 ±6.49) mL/(min · kg)in the 3-6 years old group, >6-10 years old group and > 10-14 years old group of girls.VO2max/kg and VO2/kg@AT did not change with age,there was no gender difference in VO2max/kg(P >0.05).VO2/kg@AT of boys was higher than girls in the 3-6 years old group(t =2.351 ,P =0.023).The Pmax,VEmax and VTmax increased with the growth of age

  2. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  3. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  4. Malaria in HIV-Infected Children Receiving HIV Protease-Inhibitor- Compared with Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy, IMPAACT P1068s, Substudy to P1060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Charlotte V.; Gabriel, Erin E.; Kamthunzi, Portia; Tegha, Gerald; Tauzie, Jean; Petzold, Elizabeth; Barlow-Mosha, Linda; Chi, Benjamin H.; Li, Yonghua; Ilmet, Tiina; Kirmse, Brian; Neal, Jillian; Parikh, Sunil; Deygoo, Nagamah; Jean Philippe, Patrick; Mofenson, Lynne; Prescott, William; Chen, Jingyang; Musoke, Philippa; Palumbo, Paul; Duffy, Patrick E.; Borkowsky, William

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed. Methods Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4–62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). We compared malaria parasite carriage by blood smear microscopy (BS) and confirmed clinical malaria incidence (CCM, or positive BS with malaria symptoms) in children initiated on HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine (NVP), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv), a protease inhibitor. Results We found an association between increased time to recurrent positive BS, but not CCM, when anti-malarial treatment and LPV-rtv based ART were used concurrently and when accounting for a LPV-rtv and antimalarial treatment interaction (adjusted HR 0.39; 95% CI (0.17,0.89); p = 0.03). Conclusions LPV-rtv in combination with malaria treatment was associated with lower risk of recurrent positive BS, but not CCM, in HIV-infected children. Larger, randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings which may permit ART optimization for malaria-endemic settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00719602 PMID:27936233

  5. A 640 GHz Planar-Diode Fundamental Mixer/Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, P.; Mehdi, I.; Dengler, R.; Lee, T.; Humphrey, D.; Pease, A.

    1998-01-01

    The design and performance of a 640 GHz solid-state receiver using a fundamental planar-Schottky-diode mixer, InP Gunn diode oscillator, whisker-contacted Schottky-varactor-diode sextupler and folded-Fabry-Perot diplexer are reported.

  6. Evaluation of risk for graft-versus-host disease in children who receive less than the full doses of mini-dose methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook Kyung Yum

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The use of cyclosporine and mini-dose methotrexate (MTX is a common strategy for graftversus- host disease (GVHD prophylaxis in allogeneic transplants. We investigated whether patients who receive fewer than the planned MTX doses are at increased risk for GVHD. Methods: The study cohort included 103 patients who received allogeneic transplants at the Department of Pediatrics of The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, from January 2010 to December 2011. MTX was administered on days 1, 3, 6, and 11 after transplant at a dose of 5 mg/ m2 each. Within the cohort, 76 patients (74% received all 4 doses of MTX [MTX(4 group], while 27 patients (26% received 0&#8211;3 doses [MTX(0–3 group]. Results: Although there was no difference in neutrophil engraftment between the 2 groups, platelet engraftment was significantly faster in the MTX(4 group (median, 15 days, compared to the MTX(0&#8211; 3 group (median, 25 days; P =0.034. The incidence of grades II&#8211;IV acute GVHD was not different between the MTX(4 and MTX(0&#8211;3 groups (P =0.417. In the multivariate study, human leukocyte antigen mismatch was the most significant factor causing grades II&#8211;IV acute GVHD (P =0.002, followed by female donor to male recipient transplant (P =0.034. No difference was found between the MTX(4 and MTX (0&#8211;3 groups regarding grades III&#8211;IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and disease-free survival. Conclusion: Our results indicate that deviations from the full dose schedule of MTX for GVHD prophylaxis do not lead to increased incidence of either acute or chronic GVHD.

  7. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  8. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  9. Nursing Experience of 852 Cases of Adverse Reaction of Chemotherapy in Children with Malignant Solid Tumors%852例实体恶性肿瘤患儿化疗不良反应的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳; 王倩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the care of children with solid malignancies 852 cases of adverse reactions to chemotherapy. Methods 852 cases occur ed during summarizes adverse reactions to chemotherapy in children with cancer care measures. Results 852 cases of cancer in children, with varying degrees of adverse ef ects during chemotherapy, through ef ective nursing intervention to reduce the pain caused by chemotherapy, reduce complications and improve quality of life, and to the successful completion of chemotherapy plan . Conclusion During chemotherapy cor ect and timely treatment and care can ef ectively reduce the incidence of complications, so that children can successful y complete chemotherapy program.%目的:探讨852例实体恶性肿瘤患儿化疗不良反应的护理。方法分析总结852例恶性肿瘤患儿化疗期间出现不良反应的护理措施。结果852例恶性肿瘤患儿,在化疗期间出现不同程度的不良反应,通过有效的护理干预,降低因化疗而带来的痛苦,减少并发症的发生,提高生活质量,并能顺利完成化疗计划。结论化疗期间正确及时的治疗与护理能有效减少并发症的发生,使患儿能顺利完成化疗计划。

  10. 126例漏斗胸患儿胸腔镜辅助行Nuss手术的术后护理%Postoperative care of 126 children with pectus excavatum receiving Nuss procedure with thoracoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸纪华; 李忠丽; 朱红梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the nursing care of 126 children with pectus excavatum after Nuss procedure with thoracoscope. The key points in nursing were intensive observation of illness condition,early detection and treatment of postoperative complications such as pneumothorax and pleura] effusion,postoperative pain management,respiratory care,instruction on rehabilitation training and discharge education. All the children underwent Nuss procedure successfully without severe postoperative complications. Three cases underwent secondary Nuss procedure and the other patients recovered well within the six months to two years of follow-up period.%报告了126例漏斗胸患儿在胸腔镜辅助下行Nuss手术的术后护理.护理重点包括:严密观察病情,及早发现和处理气胸、胸腔积液等并发症,做好疼痛管理、呼吸道护理,正确指导患儿进行康复训练,并做好出院宣教,以防支架移位.本组均顺利完成手术,无严重并发症发生.随访6个月至2年,除3例行二次Nuss术外,其余漏斗胸畸形矫治满意.

  11. Clinical Factors Associated with Long-Term Complete Remission versus Poor Response to Chemotherapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents with Kaposi Sarcoma Receiving Bleomycin and Vincristine: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Kamiyango, William; Slone, Jeremy S; Villiera, Jimmy; Kovarik, Carrie L; Cox, Carrie M; Dittmer, Dirk P; Ahmed, Saeed; Schutze, Gordon E; Scheurer, Michael E; Kazembe, Peter N; Mehta, Parth S

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in children and adolescents in Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from adult disease. We evaluated the clinical characteristics associated with long-term outcomes. We performed a retrospective observational analysis of 70 HIV-infected children and adolescents with KS less than 18 years of age diagnosed between 8/2010 and 6/2013 in Lilongwe, Malawi. Local first-line treatment included bleomycin and vincristine plus nevirapine-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Median age was 8.6 years (range 1.7-17.9); there were 35 females (50%). Most common sites of presentation were: lymph node (74%), skin (59%), subcutaneous nodules (33%), oral (27%), woody edema (24%), and visceral (16%). Eighteen (26%) presented with lymphadenopathy only. Severe CD4 suppression occurred in 28%. At time of KS diagnosis, 49% were already on HAART. Overall, 28% presented with a platelet count < 100 x 109/L and 37% with hemoglobin < 8 g/dL. The 2-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 46% and 58% respectively (median follow-up 29 months, range 15-50). Multivariable analysis of risk of death and failure to achieve EFS demonstrated that visceral disease (odds ratios [OR] 19.08 and 11.61, 95% CI 2.22-163.90 and 1.60-83.95 respectively) and presenting with more than 20 skin/oral lesions (OR 9.57 and 22.90, 95% CI 1.01-90.99 and 1.00-524.13 respectively) were independent risk factors for both. Woody edema was associated with failure to achieve EFS (OR 7.80, 95% CI 1.84-33.08) but not death. Univariable analysis revealed that lymph node involvement was favorable for EFS (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.99), while T1 TIS staging criteria, presence of cytopenias, and severe immune suppression were not associated with increased mortality. Long-term complete remission is achievable in pediatric KS, however outcomes vary according to clinical presentation. Based on clinical heterogeneity, treatment according to risk

  12. Near-Blackbody Enclosed Particle-Receiver Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sakadjian, Bartev [Babcock and Wilcox Research Center, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This 3-year project develops a technology using gas/solid, two-phase flow as a heat-transfer fluid and separated, stable, solid particles as a thermal energy storage (TES) medium for a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, to address the temperature, efficiency, and cost barriers associated with current molten-salt CSP systems. This project focused on developing a near-blackbody particle receiver and an integrated fluidized-bed heat exchanger with auxiliary components to achieve greater than 20% cost reduction over current CSP plants, and to provide the ability to drive high-efficiency power cycles.

  13. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng; Velazquez-Vargas, Luis G; Maryamchik, Mikhail

    2016-10-04

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vessel connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.

  14. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng; Velazquez-Vargas, Luis G; Maryamchik, Mikhail

    2016-10-04

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vessel connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.

  15. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.

    2007-12-04

    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  16. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  17. 急性淋巴细胞白血病患儿化疗期间的疲乏状况及相关因素的研究%Study of fatigue and related factors among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving chemotherapy in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜秀青; 尤黎明; 刘可; 叶启蒙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe fatigue among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)receiving chemotherapy in hospital and explore its related factors.Methods A total of 100 hospitalized children with ALL receiving chemotherapy and their main caregivers were surveyed on demographic information,treatment data,Wong-Baker facial scale and the PedsQLTMMFS Multidimensional Fatigue Scale.Results The incidence of fatigue was 99% (99/100).The total score of fatigue scale was (56.71±17.32) on average.Multiple linear regression modeling showed that the factors related with fatigue included the time of dexamethasone use,childen's sleep quality,hemoglobin content,pain score,the time for the present chemotherapy,age and main caregivers' self-rating health status (P< 0.05 or 0.01).Conclusions Fatigue is serious among children with ALL receiving chemotherapy and is related with demographic factors,diseases,treatment condition and health status of the caregivers.%目的 调查急性淋巴细胞白血病(acute lyrnphoblastic leakemia,ALL)患儿化疗期间的疲乏状况并探讨其影响因素.方法 采用便利抽样法选取1 10例住院化疗的ALL患儿及其照顾者,进行问卷调查,内容包括患儿和照顾者一般资料、治疗资料、Wong-Baker面部表情量表和PedsQLTMMFS儿童多维疲乏量表.结果 ALL患儿化疗期间的疲乏发生率为99%(99/100),疲乏量表总分为(56.71±17.32)分,进入患儿疲乏总分及各疲乏维度得分回归方程的因素包括服用激素的天数、睡眠质量、血红蛋白含量、疼痛评分、本次化疗的天数、年龄及主要照顾者的健康自评等(P< 0.01或P<0.05).结论 ALL患儿化疗期间疲乏发生率高,且较为严重.患儿的疲乏程度与其社会人口学因素、疾病、治疗因素及照顾者的健康状况相关.

  18. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne

    2006-12-26

    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  19. LU Peizhang receives Golay Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Prof. LU Peizhang, an analytical chemist with the CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, received the prestigious Golay Award at the 30th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography opened on 5 June in Dalian, a port city in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  20. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...

  1. CFU-Mk content of immunoselected CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells, evaluated with an adapted serum-free methylcellulose assay, is predictive of platelet lineage reconstitution in children with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiret, N; Kanold, J; Fouassier, M; Bons, J M; Halle, P; Rapatel, C; Berger, J; Pireyre, P; Blanzat, V; Travade, P; Bonhomme, J; Demeocq, F; Berger, M G

    2000-08-01

    Immunoselected CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation is now frequently used to support autologous hematopoiesis after myeloablative therapy, its feasability having been proved by several groups. However, we and others observed delayed platelet recovery. We hypothesized that immunoselection processing might induce selective loss of megakaryocyte progenitors, or a decrease in their proliferation. We used a colony-forming units megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk) assay to evaluate these consequences and predict platelet recovery in patients. In CD34+ PBPCs from 10 children with solid tumors, we observed no selective loss in CFU-Mk numbers during immunoselection processing and no impairment of clonogenicity. The CFU-Mk yield (59.2 +/- 11.3%) was at least similar to the CD34+ yield (44.2 +/- 3.8%). We assessed the predictive value of CFU-Mk numbers infused for recovery of platelet lineage. We found an inverse correlation between the time taken to reach a platelet count greater than 50 x 10(9)/L and only the CFU-Mk dose (r = -0.71; p = 0.022) among the different type of progenitors, including colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), burst-forming units erythrocyte (BFU-E) and colony-forming units-mixed (CFU-Mix). These findings suggest that CFU-Mk number could be used as sole predictive functional parameter for platelet reconstitution in children after immunoselection of CD34+ cells, in particular for low CD34+ cell dose, and thus as an indicator for initial quality of hematopoietic cells before in vitro expansion.

  2. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  3. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  4. Managing Medicare receivables after PIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, L S

    1987-04-01

    The luxury of PIP is gone and managing cash flow will become more important than ever before. The hospital industry has come a long way in the development of automated billing systems and related recordkeeping since PIP was first introduced. The performance of an operations review of the accounts receivable management system should improve the effectiveness and efficiency of operations and significantly improve cash flow.

  5. Diversity of MMSE MIMO Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham

    2011-01-01

    In most MIMO systems, the family of waterfall error curves, calculated at different spectral efficiencies, are asymptotically parallel at high SNR. In other words, most MIMO systems exhibit a single diversity value for all {\\em fixed} rates. The MIMO MMSE receiver does not follow this pattern and exhibits a varying diversity in its family of error curves. This effect cannot be captured by DMT analysis, due to the fact that all fixed rates correspond to the same multiplexing gain, thus they cannot be differentiated within DMT analysis. This work analyzes this interesting behavior of the MMSE MIMO receiver and produces the MMSE MIMO diversity at each rate. The diversity of the quasi-static flat-fading MIMO channel consisting of any arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is fully characterized, showing that full spatial diversity is possible for all antenna configurations if and only if the rate is within a certain bound which is a function of the number of antennas. For other rate brackets, the avail...

  6. Erythemal ultraviolet solar radiation doses received by young skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Children are a special group since epidemiological evidence indicates that excessive exposure to sunlight at an early age increases the risk of skin cancer in later life. The purpose of this study is to quantify children's UV exposure when skiing, using dosimeters (VioSpor) placed on the shoulders of 10 participants. The children received a median daily Standard Erythema Dose of 2.1 within a range of 4.9-0.71, this being approximately 35% of the calculated 24 h ambient UV radiation on the horizontal plane. According to the results obtained, young skiers are exposed to UV radiation that can potentially cause skin damage and erythema and increase the risk of skin cancer in the course of a lifetime. These findings emphasise the need for adequate protective measures against solar radiation when skiing. The results also suggest that sun-protection campaigns should be undertaken aimed at children engaged in outdoor sports, including winter activities.

  7. Treating Children Fairly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barbara L.

    1991-01-01

    Examines whether children are receiving less than their share of public resources, considering (1) how the economic situations of children and the elderly have changed; (2) effects of insufficient resources and causes of disparities in treatment of young people; and (3) proposals for increasing society's investment in children. (SLD)

  8. [Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prada, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, María; García-García, Rebeca; García-Corte, María Dolores; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen

    2016-10-20

    Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics. Primary Care immunisation and clinical records of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department were reviewed. Of the 99 children who had received chemotherapy, 51 (70.6% males) were included in the study. As regards the type of tumour, 54.9% had a solid organ tumour, and 45.1% had a haematological tumour. Post-chemotherapy immunisation was administered to 70.6%. The most common vaccines received were: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus (54.9%), meningococcus C (41.2%), and seasonal influenza (39.2%). The rate of adaptation of the immunisation schedule after chemotherapy was 9.8%. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against 7v or 13v was administered to 21.6% of study subjects. However, only 17.6% received polysaccharide 23v. None received vaccination against hepatitis A. No statistically significant differences were observed between adherence to immunisation schedules and type of tumour (P=.066), gender (P=.304), or age (P=.342). Post-chemotherapy immunisation of children with cancer is poor. The participation of health professionals in training programs and referral of paediatric cancer patients to Vaccine Units could improve the rate of schedule adaptation and proper immunisation of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Chip Advancer For GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Thomas K.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Thomas, J. Brooks

    1989-01-01

    Instrument errors made negligible. For each integration interval, both delay and rate of change of delay initialized to small fraction of chip - for example, to order of 10 to the negative 7th power - thereby making feedback control and extraction of delay highly accurate and flexible. With appropriate selection of sampling rate relative to chip rate, commensurability errors reduced to extremely small levels. In Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, pseudorandom code sequence generated by simple digital logic incorporating effects of time, delay, and rate of change of delay. Flexibility in starting time and sum interval very useful in aligning correlation interval with beginnings and endings of data bits.

  10. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  11. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  12. A cryogenic receiver for EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkowicz, R; Ogata, H; Reijerse, E; Suter, D

    2013-12-01

    Cryogenic probes have significantly increased the sensitivity of NMR. Here, we present a compact EPR receiver design capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor of ≈2.5. We discuss in detail the design and analyze the resulting noise performance. At low microwave power, the input noise density closely follows the emission of a cooled 50Ω resistor over the whole measurement range from 20K up to room temperature. To minimize the influence of the microwave source noise, we use high microwave efficiency (≈1.1-1.7mTW(-1/2)) planar microresonators. Their efficient conversion of microwave power to magnetic field permits EPR measurements with very low power levels, typically ranging from a few μW down to fractions of nW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  14. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered...

  15. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered paracetamol i...

  16. Desempenho de pais de crianças em dieta de exclusão do leite de vaca na identificação de alimentos industrializados com e sem leite vaca The performance of parents of children receiving cow's milk free diets at indentification of commercial food products with and without cows's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabata Koester Weber

    2007-10-01

    of children on exclusion diets (4.0 was greater than for the control group (3.0; p = 0.005. Reading at least one label was associated with a greater chance of correctly identifying more than five of the 10 products (odds ratio = 8.0. CONCLUSIONS: Despite having received guidance, the parents of children on exclusion diets were not fully prepared to manage these diets, indicating a need for improvements to the instruction provided when indicating exclusion diets.

  17. Comparação entre os questionários IT-MAIS e MUSS com vídeo-gravação para avaliação de crianças candidatas ao implante coclear Comparison between the IT-MAIS and MUSS questionnaires with video-recording for evaluation of children who may receive a cochlear implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Soares Monteiro Pinto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma grande dificuldade para determinar precocemente crianças que se beneficiariam ou não com o implante coclear, até porque devido à pouca idade são muito sutis as respostas apresentadas. OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados obtidos através da vídeo-gravação de situações de interação de crianças candidatas ao implante coclear com os resultados obtidos através de protocolos de avaliação. MÉTODO: Fizeram parte da amostra 7 crianças com idade média de 39,7 meses, portadores de perda auditiva neurossensorial profunda. Foram aplicados os questionários IT-MAIS e MUSS aos pais e os resultados foram comparados com a observação da vídeo-gravação destas crianças. RESULTADOS: Foi possível observar que os dados são compatíveis no que se refere às etapas auditivas. No entanto, no que se refere ao questionário MUSS, os dados obtidos na observação lúdica são bastante diferentes. O questionário leva em consideração apenas a uso da linguagem oral e, portanto, a maioria das crianças apresentou um escore muito baixo. CONCLUSÃO: A observação lúdica permitiu traçar um perfil mais amplo do comportamento lingüístico e de aspectos relativos à linguagem apresentando diferenças do questionário.There is a great difficulty in determining earlier on which children would benefit or not from cochlear implants, especially because of their young age, the responses they give are very subtle. AIM: To compare results obtained through video-recording of the interactions of children who may receive a cochlear implant with the results obtained through evaluation protocols. METHOD: Seven children, with an average age of 39.7 months, with profound hearing loss were selected for the study. IT-MAIS and MUSS questionnaires were given to their parents/guardians of these children and the results were compared with the observation of the video-recordings. RESULTS: It was possible to observe that the data is compatible with the auditory

  18. Immunogenicity and clinical effectiveness of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in immunocompromised children undergoing treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Rishi S; Wadia, Ushma D; Jacoby, Peter; Ryan, Anne L; Blyth, Christopher C; Keil, Anthony D; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Cole, Catherine H; Barr, Ian G; Richmond, Peter C

    2016-02-01

    Influenza is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children receiving therapy for cancer, yet recommendation for, and uptake of the seasonal vaccine remains poor. One hundred children undergoing treatment for cancer were vaccinated with the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine according to national guidelines in 2010 and 2011. Influenza-specific hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers were performed on blood samples taken prior to each vaccination and 4 weeks following the final vaccination. A nasopharyngeal aspirate for influenza was performed on all children who developed an influenza-like illness. Following vaccination, seroprotection and seroconversion rates were 55 and 43% for H3N2, 61 and 43% for H1N1, and 41 and 33% for B strain, respectively. Overall, there was a significant geometric mean fold increase to H3N2 (GMFI 4.56, 95% CI 3.19-6.52, P children with solid compared with hematological malignancies and in children vaccinated study population, compared with 6.8% in unvaccinated controls, providing an adjusted estimated vaccine effectiveness of 72% (95% CI -26-94%). There were no serious adverse events and a low reactogenicity rate of 3%. The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is safe, immunogenic, provides clinical protection and should be administered annually to immunosuppressed children receiving treatment for cancer. All children <10 years of age should receive a two-dose schedule.

  19. Curvas ROC para identificação de pontos de corte do peso ao nascer na predição do excesso de peso em escolares mexicanos Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves to identify birth weight cutoffs to predict overweight in Mexican school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana A. de Moraes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar pontos de corte do peso ao nascer na predição do excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes mexicanos em idade escolar da cidade de Chilpancingo, México, em 2004. MÉTODOS: Seiscentos e sessenta e dois escolares de ambos os sexos, entre 5 e 13 anos, foram selecionados por amostragem probabilística, com partilha proporcional ao tamanho. Medidas do peso ao nascer foram extraídas das carteiras de vacinação. Para a classificação do estado nutricional, utilizaram-se pontos de corte do índice de massa corporal (IMC segundo idade e sexo. Equações de predição foram construídas utilizando-se modelos de regressão linear. Áreas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic foram calculadas e curvas ROC de dois gráficos (TG-ROC foram construídas, respectivamente, para detecção da acurácia global e identificação de pontos de corte do peso ao nascer, correspondentes à intersecção das curvas de sensibilidade e especificidade. RESULTADOS: Entre as crianças, a prevalência de excesso de peso foi maior no sexo feminino (46% que no masculino (38,5%; entre adolescentes, as respectivas prevalências foram de 43,5 e 38,9%. O IMC médio e os decis de peso ao nascer apresentaram relação linear. As áreas sob as curvas ROC apresentaram valores > 78% em cada estrato, detectando-se diferença, em relação ao sexo, no grupo de adolescentes. As curvas TG-ROC apresentaram pontos de corte do peso ao nascer mais elevados nos meninos que nas meninas, e as intersecções das curvas de sensibilidade e especificidade foram > 0,70. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados do estudo indicaram que pontos de corte do peso ao nascer podem ser utilizados como marcadores de excesso de peso, na infância e adolescência, constituindo-se em estratégia para o rastreamento de grupos de risco.OBJECTIVE: To identify birth weight cutoffs to predict overweight in school children and adolescents from Chilpancingo, Mexico, in 2004. METHODS: Six

  20. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  1. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-03-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.

  2. Recent developments in superconducting receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Paul L.

    1990-09-01

    A description is given of recent work at Berkeley on superconducting mixers and detectors for infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The first report is a review article which summarizes the status of development of superconducting components for infrared and millimeter wave receivers. The next report describes accurate measurements and also theoretical modeling of an SIS quasiparticle waveguide mixer for W-band which uses very high quality Ta junctions. The best mixer noise is only 1.3 times the quantum limit. Both the mixer gain and the noise are in quantitative agreement with the quantum theory. Next, a report is given on measurements and theoretical modeling of the absorptivity (surface resistance) of high quality epitaxial films of the high Tc superconductor YBCO from 750 GHz to 21 THz. Finally, there are reports on the design and experimental performance of two different types of high Tc bolometric detectors. One is a conventional bolometer with a gold-black absorber. The other is an antenna coupled microbolometer.

  3. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  4. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  5. Finite Element Analysis of the LOLA Receiver Telescope Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzinger, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the finite element stress and distortion analysis completed on the Receiver Telescope lens of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). LOLA is one of six instruments on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), scheduled to launch in 2008. LOLA's main objective is to produce a high-resolution global lunar topographic model to aid in safe landings and enhance surface mobility in future exploration missions. The Receiver Telescope captures the laser pulses transmitted through a diffractive optical element (DOE) and reflected off the lunar surface. The largest lens of the Receiver Telescope, Lens 1, is a 150 mm diameter aspheric lens originally designed to be made of BK7 glass. The finite element model of the Receiver Telescope Lens 1 is comprised of solid elements and constrained in a manner consistent with the behavior of the mounting configuration of the Receiver Telescope tube. Twenty-one temperature load cases were mapped to the nodes based on thermal analysis completed by LOLA's lead thermal analyst, and loads were applied to simulate the preload applied from the ring flexure. The thermal environment of the baseline design (uncoated BK7 lens with no baffle) produces large radial and axial gradients in the lens. These large gradients create internal stresses that may lead to part failure, as well as significant bending that degrades optical performance. The high stresses and large distortions shown in the analysis precipitated a design change from BK7 glass to sapphire.

  6. Prevention of infection in adult travelers after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotton, Camille Nelson; Ryan, Edward T; Fishman, Jay A

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of solid organ transplant recipients are traveling to the developing world. Many of these individuals either do not seek or do not receive optimal medical care prior to travel. This review considers risks of international travel to adult solid organ transplant recipients and the use of vaccines and prophylactic agents in this population.

  7. The Mechanism of Company Accounts Receivable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Yamnenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the accounts receivable management is caused by its ability to influence on the filling of the company working capital. Therefore it is necessary to create a specific mechanism for management of accounts receivable in the company. The article analyses the components of the mechanism and the influence of factors that significantly affect the operation. The result of the functioning of the accounts receivable management is to receive funds and to minimize accounts receivable.

  8. A Comparison of the Anticipated Benefits and Received Outcomes of Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: Parental Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Merv; Punch, Renee; Komesaroff, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Findings of a study that investigated parents' expectations and experiences of their children's outcomes with cochlear implants are presented. A survey completed by 247 parents whose children had received implants in eastern Australia compared parents' reports of their preimplant expectations with their experiences of postimplant outcomes on…

  9. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  10. As informações recebidas pelos pais durante a hospitalização do filho Las informaciones recibidas por los padres durante la internación del niño Information received by parents during children's hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Llonch Sabatés

    2005-12-01

    la atención al hijo hospitalizado. Los padres solicitan de las enfermeras informaciones sobre el tiempo de hospitalización, evolución de la enfermedad, medicación y tratamiento de su hijo.This study aimed to find out how parents perceive the information they received from nurses during the hospital stay of their children and identify what information nurses indicate they supply to the parents. We carried out a descriptive-exploratory study with a quantitative approach at the pediatric internment units of a teaching hospital in the city of São Paulo, interviewing 50 parents whose children were hospitalized and 12 nurses working at these units. The results showed that parents were not completely satisfied with the information received from the nurses during the children's stay in hospital. The nurses mainly provided information to the parents about rules and routines, rights and obligations, reasons for procedures and parents' participation in care for the child. Parents asked the nurses information about the duration of their child`s hospitalization, progression of the disease, medication and treatment.

  11. A 1.06 micrometer avalanche photodiode receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a complete solid state 1.06 micron optical receiver which can be used in optical communications at data rates approaching 1.5 Gb/s, or in other applications requiring sensitive, short pulse detection, is reported. This work entailed both the development of a new type of heterojunction III-V semiconductor alloy avalanche photodiode and an extremely charge-sensitive wideband low noise preamp design making use of GaAs Schottky barrier-gate field effect transistors (GAASFET's) operating in in the negative-feedback transimpedance mode. The electrical characteristics of the device are described.

  12. Tetraphenylborate Solids Stability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-06-25

    Tetraphenylborate solids are a potentially large source of benzene in the slurries produced in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. The stability of the solids is an important consideration in the safety analysis of the process and we desire an understanding of the factors that influence the rate of conversion of the solids to benzene. This report discusses current testing of the stability of tetraphenylborate solids.

  13. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  14. Thermal resistance model for CSP central receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, O. A. J.; Dinter, F.; Govender, S.

    2016-05-01

    The receiver design and heliostat field aiming strategy play a vital role in the heat transfer efficiency of the receiver. In molten salt external receivers, the common operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid or molten salt ranges between 285°C to 565°C. The optimum output temperature of 565°C is achieved by adjusting the mass flow rate of the molten salt through the receiver. The reflected solar radiation onto the receiver contributes to the temperature rise in the molten salt by means of heat transfer. By investigating published work on molten salt external receiver operating temperatures, corresponding receiver tube surface temperatures and heat losses, a model has been developed to obtain a detailed thermographic representation of the receiver. The steady state model uses a receiver flux map as input to determine: i) heat transfer fluid mass flow rate through the receiver to obtain the desired molten salt output temperature of 565°C, ii) receiver surface temperatures iii) receiver tube temperatures iv) receiver efficiency v) pressure drop across the receiver and vi) corresponding tube strain per panel.

  15. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  16. Review and future perspective of central receiver design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology provides a commercial solar option to the utility-scale electricity market. CSP is unique in its ability to include low-cost thermal storage; thus, it can generate electricity when the sun is not available and dispatch electricity to meet varying load requirements. Within the suite of CSP technologies, the central receiver design represents the state-of-the-art technology, promising low cost, high performance, and dispatchable energy production. Current total capacity of central receiver plants worldwide is about 1.0 gigawatt (electric) with operating plants in Spain and the United States, as well as projects under construction in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Central receiver technology has been under development since the 1950s, and a variety of central receiver designs have been explored. A distinguishing feature is the heat transfer medium. Central receiver designs exist that use dense fluids, gases, and solid particles in this role. Water/steam and molten salt receivers have been adopted in current commercial plants and are often coupled with a steam-Rankine power cycle with an operating temperature of less than 600°C. Many new central receiver concepts, such as the volumetric air, supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), solid particle, and liquid-metal receiver designs, are under active research and development (R&D). New designs target operating temperatures generally higher than 700°C-800°C—and even above 1000°C—so that higher-performance power cycles such as the sCO2-Brayton cycle or air-Brayton/steam-Rankine combined cycle can be used to promote greater overall system efficiency. Central receiver thermal storage provides dispatchability unavailable from variable-output renewables such as solar photovoltaic and wind power. Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can accommodate, beyond which

  17. Review and Future Perspective of Central Receiver Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-27

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology provides a commercial solar option to the utility-scale electricity market. CSP is unique in its ability to include low-cost thermal storage; thus, it can generate electricity when the sun is not available and dispatch electricity to meet varying load requirements. Within the suite of CSP technologies, the central receiver design represents the state-of-the-art technology, promising low cost, high performance, and dispatchable energy production. Current total capacity of central receiver plants worldwide is about 1.0 gigawatt (electric) with operating plants in Spain and the United States, as well as projects under construction in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Central receiver technology has been under development since the 1950s, and a variety of central receiver designs have been explored. A distinguishing feature is the heat transfer medium. Central receiver designs exist that use dense fluids, gases, and solid particles in this role. Water/steam and molten salt receivers have been adopted in current commercial plants and are often coupled with a steam-Rankine power cycle with an operating temperature of less than 600 degrees C. Many new central receiver concepts, such as the volumetric air, supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), solid particle, and liquid-metal receiver designs, are under active research and development (R&D). New designs target operating temperatures generally higher than 700 degrees C-800 degrees C -- and even above 1000 degrees C -- so that higher-performance power cycles such as the sCO2-Brayton cycle or air-Brayton/steam-Rankine combined cycle can be used to promote greater overall system efficiency. Central receiver thermal storage provides dispatchability unavailable from variable-output renewables such as solar photovoltaic and wind power. Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can

  18. Prognostic impact of progression to induction chemotherapy and prior paclitaxel therapy in patients with germ cell tumors receiving salvage high-dose chemotherapy in the last 10 years: a study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Solid Tumors Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necchi, A; Miceli, R; Bregni, M; Bokemeyer, C; Berger, L A; Oechsle, K; Schumacher, K; Kanfer, E; Bourhis, J H; Massard, C; Laszlo, D; Montoro, J; Flechon, A; Arpaci, F; Secondino, S; Wuchter, P; Dreger, P; Crysandt, M; Worel, N; Kruger, W; Ringhoffer, M; Unal, A; Nagler, A; Campos, A; Wahlin, A; Michieli, M; Sucak, G; Donnini, I; Schots, R; Ifrah, N; Badoglio, M; Martino, M; Raggi, D; Giannatempo, P; Rosti, G; Pedrazzoli, P; Lanza, F

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the prognostic impact of prior paclitaxel therapy and response to induction chemotherapy defined as the regimen preceding high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) for the salvage therapy of advanced germ cell tumors. Twenty European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers contributed data on patients treated between 2002 and 2012. Paclitaxel used in either prior lines of therapy or in induction-mobilization regimens was considered. Multivariable Cox analyses of prespecified factors were undertaken on PFS and overall survival (OS). As of October 2013, data for 324 patients had been contributed to this study. One hundred and ninety-two patients (59.3%) had received paclitaxel. Sixty-one patients (19%) had a progression to induction chemotherapy, 234 (72%) a response (29 (9%) missing or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor without chemotherapy). Both progression to induction chemotherapy and prior paclitaxel were significantly associated with shorter OS univariably (P<0.001 and P=0.032). On multivariable analysis from the model with fully available data (N=216) progression to induction was significantly prognostic for PFS and OS (P=0.003), but prior paclitaxel was not (P=0.674 and P=0.739). These results were confirmed after multiple imputation of missing data. Progression to induction chemotherapy could be demonstrated as an independent prognostic factor, in contrast to prior paclitaxel.

  19. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James

    2005-01-01

    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  20. An assessment on hydrogen production using central receiver solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgen, C.; Bilgen, E.

    An assessment is presented on hydrogen production using a dedicated central receiver solar system concept coupled to two types of hydrogen producing processes, electrolysis and thermochemical. The study on solar electrolytic hydrogen was carried out using solar electricity and four different electrolytic technologies, namely, industrial unipolar 1980 and 1983 technologies, industrial bipolar and solid polymer electrolyte technology. The thermochemical process was the sulphur/iodine cycle, which is being developed by General Atomic Co. Systems, which is capable of producing about one-million GJ hydrogen per year, was developed at the conceptual level, and site specific computations were carried out. A general mathematical model was developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the central receiver system coupled directly to the chemical plant. Cost models were developed for each subsystem based on the database published in the literature. Levelized and delevelized costs of solar hydrogen were then computed.

  1. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  2. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID CONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Jinghui

    2008-01-01

    The author gives a dual characterization of solid cones in locally convex spaces.From this the author obtains some criteria for judging convex cones to be solid in various inds of locally convex spaces. Using a general expression of the interior of a solid cone,the author obtains a number of necessary and sufficient conditions for convex cones to be solid in the framework of Banach spaces. In particular, the author gives a dual relationship between solid cones and generalized sharp cones. The related known results are improved and extended.

  4. Determinants of receiving the pandemic (H1N1 2009 vaccine and intention to receive the seasonal influenza vaccine in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Chien Chan

    Full Text Available The paper examines the factors associated with both receiving pandemic (H1N1 2009 vaccines and individuals' intentions to get the next seasonal influenza vaccine in Taiwan.We conducted a representative nationwide survey with in-person household interviews during April-July 2010. Multivariate logistic regression incorporated socio-demographic background, household characteristics, health status, behaviors, and perceptions of influenza and vaccination.We completed interviews with 1,954 respondents. Among those, 548 (28.0% received the pandemic (H1N1 2009 vaccination, and 469 (24.0% intended to get the next seasonal influenza vaccine. Receipt of the H1N1 vaccine was more prevalent among schoolchildren, the elderly, those who had contact with more people in their daily lives, and those who had received influenza vaccinations in previous years. In comparison, the intention to receive the next seasonal influenza vaccine tended to be stronger among children, the elderly, and those who reported less healthy status or lived with children, who received a seasonal influenza vaccination before, and who worried more about a possible new pandemic.Children, the elderly, and those who had gotten seasonal flu shots before in Taiwan were more likely to both receive a pandemic H1N1 vaccination and intend to receive a seasonal influenza vaccine.

  5. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  6. The First Six ALMA Band 10 Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kroug, M.; Kaneko, K.; Miyachi, A.; Yokoshima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Ogawa, H.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Uzawa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The first six Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers have been developed and characterized during the receiver preproduction phase. State-of-the-art measurement systems at THz frequencies have been implemented and successfully used to measure the performance of the first six receivers. Extensive tests ranging from receiver sensitivity and stability to optical aperture efficiency on the secondary antenna have been performed. Performance of all six receivers is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. Moreover, our extensive tests have shown that there are no big performance differences between receivers. These results indicate that the ALMA Band 10 receiver is ready for the production phase, during which an additional 67 receivers will be produced and characterized.

  7. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  8. Solids fluidizer-injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  9. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  10. Morphine sulphation in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Choonara, I.; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than ...

  11. 49 CFR 236.730 - Coil, receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coil, receiver. 236.730 Section 236.730 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Coil, receiver. Concentric layers of insulated wire wound around the core of a receiver of an...

  12. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  13. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-105 Grab Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, T. M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); LaMothe, M. E. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Lachut, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    The solid phase characterization (SPC) of three grab samples from single-shell Tank 241-C-105 (C-105) that were received at the laboratory the week of October 26, 2015, has been completed. The three samples were received and broken down in the 11A hot cells.

  14. Clinical significance of serum biomarkers in pediatric solid mediastinal and abdominal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, John A; Malkas, Linda H; Hickey, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer is the leading cause of death by disease among U.S. children between infancy and age 15. Despite successes in treating solid tumors such as Wilms tumor, disappointments in the outcomes of high-risk solid tumors like neuroblastoma have precipitated efforts towards the early and accurate detection of these malignancies. This review summarizes available solid tumor serum biomarkers with a special focus on mediastinal and abdominal cancers in children.

  15. Clinical Significance of Serum Biomarkers in Pediatric Solid Mediastinal and Abdominal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Hickey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer is the leading cause of death by disease among U.S. children between infancy and age 15. Despite successes in treating solid tumors such as Wilms tumor, disappointments in the outcomes of high-risk solid tumors like neuroblastoma have precipitated efforts towards the early and accurate detection of these malignancies. This review summarizes available solid tumor serum biomarkers with a special focus on mediastinal and abdominal cancers in children.

  16. sexually abused children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for all types of mental health problems. Outcome measures. ... and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edition, revised). ... children and adolescents receiving treatment for psychological ... fathers and 25% of those abused by other trusted adults exhibited .... development these older children have also acquired the.

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan being performed, you will receive specific preparation instructions for what your child may eat and drink before the exam, especially ... Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo. ...

  18. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-09-01

    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  19. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...

  20. Astronomical Receiver Modelling Using Scattering Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Taylor, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Proper modelling of astronomical receivers is vital: it describes the systematic errors in the raw data, guides the receiver design process, and assists data calibration. In this paper we describe a method of analytically modelling the full signal and noise behaviour of arbitrarily complex radio receivers. We use electrical scattering matrices to describe the signal behaviour of individual components in the receiver, and noise correlation matrices to describe their noise behaviour. These are combined to produce the full receiver model. We apply this approach to a specified receiver architecture: a hybrid of a continous comparison radiometer and correlation polarimeter designed for the C-Band All-Sky Survey. We produce analytic descriptions of the receiver Mueller matrix and noise temperature, and discuss how imperfections in crucial components affect the raw data. Many of the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to correlation polarimeters and continuous comparison radiometers.

  1. Síndrome da lipodistrofia e fatores de risco cardiovasculares em crianças e adolescentes infectados pelo HIV/AIDS em uso de terapia antirretroviral de alta potência Lipodystrophy syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents infected with HIV/AIDS receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. F. Werner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil lipídico, alterações da conformação corporal e fatores de risco cardiovasculares em crianças e adolescentes infectados pelo HIV/AIDS, tratados com terapia antirretroviral de alta potência. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 43 crianças e adolescentes em uso dessa terapia atendidas no ambulatório de doenças infecciosas em Pediatria do Instituto Fernandes Figueira/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (RJ. Foram realizadas dosagens de colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade, lipoproteína de baixa densidade, triglicerídeos, teste de tolerância à glicose e avaliada a distribuição de gordura corporal, estado nutricional, ingestão dietética e história familiar de risco cardiovascular. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas com o teste t de Student. O nível de significância estatístico do p foi menor que 0,05. RESULTADOS: Observou-se alteração lipídica em 88,3% e de conformação corporal em 13,9% dos casos. O estado nutricional foi adequado na maioria (81,3% da população do estudo. A ingestão de colesterol em crianças com mais de 9 anos foi acima do recomendado. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de dislipidemia e, consequentemente, o risco para doenças cardiovasculares foram altos durante o uso de terapia antirretroviral de alta potência.OBJECTIVE: To describe lipid profile, body shape changes, and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents infected with HIV/AIDS receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We investigated 43 children and adolescents being treated with this therapy at the outpatient clinic of pediatric infectious diseases of Instituto Fernandes Figueira/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Values of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides were determined. We also performed glucose tolerance test and analyzed body fat distribution, nutritional status, dietary intake, and family history of

  2. Influencing factors of life qualities of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease received cardiac catheter interventional treatment%儿童和青少年先天性心脏病患者介入治疗后生存质量的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林平; 李玲; 高学琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the ifluencing factors of life qualities of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease received cardiac catheter interventional treatment and to provide theoretical guidance for formulating targeted nursing strategies,so as to improve their quality of life.Methods Totals of 96children and adolescences who underwent cardiac catheter interventional treatment were recruited from a hospital' s department of cardiology in Harbin city,Heilongjiang province.Pediatric quality of life inventory Generic Core Scales Version 4.0 and self-designed questionnaire including demographic data and possible influencing factors were used to investigated,respectively in 24 hours pre - treatment,1 month and 6 months post - treatment.Results The total score of PedsQLTM4.0 was ( 67.38 ± 15.31 ) before treatment,and (76.55 ±11.37 ),(80.47 ± 9.69 )after received treatment one months and six months later,respectively.The statistical data showed that patients' age,state of the household economy,social assistance influenced with total score of life quality (t =-3.26,2.58,2.73,2.54,2.37,respectively,P < 0.05 ) and state of the household economy,family relationship,parenting style were influenced factors for physiology function of patients ( t =2.92,3.40,-1.51,-2.86,-3.66,respectively; P<0.05 ).Patients age,self-care ability,parents cognition had effect on psychosocial functioning of quality of life for children and adolescences with congenital heart disease ( t =- 2.31,1.80,-1.40,2.64,respectively; P<0.05 ).Conclusions Patients' age,self-care ability,state of the household economy,parenting style,family relationship,parents' cognitive and social assistance have effect on quality of life of children and adolescences with congenital heart disease.So we should pay attention to conduct targeted nursing interventions for both patients and their families to improve their quality of life.%目的 探讨儿童和青少年先天性心脏病患者介入治疗后

  3. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  4. Solid propellant rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, W. L.; Shafer, J. I.; Behm, J. W.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of a solid propellant rocket engine with a controlled rate of thrust buildup to a desired thrust level are discussed. The engine uses a regressive burning controlled flow solid propellant igniter and a progressive burning main solid propellant charge. The igniter is capable of operating in a vacuum and sustains the burning of the propellant below its normal combustion limit until the burning propellant surface and combustion chamber pressure have increased sufficiently to provide a stable chamber pressure.

  5. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  6. Magnetic field flow phenomena in a falling particle receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Kenneth M.; Ho, Clifford; Anderson, Ryan; Christian, Joshua; Babiniec, Sean; Ortega, Jesus

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) falling particle receivers are being pursued as a desired means for utilizing low-cost, high-absorptance particulate materials that can withstand high concentration ratios (˜1000 suns), operating temperatures above 700 °C, and inherent storage capabilities which can be used to reduce to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE)1. Although previous falling particle receiver designs have proven outlet temperatures above 800 °C, and thermal efficiencies between 80-90%, performance challenges still exist to operate at higher concentration ratios above 1000 suns and greater solar absorptance levels. To increase absorptance, these receivers will require enhanced particle residence time within a concentrated beam of sunlight. Direct absorption solid particle receivers that can enhance this residence time will have the potential to achieve heat-transfer media temperatures2 over 1000 °C. However, depending on particle size and external forces (e.g., external wind and flow due to convective heat losses), optimized particle flow can be severely affected, which can reduce receiver efficiency. To reduce particle flow destabilization and increase particle residence time on the receiver an imposed magnetic field is proposed based on a collimated design for two different methodologies. These include systems with ferromagnetic and charged particle materials. The approaches will be analytically evaluated based on magnetic field strength, geometry, and particle parameters, such as magnetic moment. A model is developed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS FLUENT to analyze these approaches for a ˜2 MWth falling particle receiver at Sandia National Laboratories5,6. Here, assessment will be made with respect to ferromagnetic particles such as iron-oxides, as well as charged particles. These materials will be parametrically assessed (e.g., type, size, dipole moment and geometry) over a range of magnetic permeability, μ values. Modeling

  7. Sample Results from MCU Solids Outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries: A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate; A solids sample from ; A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed. Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or

  8. High stable remote photoelectric receiver for interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxing; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Hu, Pengcheng; Fan, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    A high sensitive and high stable remote photoelectric receiver has been developed to reduce noise and phase delay drift caused by thermal pollution and environmental interference. The phase delay drift model is analyzed and built based on a traditional photoelectric receiver. According to the model, a new mechanical isolation structure and a temperature control system are designed to keep the photoelectric receiver in a low constant temperature. Comparison experiments with traditional bias voltage compensation method and temperature control method are carried out between photoelectric receivers. The results verify that the output voltage fluctuation of photoelectric receiver used is reduced by 65% while the phase drift between measurement and reference photoelectric receivers decreases from 1.05° to 0.02°.

  9. Analysis of the omnium-g receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, M.

    1980-03-01

    A thermal analysis of the Omnium-G receiver is presented and the technique is shown to be generally applicable to solar thermal receivers utilizing a directly heated thermal mass. The thermal loss coefficient, including reradiation losses, is calculated and shown to agree quite well with the experimentally measured thermal loss coefficient. The rate of heat transfer to the working fluid is also analyzed and the analysis is used to show that the Omnium-G receiver is well matched to the water/steam working fluid because the steam outlet temperature is almost the same as the receiver temperature. A general procedure for calculating receiver performance is presented. With this procedure, the energy delivery to any working fluid, the delivered temperature of the working fluid, and the pressure drop through the receiver can be determined. An example of the calculation is also presented.

  10. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  11. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  12. Efficient structures for wideband digital receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Lu Youxin; Wang Xuegang; Wan Yonglun

    2006-01-01

    Digital receivers have become more and more popular in radar, communication, and electric warfare for the advantages compared with their analog counterparts. But conventional digital receivers have been generally considered impractical for bandwidth greater than several hundreds MHz. To extend receiver bandwidth, decrease data rate and save hardware resources, three novel structures are proposed. They decimate the data stream prior to mixing and filtering, then process the multiple decimated streams in parallel at a lower rate. Consequently it is feasible to realize wideband receivers on the current ASIC devices. A design example and corresponding simulation results are demonstrated to evaluate the proposed structures.

  13. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  14. Nursing process approach improves receivables management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, K; Stockamp, D

    1992-09-01

    The "nursing process" is a systematic decision-making approach to problem solving based on open-system theory. This theory assumes that there is an on-going interchange between all system components. Components cannot be viewed in isolation, because decisions regarding one component will affect other components. Receivables management is similar to the nursing process, in that it involves constant diagnosis, assessment, and intervention in the work in process during all phases of the receivables cycle. In experiments that applied the nursing process concept to the management of accounts receivable in several hospitals, gross days in accounts receivable were reduced and cash flow was increased.

  15. Special design topics in digital wideband receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James B Y

    2009-01-01

    Offering engineers a thorough examination of special, more advanced aspects of digital wideband receiver design, this practical book builds on fundamental resources on the topic, helping you gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume presents a detailed look at a complete receiver design, including the encoder. Moreover, it discusses the detection of exotic signals and provides authoritative guidance on designing receivers used in electronic warfare. From frequency modulation and biphase shifting keys, to parameter encoders in electronic warfare receivers and

  16. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  17. Parental and aloparental care received by children in public and private schools in Vitória, ES / Cuidados parentais e aloparentais recebidos por crianças de escolas públicas e particulares de Vitória – ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Wright Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the participation of parents and other adults in the caretaking of children in two socio-economic contexts. We found the caretaking is predominant whith participation of related and non that parental related aloparents in all the caretaking tasks assessed. There were differences due to the contexts. Parents of children attending public schools shared more caretaking tasks than parents of children attending private schools. Related aloparents were more frequently responsible for the caretaking of children from public schools while employees were more frequently responsible for children from private schools. Our results show that the socio-economic context is an important factor in the variation of caretaking of children, both for parents and aloparents.

  18. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  19. 42 CFR 435.117 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public..., Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is receiving...

  20. Providing nursing care in a children's hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Alison

    Children who are admitted to hospices need specialist treatment that enables them to enjoy their childhood as much as possible while they receive the care they require. Their parents also have particular needs. During Children's Hospice Week, which started on September 21, the Association of Children's Hospices aims to raise awareness of the work done by children's hospices and the services they provide.

  1. Variable velocity in solar external receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. R.; Sánchez-González, A.; Acosta-Iborra, A.; Santana, D.

    2017-06-01

    One of the major problems in solar external receivers is tube overheating, which accelerates the risk of receiver failure. It can be solved implementing receivers with high number of panels. However, it exponentially increases the pressure drop in the receiver and the parasitic power consumption of the Solar Power Tower (SPT), reducing the global efficiency of the SPT. A new concept of solar external receiver, named variable velocity receiver, is able to adapt their configuration to the different flux density distributions. A set of valves allows splitting in several independent panels those panels in which the wall temperature is over the limit. It increases the velocity of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and its cooling capacity. This receiver does not only reduce the wall temperature of the tubes, but also simplifies the control of the heliostat field and allows to employ more efficient aiming strategies. In this study, it has been shown that variable velocity receiver presents high advantages with respect to traditional receiver. Nevertheless, more than two divisions per panels are not recommendable, due to the increment of the pressure drop over 70 bars. In the design point (12 h of the Spring Equinox), the use of a variable number of panels between 18 and 36 (two divisions per panel), in a SPT similar to Gemasolar, improves the power capacity of the SPT in 5.7%, with a pressure drop increment of 10 bars. Off-design, when the flux distribution is high and not symmetric (e.g. 10-11 h), the power generated by the variable velocity receiver is 18% higher than the generated by the traditional receiver, at these hours the pressure drop increases almost 20 bars.

  2. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Hou, Lei; Wei, Jingfa; Wu, Jianfeng

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1 σ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  3. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  4. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  5. Práticas alimentares e estado nutricional de crianças no segundo semestre de vida atendidas na rede pública de saúde Feeding practices and nutritional status of children in the second semester of life who receive care in public health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Paula Modesto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e as práticas alimentares de crianças no segundo semestre de vida atendidas na rede pública de saúde do município de Taboão da Serra, SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal conduzido em Unidades Básicas de Saúde, classificadas em dois agrupamentos (região central e região periférica. A amostra foi constituída por 180 crianças, sendo 90 de cada agrupamento. O consumo alimentar foi registrado pelo método recordatório de 24 horas. Foram tomadas medidas de peso e dosagem de hemoglobina por punção capilar. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia encontrada foi de 30,5% sem diferença entre os grupos. Os valores das medianas do escore-Z (peso/idade foram: 0,02 e 0,03, para os agrupamentos central e periférico, respectivamente. A utilização de suplemento de ferro apresentou diferença entre os grupos (p=0,001, sendo mais presente no agrupamento periférico, enquanto que para a vitamina A, a suplementação foi significantemente maior no agrupamento central (p=0,044. Verificou-se introdução precoce de alimentos distintos do leite materno na dieta infantil e diferença significante entre os grupos na idade de introdução de chá, suco de fruta, sopa e sopa com carne no esquema alimentar. Em relação à ingestão de nutrientes verificou-se consumo adequado de energia e proteínas, mas quanto aos micronutrientes estudados, há grande probabilidade de inadequação do consumo de ferro e vitamina C. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de anemia é relativamente reduzida, comparada com os dados obtidos em outros locais, e o esquema de introdução de alimentos complementares é inadequado, frente às recomendações atuais. A utilização de suplementos de nutrientes deve ser revista.OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional status and feeding practices of children in the second semester of life who receive care in public health facilities of the city of Taboão da Serra, SP. METHODS: This is a cross

  6. A solid state transmitter with adaptive beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, J. R.; Chrystie, P. J.

    In many transmitter applications it is desirable to provide low sidelobe streerable radiation patterns from an array fed by multiple identical solid state sources. A feed network for an experimental linear array which allows this to be accomplished by means of 'phase shift only' control of array element amplitude and phase is described. Details of the experimental equipment and measured radiation patterns, in both the transmit and receive mode, are presented.

  7. Acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e impactos na saúde de crianças residentes em assentamentos periurbanos de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Household solid waste bagging and collection and their health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Santos Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta estudo do acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e o impacto na saúde de crianças, por meio de pesquisa realizada em nove assentamentos humanos localizados em área periurbana da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Como indicadores epidemiológicos foram utilizados, em 1.893 crianças entre 5 e 14 anos, a infecção por nematóides intestinais, expressa pela prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e ancilostomídeos, e em 1.204 crianças menores de cinco anos, a incidência de diarréia e o estado nutricional, este expresso por indicadores antropométricos. Os resultados apresentam a maior prevalência dos três nematóides nas crianças dos domicílios que não dispõem de acondicionamento adequado e de coleta de resíduos sólidos que naquelas de domicílios com acondicionamento adequado e coleta regular, sendo a diferença encontrada estatisticamente significante, mesmo quando outros fatores de risco sócio-econômicos, culturais, demográficos e ambientais são considerados. Resultado semelhante é também observado com relação aos indicadores epidemiológicos, incidência de diarréia e estado nutricional.This paper presents a study on the bagging and collection of household solid waste and the health implications for children. The research was conducted in nine human settlements on the outskirts of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Intestinal nematode infection, predominantly involving Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, was used as an epidemiological indicator in 1,893 children from 5 to 14 years of age. The study also included diarrhea incidence and nutritional status as shown by anthropometric indicators in 1,204 children less than 5 years of age. There was a higher prevalence of the three nematodes in children living in households without proper bagging/isolation and collection of household solid waste as compared to those in areas with regular garbage

  8. Superconducting integrated submillimeter receiver for TELIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshelets, Valery P.; Ermakov, Andrey B.; Filippenko, Lyudmila V.; Khudchenko, Andrey V.; Kiselev, Oleg S.; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Torgashin, Mikhail Yu.; Yagoubov, Pavel A.; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; Wild, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    In this report an overview of the results on the development of a single-chip superconducting integrated receiver for the Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS) balloon project intended to measure a variety of stratosphere trace gases is presented. The Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) comprises in

  9. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... enable the company to make the following analysis: (1) Amounts due from customers who are receiving... process of collection. (b) Collections in excess of amounts charged to this account may be credited to...

  10. Superconducting chip receivers for imaging application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shitov, SV; Koshelets, VP; Ermakov, AB; Filippenko, LV; Baryshev, AM; Luinge, W; Gao, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    Experimental details of a unique superconducting imaging array receiver are discussed. Each pixel contains an internally pumped receiver chip mounted on the back of the elliptical microwave lens. Each chip comprises a quasi-optical SIS mixer integrated with a superconducting flux-flow oscillator (FF

  11. Social networks and receiving informal care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A. de; Klerk, M. de; Cardol, M.; Westert, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, roughly half a million people (4% of the Dutch population) received informal care from family members living outside their home, and a quarter of a million (2% of the Dutch population) received this care from acquaintances, such as friend, neighbours and work colleagues. The potential suppl

  12. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television...

  13. RF performance of T-DAB receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, R.; Potman, J.; Hofstra, K.L.; Cronie, H.S.; Slump, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    In every wireless system, the weakest link determines the performance of the network. In this paper the Radio Frequency (RF) performance of both band III and L-band Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting (T-DAB) consumer receivers are discussed. The receivers have been tested based on the EN 50248 s

  14. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... to a decrease in the two design parameters. This paper investigates the use of Compressive Sensing (CS) in a general Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) receiver. We show that when using spread spectrum codes in the signal domain, the CS measurement matrix may be simplified. This measurement scheme, named...... Compressive Spread Spectrum (CSS), allows for a simple, effective receiver design. Furthermore, we numerically evaluate the proposed receiver in terms of bit error rate under different signal to noise ratio conditions and compare it with other receiver structures. These numerical experiments show that though...

  15. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  16. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  17. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Jafar Memon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic neoplasms are rare in children and have a different histo-logic spectrum and prognosis than those in adults. Pancreatoblastoma is the most common pancreatic neoplasm in young children. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm occurs in adolescent girls. It is heterogeneous in internal architecture, with a mixture of solid and cystic hemorrhagic and necrotic elements. All pancreatic neoplasms in children are capable of producing metastases, usually to the liver and lymph nodes; however, on the whole, these tumors have a better clinical outcome than most pancreatic tumors in adults. We present a case of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm with a liver metastasis in a 13 year old male patient. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3090-3093

  18. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  19. Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; Thomas, Bertrand; Mehdi, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  20. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  1. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner

    2016-04-01

    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  2. Multifunctional solid/solid phononic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinteck, N.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A. C.; Croënne, C.; Bringuier, S.; Deymier, P. A.

    2012-07-01

    A two-dimensional, solid/solid phononic crystal (PC) comprised a square array of steel cylinders in epoxy is shown to perform a variety of spectral, wave vector, and phase-space functions. Over a range of operating frequencies, the PC's elastic band structure shows uniquely shaped equifrequency contours that are only accessible to excitations of longitudinal polarization. Under this condition, the PC is shown to behave as (1) an acoustic wave collimator, (2) a defect-less wave guide, (3) a directional source for elastic waves, (4) an acoustic beam splitter, (5) a phase-control device, and (6) a k-space multiplexer. Wave vector diagrams and finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to authenticate the above mentioned capabilities.

  3. Low-Dimensional Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; O'Hare, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    With physical properties that often may not be described by the transposition of physical laws from 3D space across to 2D or even 1D space, low-dimensional solids exhibit a high degree of anisotropy in the spatial distribution of their chemical bonds. This means that they can demonstrate new phenomena such as charge-density waves and can display nanoparticulate (0D), fibrous (1D) and lamellar (2D) morphologies. Low-Dimensional Solids presents some of the most recent research into the synthesis and properties of these solids and covers: Metal Oxide Nanoparticles; Inorganic Nanotubes and Nanowir

  4. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  5. Solid propellant motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  6. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  7. Laser cooling of solids

    OpenAIRE

    Nemova, Galina

    2009-01-01

    Parallel to advances in laser cooling of atoms and ions in dilute gas phase, which has progressed immensely, resulting in physics Nobel prizes in 1997 and 2001, major progress has recently been made in laser cooling of solids. I compare the physical nature of the laser cooling of atoms and ions with that of the laser cooling of solids. I point out all advantages of this new and very promising area of laser physics. Laser cooling of solids (optical refrigeration) at the present time can be lar...

  8. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  9. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  10. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The best low-noise receiver solutions for frequencies above about 800 GHz rely on either a low-noise bolometric direct detector or a hot electron bolometric mixer....

  11. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and...

  12. 49 CFR 236.788 - Receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.788 Receiver. A device on a locomotive, so placed that it is in position to be influenced inductively or actuated by...

  13. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  14. Digital Receiver for Laser Imaging Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei Ran; SUN Bing

    2004-01-01

    With the extension of the application domains for laser imaging radar,it is necessary to find a new technical way to obtain high technical performance and adaptive ability.In this paper,A new concept of digital receiver of laser imaging radar system is presented.This digital receiver is defined as a time varying parameter receiver which possesses large dynamics region and time domain filter.The receiver's mode,component structure as well as every function of its processing are described.The results and laboratorial data show the feasibility of digital reception.Also,it can exploit the inherent nature of laser imaging radar to obtain high probability of detection.

  15. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  16. High dynamic GPS receiver validation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Statman, J. I.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Validation Demonstration establishes that the high dynamic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver concept developed at JPL meets the dynamic tracking requirements for range instrumentation of missiles and drones. It was demonstrated that the receiver can track the pseudorange and pseudorange rate of vehicles with acceleration in excess of 100 g and jerk in excess of 100 g/s, dynamics ten times more severe than specified for conventional High Dynamic GPS receivers. These results and analytic extensions to a complete system configuration establish that all range instrumentation requirements can be met. The receiver can be implemented in the 100 cu in volume required by all missiles and drones, and is ideally suited for transdigitizer or translator applications.

  17. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  20. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  1. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  2. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, R.

    1991-10-01

    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  3. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  4. Gases, liquids and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Tabor, David

    1969-01-01

    It has been tradional to treat gases, liquids and solids as if they were completely unrelated material. However, this book shows that many of their bulk properties can been explained in terms of intermolecular forces.

  5. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YongHui; HUA Yu; HOU Lei; WEI JingFa; WU JianFeng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,baaed on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties,the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated,and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver.A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation,the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers,and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband.A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time.A software process flow is provided,and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted,such as signal searching,code loop and carrier loop algorithms,a height assistant algorithm,a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique,a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance,and a CAPS time correcting algorithm,according to the design frame of the receiver hardware.Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m,height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m,speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s,dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m,height accuracy is 3.0 m,and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s.In the case of C/A code,the timing accuracy is 200 ha,and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ) is 5 m from south to north,and 0.8 m from east to west.Finally,research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  6. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, P.K.

    1986-12-01

    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  7. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-06-13

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  8. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first......, orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition...

  9. Solid model design simplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.L.; Rivera, J.J.; Webb, A.J.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper documents an investigation of approaches to improving the quality of Pro/Engineer-created solid model data for use by downstream applications. The investigation identified a number of sources of problems caused by deficiencies in Pro/Engineer`s geometric engine, and developed prototype software capable of detecting many of these problems and guiding users towards simplified, useable models. The prototype software was tested using Sandia production solid models, and provided significant leverage in attacking the simplification problem.

  10. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  11. Solid State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-31

    intermediate-field Meissner region, and high-field Bean model . The solid line is a fit of RsM = a + b(f,T)Hrf 2 to the results in the Meissner region...model the results: low-field weak links, intermediate-field Meissner region, and high-field Bean model The solid line is a fit of R1 M-- a + b (f T) Hff

  12. Inversion of receiver function by wavelet transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李桂银; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    A new method for receiver function inversion by wavelet transformation is presented in this paper. Receiver func-tion is expanded to different scales with different resolution by wavelet transformation. After an initial model be-ing taken, a generalized least-squares inversion procedure is gradually carried out for receiver function from low tohigh scale, with the inversion result for low order receiver function as the initial model for high order. Aneighborhood containing the global minimum is firstly searched from low scale receiver function, and will gradu-ally focus at the global minimum by introducing high scale information of receiver function. With the gradual ad-dition of high wave-number to smooth background velocity structure, wavelet transformation can keep the inver-sion result converge to the global minimum, reduce to certain extent the dependence of inversion result on theinitial model, overcome the nonuniqueness of generalized least-squares inversion, and obtain reliable crustal andupper mantle velocity with high resolution.

  13. GPS Receiver Performance Inspection by Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Lin-yuan; Liu Jing-nan; Lu Liang-xi

    2003-01-01

    As a powerful analysis tool and the result of contemporary mathematics development, wavelet transform has shown its promising application potentials through the research in the paper. Three aspects regarding GPS receiver performance is tackled: cycle slip detection, receiver noise analysis and receiver channel bias inspection. Wavelet decomposition for double differential observation has demonstrated that this multi-level transform can reveal cycle slips as small as 0.5 cycles without any pre-adjustment processes or satellite orbit information, it can therefore be regarded as a 'geometry free' method. Based on property assumption of receiver noise, signal of noise serial is obtained at the high frequency scale in wavelet decomposition layers. This kind of noise influence on GPSb aseline result can be effectively eliminated by reconstruction process during wavelet reconstruction. Through observed data analysis, the transform has detected a kind of receiver channel bias that has not been completely removed by processing unit of GPS receiver during clock offset resetting operation. Thus the wavelet approach can be employed as a kind of system diagnosis in a generalized point of view.

  14. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.

    2016-08-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  15. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  16. Solid Mathematical Marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shufang; Jin, Xiaogang; Jaffer, Aubrey; Gao, Fei; Mao, Xiaoyang

    2016-05-25

    Years of research have been devoted to computer-generated two-dimensional marbling. However, three-dimensional marbling has yet to be explored. In this paper, we present mathematical marbling of three-dimensional solids which supports a compact random-access vector representation. Our solid marbling textures are created by composing closed-form 3D pattern tool functions. These tool functions are an injection function and five deformation functions. The injection function is used to generate basic patterns, and the deformation functions are responsible for transforming the basic pattern into complex marbling effects. The resulting representation is feature preserving and resolution-independent. Our approach can render high-quality images preserving both the sharp features and the smooth color variations of a solid texture. When implemented on the GPU, our representation enables efficient color evaluation during the real-time solid marbling texture mapping. The color of a point in the volume space is computed by the 3D pattern tool functions from its coordinates. Our method consumes very little memory because only the mathematical functions and their corresponding parameters are stored. In addition, we develop an intuitive user interface and a genetic algorithm to facilitate the solid marbling texture authoring process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through various solid marbling textures and 3D objects carved from them.

  17. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  18. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  19. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... receivers and frequency converters designed or marketed for use with scanning receivers, shall: (1) Be...; replacing a plug-in semiconductor chip; or programming a semiconductor chip using special access codes or an external device, such as a personal computer. Scanning receivers, and frequency converters designed for...

  20. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  1. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Phillip J., E-mail: pt06@aub.edu.lb [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Khater, Nabil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, University of St. Joseph, P.O. Box 166830, Alfred Naccache Blvd, Beirut (Lebanon); Zhang, Rui [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Geara, Fady B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Mahajan, Anita [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Jalbout, Wassim [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Pérez-Andújar, Angélica [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Youssef, Bassem [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Newhauser, Wayne D. [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care.

  2. Millimeter-wave receivers for wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmiller, Brock Morgan

    The modern communications environment is becoming an increasingly crowded place, resulting in rapidly increasing demands on current technology. Military and civilian operations require the ability to locate and decode all communication signals in the environment. However, developments in RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify and maintain bandwidth usage for everyone. Millimeter waves--waves measured between one millimeter to one centimeter in wavelength--have only recently been explored as a new technology to replace the augment receiver architectures. These small wavelengths introduce many engineering challenges, such as: large atmospheric losses, poor sensitivity, and expensive electronic equipment. With growing developments in Microwave Photonics, low-noise RF amplifiers and high-speed modulators have demonstrated the ability to design RF communication links in the millimeter wave regime to counter such problems. However, despite these developments, toward a cost-effective, spatial division multiplexing (SDM) receiver concept has not proved capable of being implemented as part of the next generation 5G wireless network infrastructure. To this end, we present a novel receiver architecture utilizing an optically addressed phased-array millimeter wave receiver based on optical-upconversion and signal recovery. This receiver is capable of geolocation and spatial multiplexing of multiple Tunable Optically Paired Source (TOPS) communication signals in its scene. Operating at 35 GHz, the receiver up-converts the received RF onto an optical sideband, which, to our advantage, contains all of the frequency, amplitude, and phase information of the received signals. Subsequent optical processing allows routing of the sideband to a free space detector port. Photomixing a coherent optical local oscillator (LO) with the optical sideband performs heterodyne down-conversion to an Intermediate Frequency (IF

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE SYSTEM INFLUENCE ON RECEIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pluta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing waste water discharges to the receiver is now one of the most important activities to ensure the protection of surface waters. This is caused mainly by progressive urbanization and increasing impervious surfaces. Discharge of sewage with a large load of pollutants affect the receivers in a negative way. The quality of waste water varies and depends on many factors, but above all, it is closely linked with sewer system applied to the drainage catchment. The article presents a comparative analysis of the environmental impact of three basic sewer systems: combined, separate and semi-separate. The analysis was performed for a typical urban catchment, using the average concentration of the basic indicators of pollution, which total suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus, COD, BOD5, selected heavy metals are merked. The results concluded that each of these sewer systems characterized by varying environmental impacts depending on the indicator of pollution. The best of today available technical solutions seem to be semi-separate sewer system, using the storage tank with the control in real time (RTC for controlling the flow.

  4. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  5. Waste Receiving and Processing, Module 2A, feed specification: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, O.L.; Sheriff, M.L.

    1994-11-14

    Detailed descriptions of the various mixed low-level waste feed streams that will be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 2A (WRAP 2A) are provided. Feed stream descriptions are based on available reports, the solid waste information tracking system database, and the 1993 solid waste forecast data. Available chemical and physical attributes, radionuclide data, waste codes, and packaging information are shown for 15 feed streams. The information sources and methodology for obtaining projections for WRAP 2A expected feed stream volumes also are described.

  6. Vivencias psicosociales reveladas por niños que reciben tratamiento con quimioterapia por cáncer Psychosocial experiences of children receiving chemotherapy for cancer Vivências psicossociais de crianças com tratamento de quimioterapia por câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIVERA ZABALA JOHANNA MARCELA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio cualitativo con el propósito de descubrir las vivencias psicosociales de niños y niñas de 9 a 12 años que recibían tratamiento con quimioterapia por cáncer. La recolección de la información se hizo mediante encuentros lúdicos con el apoyo de algunas preguntas básicas que facilitaron las revelaciones narrativas. Tres aspectos se destacan en los hallazgos del estudio: vivencias desfavorables, vivencias relacionadas con la autoestima y vivencias favorables; las dos primeras, de diversa manera, afectan en estos niños su vida personal, familiar, escolar y, en general, todo su entorno. Es de resaltar que, como consecuencia de la caída del cabello, con frecuencia han sido objeto de burla y de rechazo por sus compañeros de estudio, lo que produce el más notorio efecto sobre su autoimagen; por otra parte, el ausentismo escolar conlleva dificultades académicas y sentimientos de tristeza en estos niños, situación que empeora cuando, por motivos de tratamiento, su lugar de residencia está alejado de la ciudad, viéndose sometidos a largos periodos de separación, no solo de su familia sino de sus pares. Se concluye que la mayor parte de las revelaciones son impactantes por su gran contenido de sufrimiento y dolor para estos niños, lo que demuestra la urgencia de retomar los hallazgos del estudio para orientar el cuidado de enfermería de manera más integral y apoyar para que se haga lo propio en el hogar y en las instituciones educativas.A qualitative study was carried out in order to discover psychosocial experiences of boys and girls receiving chemotherapy treatment for cancer. Information was collected through ludic encounters with the support of some basic questions to facilitate narrative disclosures. Three aspects stand out among findings in the study: unfavorable experiences, experiences related to self esteem and favorable experiences; the first two, in different ways, affect boys and girls’ personal

  7. Vivencias psicosociales reveladas por niños que reciben tratamiento con quimioterapia por cáncer Vivências psicossociais de crianças com tratamento de quimioterapia por câncer Psychosocial experiences of children receiving chemotherapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA CECILIA VANEGAS DE AHOGADO

    áveis; as duas primeiras afetam de forma diferente na vida pessoal, familiar, escolar e geral das crianças. é importante salientar que normalmente a queda de cabelo nas crianças provoca deboche e repulsão por parte de seus companheiros, o que produz o efeito mais notório sobre a imagem própria; por outro lado, o absentismo escolar traz dificuldades acadêmicas e sentimentos de tristeza nessas crianças, situação que se agrava quando, por causa do tratamento, elas devem viajar longe de seu domicilio e ficar afastados da sua família e seus amigos por muito tempo. Conclui-se que a maior parte das revelações são chocantes devido a o alto conteúdo de sofrimento e dor para essas crianças, o que demonstra a urgência de retomar os achados do estudo para orientar o cuidado de enfermagem para uma forma mais integral e fazer tudo que for preciso para fazer o mesmo no lar e nas instituições educativas.A qualitative study was carried out in order to discover psychosocial experiences of boys and girls receiving chemotherapy treatment for cancer. Information was collected through ludic encounters with the support of some basic questions to facilitate narrative disclosures. Three aspects stand out among findings in the study: unfavorable experiences, experiences related to self esteem and favorable experiences; the first two, in different ways, affect boys and girls' personal, family and school life, and in general, all of their environment. It is worth highlighting that, as a consequence of hair loss, they are frequently the object of mockery and rejection by school mates, which produces the most notorious effect over their self image; on the other hand, school absenteeism causes academic difficulties and feelings of sadness in these children, situations get worse when, due to treatment, they have to live far away from the city, being subject to long periods of separation, not only from their families, but also from their peers. It is concluded that most disclosures are

  8. Sexual function in women receiving maintenance dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethala, Srikanth; Hess, Rachel; Bossola, Maurizio; Unruh, Mark L; Weisbord, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    While substantial attention has been paid to the issue of sexual dysfunction in men on chronic dialysis, less is known about this problem in women with end-stage renal disease. We sought to assess sexual dysfunction in women on chronic dialysis and determine whether patients discuss this problem with their providers and receive treatment. We prospectively enrolled women receiving chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in Pittsburgh, PA. We asked patients to complete the 19-item Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess sexual function and a 5-item survey that assessed whether patients had discussed sexual dysfunction with their providers and/or received treatment for this problem in the past. We enrolled 66 patients; 59 (89%) on hemodialysis and 7 (11%) on peritoneal dialysis. All patients completed the FSFI, of whom 53 (80%) had FSFI scores <26.55, consistent with the presence of sexual dysfunction. Of 37 patients who were married or residing with a significant other, 27 (73%) had sexual dysfunction. Among 24 participants who reported having been sexually active over the previous 4 weeks, 11 (46%) had sexual dysfunction. Only 21% of patients with sexual dysfunction had discussed this problem with their gynecologist, renal or primary provider, and 3 (6%) reported having received treatment. Sexual dysfunction is common in women on dialysis, even among patients who are married or residing with a significant other and those who are sexually active. However, few women discuss this issue with their providers or receive treatment.

  9. Receiver-Controlled Multi-Node Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Ye; Yue Li; XueJun Sha; Esko Alasaarela

    2014-01-01

    Since wireless links in Ad hoc networks are more fragile than those in traditional wireless networks due to route flapping, multi-node cooperation plays an important role in ensuring the quality of service ( QoS) . Based on the authors’ previous work, this paper proposes a receiver-controlled multi-node cooperation routing protocol, known as AODV-RCC. In this protocol, nodes form a cooperation group based on signal power. In a cooperation group, signal power between a partner and a transmitter, as well as signal power between the partner and the receiver, must be larger than the signal power between the transmitter and the receiver. Otherwise, the transmission will not benefit from cooperation. To avoid collision or congestion, each cooperation group only contains one partner. This partner offers both data and ACK cooperative retransmission. Its retransmission time should be shorter than the internal retry time of the transmitter’ s MAC layer, because it is better for the partner to retransmit firstly, as it offers a more reliable cooperative link. In AODV-RCC, it is the receiver that chooses the partner, because the link between the partner and the receiver is the most important. According to our simulation results, AODV-RCC shortens the end-to-end delay and increases the packet delivery ratio.

  10. Schottky Heterodyne Receivers With Full Waveguide Bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Jeffrey; Crowe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres (including the Earth s) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. The ongoing research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain. The new receivers meet the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement, and operation across complete waveguide bands. The exceptional performance makes these receivers ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications. These include the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low-cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring. As a particular example, a WR-1.9SHM (400-600 GHz) has been developed (see Figure 1), with state-of-the-art noise temperature ranging from 1,000-1,800 K (DSB) over the full waveguide band. Also, a Vector Network Analyzer extender has been developed (see Figure 2) for the WR1.5 waveguide band (500 750 GHz) with 100-dB dynamic range.

  11. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser

    1993-01-01

    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  12. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  13. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser

    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it is possible, every effort is made to limit the amount of radiation children may receive from ... CT scanner or may be over the weight limit—usually 450 pounds—for the moving table. Other ...

  15. Supporting Young Children with Disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathleen Hebbeler; Donna Spiker

    2016-01-01

    ...? To begin with, Kathleen Hebbeler and Donna Spiker write, identifying children with delays and disabilities to receive specialized services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act poses several challenges...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation children may receive from a CT scan. One of the best ways of limiting radiation exposure ... or pediatrician and the radiologist will decide which type of examination is best for your child. top ...

  17. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan

    2009-01-01

    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  18. Randomized transmit and receive ultrasound tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Clement, Gregory T

    2015-01-01

    A tomographic method is considered that forms images from sets of spatially randomized source signals and receiver sensitivities. The method is designed to allow image reconstruction for an extended number of transmitters and receivers in the presence noise and without plane wave approximation or otherwise approximation on the size or regularity of source and receiver functions. An overdetermined set of functions are formed from the Hadamard product between a Gaussian function and a uniformly distributed random number set. It is shown that this particular type of randomization tends to produce well-conditioned matrices whose pseudoinverses may be determined without implementing relaxation methods. When the inverted sets are applied to simulated first-order scattering from a Shepp-Logan phantom, successful image reconstructions are achieved for signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) as low as 1. Evaluation of the randomization approach is conducted by comparing condition numbers with other forms of signal randomization....

  19. Precision Continuum Receivers for Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers find widespread use in radioastronomy receivers. In recent years, these devices have also been commonly employed in broadband receivers for precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In this setting, the combination of ultra-low-noise and low-spectral-resolution observations reinforce the importance achieving suitable control over the device environment to achieve fundamentally limited receiver performance. The influence of the intrinsic amplifier stability at low frequencies on data quality (e.g., achievable noise and residual temporal correlations), observational and calibration strategies, as well as architectural mitigation approaches in this setting will be discussed. The implications of device level 1/f fluctuations reported in the literature on system performance will be reviewed.

  20. Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Optoelectronic Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vera-Marquina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the optical and electrical characterization of an integrated optoelectronic receiver. The receiver is composed of a photodiode and a transimpedance amplifier, both fabricated in silicon technology using a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The total area occupied by the photodiode is of 10,000 μm2. In a first step, the generated photocurrent of the photodiode is measured for the wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm at different levels of optical power. In a second step, the responsivity and quantum efficiency parameters of the photodiode are computed. Finally, an electrical measurement including the transimpedance amplifier is achieved. A potential application for this optoelectronic receiver is on the first optical communications window.

  1. Implementation of Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payata Srikanth Yadav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART is the serial communication protocol that is used for data exchange between computer & peripherals. UART is a low velocity, short-distance, low-cost protocol. UART includes three modules which are received, the baud rate generator and transmitter. The UART design with Very High Description Language can be integrated into the Field Programmable Gate Array to achieve stable data transmission and to make system reliable and compact. In the result and simulation part, this project will focus on check the receive data with error free & baud rate generation at different frequencies. Before synthesizing of UART a baud rate generator is incorporated into the system. We use the frequency divider which sets itself to required frequency for the functionality at lower frequency. All modules are designed using VERILOG and implemented on Xilinx Suite development board.

  2. Multiple Antenna Cognitive Receivers and Signal Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Couillet, Romain

    2008-01-01

    A Bayesian inference learning process for cognitive receivers is provided in this paper. We focus on the particular case of signal detectionas an explanatory example to the learning framework. Under any prior state of knowledge on the communication channel, an information theoretic criterion is presented to decide on the presence of informative data in a noisy wireless MIMO communication. We detail the particular cases of knowledge, or absence of knowledge at the receiver, of the number of transmit antennas and noise power. The provided method is instrumental to provide intelligence to the receiver and gives birth to a novel Bayesian signal detector. The detector is compared to the classical power detector and provides detection performance upper bounds. Simulations corroborate the theoretical results and quantify the gain achieved using the proposed Bayesian framework.

  3. Antennas and Receivers in Radio Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    The primary antenna elements and receivers are two of the most important components in a synthesis telescope. Together they are responsible for locking onto an astronomical source in both direction and frequency, capturing its radiation, and converting it into signals suitable for digitization and correlation. The properties and performance of antennas and receivers can affect the quality of the synthesized images in a number of fundamental ways. In this lecture, their most relevant design and performance parameters are reviewed, with emphasis on the current ALMA and VLA systems. We discuss in detail the shape of the primary beam and the components of aperture efficiency, and we present the basics of holography, pointing, and servo control. On receivers, we outline the use of amplifiers and mixers both in the cryogenic front-end and in the room temperature back-end signal path. The essential properties of precision local oscillators (LOs), phase lock loops (PLLs), and LO modulation techniques are also describ...

  4. Olympus receiver evaluation and phase noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Wang, Huailiang; Sweeney, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    A set of measurements performed by the Michigan Tech Sensing and Signal Processing Group on the analog receiver built by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for propagation measurements using the Olympus Satellite is described. Measurements of local oscillator (LO) phase noise were performed for all of the LOs supplied by JPL. In order to obtain the most useful set of measurements, LO phase noise measurements were made using the complete VPI receiver front end. This set of measurements demonstrates the performance of the receiver from the Radio Frequency (RF) input through the high Intermediate Frequency (IF) output. Three different measurements were made: LO phase noise with DC on the voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) port; LO phase noise with the 11.381 GHz LO locked to the reference signal generator; and a reference measurement with the JPL LOs out of the system.

  5. Impact of a waste disposal site on children physical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Ocampo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of health problems among population living close to landfills. We evaluated the impact of a municipal solid waste disposal site on children’s growth between 0-3 years of age. Methods: Children were selected in sites likely to receive dispersion of air compounds from the waste disposal site and also in a control area, in Cali, Colombia, in 2005. Anthropometric measures were obtained at enrollment and in two follow-up visits at 3 months intervals to obtain standardized z scores of weight for height (WHZ and height for age (HAZ. In addition, questionnaires including information of socio-economical conditions and morbidity were applied at enrolment and during follow-up visits. Results: Children exposed had on average 0.16 less standard deviations (SD in WHZ scores when compared to control group (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -0.34, 0.01. Among those who have lived >50% of their life in the study area, a significantly lower HAZ score was observed (-0.12 associated with exposure. Our data also suggest a larger effect of exposure to the waste disposal site in WHZ among children with symptoms of respiratory disease than among asymptomatic children (p=0.08. Conclusions: Exposure to this waste disposal site was found associated with lower children’s growth indexes.

  6. Impact of a waste disposal site on children physical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Ocampo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of health problems among population living close to landfills. We evaluated the impact of a municipal solid waste disposal site on children’s growth between 0-3 years of age.Methods: Children were selected in sites likely to receive dispersion of air compounds from the waste disposal site and also in a control area, in Cali, Colombia, in 2005. Anthropometric measures were obtained at enrollment and in two follow-up visits at 3 months intervals to obtain standardized z scores of weight for height (WHZ and height for age (HAZ. In addition, questionnaires including information of socio-economical conditions and morbidity were applied at enrolment and during follow-up visits.Results: Children exposed had on average 0.16 less standard deviations (SD in WHZ scores when compared to control group (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -0.34, 0.01. Among those who have lived >50% of their life in the study area, a significantly lower HAZ score was observed (-0.12 associated with exposure. Our data also suggest a larger effect of exposure to the waste disposal site in WHZ among children with symptoms of respiratory disease than among asymptomatic children (p=0.08.

  7. The new indicators of accounts receivable excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, G L

    1996-01-01

    Calculation of AR days will continue to be a valuable internal measurement tool of accounts receivable excellence. As healthcare organizations move toward managed care through a mix of reimbursement systems--many with conflicting incentives--the director of patient accounting must approach each system separately and ensure that the hospital receives all of the reimbursement to which it is entitled. The director of patient accounting must understand the industry and recognize that healthcare reimbursement will almost certainly continue to become more complex rather than simpler. Creativity will be a necessity, and good luck will be an advantage.

  8. On Satellite Multicast to Heterogeneous Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    combined into one bulk file. Let the multicast source use Reed-Solomon erasure ( RSE ) coding (e.g. [Mac97]) and let the bulk file be encoded into W ≥ 1... RSE -based FEC blocks. Each FEC block consists of h data packets and c parity packets – all of the same length. We assume a multicast tree that has a... RSE -based FEC block, a receiver must receive at least h distinct packets, either data or parity, from the same FEC block. To allow a systematic way

  9. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.

    2014-01-01

    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  10. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    2001-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  11. Financing with Receivables: Factoring, Securitization and Collateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Benea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Short term financing is vital for the financial survival of any company, because very often they are facing deficits of cash during their activity. Therefore a company has to identify the optimal solutions in order to cover those (temporary deficits. A good solution to this problem is the financing with receivables using factoring, securitization and collateral. In this paper we try to analyze how this types of financing works and which are their advantages and costs. Also, we developed a reasoning pattern in order to evaluate the best receivables financing alternative for the Romanian companies.

  12. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  13. Method of investigation of deformations of solids of incompressible materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrakhmanova, A. I.; Garifullin, I. R.; Sultanov, L. U.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is development mathematical models, algorithm for the investigation stress-strain state of elastic solids, taking into account the incompressibility materials. The constitutive equations are received using a potential energy of deformations. The system of the linear algebraic equations is received by linearization of a resolving equation. The penalty method is applied for a modelling of the incompressibility of the material. The finite element method is used for numerical solution of the problems.

  14. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  15. Solid phases of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantera, Rodrigo G; Leza, María G; Bachiller, Carmen M

    2002-10-01

    In this report we describe the preparation and characterization of four polymorphic forms of tenoxicam; they are, three 1:1 stoichiometric solvates with acetonitrile, dioxane, and N,N-dimethylformamide, and an amorphous phase obtained by recrystallization in various solvents. Polymorph IV and solvates with dioxane and N,N-dimethylformamide are reported for the first time in this paper. In addition, three solvates were crystallized in acetone, ethyl acetate, and isopropyl alcohol. These solid forms were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, optical microscopy, and elemental analysis. Solid-state properties, intrinsic dissolution rate, and dissolution kinetics from formulated tablets are also provided.

  16. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  17. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  18. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  19. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  20. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  2. Local Solid Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koenderink

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution.

  3. Solid State Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    width at half-maximum measured at 4 K of GalnAsSb layers grown on GaSb substrates. Solid circles this work; open squares from [9]; open triangle from...Rowe N. R. Newbury A. Sanchez-Rubio C. A. Primmerman Bermuda Grass Smut Spores WhitET 0 12 3 4 5 6 Ratio (PMT1 / PMT2) Figure 1-4...measured at 4 K of GalnAsSb layers grown on GaSb sub- strates. Solid circles this work; open squares from [9]; open triangle from [10]. [9],[10

  4. Reactions at Solid Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ertl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Expanding on the ideas first presented in Gerhard Ertl's acclaimed Baker Lectures at Cornell University, Reactions at Solid Surfaces comprises an authoritative, self-contained, book-length introduction to surface reactions for both professional chemists and students alike. Outlining our present understanding of the fundamental processes underlying reactions at solid surfaces, the book provides the reader with a complete view of how chemistry works at surfaces, and how to understand and probe the dynamics of surface reactions. Comparing traditional surface probes with more modern ones, and brin

  5. SolidWorks : opetuspaketti

    OpenAIRE

    Myllymäki, Vesa

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin mahdollisuuksia tehdä opetusvideoita SolidWorks -ohjelman käyttämisestä. Tähän tarkoitukseen löydettiin menetelmään sopiva ohjelma, CamStudio, jota sitten sovellettiin käytännössä. Camstudio ja SolidWorks ohjelmia hyödyntäen luotiin videoita kolmiulotteisista mallinnusprosesseista. Menetelmä toimi, mutta sen käyttökelpoisuuteen liittyi ongelmia. Videoden laatu on heikko, mutta sen parantaminen merkitsisi suurempaa tiedostokokoa, mikä voi tuottaa tietokantaongelmia. ...

  6. Contributions of Solid Wastes Disposal Practice to Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    with use of RDT, open drainage, stagnation of water in drain, solid waste in drain and presence of weed were found ... 2013, approximately 78% of malaria deaths globally were of children under 5 years ..... Social Sustainability, 3(3): 103-112.

  7. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Ermakov, A. B.; Filippenko, L. V.; Koryukin, O. V.; Khudchenko, A. V.; Sobolev, A. S.; Torgashin, M. Yu; Yagoubov, P. A.; Hoogeveen, R. W. M.; Vreeling, W. J.; Wild, W.; Pylypenko, O. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring

  8. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  9. CAS expert receives Tribology Gold Medal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Prof. XUE Qunji, a senior expert in tribology from the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (L1CP) and member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, received the Tribology Gold Medalfor 2011 on February 27, 2012 in Beijing. As one of the world's most outstanding and influential tribologists in the last forty years, Prof.

  10. Receiving Assistance and Local Food System Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Som Castellano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A body of literature has noted that local food systems (LFSs may not involve active participation by individuals with lower incomes. This is, in part, a function of racial and class hegemony, as well as physical and financial accessibility of LFSs. LFS institutions, such as farmers’ markets, have been working to facilitate receipt of food assistance programs, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. Charitable assistance programs, such as food banks, have also been actively working to engage in LFSs, for example, by making local foods available. However, little research has explored the role that receiving public or charitable assistance can play in influencing LFS participation. In this article, I utilize quantitative and qualitative data collected from across the state of Ohio to examine the relationship between receiving assistance and LFS participation for women, who remain predominately responsible for food provisioning in the U.S., including among those who participate in LFSs. Quantitative results suggest that receiving assistance can increase participation in LFSs. Qualitative data provides more nuanced information about the importance of food assistance for women who want to participate in LFSs, and suggest that it is essential that food cooperatives and farmers’ markets are equipped to receive food assistance programs, such as SNAP, in order for women with lower incomes to participate in LFSs.

  11. Why Receiving Feedback Collides with Self Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Olle Th. J.

    2013-01-01

    Providing feedback to trainees in clinical settings is considered important for development and acquisition of skill. Despite recommendations how to provide feedback that have appeared in the literature, research shows that its effectiveness is often disappointing. To understand why receiving feedback is more difficult than it appears, this paper…

  12. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  13. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2004-01-01

    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  14. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct...

  15. Richard W. Ziolkowski Receives Honorary Doctorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    At the annual Commemoration of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on April 27, 2012, Prof. Richard W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona (UoA), received DTU's highest academic degree, the Honorary Doctor degree: Doctor Technices Honoris Causa (Figure 1). Prof. Ziolkowski has been a close...

  16. Radiometric Receiver for Passive Microwave Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaichin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new method to develop a zero-type W-band radiometric receiver. The block diagram and operating algorithm of the digital control system are presented. The main advantages of the zero method in passive radio physical investigations in comparison with classical engineering solutions are shown.

  17. 7 CFR 29.42 - Receiving station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.42 Receiving station. Points at which producer tobacco is offered for marketing (other than sale at auction on a designated market), including tobacco auction warehouses,...

  18. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2004-01-01

    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  19. A GPS Receiver for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, William A.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Holt, Greg N.; Moreau, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in October of 2008, NASA will once again begin its quest to land humans on the Moon. This effort will require the development of new spacecraft which will safely transport people from the Earth to the Moon and back again, as well as robotic probes tagged with science, re-supply, and communication duties. In addition to the next-generation spacecraft currently under construction, including the Orion capsule, NASA is also investigating and developing cutting edge navigation sensors which will allow for autonomous state estimation in low Earth orbit (LEO) and cislunar space. Such instruments could provide an extra layer of redundancy in avionics systems and reduce the reliance on support and on the Deep Space Network (DSN). One such sensor is the weak-signal Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver "Navigator" being developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). At the heart of the Navigator is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based acquisition engine. This engine allows for the rapid acquisition/reacquisition of strong GPS signals, enabling the receiver to quickly recover from outages due to blocked satellites or atmospheric entry. Additionally, the acquisition algorithm provides significantly lower sensitivities than a conventional space-based GPS receiver, permitting it to acquire satellites well above the GPS constellation. This paper assesses the performance of the Navigator receiver based upon three of the major flight regimes of a manned lunar mission: Earth ascent, cislunar navigation, and entry. Representative trajectories for each of these segments were provided by NASA. The Navigator receiver was connected to a Spirent GPS signal generator, to allow for the collection of real-time, hardware-in-the-loop results for each phase of the flight. For each of the flight segments, the Navigator was tested on its ability to acquire and track GPS satellites under the dynamical

  20. Vulcan: A deep-towed CSEM receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Steven; Kannberg, Peter K.; Weitemeyer, Karen

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a three-axis electric field receiver designed to be towed behind a marine electromagnetic transmitter for the purpose of mapping the electrical resistivity in the upper 1000 m of seafloor geology. By careful adjustment of buoyancy and the use of real-time monitoring of depth and altitude, we are able to deep-tow multiple receivers on arrays up to 1200 m long within 50 m of the seafloor, thereby obtaining good coupling to geology. The rigid body of the receiver is designed to reduce noise associated with lateral motion of flexible antennas during towing, and allows the measurement of the vertical electric field component, which modeling shows to be particularly sensitive to near-seafloor resistivity variations. The positions and orientations of the receivers are continuously measured, and realistic estimates of positioning errors can be used to build an error model for the data. During a test in the San Diego Trough, offshore California, inversions of the data were able to fit amplitude and phase of horizontal electric fields at three frequencies on three receivers to about 1% in amplitude and 1° in phase and vertical fields to about 5% in amplitude and 5° in phase. The geological target of the tests was a known cold seep and methane vent in 1000 m water depth, which inversions show to be associated with a 1 km wide resistor at a depth between 50 and 150 m below seafloor. Given the high resistivity (30 Ωm) and position within the gas hydrate stability field, we interpret this to be massive methane hydrate.

  1. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  2. Surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases in pediatric solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Todd E; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2016-10-01

    Most children who succumb to solid malignancies do so because of the burden of metastatic disease or due to complications associated with the therapy administered to treat metastatic disease. Approximately one-quarter of children with solid tumors will present with metastatic disease, and an additional 20% ultimately develop metastatic disease, most commonly in the lung. The role of surgery in the treatment of metastatic solid tumors, given its disseminated nature, is not intuitive, yet there are circumstances in which surgical resection of metastatic disease can potentially be curative. However, the utility of surgery is very much dependent on histology, and generally is most appropriate for those malignancies with histologies that are refractory to other adjuvant therapies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Carnitine ester excretion in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Penn, D; Bieber, L L; Kerner, J; Rossi, T M; Lebenthal, E

    1990-08-01

    Carnitine plasma concentrations and the excretion of carnitine and individual carnitine esters were determined in 25 children and adolescents with gastrointestinal diseases receiving carnitine-free parenteral nutrition for at least 1 mo using radiochemical and radioisotopic exchange HPLC methods. Children less than 12-y-old usually had carnitine plasma concentrations less than -2 SD from the normal mean for age, whereas patients greater than 12-y-old had carnitine plasma concentrations within the normal range. Age was the only variable to correlate significantly with plasma carnitine concentrations during parenteral nutrition. Free carnitine (FC) excretion was closely correlated with plasma FC concentrations and minimal at values less than 25 mumols/L. The excretion of FC and short-chain acylcarnitines was reduced by an order of magnitude in younger compared with older patients and controls, but the excretion of "other" acylcarnitines was less affected. Some of the latter were tentatively identified using gas-liquid chromatographic and mass spectroscopic techniques as unsaturated and/or branched medium-chain carnitine esters with a carbon chain of C8-C10. The results suggest that FC and short-chain acylcarnitine are conserved by the kidney in nutritional carnitine deficiency but that there may be an obligatory renal excretion of other carnitine esters that contributes to the development of hypocarnitinemia in the younger age group.

  4. Children's rights: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peens, B J; Louw, D A

    2000-01-01

    The issue of children's rights has become very prominent over the past few decades during which attempts were being made to formulate an international agreement about the person status of children world-wide. These attempts have brought together and formalised a trend that has evolved over at least 400 years to broaden and develop society's understanding and acceptance of children as unique, necessary valuable societal assets. The ensuing social evolution in the realm of children's rights has led most countries to the understanding that by investing in and protecting children's best interests, a solid foundation is laid for healthy nation-building. This review article focuses on a variety of documented aspects pertaining to the topic of children's rights. Definitions and descriptions of various types of children's rights are given as well as the arguments posed for and against. Finally the various proposals and motivations for the inclusion of certain types of children's rights as they presently occur in the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child are noted and discussed.

  5. Supporting Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Spiker, Donna

    2016-01-01

    What do we know about young children with delays and disabilities, and how can we help them succeed in prekindergarten through third grade? To begin with, Kathleen Hebbeler and Donna Spiker write, identifying children with delays and disabilities to receive specialized services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act poses several…

  6. Carnitine deficiency in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, D; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, H

    1980-03-01

    Carnitine plays a significant role in fatty acid utilization and ketone body production. Its availability is especially important during the immediate postnatal period. To determine whether low birth weight infants who cannot be orally fed are at risk of developing carnitine deficiency, we compared the carnitine blood levels and urinary excretion of 12 premature infants (Group A) receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with those of 8 infants of similar gestational age and birth weight (Group B) who received carnitine-containing milk formulas. In Group A, serum levels of total and free carnitine fell after 5 days of carnitine-deficient parenteral nutrition, and urinary excretion was significantly reduced. Serum levels and urinary excretion increased after the onset of oral feedings. The control Group B exhibited no significant changes in carnitine blood levels between the first and fifth days of life, but did show a later increase. Children in Group A had lower carnitine blood levels compared to those in Group B on the fifth day of life. These findings suggest that premature infants are not able to synthesize enough carnitine to maintain blood levels, and that carnitine deficiency can occur following TPN. Further investigation of metabolic consequences secondary to deficient carnitine intake in premature infants is necessary before carnitine supplementation should be considered.

  7. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    Solid state physics is an exhaustive introductory text for the students of physics. Keeping in mind, this book has been prepared to present the subject-matter in an easily understandable way without sacrificing the essential details and principles an yet avoiding redundant matter and unnecessary complications. This book is expected to meet adequately the need of the students for whom it is meant.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  9. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  10. Solid-phase microextraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben

    The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...

  11. Local solid shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543; van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches-essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures-of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is cate

  12. Solid-State Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  14. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  15. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  16. Reductions in Anaemia and Fatigue are Associated with Improvements in Productivity in Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Cancer-related anaemia is associated with fatigue that adversely affects patients' everyday functioning and wellbeing. We explore the impact of fatigue on patient productivity and caregiver burden. Methods: The analyses are based on data from a randomised, open-label, active-controlled, dose-finding trial of darbepoetin alfa among solid-tumour cancer patients with anaemia, who are receiving chemotherapy. Fatigue is assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Fa...

  17. Extremely high frequency (EHF) satellite communications (SATCOM) technology-transmitters and receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Jorg E.

    1983-10-01

    During the past three years, interest in satellite communications in the frequency bands above Ku-band has expanded dramatically. As a result, a number of key technology developments, targeted to meet specific next generation spaceborne needs, were undertaken. The state-of-the-art in solid state power transmitters and low noise receivers, including critical passive component technology, is presented. This includes filters as well as a series of rugged high performance ferrite components such as isolators, circulators and latching switches.

  18. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  19. M-Solidity Testing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Denecke; S.L. Wismath

    2002-01-01

    A set S of hypersubstitutions is called an M-solidity testing system for a class of varieties if it is possible to determine all M-solid varieties in the class using only the hypersubstitutions from S. If S is a minimal such set, we will call it an M-solidity basis for the class. In this paper, we relate solidity testing systems to the Galois connection between hypersubstitutions and varieties, and present a number of examples of solidity testing systems for several different types of varieties, including examples of the existence of finite M-solidity bases for various classes.

  20. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of