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Sample records for children receiving solid

  1. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  2. Solids-based concentrated solar power receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2018-04-10

    A concentrated solar power (CSP) system includes channels arranged to convey a flowing solids medium descending under gravity. The channels form a light-absorbing surface configured to absorb solar flux from a heliostat field. The channels may be independently supported, for example by suspension, and gaps between the channels are sized to accommodate thermal expansion. The light absorbing surface may be sloped so that the inside surfaces of the channels proximate to the light absorbing surface define downward-slanting channel floors, and the flowing solids medium flows along these floors. Baffles may be disposed inside the channels and oriented across the direction of descent of the flowing solids medium. The channels may include wedge-shaped walls forming the light-absorbing surface and defining multiple-reflection light paths for solar flux from the heliostat field incident on the light-absorbing surface.

  3. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  4. MRI in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaghebeur, G.; Taylor, W.J.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; Fell, J.M.E.; Reynolds, A.P.; Milla, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Cranial MRI was obtained in 13 of a group of 57 children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition, who were being investigated for hypermanganasaemia. Increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images has been reported in adult patients on long-term parenteral nutrition and with encephalopathy following chronic manganese exposure in arc welding. It has been postulated that these changes are due to deposition of the paramagnetic trace element manganese. In excess manganese is hepato- and neurotoxic and we present the correlation of whole blood manganese levels with imaging findings. The age range of our patients was 6 months to 10 years, and the duration of therapy 3 months to 10 years. In 7 children we found characteristic increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with no abnormality on T2-weighted images. All patients had elevated whole blood manganese levels, suggesting that the basis for this abnormality is indeed deposition of manganese within the tissues. (orig.). With 3 figs

  5. Anxiety, depression in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, S.; Jehangir, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumors using Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Out-patient department of Armed Forces Institute of Mental Health, Rawalpindi from June 2011 to December 2011. Methodology: Consecutive non probability sampling technique was used to select patients of age (25-70 years), male or female, who had received atleast 03 cycles of chemotherapy for solid tumors. Those with history of prior psychiatric illness, current use of psychotropic medication or psychoactive substance use, and any major bereavement in past one year were excluded from the study. After taking informed consent, relevant socio- demographic data was collected and HADS was administered. HADS-A cut off score of 7 was taken as significant anxiety while a HADS-D cut off score of 7 was taken as significant depression. Results: The total number of participants was 209. The mean age of patients was 42.9 years, with 55.5% males and 44.5% females. Overall 33/209 (15.8%) patients had anxiety while 56/209 (26.8%) were found to have depression. There was a higher frequency of anxiety and depression in younger patients (less than age 40 years), females, patients who were single or divorced, and patients receiving chemotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma. Conclusion: Patients undergoing chemotherapy suffer from considerable levels of anxiety and depression, thus highlighting the need for specialized interventions. (author)

  6. Which Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment Receive Language Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Potential biases in service provision for preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) were explored. Method: In Study 1, children with SLI receiving treatment (SLI-T) and those with SLI not receiving treatment (SLI-NT) were compared on demographic characteristics and developmental abilities. Study 2 recruited children with…

  7. Procedural Pain Management for Children Receiving Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    von Baeyer, Carl L.; Tupper, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides an overview of literature relevant to the prevention and relief of pain and distress during physiotherapy procedures, with guidance for physiotherapists treating children.

  8. Dyslipidemia in HIV Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anirban; Mukherjee, Aparna; Lakshmy, R; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to determine the associated risk factors for the same. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at a Pediatric Clinic of a tertiary care teaching center in India, from May 2011 through December 2012. HIV infected children aged 5-15 y were enrolled if they did not have any severe disease or hospital admission within last 3 mo or receive any medications known to affect the lipid profile. Eighty-one children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 6 mo and 16 were receiving no antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants' sociodemographic, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded in addition to anthropometry and evidence of lipodystrophy. Fasting lipid profile, apolipoprotein A1 and B levels were done for all the children. Among the children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 38.3 % had dyslipidemia and 80.2 % had lipodystrophy, while 25 % antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected children had dyslipidemia. No clinically significant risk factors could be identified that increased the risk of dyslipidemia or lipodystrophy in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children with HIV infection with an imminent need to establish facilities for testing and treatment of these children for metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Children receiving chemotherapy at home: perceptions of children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bonnie; McKeever, Patricia; Law, Madelyn P; Booth, Marilyn; Greenberg, Mark; Daub, Stacey; Gafni, Amiram; Gammon, Janet; Yamada, Janet; Epstein, Iris

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive exploratory study was to determine the perspectives of parents and children with cancer on a home chemotherapy program. Qualitative analyses were used to organize data from 24 parents and 14 children into emerging themes. Themes included (1) financial and time costs, (2) disruption to daily routines, (3) psychological and physical effects, (4) recommendations and caveats, and (5) preference for home chemotherapy. When home chemotherapy was compared with hospital clinic-based chemotherapy, parents reported fewer financial and time costs and less disruption to their work and family schedules, and children reported more time to play/study, improved school attendance, and engagement in normal activities. Although some parents felt more secure with hospital chemotherapy, most found it more exhausting and stressful. At home, children selected places for their treatment and some experienced fewer side effects. Although some coordination/communication problems existed, the majority of parents and children preferred home chemo-therapy. Home chemotherapy treatment is a viable, acceptable, and positive health care delivery alternative from the perspective of parents and children with cancer.

  10. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995

  11. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-06-06

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995.

  12. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates

  13. Early Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss: Information Parents Receive about Supporting Children's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kalli B.; Vallotton, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered early intervention for children with hearing loss is intended to strengthen families' interactions with their children to support children's language development, and should include providing parents with information they can use as part of their everyday routines. However, little is known about the information received by families…

  14. Should children with inherited metabolic disorders receive varicella vaccination?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varghese, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to determine the rate of varicella infection and complications in children with disorders of intermediary metabolism (IEM) between the ages of 1 and 16 years attending our national metabolic referral centre. Of 126 children identified, a response was received from 122. A history of previous varicella infection was identified in 64 cases (53%) and of varicella vaccination in 5 (4%). Fifty-three (43%) patients apparently did not have a history of clinical varicella infection. Of the 64 children with a history of varicella infection, five required hospitalisation for complications, including life-threatening lactic acidosis in one patient with mitochondrial disease and metabolic decompensation in four patients. In conclusion, varicella infection may cause an increased risk of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEMs. We propose that a trial of varicella vaccination be considered for this cohort of patients with monitoring of its safety and efficacy.

  15. Language Profile in Congenital Hypothyroid Children Receiving Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hend; Abdel Hady, Aisha Fawzy; Abdel Hamid, Asmaa; Mahmoud, Heba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate receptive and expressive language skills in children with congenital hypothyroidism receiving early hormonal replacement treatment before the age of 3 months and to identify any subtle areas of weaknesses in their language development to check the necessity for future language intervention. The study was conducted on 30 hypothyroid children receiving hormonal replacement. They were subdivided into group I (5-8 years 11 months; 12 cases) and group II (9-12 years 11 months; 18 cases). All patients were subjected to a protocol of assessment applied in the Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Pediatric Unit (DEMPU) and evaluation of language skills by the REAL scale. The younger group reached average Arabic language scores, while the older group showed moderate language delay. Early replacement therapy supports language development in young children. However, longitudinal and follow-up studies are required to identify difficulties presenting at older ages that may affect children in the academic settings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Reducing fear in preschool children receiving intravenous injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Hui-Tzu; Cho, Yen-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Our pediatric medical ward administers an average of 80 intravenous injections to preschool children. We found that 91.1% exhibit behavior indicative of fear and anxiety. Over three-quarters (77.8%) of this number suffer severe fear and actively resist receiving injections. Such behavior places a greater than normal burden on human and material resources and often gives family members negative impressions that lower their trust in the healthcare service while raising nurse-patient tensions. Using observation and interviews, we found primary factors in injection fear to be: Past negative experiences, lack of adequate prior communication, measures taken to preemptively control child resistance, and default cognitive behavioral strategies from nursing staff. This project worked to develop a strategy to reduce cases of severe injection fear in preschool children from 77.8% to 38.9% and achieve a capacity improvement target for members of 50%. Our team identified several potential strategy solutions from research papers and books between August 1st, 2009 and April 30th, 2010. Our proposed method included therapeutic games, self-selection of injection position, and cognitive behavioral strategies to divert attention. Other measures were also specified as standard operating procedures for administering pediatric intravenous injections. We applied the strategy on 45 preschool children and identified a post-injection "severe fear" level of 37.8%. This project was designed to reduce fear in children to make them more accepting of vaccinations and to enhance children's positive treatment experience in order to raise nursing care quality.

  17. Imaging of solid kidney tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; Sackey, K.; McDonald, P.

    1995-01-01

    Eighteen children aged 6 months to 12 years with 20 solid renal tumours; 13 Wilms' tumours (WT), 2 clear cell sarcomas of the kidney, 1 malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney and 2 cases of bilateral nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumour underwent evaluation with US, CT and MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT and non-enhanced MR were equally accurate in determining the size and origin of the tumour but were unreliable in separation of stages I, II and III. US could only accurately assess the size of the tumours. MR characteristics varied somewhat between WTs and non-WTs but contrast-enhanced MR imaging might be useful for separation of WTs from nephroblastomatosis. (orig.)

  18. Parameters of anesthesia/sedation in children receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, Kevin P; Hanson, Tara; Bratton, Jennifer; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports establish low risk of complications in pediatric treatments under anesthesia/sedation (A/S) in the outpatient setting. Here, we present our institutional experience with A/S by age and gender in children receiving daily proton RT. After Institutional Review Board approval, we reviewed our center’s records between 9/9/2004 and 6/30/2013 with respect to age and gender of A/S requirement in our pediatric patients (defined as patients ≤18 years of age). Of 390 patients treated in this era, 182 were girls. Children aged ≤3 invariably required A/S; and by age 7–8, approximately half of patients do not. For pediatric patients ≥ 12 years of age, approximately 10% may require A/S for different reasons. There was no difference by gender. Beyond age 3, the requirement for A/S decreases in an age-dependent fashion, with a small cadre of older children having difficulty enough with sustained immobilization that A/S is necessary. In our experience, there is no difference in A/S requirement by gender

  19. Lymphopenia caused by cranial irradiation in children receiving craniospinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harisiadis, L.; Kopelson, G.; Chang, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    The peripheral blood changes were studied in 67 children who received craniospinal irradiation for posterior fossa tumors. At the completion of a cranial dose of about 3500 rad to the whole brain port, the lymphocytes were reduced to 858/mm 3 from 3084/mm 3 preoperatively. The counts of the remaining leukocytes stayed at a level somewhat higher than preoperatively; the eosinophils rose to 288/mm 3 from 125/mm 3 . With the initiation of the spinal field irradiation, which included a large proportion of the total bone marrow, the numbers of all the leukocytes decreased rapidly; the observed leukopenia was mainly secondary to neutropenia. A mechanism that was operating to restore the number of leukocytes became manifest immediately after the completion of radiotherapy, though the number of lymphocytes had not been totally restored to the preoperative level 6 years later. Irradiation of the lymphocytes that circulate through the vascular bed can explain the lymphopenia observed during cranial radiotherapy. Mild leukopenia observed in patients receiving radiotherapy through a relatively small port may be secondary to lymphopenia, and this does not necessarily indicate impaired bone marrow reserves

  20. Receiver calibration and the nonlinearity parameter measurement of thick solid samples with diffraction and attenuation corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Barnard, Daniel; Cho, Sungjong; Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents analytical and experimental techniques for accurate determination of the nonlinearity parameter (β) in thick solid samples. When piezoelectric transducers are used for β measurements, the receiver calibration is required to determine the transfer function from which the absolute displacement can be calculated. The measured fundamental and second harmonic displacement amplitudes should be modified to account for beam diffraction and material absorption. All these issues are addressed in this study and the proposed technique is validated through the β measurements of thick solid samples. A simplified self-reciprocity calibration procedure for a broadband receiver is described. The diffraction and attenuation corrections for the fundamental and second harmonics are explicitly derived. Aluminum alloy samples in five different thicknesses (4, 6, 8, 10, 12cm) are prepared and β measurements are made using the finite amplitude, through-transmission method. The effects of diffraction and attenuation corrections on β measurements are systematically investigated. When diffraction and attenuation corrections are all properly made, the variation of β between different thickness samples is found to be less than 3.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Older age impacts on survival outcome in patients receiving curative surgery for solid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hsien Lu

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Given the global increase in aging populations and cancer incidence, understanding the influence of age on postoperative outcome after cancer surgery is imperative. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on survival outcome in solid cancer patients receiving curative surgery. Methods: A total of 37,288 patients receiving curative surgeries for solid cancers between 2007 and 2012 at four affiliated Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were included in the study. All patients were categorized into age groups by decades for survival analysis. Results: The percentages of patient populations aged <40 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and ≥80 years were 9.7%, 17.7%, 27.8%, 22.1%, 16.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. The median follow-up period was 38.9 months (range, 22.8–60.4 months and the overall, cancer-specific, and noncancer-specific mortality rates were 26.0%, 17.6%, and 8.5%, respectively. The overall mortality rate of patients in different age groups were 18.5%, 21.1%, 22.0%, 25.3%, 35.3%, and 49.0%, respectively. Compared to patients aged <40 years, more significant decrease in long-term survival were observed in aging patients. Multivariate analysis showed higher postoperative short-term mortality rates in patients older than 70 years, and the adjusted odds ratio of mortality risk ranged from 1.47 to 1.74 and 2.26 to 3.03 in patients aged 70–79 years and ≥80 years, respectively, compared to those aged <40 years. Conclusion: Aging was a negative prognostic factor of survival outcome in solid cancer patients receiving curative surgery. After adjustment of other clinicopathologic factors, the influence of age on survival outcome was less apparent in the elderly. Keywords: Age, Solid cancer, Surgical resection, Prognosis

  2. Internationally adopted children: what vaccines should they receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilleruelo, M J; de Ory, F; Ruiz-Contreras, J; González-González, R; Mellado, M J; García-Hortelano, M; Villota, J; García-Ascaso, M; Piñeiro, R; Martín-Fontelos, P; Herruzo, R

    2008-10-29

    It is of paramount importance to know the vaccination status in internationally adopted children, so that they can be correctly immunized. This study ascertains the seroprotection rate for vaccine-preventable diseases and the validity of the immunization cards in 637 adopted children. The absence of the immunization card (13% of children) correlated with a poor global vaccine protection. Children with immunization records (87%) had a better global seroprotection but the information obtained from the card did not accurately predict seroprotection for each particular antigen. The best variable to predict the status of seroprotection was the country of origin. The highest rate of protection was found in children from Eastern Europe and, in descending order, India, Latin America, China and Africa. General recommendations for immunization of internationally adopted children are difficult to establish. Actions for vaccination have to be mainly implemented on the basis of the existence of the immunization card and of the country of origin.

  3. Do Danish children and young people receive pocket money?

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Bonke

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which Danish parents give their children pocket money, including an examination of whether there is a correlation between the amount of pocket money given and children’s income from paid work. We also examine the significance of parents’ income for the amount of pocket money they give to their children, and we consider how children use their income in relation to the amount of their pocket money and earnings. Finally, we examine the relation...

  4. Changes in thyroid hormone state in children receiving chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, H. M.; Thonissen, N. M.; de Kraker, J.; Vulsma, T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective The concentrations of thyroid function determinants may change during severe illness. Our goal was to quantify their changes in children with cancer during chemotherapy, and to correlate them to clinical condition and type of drugs. Design During a 3-month period all patients admitted for

  5. Optimizing patient management and adherence for children receiving growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acerini, Carlo L.; Wac, Katarzyna; Bang, Peter

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Acerini, Wac, Bang and Lehwalder. Poor adherence with growth hormone (GH) therapy has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, which in children relates specifically to their linear growth and loss of quality of life. The "360° GH in Europe" meeting, held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June...... and are reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. Reported here is a summary of the proceedings of the second session, which reviewed the determinants of GH therapy response, factors affecting GH therapy adherence and the development of innovative technologies to improve GH treatment in children....... Response to GH therapy varies widely, particularly in regard to the underlying diagnosis, although there is little consensus on the definition of a poor response. If the growth response is seen to be less than expected, the possible reasons should be discussed with patients and their parents, including...

  6. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  7. Fatigue and physical performance in children and adolescents receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Mary Catherine; Garwick, Ann W; Gross, Cynthia R

    2011-11-01

    To examine the relationship between physical performance and fatigue in child and adolescent cohorts during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. Prospective, observational design. Two pediatric cancer centers in the upper Midwest region of the United States. 16 children and 14 adolescents newly diagnosed with cancer. Standardized instruments were administered during the first and third cycles of chemotherapy. Instruments included physical performance tests (Timed Up and Down Stairs [TUDS] and the 6-Minute Walk Test [6MWT]) and a self-report fatigue scale. Fatigue and physical performance. In the child cohort, physical performance appeared to improve and fatigue diminished from cycle 1 to 3 of chemotherapy. When time on TUDS decreased, fatigue tended to decrease; when 6MWT distance increased, fatigue decreased. In the adolescent cohort, fatigue seemed to decrease but physical performance measures evidenced little change. Correlations between changes in the physical performance variables and fatigue were not significant. Fatigue may decrease early in treatment as disease symptoms resolve. Fatigue in the child cohort was related to physical performance, which is consistent with previous studies that defined fatigue in children as primarily a physical sensation. Findings in the adolescent cohort support research that defined adolescent fatigue as more complex with mental, emotional, and physical components. Knowing how fatigue relates to physical performance in children and adolescents informs the nurse in educating patients and families about symptom management.

  8. DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE RECEIVING HYDROXYUREA

    OpenAIRE

    Thornburg, Courtney D.; Calatroni, Agustin; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a safe and efficacious medication for children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our objective was to compare health related quality of life (HRQL) between children taking hydroxyurea and those not taking hydroxyurea. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with SCD who had completed the PedsQL 4.0 at Duke University Medical Center or the Midwest Sickle Cell Center. Our primary outcome was HRQL in children receiving hydroxyurea therapy compared to those not receivin...

  9. Optimizing Patient Management and Adherence for Children Receiving Growth Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerini, Carlo L; Wac, Katarzyna; Bang, Peter; Lehwalder, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    Poor adherence with growth hormone (GH) therapy has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, which in children relates specifically to their linear growth and loss of quality of life. The "360° GH in Europe" meeting, held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016 and funded by Merck KGaA (Germany), examined many aspects of GH diseases. The three sessions, entitled " Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral ," " Optimizing Patient Management ," and " Managing Transition ," each benefited from three guest speaker presentations, followed by an open discussion and are reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. Reported here is a summary of the proceedings of the second session, which reviewed the determinants of GH therapy response, factors affecting GH therapy adherence and the development of innovative technologies to improve GH treatment in children. Response to GH therapy varies widely, particularly in regard to the underlying diagnosis, although there is little consensus on the definition of a poor response. If the growth response is seen to be less than expected, the possible reasons should be discussed with patients and their parents, including compliance with the therapy regimen. Understanding and addressing the multiple factors that influence adherence, in order to optimize GH therapy, requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Because therapy continues over many years, various healthcare professionals will be involved at different periods of the patient's journey. The role of the injection device for GH therapy, frequent monitoring of response, and patient support are all important for maintaining adherence. New injection devices are incorporating electronic technologies for automated monitoring and recording of clinically relevant information on injections. Study results are indicating that such devices can at least maintain GH adherence; however, acceptance of novel devices needs to be assessed and there remains an on-going need for innovations.

  10. Optimizing Patient Management and Adherence for Children Receiving Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo L. Acerini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor adherence with growth hormone (GH therapy has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, which in children relates specifically to their linear growth and loss of quality of life. The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016 and funded by Merck KGaA (Germany, examined many aspects of GH diseases. The three sessions, entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition,” each benefited from three guest speaker presentations, followed by an open discussion and are reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. Reported here is a summary of the proceedings of the second session, which reviewed the determinants of GH therapy response, factors affecting GH therapy adherence and the development of innovative technologies to improve GH treatment in children. Response to GH therapy varies widely, particularly in regard to the underlying diagnosis, although there is little consensus on the definition of a poor response. If the growth response is seen to be less than expected, the possible reasons should be discussed with patients and their parents, including compliance with the therapy regimen. Understanding and addressing the multiple factors that influence adherence, in order to optimize GH therapy, requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Because therapy continues over many years, various healthcare professionals will be involved at different periods of the patient’s journey. The role of the injection device for GH therapy, frequent monitoring of response, and patient support are all important for maintaining adherence. New injection devices are incorporating electronic technologies for automated monitoring and recording of clinically relevant information on injections. Study results are indicating that such devices can at least maintain GH adherence; however, acceptance of novel devices needs to be assessed and there remains an on

  11. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; McCann, D.C.; Poremba, B.E.

    1991-04-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office under contract AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1990. This report does not include solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposal in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of Hanford Site radioactive solid waste acceptance criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. 10 refs., 1 tab

  12. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1992-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1991. This report does not include solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms, or backlog wastes. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document

  13. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Areas radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1993. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive waste in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, ''Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria,'' (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document

  14. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document

  15. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.D.; Hagel, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive material that has been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1994. This report does not include backlog waste: solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WHC 1988), liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  16. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagel, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1997. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Cafeteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document

  17. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, D.L.

    1998-06-25

    Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1997. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Cafeteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  18. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 areas during calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-05-21

    Rust Federal Services of Hanford Inc. manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include storage areas and disposal sites for radioactive solid waste. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities from startup in 1944 through calendar year 1996. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document.

  19. Family Stability as a Protective Factor against Psychopathology for Urban Children Receiving Psychological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Israel, Allen C.

    2006-01-01

    Family stability, defined as the consistency of family activities and routines, was examined in a sample of urban families (n = 70) with children (ages 7 to 16) receiving psychological services. Parent-reported family stability was associated with lower parent-reported children's internalizing behavior problems. Child-reported family stability…

  20. 25 CFR 20.400 - Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.400 Section 20.400 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.400 Who...

  1. Quality-of-Life Differences among Diagnostic Subgroups of Children Receiving Ventilating Tubes for Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pathological picture may differ considerably between diagnostic subgroups of children with otitis media receiving ventilating tubes. The aims of this study are to investigate differences in quality of life among diagnostic subgroups of children treated with ventilating tubes...... media with effusion (OME), and 38% mixed diagnosis of rAOM and OME (rAOM/OME). There were no significant differences between children diagnosed with rAOM and children diagnosed with rAOM/OME. However, these children had a significantly poorer quality of life at baseline compared with children diagnosed...... with only OME. Factors associated with clinical success included a diagnosis of rAOM, number of interrupted nights, physician visits, and canceled social activities due to OM. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between diagnostic subgroups of children having ventilating tube...

  2. Contrasting two models of academic self-efficacy--domain-specific versus cross-domain--in children receiving and not receiving special instruction in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas; Hesser, Hugo; Träff, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is domain-specific. An alternative model, the cross-domain influence model, would predict that self-efficacy beliefs in one domain might influence performance in other domains. Research has also found that children who receive special instruction are not good at estimating their performance. The aim was to test two models of how self-efficacy beliefs influence achievement, and to contrast children receiving special instruction in mathematics with normally-achieving children. The participants were 73 fifth-grade children who receive special instruction and 70 children who do not receive any special instruction. In year four and five, the children's skills in mathematics and reading were assessed by national curriculum tests, and in their fifth year, self-efficacy in mathematics and reading were measured. Structural equation modeling showed that in domains where children do not receive special instruction in mathematics, self-efficacy is a mediating variable between earlier and later achievement in the same domain. Achievement in mathematics was not mediated by self-efficacy in mathematics for children who receive special instruction. For normal achieving children, earlier achievement in the language domain had an influence on later self-efficacy in the mathematics domain, and self-efficacy beliefs in different domains were correlated. Self-efficacy is mostly domain specific, but may play a different role in academic performance depending on whether children receive special instruction. The results of the present study provided some support of the Cross-Domain Influence Model for normal achieving children. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Brief report: Adherence to fluid recommendations in children receiving treatment for retentive encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Felt, Barbara T; Patton, Susana R

    2009-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding whether children being treated for retentive encopresis are adherent to recommendations to increase their daily fluid intake. The purpose of this study was to examine fluid adherence in children who received treatment for retentive encopresis. A retrospective chart review was performed using diet diary data for 26 children (ages 3-12) who completed a group behavioral intervention for retentive encopresis. Mean daily intake of clear fluid increased significantly during treatment and children relied primarily on water and juice to make this dietary change. However, adherence rates to clear fluid goals were <50%. Children's increased clear fluid intake did not equate to high fluid adherence. Children's high juice consumption is concerning as it could place them at risk for other negative health consequences. Future research should examine whether enhanced fluid education and use of behavior change strategies yield higher fluid adherence.

  4. Dominican Children with HIV Not Receiving Antiretrovirals: Massage Therapy Influences their Behavior and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez-Reif

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight children (M age = 4.8 years infected with HIV/AIDS and living in the Dominican Republic were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a play session control group. The children in the massage therapy group received two weekly 20-min massages for 12 weeks; the children in the control group participated in a play session (coloring, playing with blocks for the same duration and length as the massage therapy group. Overall, the children in the massage therapy group improved in self-help abilities and communication, suggesting that massage therapy may enhance daily functioning for children with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the HIV infected children who were six or older also showed a decrease in internalizing behaviors; specifically depressive/anxious behaviors and negative thoughts were reduced. Additionally, baseline assessments revealed IQ equivalence below normal functioning for 70% of the HIV infected children and very high incidences of mood problems (depression, withdrawn for 40% of the children and anxiety problems for 20% of the children, suggesting the need for better monitoring and alternative interventions in countries with limited resources to improve cognition and the mental health status of children infected with HIV/AIDS.

  5. Fear of repeated injections in children younger than 4 years receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Gabriele; Shankar, Viswanathan; Nazari, Ramin; Kooragayalu, Shravan; Smith, Mitchell; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenstreich, David

    2012-12-01

    Allergy immunotherapy during early childhood may have potential benefits for the prevention of asthma and allergy morbidity. However, subcutaneous immunotherapy has not yet been prospectively researched in children younger than 4 years, primarily because of safety concerns, including the fear and psychological distress young children may experience with repeated needle injections. To quantify fear in atopic children younger than 4 years with a history of wheezing who are receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy. Fear of injection was graded during a total of 788 immunotherapy injection visits in 18 children (age, 37 months; SD, 9 months) receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy. The parent and the injection nurse assigned fear scores on a scale of 0 to 10 after each injection visit. At the time of analysis, children had a median of 49 injection visits (range, 12-88) during a median study period of 81.5 weeks (range, 15-165 weeks). Fifteen children (83%) lost their fear of injections during the study. A fear score of 0 was achieved after a mean of 8.4 visits (SD, 7.4). The more injection visits were missed, the more likely children were to retain fear of injections (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-1.02; P=.05). Age, adverse events, number of injections at each visit, and change of injection personnel were not associated with increased fear. Our analysis suggests that most children receiving weekly subcutaneous immunotherapy lose their fear of injections during the treatment course. Children with increased intervals between visits may be at higher risk of experiencing fear of injections. clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT01028560. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Use of Linezolid in Children with Malignant Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Klymniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, in the treatment of cancer there has been achieved a significant success not only by the introduction of cancer treatment protocol, but mostly due to the planned combination concomitant treatment of infectious complications. The need for antimicrobial agents against resistant Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci, penicillin-resistant pneumococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, has significantly increased. In the department of pediatric oncology of the National cancer institute (Kyiv, linezolid preparations were used in children with infection of soft tissues and bones, febrile neutropenia and for the treatment of severe cases of sepsis. Experience of Linelid® use in the department of pediatric oncology of the National cancer institute indicates its effectiveness, safety and good tolerance in children with malignant solid tumors.

  7. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Stephanie; Chamley, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This is the first part of two articles exploring oral health problems and treatments for children receiving palliative care, successful management of which can improve considerably the quality of life for this group of children and young people. Part one includes an adapted oral health assessment tool for use in children and young people with complex and palliative healthcare needs that has the potential to help nurses identify and monitor oral health problems and prevent or minimise oral problems from developing. Part two--to be published next month--focuses on basic oral hygiene and the management of specific oral health problems.

  8. The Effects of Music Therapy on the Physiological Response of Asthmatic Children Receiving Inhalation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslita, Riau; Nurhaeni, Nani; Wanda, Dessie

    The clinical manifestation of asthma in children can interfere with their daily activities. Music therapy may become one of the alternative approaches to making children feel comfortable during inhalation therapy. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of music therapy on the physiological response of asthmatic preschool and school-age children receiving inhalation therapy. This study used a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group with a pre-test-post-test design. The 44 respondents consisted of preschool and school-age children assigned to intervention and control groups. The results showed a significant difference in average oxygen saturation, heart rate, and respiratory rate between the control and intervention groups before and after intervention (p Music therapy can be used as a nursing intervention to improve the physiological response of children with breathing problems.

  9. Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Received Services through Community Mental Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Stephanie A.; Corrigan, Susan K.; McDonald, Thomas P.; Holmes, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mental health services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of…

  10. Reiki Therapy for Symptom Management in Children Receiving Palliative Care: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Susan E; Maurer, Scott H; Ren, Dianxu; Danford, Cynthia A; Cohen, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    Pain may be reported in one-half to three-fourths of children with cancer and other terminal conditions and anxiety in about one-third of them. Pharmacologic methods do not always give satisfactory symptom relief. Complementary therapies such as Reiki may help children manage symptoms. This pre-post mixed-methods single group pilot study examined feasibility, acceptability, and the outcomes of pain, anxiety, and relaxation using Reiki therapy with children receiving palliative care. A convenience sample of children ages 7 to 16 and their parents were recruited from a palliative care service. Two 24-minute Reiki sessions were completed at the children's home. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were calculated to compare change from pre to post for outcome variables. Significance was set at P Reiki therapy did decrease pain, anxiety, heart, and respiratory rates, but small sample size deterred statistical significance. This preliminary work suggests that complementary methods of treatment such as Reiki may be beneficial to support traditional methods to manage pain and anxiety in children receiving palliative care.

  11. Trend and outcome of Korean patients receiving overseas solid organ transplantation between 1999 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Lee, Suk-Koo; Ha, Jongwon

    2011-01-01

    The disparity between patients awaiting transplantation and available organs forced many patients to go overseas to receive a transplant. Few data concerning overseas transplantation in Korea are available and the Korea Society for Transplantation conducted a survey to evaluate the trend and outcome of overseas transplantation. The survey, conducted on June 2006, included 25 hospitals nationwide that followed up patients after receiving kidney transplant (KT) or liver transplant (LT) overseas. The number of KT increased from 6 in 2001 to 206 in 2005 and for LT from 1 to 261. The information about overseas transplant came mostly from other patients (57%). The mean cost for KT was $21,000 and for LT $47,000. Patients were admitted for 18.5 days for KT and 43.4 days for LT. Graft and patient survival was 96.8% and 96.5% for KT (median follow up 23.1 months). Complication occurred in 42.5% including surgical complication (5.3%), acute rejection (9.7%) and infection (21.5%). Patient survival for LT was 91.8% (median follow up 21.2 months). Complication occurred in 44.7% including 19.4% biliary complication. Overseas KT and LT increased rapidly from 2001 to 2005. Survival of patients and grafts was comparable to domestic organ transplantation, but had a high complication rate.

  12. A Comparison of Concept Development and Human Figure Drawings of Children Who Receive Preschool Education vs Those Who Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balat, Gulden Uyanik

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated from a developmental point of view the basic concept knowledge and human figure drawings of children who did and did not attend preschool. A total of 118 children who received preschool education and 147 children who did not do so participated in the study. The mean age of children was 75.4 months. Their concept knowledge was…

  13. Assessment of physical performance using the 6-minute walk test in children receiving treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Mary C; Garwick, Ann W; Neglia, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    The study of physical performance in children with cancer is emerging as an important variable in symptom research. Studies have shown that children with cancer experience deficits in physical performance during treatment that may be present years after therapy. The aim of this study was to determine if distance on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) changed in children during the first 3 cycles of cancer treatment and to compare the distances walked with healthy norms. This is a secondary data analysis of 19 boys and 10 girls, aged 6 to 17 years, who were newly diagnosed with cancer and were part of a larger study that measured changes in fatigue and physical performance during the first 3 cycles of chemotherapy. Participants performed the 6MWT between days 15 and 29 of the first and third cycles of chemotherapy. Pediatric cancer patients did not have a significant change in the distance walked at cycle 3 of chemotherapy compared with cycle 1. When compared with 2 different normative data sets for healthy children, most children with cancer performed significantly below their peers. Children had poor strength and endurance after 3 cycles of chemotherapy even when their disease was responding to treatment. Interventions are needed to promote rehabilitation and maintenance of physical performance, as both are important to quality of life and ongoing child development. Children receiving cancer treatment who are ambulatory may appear to be functioning normally but are in fact severely deconditioned compared with their healthy peers.

  14. A comparative consecutive case series of 20 children with a diagnosis of ADHD receiving homeopathic treatment, compared with 10 children receiving usual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibert, Philippa; Relton, Clare; Heirs, Morag; Bowden, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    20 consecutively enrolled children age 5-16 with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) received treatment by a homeopath (8 consultations and individualized remedies) for one year. Ten subsequently enrolled children received similar time and attention for 4 months. The study explored optimum treatment protocols; the effectiveness, deliverability and acceptability of treatment; and the feasibility of outcome measurement and recruitment. Parents completed Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised Long Version ( L) every 4 months, from which DSMIV total scores were extracted; and Measure Your Own Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) every consultation. An interaction between time (baseline/4 months) and group (treatment/non-treatment) was found .756 F (1,28)=9.06, p=0.005. The intervention was associated with statistically significant improvements in treated children over the year: L (t (18)=4.529, p≤0.000); MYMOP (t (18)=6.938, p≤0.000). Mean DSMIV total t scores decreased at each time point: baseline: 85 (SD 5.1); 4 months 76.2 (SD 10.9); and 12 months 71.5 (SD 12.77). Recruitment of control participants was problematic. Recruitment to treatment was feasible via ADHD support groups, charities, police support agencies and social services, not schools or NHS services. Attending appointments was problematic for some participants, but home visits did not improve uptake. The best venue was a familiar clinic. Some participants took medicines inappropriately, but generally taking homeopathic remedies was acceptable and well implemented. L (80 items) was problematic for some parents. MYMOP was preferred by parents but not acceptable to stakeholders. In this small consecutive sample the intervention was associated with improvements in criminality, anger and children with a concomitant diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD. Treatment by a homeopath was associated with sustained, increasing improvements and the intervention was acceptable to participants. More

  15. Imaging and compartmental classification of solid pelvic tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; McDonald, P.; Sackey, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-five children aged from 1 day to 16 years (median 5 years) with solid pelvic tumours were investigated with US, CT and MR. All three methods gave similar estimates of tumour size. For defining location of the tumours, the pelvis was divided into three midline compartments (anterior, middle and posterior) and a right and left lateral compartment. CT and MR were accurate and equally reliable in determining the tumour location, US was less accurate. Evaluation of confinement to organ of origin was uncertain, regardless of imaging modality. Tissue characteristics with CT and MR did not contribute to the differentiation of the various tumour types, and contrast medium enhancement did not improve the discrimination. Compartmental localization was equally well assessed by CT and MR and, together with sex, was found to correlate with the tumour type. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Quality-of-Life Differences among Diagnostic Subgroups of Children Receiving Ventilating Tubes for Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse; Faber, Christian Emil; Johansen, Eva Charlotte Jung; Godballe, Christian

    2015-10-01

    The pathological picture may differ considerably between diagnostic subgroups of children with otitis media receiving ventilating tubes. The aims of this study are to investigate differences in quality of life among diagnostic subgroups of children treated with ventilating tubes and to investigate possible predictors for clinical success. Longitudinal observational study. Secondary care units. Four hundred ninety-one families were enrolled in the study. The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire was applied in the assessment of child quality of life. Caregivers completed questionnaires at 7 time points from before treatment to 18-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate possible predictors for clinical success. Response rates ranged from 96% to 81%; diagnostic distribution: 15% recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM), 47% otitis media with effusion (OME), and 38% mixed diagnosis of rAOM and OME (rAOM/OME). There were no significant differences between children diagnosed with rAOM and children diagnosed with rAOM/OME. However, these children had a significantly poorer quality of life at baseline compared with children diagnosed with only OME. Factors associated with clinical success included a diagnosis of rAOM, number of interrupted nights, physician visits, and canceled social activities due to OM. Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between diagnostic subgroups of children having ventilating tube treatment. A diagnosis of rAOM was found to predict baseline quality of life. Children with rAOM with or without OME were found to suffer significantly more than children with only OME before treatment. Factors associated with disease severity were found to predict clinical success. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Visualizing the Comorbidity Burden in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Receiving Dental Treatment Under General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathu-Muju, Kavita R; Li, Hsin-Fang; Nam, Lisa H; Bush, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe the comorbidity burden in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA); and (2) characterize the complexity of these concurrent comorbidities. A retrospective chart review was completed of 303 children with ASD who received dental treatment under GA. All comorbidities, in addition to the primary diagnosis of ASD, were categorized using the International Classification of Diseases-10 codes. The interconnectedness of the comorbidities was graphically displayed using a network plot. Network indices (degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality) were used to characterize the comorbidities that exhibited the highest connectedness to ASD. The network plot of medical diagnoses for children with ASD was highly complex, with multiple connected comorbidities. Developmental delay, speech delay, intellectual disability, and seizure disorders exhibited the highest connectedness to ASD. Children with autism spectrum disorder may have a significant comorbidity burden of closely related neurodevelopmental disorders. The medical history review should assess the severity of these concurrent disorders to evaluate a patient's potential ability to cooperate for dental treatment and to determine appropriate behavior guidance techniques to facilitate the delivery of dental care.

  18. Sirolimus for rescue and primary immunosuppression in transplanted children receiving tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhi, R; Webber, S; Venkataramanan, R; McGhee, W; Phillips, S; Smith, A; Baird, C; Iurlano, K; Mazariegos, G; Cooperstone, B; Holt, D W; Zeevi, A; Fung, J J; Reyes, J

    2001-09-15

    The role of sirolimus (SRL) as a rescue agent (n=42) and as a component of primary immunosuppression (n=8) was evaluated in a mixed population of 50 transplanted children receiving tacrolimus (liver: 26, heart: 5, intestinal: 5, liver-intestine: 9, lung: 1, bone marrow: 1, liver-kidney: 1, multivisceral: 1). Rescue indications for tacrolimus (TAC) failure were recurrent acute rejection and acute rejection complicating withdrawal of immunosuppression in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Rescue indications for TAC toxicity were nephrotoxicity, pancreatitis, seizures, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and graft-versus-host disease. Mean age at rescue was 11.5 years and mean follow-up was 204 (range 18-800) days. As primary immunosuppression, SRL+TAC prevented early acute rejection in 7/8 children. The indication for rescue resolved in 33/42 children. In children with TAC toxicity, this was associated with decrease in TAC doses by 50%, significant improvements in renal function, and continuing decline in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral load in PTLD patients. Serious adverse events led to discontinuation of SRL in 9/42 rescue patients, 3 of them also experienced acute rejection. Three additional children also experienced acute rejection on SRL therapy (overall incidence 6/50, 12%). Pharmacokinetic analysis in the first week of SRL administration suggested a short half-life (11.8+/-5.5 hr, n=21). SRL and reduced-dose TAC may achieve adequate immunosuppression without compromising renal function or enhancing EBV viremia significantly.

  19. An All-Solid-State, Room-Temperature, Heterodyne Receiver for Atmospheric Spectroscopy at 1.2 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Jose V.; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Gulkis, Samuel; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Lin, Robert H.; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Thomas, Bertrand; Maestrini, Alain E.

    2013-01-01

    Heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths have played a major role in astrophysics as well as Earth and planetary remote sensing. All-solid-state heterodyne receivers using both MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) Schottky-diode-based LO (local oscillator) sources and mixers are uniquely suited for long-term planetary missions or Earth climate monitoring missions as they can operate for decades without the need for any active cryogenic cooling. However, the main concern in using Schottky-diode-based mixers at frequencies beyond 1 THz has been the lack of enough LO power to drive the devices because 1 to 3 mW are required to properly pump Schottky diode mixers. Recent progress in HEMT- (high-electron-mobility- transistor) based power amplifier technology, with output power levels in excess of 1 W recently demonstrated at W-band, as well as advances in MMIC Schottky diode circuit technology, have led to measured output powers up to 1.4 mW at 0.9 THz. Here the first room-temperature tunable, all-planar, Schottky-diode-based receiver is reported that is operating at 1.2 THz over a wide (˜20%) bandwidth. The receiver front-end (see figure) consists of a Schottky-diode-based 540 to 640 GHz multiplied LO chain (featuring a cascade of W-band power amplifiers providing around 120 to 180 mW at W-band), a 200-GHz MMIC frequency doubler, and a 600-GHz MMIC frequency tripler, plus a biasable 1.2-THz MMIC sub-harmonic Schottky-diode mixer. The LO chain has been designed, fabricated, and tested at JPL and provides around 1 to 1.5 mW at 540 o 640 GHz. The sub-harmonic mixer consists of two Schottky diodes on a thin GaAs membrane in an anti-parallel configuration. An integrated metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor has been included on-chip to allow dc bias for the Schottky diodes. A bias voltage of around 0.5 V/diode is necessary to reduce the LO power required down to the 1 to 1.5 mW available from the LO chain. The epilayer thickness and doping profiles have

  20. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  2. Central line associated sepsis in children receiving parenteral nutrition in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lawati, Tawfiq T; Al Jamie, Adawaiya; Al Mufarraji, Nasra

    Parenteral Nutrition (PN) is used when gut fails to provide complete nutrition. Central line Associate Blood Stream Infection (CLABSI) a major complication of this therapy. The objective of the study was to report the incidence of CLABSI and associated mortality in children receiving PN in the Royal Hospital and study the indication and duration of PN use. All children from the age of 0-48 months who received TPN outside NICU from the period between 1/1/2011 till 31/12/2014 were included. Data were retrieved from the hospital electronic data base. There were 42 children 27 males and 15 females who used PN through a central line for a total duration of 569 days. The incidence of CLABSI was 14 days per 1000 days catheter and mortality of 556 per 10000. The average duration of TPN was 14.5 days. Most of the patient had CLABSI in the PICU and cardiac related illness or surgery was the most common indication of PN use. The average duration of use was 14 days. Inspite of that short duration use of PN, there is a very high incidence of CLABSI and its related mortality. Bundle policy for central line care is not used in the Royal Hospital and this study calls for urgent implementation of central line care bundle policy in the Royal Hospital. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortical thickness in children receiving intensive therapy for idiopathic apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadis, Darren S; Goshulak, Debra; Namasivayam, Aravind; Pukonen, Margit; Kroll, Robert; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W; Lerch, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Children with idiopathic apraxia experience difficulties planning the movements necessary for intelligible speech. There is increasing evidence that targeted early interventions, such as Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT), can be effective in treating these disorders. In this study, we investigate possible cortical thickness correlates of idiopathic apraxia of speech in childhood, and changes associated with participation in an 8-week block of PROMPT therapy. We found that children with idiopathic apraxia (n = 11), aged 3-6 years, had significantly thicker left supramarginal gyri than a group of typically-developing age-matched controls (n = 11), t(20) = 2.84, p ≤ 0.05. Over the course of therapy, the children with apraxia (n = 9) experienced significant thinning of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (canonical Wernicke's area), t(8) = 2.42, p ≤ 0.05. This is the first study to demonstrate experience-dependent structural plasticity in children receiving therapy for speech sound disorders.

  4. Effects of acetaminophen and ibuprofen in children with migraine receiving preventive treatment with magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallelli, Luca; Avenoso, Tiziana; Falcone, Daniela; Palleria, Caterina; Peltrone, Francesco; Esposito, Maria; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Carotenuto, Marco; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the effects of ibuprofen and/or acetaminophen for the acute treatment of primary migraine in children in or out prophylactic treatment with magnesium. Children ranging from the ages of 5 to 16 years with at least 4 attack/month of primary migraine were eligible for participation the study. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain intensity at the moment of admission to the study (start of the study) and every month up to 18 months later (end of the study). One hundred sixty children of both sexes aged 5-16 years were enrolled and assigned in 4 groups to receive a treatment with acetaminophen or ibuprofen without or with magnesium. Migraine pain endurance and monthly frequency were similar in the 4 groups. Both acetaminophen and ibuprofen induced a significant decrease in pain intensity (P < .01), without a time-dependent correlation, but did not modify its frequency. Magnesium pretreatment induced a significant decrease in pain intensity (P < .01) without a time-dependent correlation in both acetaminophen- and ibuprofen-treated children and also significantly reduced (P < .01) the pain relief timing during acetaminophen but not during ibuprofen treatment (P < .01). In both acetaminophen and ibuprofen groups, magnesium pretreatment significantly reduced the pain frequency (P < .01). Magnesium increased the efficacy of ibuprofen and acetaminophen with not age-related effects. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  5. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  6. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, S; Chamley, C

    2013-04-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. This article covers basic oral hygiene and management of oral health problems: oral candidiasis, coated tongue/dirty mouth, dry mouth, hypersalivation, ulceration, painful mouth, stomatitis and mucositis. The article also covers treating patients who are immunocompromised and the need to educate families and carers in the basic principles of oral care, including the importance of preventing cross-infection. Part one outlined oral assessment and discussed the adaptation of the Nottingham Oral Health Assessment Tool (Freer 2000).

  7. Optical treatment reduces amblyopia in astigmatic children who receive spectacles before kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M

    2009-05-01

    -corrected letter recognition acuity in astigmatic children by the time they reach kindergarten. However, grating acuity was not improved and magnitude of meridional amblyopia was not reduced in children who had received early spectacle correction. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.

  8. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  9. Nutritional status changes in children with malignant solid tumor before and after chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Januar; Sri S Nasar; Rulina Suradi; Maria Abdulsalam

    2016-01-01

    Background Although aggressive multimodal treatment programs in childhood cancer have significantly increased survival rates, the morbidity caused by protein energy malnutrition related to therapy is still high. Objective To describe nutritional status changes in children with malignant solid tumors after 21 days of chemotherapy. Methods A descriptive prospective study with pre- and post-test design in children with malignant solid tumors was conducted in the Departmen...

  10. Lack of utility of repeat monitoring of hemoglobin and hematocrit following blunt solid organ injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Shannon N; Petrun, Branden; Partrick, David A; Roosevelt, Genie E; Bensard, Denis D

    2015-12-01

    Current management protocols for children with blunt solid organ injury to the liver and spleen call for serial monitoring of the child's hemoglobin and hematocrit every 6, 12, or 24 hours, depending on the injury grade. We hypothesized that children who require emergent intervention in the form of laparotomy, angioembolization, or packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion because of bleeding from a solid organ injury will have changes in their vital signs that alert the clinician to the need for intervention, making scheduled laboratory evaluation unnecessary. We performed a retrospective review of all children admitted to either of two pediatric trauma centers following blunt trauma with any grade liver or spleen injury from January 2009 to December 2013. Data evaluated include a need for intervention, indication for intervention, and timing of intervention. A total of 245 children were admitted with blunt liver or spleen injury. Six patients (2.5%) underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy for hypotension a median of 4 hours after injury (range, 2-4 hours), four of who required splenectomy. No child required laparotomy for delayed bleeding from a solid organ injury. One child (0.4%) underwent angioembolization for blunt splenic injury. Forty-one children (16.7%) received a PRBC transfusion during hospitalization, 32 of whom did not undergo laparotomy or angioembolization. Children who underwent an intervention had a lower nadir hematocrit (median, 22.9 vs. 32.8; p hematocrit (median, 35.5 vs. 16 hours; p hemoglobin and hematocrit monitoring (median, 20 vs. 5; p hemoglobin and hematocrit values may not be necessary. Retrospective study with no negative criteria, prognostic study, level III.

  11. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  12. Brief report: large individual variation in outcomes of autistic children receiving low-intensity behavioral interventions in community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Kamio, Yoko; Haraguchi, Hideyuki; Miyake, Atsuko; Hiraiwa, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite widespread awareness of the necessity of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), evidence is still limited, in part, due to the complex nature of ASDs. This exploratory study aimed to examine the change across time in young children with autism and their mothers, who received less intensive early interventions with and without applied behavior analysis (ABA) methods in community settings in Japan. Methods Eighteen children with autism (mean ag...

  13. Recommendations for the clinical management of children with refractory epilepsy receiving the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, María J; Agustinho, Ariela; Argumedo, Laura; Armeno, Marisa; Blanco, Virginia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Cabrera, Analía; Caraballo, Roberto; Caramuta, Luciana; Cresta, Araceli; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; De Martini, Martha G; Diez, Cecilia; Dlugoszewski, Corina; Escobal, Nidia; Ferrero, Hilario; Galicchio, Santiago; Gambarini, Victoria; Gamboni, Beatriz; Guisande, Silvina; Hassan, Amal; Matarrese, Pablo; Mestre, Graciela; Pesce, Laura; Ríos, Viviana; Sosa, Patricia; Vaccarezza, María; Viollaz, Rocío; Panico, Luis

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet, a non-drug treatment with proven effectiveness, has been the most commonly used therapy in the past decade for the management of refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population. Compared to adding a new drug to a pre-existing treatment, the ketogenic diet is highly effective and reduces the number of seizures by 50-90% in approximately 45-60% of children after six months of treatment. For this reason, the Argentine Society of Pediatric Neurology established the Ketogenic Diet Working Group. It is integrated by pediatric dietitians, pediatricians, pediatric neurologists and B.S. in Nutrition, who developed recommendations for the optimal management of patients receiving the classical ketogenic diet based on expert consensus and scientific publications in this field. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  14. Aims and tasks in parental caregiving for children receiving palliative care at home: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Lisa M; Kars, Marijke C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Bosman, Diederik K; Colenbrander, Derk A; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-03-01

    In paediatric palliative care (PPC), parents are confronted with increasing caregiving demands. More children are cared for at home, and the need for PPC of children is lengthened due to technical and medical improvements. Therefore, a clear understanding of the content of parental caregiving in PPC becomes increasingly important. The objective is to gain insight into parental caregiving based on the lived experience of parents with a child with a life-limiting disease. An interpretative qualitative study using thematic analysis was performed. Single or repeated interviews were undertaken with 42 parents of 24 children with a malignant or non-malignant disease, receiving PPC. Based on their ambition to be a 'good parent', parents caring for a child with a life-limiting disease strived for three aims: controlled symptoms and controlled disease, a life worth living for their ill child and family balance. These aims resulted in four tasks that parents performed: providing basic and complex care, organising good quality care and treatment, making sound decisions while managing risks and organising a good family life. Parents need early explanation from professionals about balancing between their aims and the related tasks to get a grip on their situation and to prevent becoming overburdened. What is Known: • In paediatric palliative care, parents are confronted with increasing caregiving demands. • Parenting is often approached from the perspective of stress. What is New: • Parents strive for three aims: controlled symptoms and controlled disease, a life worth living for their child and family balance. • Parents perform four tasks: providing basic and complex care, organising good quality care, making decisions while managing risks and organising a good family life. • Professionals need insight into the parents' aims and tasks from the parental perspective to strengthen parents' resilience.

  15. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-01-01

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice about rabies among children receiving formal and informal education in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu; Ibrahim, Ayuba Sini; Umoh, Jarlath Udoudo

    2012-08-09

    Every year, about 50,000 people die of rabies of which about 55% of the mortalities occur in Asia and over 40% in Africa. Children are victims of up to 50% of these mortalities. The figure is alarming and immediate action is required to stop this scourge. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice about rabies among children attending primary schools located in the Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) premises and those outside the university as well as those receiving informal education. The participants for this study were children drawn by random selection from the schools chosen by purposive sampling. With the aid of questionnaires, information was obtained from a total of 477 children with 400 from formal educational settings among 3 schools, and 77 from quaranic schools (almajiris) in the informal setting. More children receiving formal education were aware about the disease (50.8%) than those receiving informal education (32.5%), likewise those residing within ABU quarters (71%) were better informed than those residing outside ABU quarters (43.3%). Among children in the formal schools, 25.9% obtained information from friends and at school (25.9%), while in the informal setting, 56% obtained information from friends and only 16% from school. With regards to attitude and practice, 75.5% of children receiving formal education came from homes where dogs were vaccinated against rabies and 23.3% of them play with dogs they know, while 11.1% of those receiving informal education vaccinate their dogs and fewer of them (14.3%) play with dogs known to them. Many children (65.7%) of those in formal schools know the role of dogs in rabies transmission, compared to only 8% in the informal schools. However, only 9.7% of children in formal schools associate both signs of furious and dumb form of rabies with the disease, compared with 28% in informal schools.  Among children bitten by dogs, 87.5% of those receiving informal education received

  17. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, R.J.; Sutton, L.N.; Atkins, T.E.; Radcliffe, J.; Bunin, G.R.; D'Angio, G.; Siegel, K.R.; Schut, L.

    1989-01-01

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties

  18. Antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in children with vesicoureteral reflux receiving prophylactic antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Su, Lin-Hui; Tsau, Yong-Kwei; Lin, Chi-Jen; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2008-12-01

    The goal was to examine bacterial antimicrobial resistance of recurrent urinary tract infections in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis because of primary vesicoureteral reflux. We reviewed data retrospectively for children with documented vesicoureteral reflux in 2 hospitals during a 5-year follow-up period. The patients were receiving co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, or cefaclor prophylaxis or prophylaxis with a sequence of different antibiotics (alternative monotherapy). Demographic data, degree of vesicoureteral reflux, prophylactic antibiotics prescribed, and antibiotic sensitivity results of first urinary tract infections and breakthrough urinary tract infections were recorded. Three hundred twenty-four patients underwent antibiotic prophylaxis (109 with co-trimoxazole, 100 with cephalexin, 44 with cefaclor, and 71 with alternative monotherapy) in one hospital and 96 children underwent co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in the other hospital. Breakthrough urinary tract infections occurred in patients from both hospitals (20.4% and 25%, respectively). Escherichia coli infection was significantly less common in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis, compared with their initial episodes of urinary tract infection, at both hospitals. Children receiving cephalosporin prophylaxis were more likely to have an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organism for breakthrough urinary tract infections, compared with children with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to almost all antibiotics decreased with cephalosporin prophylaxis when recurrent urinary tract infections developed. The extent of decreased susceptibilities was also severe for prophylaxis with a sequence of different antibiotics. However, antimicrobial susceptibilities decreased minimally in co-trimoxazole prophylaxis groups. Children receiving cephalosporin prophylaxis are more likely to have extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria or multidrug-resistant uropathogens

  19. Measuring stigma in children receiving mental health treatment: Validation of the Paediatric Self-Stigmatization Scale (PaedS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, A; Papachristou, E; Dima, D; Fewings, S; Kostaki, E; Ploubidis, G B; Kyriakopoulos, M

    2017-06-01

    Research on the impact of stigma associated with mental illness in children is scarce. Considering the known negative effects of stigma associated with mental illness in adults, it is crucial to explore the stigma experienced by children who access mental health treatment. However, no scale measuring self-stigmatization in younger children is available to date. This study aimed to develop and validate such a scale, the Paediatric Self-Stigmatization Scale (PaedS). A total of 156 children (119 receiving outpatient and 37 receiving inpatient treatment), aged 8-12 years, completed the PaedS, the Self-Perception Profile for Children and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL - Child Report, ages 8-12). In addition, parents completed the PedsQL (Parent Report for Children, ages 8-12), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and a modified subscale of the PaedS measuring the children's rejection by others due to their mental health difficulties. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that a four-factor structure, comprising Societal Devaluation, Personal Rejection, Self-Stigma and Secrecy scales, had excellent fit to the data (CFI=0.95; TLI=0.95; RMSEA=0.05). Child-reported PaedS scores were positively correlated with parental-reported PaedS scores and negatively with PedsQL, the SDQ, and 5 out of 6 subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children, suggesting adequate convergent validity (all P-values<0.05). The PaedS is a valid instrument, which is hoped to advance the understanding of self-stigmatization in children with mental health difficulties and contribute to its prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Children's schemes for anticipating the validity of nets for solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken

    2017-09-01

    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were interviewed on two occasions about their anticipation of whether or not given nets for the cube- and square-based pyramid would fold to form the target solid. Vergnaud's ( Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 167-181, 1998, Human Development, 52, 83-94, 2009) four characteristics of schemes were used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data. Successful schemes depended on the interaction of operational invariants, such as strategic choice of the base, rules for action, particularly rotation of shapes, and anticipations of composites of polygons in the net forming arrangements of faces in the solid. Inferences were rare. These data suggest that students need teacher support to make inferences, in order to create transferable schemes.

  1. Solid Fuel in Kitchen and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Among Under Five Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison...

  2. Original communication: Basal metabolic rate in children with a solid tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, den E.; Oeseburg, B.; Lippens, R.J.J.; Staveren, van W.A.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Hof, van 't M.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the level of and changes in basal metabolic rate (BMR) in children with a solid tumour at diagnosis and during treatment in order to provide a more accurate estimate of energy requirements for nutritional support. Design: An observational study. Setting: Tertiary care at the

  3. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  4. Developmental status of preschool children receiving cART: a descriptive cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potterton, J; Hilburn, N; Strehlau, R

    2016-05-01

    HIV is known to cause neurodevelopmental problems in infants and young children. The impact of HIV on the development of preschool-age children has been less well described. The study was conducted at an urban paediatric HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. A sample of convenience was used. Sixty-eight medically stable children between the ages of 3 and 5 years were assessed with the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development. Children were excluded from the study if they had severe HIV encephalopathy, which made it impossible for them to participate in the items on the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development. The children had started combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) at a mean age of 8.1 months. The majority of the children were virologically suppressed and did not present with wasting or stunting. Severe overall developmental delay (z-scores perception were the most severely affected. Personal-social development was the least affected with only 13.4% of the children demonstrating severe delay. Despite having early access to cART, children infected with HIV are still at risk for severe developmental delay across a number of facets. Very early initiation of cART may help alleviate this problem. All preschool children infected with HIV should have routine developmental screening. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pneumothorax as a complication of combination antiangiogenic therapy in children and young adults with refractory/recurrent solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interiano, Rodrigo B; McCarville, M Beth; Wu, Jianrong; Davidoff, Andrew M; Sandoval, John; Navid, Fariba

    2015-09-01

    Antiangiogenic agents show significant antitumor activity against various tumor types. In a study evaluating the combination of sorafenib, bevacizumab, and low-dose cyclophosphamide in children with solid tumors, an unexpectedly high incidence of pneumothorax was observed. We evaluated patient characteristics and risk factors for the development of pneumothorax in patients receiving this therapy. Demographics, clinical course, and radiographic data of 44 patients treated with sorafenib, bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide were reviewed. Risk factors associated with the development of pneumothorax were analyzed. Pneumothorax likely related to study therapy developed in 11 of 44 (25%) patients of whom 33 had pulmonary abnormalities. Median age of patients was 14.7 years (range, 1.08-24.5). Histologies associated with pneumothorax included rhabdoid tumor, synovial sarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Wilms tumor, and renal cell carcinoma. Cavitation of pulmonary nodules in response to therapy was associated with pneumothorax development (Ppneumothorax was 5.7 weeks (range, 2.4-31). The development of cavitary pulmonary nodules in response to therapy is a risk factor for pneumothorax. As pneumothorax is a potentially life-threatening complication of antiangiogenic therapy in children with solid tumors, its risk needs to be evaluated when considering this therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring the Impact of the Home Health Nursing Shortage on Family Caregivers of Children Receiving Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Wichman, Brittany; Bace, Sue; Schroeder, Denice; Vail, Catherine; Wichman, Chris; Macfadyen, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    The national nursing shortage translates into a gap in home nursing care available to children with complex, chronic medical conditions and their family caregivers receiving palliative care consultations. A total of 38 home health nursing surveys were completed by families receiving pediatric palliative care consultation services at a freestanding children's hospital in the Midwest. The gap in the average number of nursing hours allotted versus received was 40 h/wk per family, primarily during evening hours. Parents missed an average of 23 hours of employment per week to provide hands-on nursing care at home, ranking stress regarding personal employment due to nursing shortage at 6.2/10. Families invested an average of 10 h/mo searching for additional nursing coverage and often resorted to utilizing more than 6 different home nurse coverage personnel per month. Families reported multiple delays to hospital discharges (mean, 15 days per delay) due to inability to find home nursing coverage. Respiratory technology and lack of Medicaid coverage ( P home nursing access. This study examines how the pediatric home nursing shortage translates into a lived experience for families with children with complex medical conditions receiving palliative care.

  7. Outcome for Children Receiving the Early Start Denver Model before and after 48 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is an intervention program recommended for pre-schoolers with autism ages 12-48 months. The rationale for this recommendation is the potential for intervention to affect developmental trajectories during early sensitive periods. We investigated outcomes of 32 children aged 18-48 months and 28 children aged…

  8. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  9. A qualitative study of the quality of life of children receiving intravenous nutrition at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emedo, Marylyn-Jane; Godfrey, Emma I; Hill, Susan M

    2010-04-01

    To discover the views of children with severe intestinal failure treated with intravenous nutrition from early life and who remained heavily dependent on treatment throughout childhood. Seven children ages 7 to 17 years (mean 13 years) were interviewed. The diagnoses were enteropathy in 3, extreme short gut in 1, complex (associated mucosal inflammation and dysmotitlity) in 2, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction in 1. They were treated with intravenous nutrition overnight at home that was administered by trained parents using the simplest possible system. The children were individually questioned about their lifestyle and health. Transcripts were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Children coped well with life with intravenous nutrition (apart from septicaemia in 2 cases), but were troubled when complications of the underlying disease persisted (eg, nocturnal disturbance, stool frequency, abdominal pain). Children were aware that life was restricted (eg, fewer sleepovers with friends, fewer late nights out). There was a high level of family functioning. Older children wished to take care of themselves. The burdens of life with intravenous nutrition appear to be less significant for these children than living with the effects of chronic illness. There was resilience and acceptance in the face of illness-related demands. This study has found that despite the problems they may face, it is possible for children fed intravenously at home to develop a level of resilience, maintain a positive outlook, and cope well with illness-related demands even when they have had virtually lifelong severe intestinal failure. Families can continue to function well.

  10. Autism Treatment Survey: Services Received by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Public School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kristen L.; Morrier, Michael J.; Heflin, L.; Ivey, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    The Autism Treatment Survey was developed to identify strategies used in education of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Georgia. Respondents of the web-based survey included a representative sample of 185 teachers across the state, reporting on 226 children with ASD in grades preschool-12th. The top five strategies being used in…

  11. How parents of children receiving pediatric palliative care use religion, spirituality, or life philosophy in tough times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexem, Kari R; Mollen, Cynthia J; Carroll, Karen; Lanctot, Dexter A; Feudtner, Chris

    2011-01-01

    How parents of children with life threatening conditions draw upon religion, spirituality, or life philosophy is not empirically well described. Participants were parents of children who had enrolled in a prospective cohort study on parental decision-making for children receiving pediatric palliative care. Sixty-four (88%) of the 73 parents interviewed were asked an open-ended question on how religion, spirituality, or life philosophy (RSLP) was helpful in difficult times. Responses were coded and thematically organized utilizing qualitative data analysis methods. Any discrepancies amongst coders regarding codes or themes were resolved through discussion that reached consensus. Most parents of children receiving palliative care felt that RSLP was important in helping them deal with tough times, and most parents reported either participation in formal religious communities, or a sense of personal spirituality. A minority of parents, however, did not wish to discuss the topic at all. For those who described their RSLP, their beliefs and practices were associated with qualities of their overall outlook on life, questions of goodness and human capacity, or that "everything happens for a reason." RSLP was also important in defining the child's value and beliefs about the child's afterlife. Prayer and reading the bible were important spiritual practices in this population, and parents felt that these practices influenced their perspectives on the medical circumstances and decision-making, and their locus of control. From religious participation and practices, parents felt they received support from both their spiritual communities and from God, peace and comfort, and moral guidance. Some parents, however, also reported questioning their faith, feelings of anger and blame towards God, and rejecting religious beliefs or communities. RSLP play a diverse and important role in the lives of most, but not all, parents whose children are receiving pediatric palliative care.

  12. Factors associated with abandonment of therapy by children diagnosed with solid tumors in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Liliana; Diaz, Rosdali; Chavez, Sharon; Tarrillo, Fanny; Maza, Ivan; Hernandez, Eddy; Oscanoa, Monica; García, Juan; Geronimo, Jenny; Rossell, Nuria

    2018-06-01

    Abandonment of treatment is a major cause of treatment failure and poor survival in children with cancer in low- and middle-income countries. The incidence of treatment abandonment in Peru has not been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with treatment abandonment by pediatric patients with solid tumors in Peru. We retrospectively reviewed the sociodemographic and clinical data of children referred between January 2012 and December 2014 to the two main tertiary centers for childhood cancer in Peru. The definition of treatment abandonment followed the International Society of Paediatric Oncology, Paediatric Oncology in Developing Countries, Abandonment of Treatment recommendation. Data from 1135 children diagnosed with malignant solid tumors were analyzed, of which 209 (18.4%) abandoned treatment. Bivariate logistic regression analysis showed significantly higher abandonment rates in children living outside the capital city, Lima (forest; odds ratio [OR] 3.25; P < 0.001), those living in a rural setting (OR 3.44; P < 0.001), and those whose parent(s) lacked formal employment (OR 4.39; P = 0.001). According to cancer diagnosis, children with retinoblastoma were more likely to abandon treatment compared to children with other solid tumors (OR 1.79; P = 0.02). In multivariate regression analyses, rural origin (OR 2.02; P = 0.001) and lack of formal parental employment (OR 2.88; P = 0.001) were independently predictive of abandonment. Treatment abandonment prevalence of solid tumors in Peru is high and closely related to sociodemographical factors. Treatment outcomes could be substantially improved by strategies that help prevent abandonment of therapy based on these results. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nurses' uniform color and feelings/emotions in school-aged children receiving health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Burke, Jane; Bena, James F; Morrison, Shannon M; Forney, Jennifer; Krajewski, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Children may fear nurses wearing white uniforms. When emotions and uniform color were studied in 233 children, many positive emotions were most often associated with blue, bold pink-patterned, or yellow-patterned tops (all p ≤ .002). Negative emotions were not associated with uniform top colors (all p uniform color does not matter," 8 negative emotions were most often associated with white uniform color (p uniform tops were preferred. In conclusion, children's emotions were associated with nurse uniform color. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Evaluation of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children With Epilepsy Receiving Treatment of Valproic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereci, Selim; Koca, Tuğba; Akçam, Mustafa; Türkyilmaz, Kemal

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with optical coherence tomography in epileptic children receiving valproic acid monotherapy. The study was conducted on children aged 8-16 years who were undergoing valproic acid monotherapy for epilepsy. The study group comprised a total of 40 children who met the inclusion criteria and 40 healthy age- and sex-matched children as a control group. Children with at least a 1-year history of epilepsy and taking 10-40 mg/kg/day treatment were included in the study. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements were performed using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography. All children and parents were informed about the study and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the participants. The study group included 21 girls and 19 boys with a mean age of 10.6 ± 2.3 years. According to the results of optical coherence tomography measurements, the mean peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was 91.6 ± 9.7 in the patient group and 95.5 ± 7.4 μm in the control group (P epilepsy who were receiving valproic acid monotherapy compared with healthy children. This situation can lead to undesirable results in terms of eye health. New studies are needed to investigate whether these findings are the result of epilepsy or can be attributed to valproic acid and whether there are adverse effects of valproic acid later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing daily water intake and fluid adherence in children receiving treatment for retentive encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T; Rausch, Joseph R; Patton, Susana R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3-4) and 2 (Weeks 5-6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children's intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness.

  16. Altered growth and development of lower teeth in children receiving mantle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lines, L.G.; Hazra, T.A.; Howells, R.; Shipman, B.

    1979-01-01

    The improvement in survival and local control rates in children with neoplasms in the head and neck region can be expected to demonstrate increased iatrogenic adverse effects of treatment. The authors report on mandibular growth and developmental abnormalities in 3 children with Hodgkin disease treated by external beam megavoltage therapy. Radiations to the mandible during mantle field therapy were measured and found to be significant. Possible methods of dose reduction are discussed

  17. Enhanced cis-platinum ototoxicity in children with brain tumours who have received simultaneous or prior cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.A.; Pillow, J.; Waters, K.D.; Keir, E.

    1989-01-01

    We report on four children who received cis-platinum simultaneously with, or in one case 10 months after, cranial irradiation and experienced exaggerated ototoxicity affecting all audible frequencies. The hearing loss was severe, affecting the critical areas for speech perception, and necessitated the provision of bilateral hearing aids. The audiograms of these patients are shown and compared to those of four children who had received cis-platinum as part of their treatment for neuroblastoma but without cranial irradiation. The precipitation of the exaggerated hearing loss with the administration of cis-platinum in one patient 10 months after finishing cranial irradiation suggests that care should be taken in the timing of cis-platinum administration in relation to concurrent or previous cranial irradiation

  18. Second Malignanat Solid Neoplasms in Children Treated with Radiotherapy-Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon; Lyu, Chuhl Joo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can effectively control cancer but can also cause new second cancers to develop as long-term complications especially in childhood cancer. We experienced two patients with second malignant solid neoplasm who had been treated with radiation and chemotherapy for childhood cancers. One female patients with rhabdomyosarcoma of the right popliteal fossa was treated with radiotherapy at total dose of 54 Gy. Three years and seven months later, osteosarcoma developed in the field of radiation therapy. The other male patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small bowel was treated with radiotherapy and leiomyosarcoma developed in the field of radiotherapy 18 years later. We reviewed the literature of the second malignant neoplasm in children in respect of risk factors. The risk for a second primary cancer following radiotherapy or chemotherapy emphasizes the need for life long follow-up of patients receiving such treatments. Particularly patients treated for childhood cancers

  19. Migration background is associated with caries in Viennese school children, even if parents have received a higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvikl, Barbara; Haubenberger-Praml, Gertraud; Drabo, Petra; Hagmann, Michael; Gruber, Reinhard; Moritz, Andreas; Nell, Andrea

    2014-05-09

    A low level of education and the migration background of parents are associated with the development of caries in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a higher educational level of parents can overcome risks for the development of caries in immigrants in Vienna, Austria. The educational level of the parents, the school type, and the caries status of 736 randomly selected twelve-year-old children with and without migration background was determined in this cross sectional study. In children attending school in Vienna the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was determined. For statistical analysis, a mixed negative-binomial-model was used. The caries status of the children with migration background was significantly worse compared to that of the native Viennese population. A significant interaction was found between migration background and the educational level of the parents (p = 0.045). No interaction was found between the school type and either the migration background (p = 0.220) or the education level of the parents (p = 0.08). In parents with a higher scholarly education level, migration background (p education level, however, migration background and school type had no significant association with DMFT values. These data indicate that children with a migration background are at higher risk to acquire caries than other Viennese children, even when the parents have received a higher education.

  20. Language development in Japanese children who receive cochlear implant and/or hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Shinya; Moteki, Hideaki; Takumi, Yutaka; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kasai, Norio; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate a wide variety of factors that influence auditory, speech, and language development following pediatric cochlear implantation (CI). Prospective collection of language tested data in profound hearing-impaired children. Pediatric CI can potentially be effective to development of practical communication skills and early implantation is more effective. We proposed a set of language tests (assessment package of the language development for Japanese hearing-impaired children; ALADJIN) consisting of communication skills testing (test for question-answer interaction development; TQAID), comprehensive (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised; PVT-R and Standardized Comprehension Test for Abstract Words; SCTAW) and productive vocabulary (Word Fluency Test; WFT), and comprehensive and productive syntax (Syntactic processing Test for Aphasia; STA). Of 638 hearing-impaired children recruited for this study, 282 (44.2%) with >70 dB hearing impairment had undergone CI. After excluding children with low birth weight (11 points on the Pervasive Developmental Disorder ASJ Rating Scale for the test of autistic tendency, and those better than those in HA-only users. The scores for PVT-R (pbetter than those in HA-only users. STA and TQAID scores in CI-HA users were significantly (pbetter than those in unilateral CI-only users. The high correlation (r=0.52) has been found between the age of CI and maximum speech discrimination score. The scores of speech and language tests in the implanted children before 24 months of age have been better than those in the implanted children after 24 months of age. We could indicate that CI was effective for language development in Japanese hearing-impaired children and early CI was more effective for productive vocabulary and syntax. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting Child Protective Services (CPS) Involvement among Low-Income U.S. Families with Young Children Receiving Nutritional Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kristen S; Font, Sarah; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-10-11

    This exploratory study examines combinations of income-tested welfare benefits and earnings, as they relate to the likelihood of child maltreatment investigations among low-income families with young children participating in a nutritional assistance program in one U.S. state (Wisconsin). Using a sample of 1065 parents who received the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits in late 2010 and early 2011, we find that relying on either work in the absence of other means-tested welfare benefits, or a combination of work and welfare benefits, reduces the likelihood of CPS involvement compared to parents who rely on welfare benefits in the absence of work. Additionally, we find that housing instability increases the risk of CPS involvement in this population. The findings from this investigation may be useful to programs serving low-income families with young children, as they attempt to identify safety net resources for their clientele.

  2. Potential savings from redetermining disability among children receiving supplemental security income benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Christian D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Nozzolillo, Alixandra A; Perrin, James M

    2012-01-01

    To compare the costs of redetermining disability to potential savings in Supplemental Security Income payments associated with different strategies for implementing Continuing Disability Reviews (CDRs) among children potentially enrolled in SSI from 2012 to 2021. We reviewed publicly available reports from the Social Security Administration and Government Accountability Office to estimate costs and savings. We considered CDRs for children ages 1-17 years, excluding mandated low-birth weight and age 18 redeterminations that SSA routinely has performed. If in 2012 the Social Security Administration performs the same number of CDRs for children as in 2010 (16,677, 1% of eligibles) at a cessation rate of 15%, the agency would experience net savings of approximately $145 million in benefit payments. If CDR numbers increased to the greatest level ever (183,211, 22% of eligibles, in 1999) at the same cessation rate, the agency would save approximately $1.6 billion in benefit payments. Increasing the numbers of CDRs for children represents a considerable opportunity for savings. Recognizing the dynamic nature of disability, the agency could reassess the persistence of disability systematically; doing so could free up resources from children who are no longer eligible and help the agency better direct its benefits to recipients with ongoing disability and whose families need support to meet the extra costs associated with raising a child with a major disability. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Environmental Attitudes and Experiences of Five-Year-Old Children Receiving Preschool Education in the Village and City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Nazmi; Güngör, Hande; Fetihi, Leyla; Erol, Ahmet; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare environmental attitudes and experiences of five-year-old children receiving preschool education in the village and city centre. The first group comprised 54 five-year-old children who received preschool education and attended kindergartens of two primary schools in the Karateke and Kocabas villages of Honaz…

  4. Characterizing psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder receiving publicly funded mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Ganger, William

    2017-09-01

    Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from 201 children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in a community effectiveness trial across 29 publicly funded mental health programs. Non-autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were assessed using an adapted Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version. Approximately 92% of children met criteria for at least one non-autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (78% attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 58% oppositional defiant disorder, 56% anxiety, 30% mood). Logistic regression indicated that child gender and clinical characteristics were differentially associated with meeting criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, an anxiety, or a mood disorder. Exploratory analyses supported a link between challenging behaviors and mood disorder symptoms and revealed high prevalence of these symptoms in this autism spectrum disorder population. Findings provide direction for tailoring intervention to address a broad range of clinical issues for youth with autism spectrum disorder served in mental health settings.

  5. Services Received and Parental Perception of Quality of Life for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Judith Marie

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase in the rate of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), there has been a surge in treatment interventions and outcome measures. Treatment interventions consist of evidence-based practices and programs that lack scientific validation. Parents' selection of a treatment or multiple treatments is often based on…

  6. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  7. Refractory cytopenias secondary to copper deficiency in children receiving exclusive jejunal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Amanda E; Kahwash, Samir B; Chawla, Anjulika

    2017-11-01

    Copper deficiency is a known cause of anemia and neutropenia that is easily remedied with copper supplementation. Copper is primarily absorbed in the stomach and proximal duodenum, so patients receiving enteral nutrition via methods that bypass this critical region may be at increased risk for copper deficiency. In pediatrics, postpyloric enteral feeding is increasingly utilized to overcome problems related to aspiration, severe reflux, poor gastric motility, and gastric outlet obstruction. However, little is known about the prevalence of copper deficiency in this population. We describe three pediatric patients receiving exclusive jejunal feeds who developed cytopenias secondary to copper deficiency. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Influence of β(2)-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms on asthma exacerbation in children with severe asthma regularly receiving salmeterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubergia, Verónica; Gravina, Luis; Castaños, Claudio; Chertkoff, Lilien

    2013-03-01

    New evidence suggests that different β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) polymorphisms may influence asthma control in patients receiving long-acting β(2)agonists (LABAs) as regular therapy. To determine the influence of β2AR polymorphisms on asthma exacerbations in children with severe asthma from Argentina receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and LABAs regularly. Ninety-seven children with severe asthma were genotyped for polymorphisms of β2AR at codons 16 and 27. The number of severe exacerbations, the time of first asthma exacerbation, and the number of hospitalizations during 12 months were assessed. Changes on pulmonary function from the beginning to the end of the study were also evaluated. The number of overall asthma exacerbations and the proportion of children with these events were similar among β2AR genotypes at position 16 (Arg/Arg, Arg/Gly, and Gly/Gly) and at position 27 (Gln/Gln, Gln/Glu, and Glu/Glu). The time to first asthma exacerbation was similar among individuals carrying different β2AR polymorphisms. No β2AR genotype association was found in relation to the number of hospitalizations. Longitudinal analysis of forced expiratory volume in 1 second from baseline to the end of the study also showed no differences among β2AR genotypes at position 16 or 27. No association was observed among the 3 most common haplotypes (Arg/Arg-Gln/Gln, Gly/Gly-Gln/Gln, and Gly/Gly-Glu/Glu) and the number of participants with asthmatic crisis or with the overall number of exacerbations. β2AR polymorphisms were not associated with an increased risk of having asthma exacerbations or lung function decline in a population of Argentinian children with severe asthma receiving ICS and LABAs regularly. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of adverse events noted in children receiving continuous infusions of dexmedetomidine in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Brooke L; Harrison, Donald L; Gormley, Andrew K; Johnson, Peter N

    2010-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine is an α(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist with sedative and analgesic effects in mechanically ventilated adults and children. Safety and efficacy data are limited in children. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively identify the incidence and types of adverse events noted in children receiving continuous infusions of dexmedetomidine and evaluate potential risk factors for adverse events. Between July 1, 2006, and July 31, 2007, data were collected on all children (events. The primary endpoint was the total number of adverse events noted, including: transient hypertension, hypotension, neurological manifestations, apnea, and bradycardia. Secondary endpoints included categorization of each type of adverse event and an assessment of risk factors. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship of adverse events with independent variables including length of ICU stay, cumulative dose, peak infusion rate, duration of therapy, PRISM III score, and bolus dose. Thirty-six patients received dexmedetomidine representing 41 infusions. The median age was 16 months (range, 0.1-204 months) and median PRISM III score was 2 (range, 0-18). Eighteen (43.9%) patients received a bolus dose of dexmedetomidine. The median cumulative dose (mcg/kg) and peak dose (mcg/kg/hr) were 8.5 (range, 2.2-193.7) and 0.5 (range, 0.2-0.7), respectively. Dexmedetomidine was continued for a median of 20 (range, 3-263) hours. Six (14.6%) patients were slowly tapered off the continuous infusions. Twenty-one adverse events were noted in 17 patients, including 4 neurologic manifestations. Fourteen patients required interventions for adverse events. ICU length of stay was the only independent risk factor (p=0.036) for development of adverse events. Several potential adverse events were noted with dexmedetomidine continuous infusions including possible neurological manifestations. Further studies are needed looking at adverse events associated with dexmedetomidine use in

  10. Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes in HIV-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Fatima; Qamar, Farah Naz; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Abro, Azra Ghayas; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Kazi, Mohammed Ahmed; Rizvi, Arjumand; Zaidi, Anita Kaniz Mehdi

    2014-04-15

    The impact of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy on immunological and growth parameters in HIV-positive children in Pakistan has not been reported to date. A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with HIV at the Sindh AIDS Control Proigramme (SACP) and registered at the Aga Khan University, Karachi, between January 2005 and 2013 was conducted, evaluating clinical and laboratory profiles of HIV+ ARV+ children for ARV impact (serial height and weight CD4 and viral counts). Twenty-four children were diagnosed and registered as HIV positive over five years, and 20 were started on ARV. Six were excluded from analysis (ARV duration treatment failure at a median duration of 25 weeks (IQR 18-32) on ARV and underwent resistance genotyping. All nine had NNRTI resistance, two had high-grade NRTI resistance (≥ 4 thymidine analog mutations). Median age at start of ARV was 71.5 weeks (IQR 37.5-119). Median baseline weight for age (WAZ) and height for age (HAZ) z-scores changed from -1.94 to 1.69 and -1.99 to -1.59, respectively, after six months of therapy. Median CD4 percentage and viral load at baseline changed from 13.8 to 17.8, while viral load changed from 285 × 104 copies to zero at six months. ARV improved absolute CD4 and viral counts. Weight and height did not  improve significantly, highlighting the need for aggressive nutritional rehabilitation. Early development of ARV resistance in these children requires formal assessment.

  11. Timing of solid food introduction and obesity: Hong Kong's "children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-05-01

    Some observational studies in Western settings show that early introduction of solid food is associated with subsequent obesity. However, introduction of solid food and obesity share social patterning. We examined the association of the timing of the introduction of solid food with BMI and overweight (including obesity) into adolescence in a developed non-Western setting, in which childhood obesity is less clearly socially patterned. We used generalized estimating equation models to estimate the adjusted associations of the timing of the introduction of solid food (8 months) with BMI z score and overweight (including obesity) at different growth phases (infancy, childhood, and puberty) in 7809 children (88% follow-up) from a Chinese birth cohort, "Children of 1997." We assessed if the associations varied with gender or breastfeeding. We used multiple imputation for missing exposure and confounders. The introduction of solid food at associated with lower family socioeconomic position (SEP) but was not clearly associated with BMI or overweight (including obesity) in infancy [mean difference in BMI z score: 0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14 to 0.17], childhood (0.14; 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.40), or at puberty (0.22; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.52), adjusted for SEP and infant and maternal characteristics. In a non-Western developed setting, there was no clear association of the early introduction of solid food with childhood obesity. Together with the inconsistent evidence from studies in Western settings, this finding suggests that any observed associations might simply be residual confounding by SEP.

  12. A Pilot Study: Cardiac Parameters in Children Receiving New-Generation Antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Andrea E; Kenworthy, Tara; Chan, James; Fitzgerald, Maura; Rosales, Ana Maria; Kagan, Elana; Saunders, Alexandra; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Because of concerns about potential associations between high doses of citalopram and QTc prolongation in adults, this study examined whether such associations are operant in children. We hypothesized that therapeutic doses of nontricyclic antidepressant medications (non-TCAs) prescribed to children would be cardiovascularly safe. The sample consisted of 49 psychiatrically referred children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old of both sexes treated with a non-TCA (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, bupropion, duloxetine, venlafaxine, mirtazapine). To standardize the doses of different antidepressants, we converted doses of individual medicines into "citalopram equivalent doses" (CEDs) based on dosing recommendation for individual antidepressants. Correlation analysis was carried out to compare the continuous and weight-based CED to variables of interest. A QTc grouping was defined as normal, borderline, or abnormal, and CED was compared across QTc groupings using linear regression. An antidepressant dosage group was defined as low or high dose, and a t test compared variables of interest across dosage groups. No significant associations were found between total or weight-corrected CEDs of any antidepressant examined and QTc or any other electrocardiogram or blood pressure parameters. In patients taking citalopram or escitalopram, a significant correlation was found between PR interval and total daily dose, which disappeared when weight-based doses were used or when corrected by age. Although limited by a relatively small sample size, these results suggest that therapeutic doses of non-TCA antidepressants when used in children do not seem to be associated with prolonged QTc interval or other adverse cardiovascular effects.

  13. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  14. Consideration of children with intellectual disability as candidates for solid organ transplantation-A practice in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Aaron; Diekema, Douglas; Goldberg, Aviva

    2018-02-01

    Children with intellectual disability were historically excluded from consideration as recipients of solid organ transplants. In light of an evolution in provider practices, this commentary will define intellectual disability and review the relevant provider attitudes and guidelines and known outcomes of solid organ transplant in this population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  16. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  17. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    1999-01-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  18. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1999-09-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author) 37 refs, 3 tabs

  19. Children who have received no routine polio vaccines in Nigeria: Who are they and where do they live?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Olalekan A; Adedokun, Sulaimon T; Olukade, Tawa; Watson, Samuel; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Adeniran, Adeyinka; Oyetoyan, Solomon A; Gidado, Saheed; Lawoko, Stephen; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2017-09-02

    Nigeria has made remarkable progress against polio, but 2 wild polio virus cases were reported in August 2016; putting an end to 2 y without reported cases. We examined the extent of geographical disparities in childhren not vaccinated against polio and examined individual- and community-level predictors of non-vaccination in Nigeria. We applied multilevel logistic regression models to the recent Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The percentage of children not routinely vaccinated against polio in Nigeria varied greatly and clustered geographically, mainly in north-eastern states, with a great risk of spread of transmission within these states and potential exportation to neighboring states and countries. Only about one-third had received all recommended 4 routine oral polio vaccine doses. Non-vaccinated children tended to have a mother who had no formal education and who was currently not working, live in poorer households and were from neighborhoods with higher maternal illiteracy rates.

  20. [Dynamics of tooth decay prevalence in children receiving long-term preventive program in school dental facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.

  1. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  2. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    2000-07-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  3. Brief report: large individual variation in outcomes of autistic children receiving low-intensity behavioral interventions in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoko; Haraguchi, Hideyuki; Miyake, Atsuko; Hiraiwa, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread awareness of the necessity of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), evidence is still limited, in part, due to the complex nature of ASDs. This exploratory study aimed to examine the change across time in young children with autism and their mothers, who received less intensive early interventions with and without applied behavior analysis (ABA) methods in community settings in Japan. Eighteen children with autism (mean age: 45.7 months; range: 28-64 months) received ABA-based treatment (a median of 3.5 hours per week; an interquartile range of 2-5.6 hours per week) and/or eclectic treatment-as-usual (TAU) (a median of 3.1 hours per week; an interquartile range of 2-5.6 hours per week). Children's outcomes were the severity of autistic symptoms, cognitive functioning, internalizing and externalizing behavior after 6 months (a median of 192 days; an interquartile range of 178-206 days). In addition, maternal parenting stress at 6-month follow-up, and maternal depression at 1.5-year follow-up (a median of 512 days; an interquartile range of 358-545 days) were also examined. Large individual variations were observed for a broad range of children's and mothers' outcomes. Neither ABA nor TAU hours per week were significantly associated with an improvement in core autistic symptoms. A significant improvement was observed only for internalizing problems, irrespective of the type, intensity or monthly cost of treatment received. Higher ABA cost per month (a median of 1,188 USD; an interquartile range of 538-1,888 USD) was associated with less improvement in language-social DQ (a median of 9; an interquartile range of -6.75-23.75). To determine an optimal program for each child with ASD in areas with poor ASD resources, further controlled studies are needed that assess a broad range of predictive and outcome variables focusing on both individual characteristics and treatment components.

  4. Rare severe mycotic infections in children receiving empirical caspofungin treatment for febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11–19 days. Trichosporon asahii was detected in the blood culture of two patients and Geotrichum capitatum in the other two (one patient also had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture. Because the patients’ clinical situation worsened, voriconazole was empirically added for two patients three and five days before the agent was detected. The first sterile blood culture was obtained 3–7 days of voriconazole treatment. All patients reached clear cultures but one patient died. One patient with central nervous system infection with G. capitatum had severe neurological sequelae. Very severe fungal infections can occur during empirical caspofungin therapy. Therefore, patients should be followed closely.

  5. Factors Associated with Bleeding and Thrombosis in Children Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Heidi J; Reeder, Ron; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Holubkov, Richard; Berg, Robert A; Zuppa, Athena; Moler, Frank W; Shanley, Thomas; Pollack, Murray M; Newth, Christopher; Berger, John; Wessel, David; Carcillo, Joseph; Bell, Michael; Heidemann, Sabrina; Meert, Kathleen L; Harrison, Richard; Doctor, Allan; Tamburro, Robert F; Dean, J Michael; Jenkins, Tammara; Nicholson, Carol

    2017-09-15

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for respiratory and cardiac failure in children but is complicated by bleeding and thrombosis. (1) To measure the incidence of bleeding (blood loss requiring transfusion or intracranial hemorrhage) and thrombosis during ECMO support; (2) to identify factors associated with these complications; and (3) to determine the impact of these complications on patient outcome. This was a prospective, observational cohort study in pediatric, cardiac, and neonatal intensive care units in eight hospitals, carried out from December 2012 to September 2014. ECMO was used on 514 consecutive patients under age 19 years. Demographics, anticoagulation practices, severity of illness, circuitry components, bleeding, thrombotic events, and outcome were recorded. Survival was 54.9%. Bleeding occurred in 70.2%, including intracranial hemorrhage in 16%, and was independently associated with higher daily risk of mortality. Circuit component changes were required in 31.1%, and patient-related clots occurred in 12.8%. Laboratory sampling contributed to transfusion requirement in 56.6%, and was the sole reason for at least one transfusion in 42.2% of patients. Pump type was not associated with bleeding, thrombosis, hemolysis, or mortality. Hemolysis was predictive of subsequent thrombotic events. Neither hemolysis nor thrombotic events increased the risk of mortality. The incidences of bleeding and thrombosis are high during ECMO support. Laboratory sampling is a major contributor to transfusion during ECMO. Strategies to reduce the daily risk of bleeding and thrombosis, and different thresholds for transfusion, may be appropriate subjects of future trials to improve outcomes of children requiring this supportive therapy.

  6. Personal features of children in client families who receive psychological advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes results of the research, where influence of main parenting styles on developing children’s personality and appearing child-parent problems were considered. It covers client families of psychological advice (with overprotection and over exactingness. It is indicated that the key factor emerging child-parent problems in this families is the abnormality of the parent personality identified through so-called existential criterion, which is displayed in their parenting styles. The parenting styles contribute to shaping child abnormal personality types, also identified through existential criteria are designated as “directed at external assistance”, “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” and “directed at protesting against compliance with the requirements of other people”. Children of such personality types have problems communicating with others as communication is addressed to children with normal personal development and is not relevant for abnormal personal abilities. As the problems mentioned above are connected with maladjustment to social environment requirements they can be classified as problems of social adaptation. There is a connection of a personality type “directed at complying with the requirements of other people” with abnormal personality predisposed to various life problems and mental disorders mentioned in the works of E. Fromm, S. Freud, A. Adler, С. Jung, C. Rogers, and V. Frankl. It suggests the understanding of the personality of this type to be regarded as a classical type of personality which the authors mentioned above were dealing with in their psychotherapeutic practice at different times.

  7. Influences on Decision Making Identified by Parents of Children Receiving Pediatric Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Karen W; Mollen, Cynthia J; Aldridge, Sarah; Hexem, Kari R; Feudtner, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Parental decision making is a critical component in the provision of palliative and end-of-life care, yet factors that parents perceive as influencing this process, when they are making decisions for their children, have not been well characterized. As part of a mixed-methods cohort study, we interviewed 73 parents of 50 pediatric patients who were referred to the hospital's pediatric palliative care service. The semistructured interviews focused on "decision making for your child"; the interviews were recorded and transcribed. A random sample (n = 13) was first coded and analyzed for core themes, and these themes were then cross-validated with a second random sample (n = 3) of interviews. Four dominant interrelated themes permeated parents' discussions about the decisions they were making for their children and the process of decision making. First, Orientation and Direction (including the subthemes of Goals and Hopes, Spirituality and Meaning, and Purposeful Effort) connotes the parents' effort to establish and clarify the broad context of decision making. Second, Defining What Is Good for the Child (including the subthemes of Quality of Life and Suffering, and Normalcy and Normalization) conveys how the parents posed questions and pondered what decisions would be in the child's best interests. Third, the entwined theme of Relationships, Communication, and Support reflects how parents reported the social and interactive nature of decision making. Fourth, the theme of Feelings and Personal Accountability focuses inward as parents report efforts to deal with their emotional responses and self-judgments. Parents report grappling with several influences upon their decision-making processes that extend well beyond the standard discussions of medical information exchanges and the evaluation of risks and benefits. Decision support for these parents should account for these diverse influences.

  8. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources.

  9. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  10. The effect of reflexology upon spasticity and function among children with cerebral palsy who received physiotherapy: Three group randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Filiz; Zincir, Handan

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of reflexology method upon spasticity and function among children with cerebral palsy who received physiotherapy. A three group, randomised trial with blinded evaluator. Randomization was made sealed and opaque envelopes. 45 children with cerebral palsy who were trained at a Special Education and Rehabilitation Centre. In the reflexology and placebo group; a 20min reflexology was performed twice a week in a total 24 sessions. In the control group; no intervention was done. Before and after the implementation; measurements of the participants were obtained. The data were collected using Gross Motor Function Measure, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Modified Tardieu Scale, Pediatric Functional Independence Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Scale (PedsQL) and demographic data. A total of 45 children completed the study. The groups were homogeneous at baseline. Between right MAS Gastrocnemius muscle was a difference and right and left Soleus muscles was significant among the groups (p0.05). Reflexology with physiotherapy reduced spasticity in legs, improved gross motor functions, decreased dependency but led to no change in quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parents' Perception of Receiving Family-Centered Care for Their Children with Physical Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasri, Nihad A; An, Mihee; Palisano, Robert J

    2017-07-28

    Understanding parent perceptions of family-centered care (FCC) is important to improve processes and outcomes of children's services. A systematic review and meta-analysis of research on the Measures of Processes of Care (MPOC-20) were performed to determine the extent parents of children with physical disabilities perceive they received FCC. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using four databases. A total of 129 studies were retrieved; 15 met the criteria for the synthesis. Meta-analysis involving 2,582 mothers and fathers of children with physical disabilities mainly cerebral palsy was conducted for the five scales of the MPOC-20. Aggregated mean ratings varied from 5.0 to 5.5 for Providing Specific Information about the Child; Coordinated and Comprehensive Care; and Respectful and Supportive Care (relational behaviors) and Enabling and Partnership (participatory behaviors) indicating that, on average, parents rated FCC as having been provided to "a fairly great extent." The aggregated mean rating was 4.1 for Providing General Information, indicating FCC was provided "to a moderate extent." Service providers are encouraged to focus on child and family needs for general information. Research is needed to better understand parent perspectives of service provider participatory behaviors which are important for engaging families in intervention processes.

  12. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  13. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, N M; Orciari, L A; Niezgoda, M; Selvaggi, G; Stosor, V; Lyon, G M; Wallace, R M; Gabel, J; Stanek, D R; Jenkins, P; Shiferaw, M; Yager, P; Jackson, F; Hanlon, C A; Damon, I; Blanton, J D; Recuenco, S; Franka, R

    2015-06-01

    The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effective and dust free receiving station and handling for the low calorific value solid fuels; Tehokas ja poelytoen seospolttoaineiden vastaanottoasema sekae kaesittely- ja kuljetinjaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojonen, O [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jaervinen, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to get higher automatization level and improve dust preventing in solid fuel receiving stations. There are two general types of receiving stations in the Finnish power plants: large unloading stations for the side tipping devices of trucks and small ones for the rear tipping devices of trucks. In the first ones the trucks empty their load (approx. 100 m{sup 3} loose bulk density) divided by hauling unit and trailer within few (5-10) minutes into a rectangular box, which depth is approx. 3 m. The discharging causes a strong counter current air and dust flow (20-40 m{sup 3}/s) upwards and the dust will easily spread out all over the station. In the second ones the discharging takes place from the rear of truck and trailer using loadspace conveyor of the vehicle within 20 minutes. The material falls on a (belt) conveyor, which is on the floor level. The problems in side tipping system are connected with dust and surplus time, which is needed for the preparation and completion of unloading and sampling. For the fine dust control has also been tested water spray (fog) nozzles and tried to utilise a settling chamber for the dust stream. Also the using the settling chamber equipped with air suction connections and cyclone separation may be effective. In the rear tipping system are also applied bag filters because of smaller air quantities. The rapid truck positioning and control in the receiving station is one of the presupposition for the fast and accurate unloading. This can be done using ultrasonic sensing methods. Also the ensuring of accurate discharging can be based on the modern technology. One of the basic things is the enlarging of video control (CCD -cameras)

  15. The effective and dust free receiving station and handling for the low calorific value solid fuels; Tehokas ja poelytoen seospolttoaineiden vastaanottoasema sekae kaesittely- ja kuljetinjaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojonen, O. [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jaervinen, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Use

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the project was to get higher automatization level and improve dust preventing in solid fuel receiving stations. There are two general types of receiving stations in the Finnish power plants: large unloading stations for the side tipping devices of trucks and small ones for the rear tipping devices of trucks. In the first ones the trucks empty their load (approx. 100 m{sup 3} loose bulk density) divided by hauling unit and trailer within few (5-10) minutes into a rectangular box, which depth is approx. 3 m. The discharging causes a strong counter current air and dust flow (20-40 m{sup 3}/s) upwards and the dust will easily spread out all over the station. In the second ones the discharging takes place from the rear of truck and trailer using loadspace conveyor of the vehicle within 20 minutes. The material falls on a (belt) conveyor, which is on the floor level. The problems in side tipping system are connected with dust and surplus time, which is needed for the preparation and completion of unloading and sampling. For the fine dust control has also been tested water spray (fog) nozzles and tried to utilise a settling chamber for the dust stream. Also the using the settling chamber equipped with air suction connections and cyclone separation may be effective. In the rear tipping system are also applied bag filters because of smaller air quantities. The rapid truck positioning and control in the receiving station is one of the presupposition for the fast and accurate unloading. This can be done using ultrasonic sensing methods. Also the ensuring of accurate discharging can be based on the modern technology. One of the basic things is the enlarging of video control (CCD -cameras)

  16. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, N.M.; Orciari, L.A.; Niezgoda, M.; Selvaggi, G.; Stosor, V.; Lyon, G.M.; Wallace, R.M.; Gabel, J.; Stanek, D.R.; Jenkins, P.; Shiferaw, M.; Yager, P.; Jackson, F.; Hanlon, C.A.; Damon, I.; Blanton, J.D.; Recuenco, S.; Franka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. Methods As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. Results All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. Conclusions The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. PMID:25851103

  17. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  18. Pregnant women and children's exposure to tobacco and solid fuel smoke in southwestern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Moore, Janet; Derman, Richard; Kodkany, Bhala; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya; Naik, Vijjaya A; Angolkar, Mubashir; Bloch, Michele

    2011-07-01

    To examine factors associated with smoke exposure among pregnant women in rural India. We conducted a survey of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and solid fuel smoke (SFS) among 736 pregnant women. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models to assess the relationship between demographic variables and exposure to SHS and to SFS. While few respondents smoked cigarettes, 19.9% of women and 27.8% of children were frequently or always exposed to SHS, and 43.5% were at high and 46.7% at medium risk for SFE. Low educational levels and illiteracy were associated with exposure. Smoke exposure is a serious health risk for many poor women and children in India.

  19. Multiple acquisition of magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments using one receiver: Application to microcrystalline and membrane protein preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of proteins is a notoriously low-throughput technique. Relatively low-sensitivity and poor resolution of protein samples require long acquisition times for multidimensional NMR experiments. To speed up data acquisition, we developed a family of experiments called Polarization Optimized Experiments (POE), in which we utilized the orphan spin operators that are discarded in classical multidimensional NMR experiments, recovering them to allow simultaneous acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D experiments, all while using conventional probes with spectrometers equipped with one receiver. POE allow the concatenation of multiple 2D or 3D pulse sequences into a single experiment, thus potentially combining all of the aforementioned advances, boosting the capability of ssNMR spectrometers at least two-fold without the addition of any hardware. In this perspective, we describe the first generation of POE, such as dual acquisition MAS (or DUMAS) methods, and then illustrate the evolution of these experiments into MEIOSIS, a method that enables the simultaneous acquisition of multiple 2D and 3D spectra. Using these new pulse schemes for the solid-state NMR investigation of biopolymers makes it possible to obtain sequential resonance assignments, as well as distance restraints, in about half the experimental time. While designed for acquisition of heteronuclei, these new experiments can be easily implemented for proton detection and coupled with other recent advancements, such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), to improve signal to noise. Finally, we illustrate the application of these methods to microcrystalline protein preparations as well as single and multi-span membrane proteins reconstituted in lipid membranes.

  20. Detection of TT Virus Among Thalassaemic Children With Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C Receiving Irradiated and Non Irradiated RBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghraby, D.F.; EL-Shafie, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.; Alkady, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    TTV was first identified in the serum of a patient with post transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997.As a consequence of the high prevalence of TTV in blood donors, thalassemia patients frequently acquire various genotypes of this virus through therapeutic blood transfusions.TTV as a cause of chronic hepatitis has not yet determined . Ten healthy and twenty-eight poly-transfused thalassemia children were evolved in this study where ten patients were receiving irradiated RBCs and eighteen receiving non irradiated ones.TTV was detected in serum samples by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primer. Transaminases levels, hepatitis B and C virus markers were interpreted for possible association with TTV infection. As a result, TTV was found in 50% of thalassemia patients and in 20 % of the controls. Among thalassemia patients, isolated HBsAG, isolated HCV-AB, HBsAG and TTV-DNA and HCV-AB and TTV-DNA distributions were: 6 (21.43%) ,8 ( 28.57%) , 4 ( 14.29%) and 10 (35.7%) respectively. Regarding thalassemia patients receiving irradiated RBCs, the frequency of viral infections were 8(80%), 2(20%) and 0% for TTV co-infections, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence of viral infections among patients receiving non irradiated RBCs were 6(33.3%), 4(22.2%) and 8(44.5%) for TTV co-infection, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. These data may give evidence that radiation raises the levels of blood safety especially regarding HCV. Furthermore, liver transaminase levels were significantly higher in all patients versus the controls, meanwhile, transaminase values were not different in HBsAG-positive subjects as compared with subjects who had both HBsAG and TTV-DNA positive. Also, there was no significant difference between isolated HCV infection and HCV and TTV co-infection. So, no convincing evidence was found to support TTV involvement in the D. F. EL-MAGHRABY, et al. / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci

  1. Incidence of colonization and bloodstream infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Desiree; Cesaro, Simone; Fagioli, Franca; Carraro, Francesca; Ziino, Ottavio; Zanazzo, Giulio; Meazza, Cristina; Colombini, Antonella; Castagnola, Elio

    2016-02-01

    Few data are available on the incidence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) infection or colonization in children receiving anticancer chemotherapy. We performed a nationwide survey among centers participating in the pediatric hematology-oncology cooperative study group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, AIEOP). During a 2-year observation period, we observed a threefold increase in the colonization rate, and a fourfold increase of bloodstream infection episodes, caused by CPE, with a 90-day mortality of 14%. This first nationwide Italian pediatric survey shows that the circulation of CPE strains in the pediatric hematology-oncology environment is increasing. Given the mortality rate, which is higher than for other bacterial strains, specific monitoring should be applied and the results should have implications for health-care practice in pediatric hematology-oncology.

  2. Clinical Profile and Sex Differences in Brazilian Children and Adolescents Receiving Psychiatric Services in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonezer, Jordana; Muller, Thomaz; Rocha, Gibsi Possapp; Recondo, Rogéria; Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Spanemberg, Lucas

    2015-06-27

    We present a survey of sex differences and socio-demographic and clinical variables in children and adolescents receiving a psychiatric consultation service in an emergency department (ED). This observational, retrospective, and cross-sectional study included all records of patients (age, services in an ED in a 4-year period (January 2010 to December 2013). Two hundred fifty-nine records of children and adolescents were located. The mean age of the participants was 14.19 years, and most subjects were female (59.5%) and had private health insurance (83.7%). Most participants (87.4%) were accompanied by their parents. The main complaints were suicide attempts (21.8%) and psychomotor agitation/aggressiveness (21.8%). Unipolar depression (37.8%) and adjustment, reactive, and anxiety disorders (13.7%) were the most prevalent diagnoses. Most patients received an indication of psychiatric hospitalization (51.7%). Females had more suicide attempts than males (28.3% vs 12.4%) and less psychomotor agitation/aggressiveness than males (15.5% vs 31.4%). Females also exhibited more unipolar depression (47.6% vs 23.5%), fewer psychotic disorders (4.2% vs 16.3%), and substance use/misuse (1.4% vs 13.3%) than males. Males needed more psychiatric medication during evaluation (37.9% vs 19.2%). This survey of the profile of pediatric patients evaluated by a psychiatric service in an ED in Brazil was the first of its kind. The large percentage of patients referred for hospitalization highlights the importance of specialized psychiatry care for this age group in this facility, which is a common entry point for mental health care.

  3. Stimulant use and its impact on growth in children receiving growth hormone therapy: an analysis of the KIGS International Growth Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley S; Aydin, Ferah; Lundgren, Frida; Lindberg, Anders; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2014-01-01

    Children receiving stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently present to pediatric endocrinology clinics for evaluation and treatment of growth disorders. The worldwide prevalence of stimulant use in children with ADHD also receiving recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and the impact on response to rhGH are unknown. Data on children enrolled in the KIGS® (Pfizer International Growth Study) registry were evaluated for the associated diagnosis of ADHD prior to initiation of Genotropin® rhGH. Concomitant stimulant medications and auxological information were captured. Response to rhGH was evaluated using established growth prediction models. The prevalence of ADHD in KIGS was 2.3% (1,748/75,251), with stimulants used in 1.8% (1,326/75,251). Children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) who received stimulants grew significantly less (1.1 cm) in the first year of rhGH therapy than expected for rhGH-treated non-ADHD IGHD children. After one year of rhGH, idiopathic short stature (ISS) children with ADHD were significantly shorter [0.74 cm (with stimulants) and 0.69 cm (without stimulants)] than non-ADHD ISS children. We demonstrated an impaired response to rhGH in IGHD and ISS children with ADHD. Our findings suggest that the ADHD phenotype, alone or in conjunction with stimulant therapy, may impair the short-term growth response to rhGH.

  4. Solid Fat and Added Sugar Intake Among U.S. Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role of location in U.S. children’s excess intake of energy from solid fat and added sugar, collectively referred to as SoFAS. Purpose The goal of the study was to compare the SoFAS content of foods consumed by children from stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants and to determine whether trends from 1994–2010 differ across these locations. Methods Children aged 2–18 years (n=22,103) from five nationally representative surveys of dietary intake from 1994 to 2010 were studied. SoFAS content was compared across locations for total intake and key foods. Regression models were used to test and compare linear trends across locations. Data were analyzed in 2012. Results The mean percentage of total energy intake consumed from each location that was provided by SoFAS remained above recommendations, despite significant improvements between 1994 and 2010 at stores (38.3% to 33.2%); schools (38.7% to 31.2%); and fast-food restaurants (43.3% to 34.6%). For each key food, SoFAS content decreased significantly at stores and schools, yet progress at schools was comparatively slower. Milk was higher in SoFAS at schools compared to stores due to shifts toward flavored milk at schools. Schools provided french fries that were higher in solid fat than store-bought versions and pizza that was not substantially different in SoFAS content than fast-food pizza. However, schools made substantially greater progress for sugar-sweetened beverages, as lower-sugar beverages replaced regular sodas. Key fast foods showed little improvement. Conclusions These findings can inform future strategies targeted to reduce SoFAS consumption in specific locations. PMID:24139767

  5. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  6. Impact of indoor air pollution from the use of solid fuels on the incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses in children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Singh, Ashish

    2015-03-28

    India contributes 24% of the global annual child deaths due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs). According to WHO, nearly 50% of the deaths among children due to ARIs is because of indoor air pollution (IAP). There is insufficient evidence on the relationship between IAP from the use of solid fuels and incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses (LTRI) in children in India. Panel data of children born during 2001-02, from the Young Lives Study (YLS) conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 was used to estimate the impact of household use of solid fuels for cooking on LTRI in children. Multivariable two-stage random effects logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds of suffering from LTRI among children from households using solid fuels relative to children from households using other fuels (Gas/Electricity/Kerosene). Bivariate results indicate that the probability of an episode of LTRI was considerably higher among children from households using solid fuels for cooking (18%) than among children from households using other fuels (10%). Moreover, children from households using solid fuels in both the rounds of YLS were more likely to suffer from one or more than one episode of LTRI compared to children from households using solid fuels in only one round. Two-stage random effects logistic regression result shows that children from households using solid fuels were 1.78 (95% CI: 1.05-2.99) times as likely to suffer from LTRI as those from households using other fuels. The findings of this paper provide conclusive evidence on the harmful effects of the use of solid fuels for cooking on LTRI in India. The Government of India must make people aware about the health risks associated with the use of solid fuels for cooking and strive to promote the use of cleaner fuels.

  7. Caregiver perceptions and motivation for disclosing or concealing the diagnosis of HIV infection to children receiving HIV care in Mbarara, Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Kiwanuka

    Full Text Available Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV to HIV-infected children is challenging for caregivers. Despite current recommendations, data suggest that levels of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children receiving care in resource-limited settings are very low. Few studies describe the disclosure process for children in these settings, particularly the motivators, antecedent goals, and immediate outcomes of disclosure to HIV-infected children. This study examined caregivers' perception of the disclosure concept prior to disclosure, their motivation towards or away from disclosure, and their short- and long-term intentions for disclosure to their HIV-infected children.In-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of 40 HIV-infected children (ages 5-15 years who were receiving HIV care but did not know their HIV status.Caregivers of HIV-infected children mainly perceived disclosure as a single event rather than a process of gradual delivery of information about the child's illness. They viewed disclosure as potentially beneficial both to children and themselves, as well as an opportunity to explain the parents' role in the transmission of HIV to the children. Caregivers desired to personally conduct the disclosure; however, most reported being over-whelmed with fear of negative outcomes and revealed a lack of self-efficacy towards managing the disclosure process. Consequently, most cope by deception to avoid or delay disclosure until they perceive their own readiness to disclose.Interventions for HIV disclosure should consider that caregivers may desire to be directly responsible for disclosure to children under their care. They, however, need to be empowered with practical skills to recognize opportunities to initiate the disclosure process early, as well as supported to manage it in a phased, developmentally appropriate manner. The potential role for peer counselors in the disclosure process deserves further study.

  8. Benzodiazepine prescribing in children under 15 years of age receiving free medical care on the General Medical Services scheme in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K

    2015-06-01

    To examine the prevalence and secular trends in benzodiazepine (BZD) prescribing in the Irish paediatric population. In addition, we examine coprescribing of antiepileptic, antipsychotic, antidepressant and psychostimulants in children receiving BZD drugs and compare BZD prescribing in Ireland to that in other European countries.

  9. Guideline for the prevention of oral and oropharyngeal mucositis in children receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Lillian; Robinson, Paula; Treister, Nathaniel; Baggott, Tina; Gibson, Paul; Tissing, Wim; Wiernikowski, John; Brinklow, Jennifer; Dupuis, L Lee

    2017-03-01

    To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the prevention of oral mucositis in children (0-18 years) receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The Mucositis Prevention Guideline Development Group was interdisciplinary and included internationally recognised experts in paediatric mucositis. For the evidence review, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in either children or adults evaluating the following interventions selected according to prespecified criteria: cryotherapy, low level light therapy (LLLT) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). We also examined RCTs of any intervention conducted in children. For all systematic reviews, we synthesised the occurrence of severe oral mucositis. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to describe quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. We suggest cryotherapy or LLLT may be offered to cooperative children receiving chemotherapy or HSCT conditioning with regimens associated with a high rate of mucositis. We also suggest KGF may be offered to children receiving HSCT conditioning with regimens associated with a high rate of severe mucositis. However, KGF use merits caution as there is a lack of efficacy and toxicity data in children, and a lack of long-term follow-up data in paediatric cancers. No other interventions were recommended for oral mucositis prevention in children. All three specific interventions evaluated in this clinical practice guideline were associated with a weak recommendation for use. There may be important organisational and cost barriers to the adoption of LLLT and KGF. Considerations for implementation and key research gaps are highlighted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  11. Association of clearance of middle- and large-molecular-weight substance with arterial stiffness and left ventricular mass in children receiving renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Kadriye; Yilmaz, Ebru; Dincel, Nida; Bozabali, Sibel; Apaydin, Sukriye; Gun, Zubeyr H; Sozeri, Betul; Mir, Sevgi

    2017-12-01

    The prominent cause of mortality in children receiving dialysis treatment is cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors related to chronic renal disease, are effective in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of study was to investigate cardiovascular system (CVS) involvement for functional and structural alterations in children receiving dialysis, and display any association between cardiovascular morbidity and uremic toxins. 20 dialysis patients and 20 healthy controls were included to the study. Clearance of small, middle and large molecular-weight uremic toxins was evaluated in blood samples collected 30 minutes before (D0) and 2 hour after dialysis (D2), and change value was calculated as D0-D2/D0. Cardiovascular involvement was determined by comparing arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and Left Ventricular Mass Index (LVMI) with the control group. Four patients receiving hemodialysis and two patients in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) group who have significant differences in all functional and structural parameters were detected. Four dialysis patients with detected cardiovascular disease have distinctively lower beta-2 microglobulin and homocysteine clearances compared to the patients with no CVS involvement. The clearance of middle and large molecular-weight substances should be closely monitored in children receiving dialysis.

  12. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Parents of Young Children with Autism Receiving Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Donna Marie

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades reported rates of autism have steadily risen. The current incidence is 1 in 68 children. While autism can be reliably diagnosed at 18 months in most children with the condition, specialized autism treatment rarely begins before a child's third or fourth birthday. As screening and diagnosis procedures improve so does the…

  13. Adverse impact of multileaf collimator field shaping on lens dose in children with acute leukemia receiving cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Sathiaseelan, Vythialingam; Bista, Tomasz C.; Marymont, Maryanne H.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the impact of multileaf collimator (MLC) on lens dose in children with leukemia undergoing cranial irradiation. Methods and Materials: This is a prospective study utilizing three common cranial irradiation techniques. Technique A uses a half-beam, nondivergent radiation field. Technique B has the anterior divergent field edge at the lateral bony canthus. Technique C is similar to B, but with a field collimator angle. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) lens dose measurements were obtained in children and phantom with all three techniques. Results: Seventeen children were studied. Lens dose measurements were obtained in 14 children with technique A using MLC and blocks. In 7 of 14 children, dose measurements were obtained with MLC only. One child was treated with technique B and 2 children were treated with C, with MLC ± blocks. In all 3 techniques, with MLC alone, the lens dose increased by 64%, 119%, and 72%, respectively. Similar results were obtained in phantom. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that independent of irradiation technique, additional custom blocking is required to maximally protect the lens with MLC shaped fields. This is due to the lack of conformity between MLC and the desired field edge at the lateral bony canthus

  14. Meaning and effect of a music concept designed specifically to promote general wellbeing and health for children with cancer receiving music therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    This text consists of an extract of my master´s thesis (Sanfi, 2007). It discusses a music concept, which is designed to meet bodily and psychosocial needs of children with cancer when receiving chemotherapy. The theory part relates to the development of the special designed music concept, while the empirical part relates to a supplementary pilot study in which a mixed methods design (i.e. semi-structured interviews and questionnaires) is applied. The combination of methods intends to explore...

  15. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Campbell

    Full Text Available Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%, the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool. Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.

  16. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Harry; El Arifeen, Shams; Hazir, Tabish; O'Kelly, James; Bryce, Jennifer; Rudan, Igor; Qazi, Shamim Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%), the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool). Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.

  17. The problem of carcinogenesis in children born to parents who have received an elevated dose of ionzing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem under the following three aspects: (1) Today, there is evidence of only a very few tumors developed by children to have been induced by genetic defects in some cases, as e.g. the retinoblastoma or the Wilms' tumor. The data available to date on the causes of leukemia in childhood do not suffice to make a statement. (2) Investigations among children engendered by A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki after the bombing do not reveal an increase in the incidence of malignant disease up to the age of twenty. (3) The studies carried out by Gardner et al. among children of parents working in the Sellafield plant do not allow, upon critical review, to draw unambiguous conclusions. (orig.) [de

  18. All about Solids, Liquids & Gases. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In All About Solids, Liquids and Gases, young students will be introduced to the three common forms of matter. They'll learn that all things are made up of tiny particles called atoms and that the movement of these particles determines the form that matter takes. In solids, the particles are packed tightly together and move very little. The…

  19. A Qualitative Exploration of Therapeutic Relationships from the Perspective of Six Children Receiving Speech-Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert; Crowley, Niamh; Oliviera, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Although some studies have explored the adult therapeutic relationship in speech-language pathology, few, if any, have examined it with regard to children. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic relationship in pediatric speech and language therapy, focusing on the child's experience. Accordingly, the study was qualitative and involved the…

  20. Delays in seeking and receiving health care services for pneumonia in children under five in the Peruvian Amazon: a mixed-methods study on caregivers' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia; Correa, Malena; Mayta Malpartida, Holger; Ramal Asayag, Cesar; Seminario, Juan R; Gilman, Robert H; Murphy, Laura; Oberhelman, Richard A; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A

    2018-03-01

    Delays in receiving adequate care for children suffering from pneumonia can be life threatening and have been described associated with parents' limited education and their difficulties in recognizing the severity of the illness. The "three delays" was a model originally proposed to describe the most common determinants of maternal mortality, but has been adapted to describe delays in the health seeking process for caregivers of children under five. This study aims to explore the caregivers' perceived barriers for seeking and receiving health care services in children under five years old admitted to a referral hospital for community-acquired pneumonia in the Peruvian Amazon Region using the three-delays model framework. There were two parts to this mixed-method, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. First, medical charts of 61 children (1 to 60 months old) admitted for pneumonia were reviewed, and clinical characteristics were noted. Second, to examine health care-seeking decisions and actions, as well as associated delays in the process of obtaining health care services, we interviewed 10 of the children's caregivers. Half of the children in our study were 9 months old or less. Main reasons for seeking care at the hospital were cough (93%) and fever (92%). Difficulty breathing and fast breathing were also reported in more than 60% of cases. In the interviews, caregivers reported delays of 1 to 14 days to go to the closest health facility. Factors perceived as causes for delays in deciding to seek care were apparent lack of skills to recognize signs and symptoms and of confidence in the health system, and practicing self-medication. No delays in reaching a health facility were reported. Once the caregivers reached a health facility, they perceived lack of competence of medical staff and inadequate treatment provided by the primary care physicians. According to caregivers, the main delays to get health care services for pneumonia among young children were

  1. Predictors of early mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected children receiving high active antiretroviral treatment in public hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebissa, Getachew; Deyessa, Negusse; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2015-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the breakthrough in care and treatment of people living with HIV, leading to a reduction in mortality and an improvement in the quality of life. Without antiretroviral treatment, most HIV-infected children die before their fifth birthday. So the objective of this study is to determine the mortality and associated factors in a cohort of HIV-infected children receiving ART in Ethiopia. A multicentre facility-based retrospective cohort study was done in selected pediatric ART units in hospitals found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The probability of survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression models was conducted to determine the independent predictor of survival. A total of 556 children were included in this study. Of the total children, 10.4% were died in the overall cohort. More deaths (70%) occurred in the first 6 months of ART initiation, and the remaining others were still on follow-up at different hospitals. Underweight (moderate and severe; HR: 10.10; 95% CI: 2.08, 28.00; P = 0.004; and HR: 46.69; 95% CI: 9.26, 200.45; P ART adherence (HR: 11.72; 95% CI: 1.60, 48.44; P = 0.015), and hemoglobin level less than 7 g/dl (HR: 4.08: 95% CI: 1.33, 12.56; P = 0.014) were confirmed as significant independent predictors of death after controlling for other factors. Underweight, advanced disease stage, poor adherence to ART, and anemia appear to be independent predictor of survival in HIV-infected children receiving HAART at the pediatric units of public hospitals in Ethiopia. Nutritional supplementations, early initiation of HAART, close supervision, and monitoring of patients during the first 6 months, the follow up period is recommended.

  2. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1-5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1-5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need.

  3. A Randomized, Double-Blind Study Assessing Changes in Cognitive Function in Indian School Children Receiving a Combination of Bacopa monnieri and Micronutrient Supplementation vs. Placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tora Mitra-Ganguli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a chronic cognitive enhancing effect of Bacopa monnieri across different ages and cognitive impairment associated with vitamin and mineral deficiencies in children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 4-month supplementation with a combination of B. monnieri extract and multiple micronutrients on cognitive functions in Indian school children aged 7–12 years. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, single-center study in which 300 children were randomized to receive a beverage either fortified with B. monnieri and multiple micronutrients (“fortified” or a non-fortified isocaloric equivalent (“control” twice-daily for 4 months. Cognitive function was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery (CANTAB administered at baseline, Day 60 and Day 121. The primary endpoint was change in short-term memory (working memory from baseline in subjects receiving “fortified” vs. “control” beverages after 4 months. Secondary endpoints included sustained attention, episodic memory, and executive function. The “fortified” beverage did not significantly improve short-term memory or any of the secondary outcomes tested relative to the “control” beverage. However, the spatial working memory “strategy” score showed significant improvement on Day 60 (difference between groups in change from baseline: −0.55; p < 0.05, but not on Day 121 due to the active intervention. Study products were well-tolerated. Reasons for these unexpected findings are discussed.

  4. A Follow-Up Study from a Multisite, Randomized Controlled Trial for Traumatized Children Receiving TF-CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tine K; Holt, Tonje; Ormhaug, Silje M

    2017-11-01

    Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is the treatment of choice for traumatized youth, however, follow-up studies are scarce, and treatment effects for co-occurring depression show mixed findings. The aims of this study were to examine whether treatment effects of TF-CBT are maintained at 18 month follow-up and whether degree of co-occurring depression influences treatment effects. As rapid improvement in psychological functioning is warranted for youth, we also investigated whether the symptom trajectory was different for TF-CBT compared to therapy as usual (TAU). The sample consisted of 156 youth (M age = 15.05, 79.50% girls) randomly assigned to TF-CBT or TAU. The youth were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, anxiety and general mental health symptoms. Mixed effects analyses followed the symptom courses over 5 time points. Youth receiving TF-CBT maintained their symptom improvement at 18 months follow-up with scores below clinical cut-of on all symptom measures. The most depressed youth had also a significant decline in symptoms that were maintained at follow-up. Symptom trajectories differed as the TF-CBT group reported a more rapid symptom reduction compared to the TAU condition. In the TAU condition, participants received 1.5 times the number of treatment sessions compared to the TF-CBT participants. After 18 months the groups were significantly different on general mental health symptoms only. In conclusion, youth receiving TF-CBT experienced more efficient improvement in trauma related symptoms than youth receiving TAU and these improvements were maintained after 18 months. Also youth experiencing serious co-occurring depression benefitted from TF-CBT.

  5. Effects of ambient air pollution from municipal solid waste landfill on children's non-specific immunity and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunjiang; Yu, Ziling; Sun, Peng; Lin, Bigui; Li, Liangzhong; Wang, Zhengdong; Ma, Ruixue; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Guo, Shu

    2018-05-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the association between air pollutant (AP) and respiratory health of 951 children residing near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Northern China. Results showed that students in non-exposure areas had significantly higher levels of lysozyme, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), and better lung capacity than students in exposure areas (p landfill sites were more likely to have deficient non-specific immunity and impaired lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Zeni Drubi; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Leite, Maria Efigênia de Queiroz; Kiya, Márcia Miyuki; Amorim, Tatiana; Fonseca, Silvana Fahel da

    2015-01-01

    To study breastfeeding history (BF) and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SS and SC hemoglobinopathies aged between 2 and 6 years old receiving regular follow-up at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS) between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and sex. The average (SD) age was 3.7 (1.1) years, 52.9% were boys and 53.5% had SS hemoglobinopathy. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBR) up to six months of age was 31.5%, the median EBR times (p25-p75) was 90.0 (24.0-180.0) days and the median weaning ages (p25-p75) was 360.0 (90.0-20.0) days respectively. Normal W/H children experienced EBR for an average duration almost four times longer than malnourished children (p=0.01), and were weaned later (p<0.05). Height deficit was found in 5.0% of children, while all the children with severe short stature had SS hemoglobinopathy and were over 4 years of age. EBR time and weaning age were greater than found in the literature, which is a possible effect of the multidisciplinary follow-up. Duration of EBR and later weaning were associated with improved anthropometric indicators. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of oral mucositis in children receiving cancer therapy: a systematic review and evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutob, Akram F; Gue, Sumant; Revesz, Tamas; Logan, Richard M; Keefe, Dorothy

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review investigated, critically appraised, and rated the evidence on agents used to prevent oral mucositis in children. A comprehensive search of the relevant literature was performed up to December 2011. Articles were included according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critically appraised for validation and quality assessment using a checklist consisting of 18 categories. Each article was then rated for its strength of evidence. 16,471 articles were retrieved from 19 different databases and then reduced to 27 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. Five articles on oral care protocols supported their use to prevent oral mucositis in children. Seven articles on chlorhexidine mouthwash and three on laser therapy had conflicting evidence of its use. The preventative agents that were supported by one or two articles included: benzydamine mouthwash, iseganan mouthwash, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwash, oral/enteral glutamine, oral propantheline and cryotherapy, oral cryotherapy, oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and chewing gum. The reduction in the rates of occurrence of oral mucositis when using agents of fair (B) to good (A) evidence ranged from 22% to 52%. In conclusion, this review suggests the use of oral care protocols to prevent oral mucositis in children because of their strength of evidence (fair to good). The authors suggest avoiding agents with fair to good evidence against their use (oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and GM-CSF mouthwash). Agents with conflicting evidence (chlorhexidine mouthwash (used solely), laser therapy, and glutamine) should also be avoided until further research confirms their efficacy. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor outcome differences between two groups of children with spastic diplegia who received different intensities of early onset physiotherapy followed for 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Toyoko; Pidcock, Frank S; Hayakawa, Katumi; Yamori, Yuriko; Shikata, Yuko

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the clinical effectiveness of early onset long-term intensive physiotherapy on motor development in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The study was a non-randomized cohort study with 62 months (mean) follow-up. The participants were ten infants who were first examined before 3 months of age corrected for prematurity. All had a gestational age of less than 33 weeks and a birth weight of less than 2000 g. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed periventricular white matter injury in nine subjects and moderate grade bilateral porencephaly in one. Five completed a full course of training of 52 months (mean), two did not receive therapy, and three received an insufficient course of therapy. The study was conducted at the Regional Center for Children with Disabilities including outpatient clinics and a school for children with special needs. The Vojta Method was used, which is an extensive family oriented physiotherapy program which uses isometric strengthening of muscles with tactile stimulation. Subjects were evaluated for the highest motor developmental level at the outcome evaluation 59 months (mean) after initiation of therapy. Four of the five who completed training could either stand still for 5 s or walk at the time of the outcome evaluation 52 months after the beginning of the therapy program. None of the five subjects with no training or insufficient training could accomplish this task when evaluated 64 months following therapy initiation. This was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0278). A consistently applied physiotherapy program resulted in better motor outcomes in this group of children at risk for developing spastic diplegic CP.

  9. Increased Risk of Autism Development in Children Whose Mothers Experienced Birth Complications or Received Labor and Delivery Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Smallwood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a perplexing and pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social difficulties, communicative deficits, and repetitive behavior. The increased rate of ASD diagnosis has raised questions concerning the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of this disorder; meanwhile, the cause of ASD remains unknown. This study surveyed mothers of ASD and non-ASD children to determine possible effects of labor and delivery (L&D drugs on the development of ASD. The survey was administered to mothers; however, the results were analyzed by child, as the study focused on the development of autism. Furthermore, an independent ASD dataset from the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center was analyzed and compared. Indeed, L&D drugs are associated with ASD (p = .039. Moreover, the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center dataset shows that the labor induction drug, Pitocin, is significantly associated with ASD (p = .004. We also observed a synergistic effect between administrations of L&D drugs and experiencing a birth complication, in which both obstetrics factors occurring together increased the likelihood of the fetus developing ASD later in life (p = .0003. The present study shows the possible effects of L&D drugs, such as Pitocin labor-inducing and analgesic drugs, on children and ASD.

  10. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  11. Growth, immune and viral responses in HIV infected African children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagenda Danstan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scale up of paediatric antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings continues despite limited access to routine laboratory monitoring. We documented the weight and height responses in HIV infected Ugandan children on highly active antiretroviral therapy and determined clinical factors associated with successful treatment outcomes. Methods A prospective cohort of HIV infected children were initiated on HAART and followed for 48 weeks. Body mass index for age z scores(BAZ, weight and height-for-age z scores (WAZ & HAZ were calculated: CD4 cell % and HIV-1 RNA were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks. Treatment outcomes were classified according to; both virological and immunological success (VS/IS, virological failure and immunological success (VF/IS. virological success and immunological failure (VS/IF and both virological and immunological failure (VF/IF. Results From March 2004 until May 2006, 124 HIV infected children were initiated on HAART. The median age (IQR was 5.0 years (2.1 - 7.0 and 49% (61/124 were female. The median [95% confidence interval (CI] BAZ, WAZ and HAZ at baseline were 0.29 (-2.9, -1.2, -1.2 (-2.1, -0.5 and -2.06 (-2.9, -1.2 respectively. Baseline median CD4 cell % and log10 HIV-1 RNA were; 11.8% (7.5-18.0 and 5.6 (5.2-5.8 copies/ml. By 48 weeks, mean WAZ and HAZ in the VF/IS group, which was younger, increased from - 0.98 (SD 1.7 to + 1.22 (SD 1.2 and from -1.99 (1.7 to + 0.76 (2.4 respectively. Mean increase in WAZ and HAZ in the VS/IF group, an older group was modest, from -1.84 (1.3 to - 0.41 (1.2 and -2.25 (1.2 to -1.16 (1.3 respectively. Baseline CD4 cell % [OR 6.97 95% CI (2.6 -18.6], age [OR 4.6 95% CI (1.14 -19.1] and WHO clinical stage [OR 3.5 95%CI (1.05 -12.7] were associated with successful treatment outcome. Conclusions HIV infected Ugandan children demonstrated a robust increase in height and weight z scores during the first 48 weeks of HAART, including those who failed to

  12. Nutrients and sediment in frozen-ground runoff from no-till fields receiving liquid-dairy and solid-beef manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiskey, Matthew J.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Frame, Dennis R.; Madison, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and sediment in surface runoff from frozen agricultural fields were monitored within three small (16.0 ha [39.5 ac] or less), adjacent basins at a no-till farm in southwest Wisconsin during four winters from 2003 to 2004 through 2006 to 2007. Runoff depths and flow-weighted constituent concentrations were compared to determine the impacts of surface-applied liquid-dairy or solid-beef manure to frozen and/or snow-covered ground. Despite varying the manure type and the rate and timing of applications, runoff depths were not significantly different among basins within each winter period. Sediment losses were low (generally less than 22 kg ha−1 [20 lb ac−1] in any year) and any statistical differences in sediment concentrations among basins were not related to the presence or absence of manure or the amount of runoff. Concentrations and losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were significantly increased in basins that had either manure type applied less than one week preceding runoff. These increases occurred despite relatively low application rates. Lower concentrations and losses were measured in basins that had manure applied in fall and early winter and an extended period of time (months) had elapsed before the first runoff event. The highest mean, flow-weighted concentrations of total nitrogen (31.8 mg L−1) and total phosphorus (10.9 mg L−1) occurred in winter 2003 to 2004, when liquid-dairy manure was applied less than one week before runoff. On average, dissolved phosphorus accounted for over 80% of all phosphorus measured in runoff during frozen-ground periods. The data collected as part of this study add to the limited information on the quantity and quality of frozen-ground runoff at field edges, and the results highlight the importance of manure management decisions during frozen-ground periods to minimize nutrients lost in surface runoff.

  13. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikx Frans HM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were recruited consecutively at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH HIV clinic from October 2004 to September 2005. Investigations included; interviews, physical examinations, HIV testing and enumeration of CD4+ T cells. Results A total of 237 HIV-associated oral lesions were observed in 210 (39.5% patients. Oral candidiasis was the commonest (23.5%, followed by mucosal hyperpigmentation (4.7%. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (χ2 = 4.31; df = 1; p = 0.03 and parotid enlargement (χ2 = 36.5; df = 1; p = 0.04 between children and adults. Adult patients who were on HAART had a significantly lower risk of; oral lesions (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22 – 0.47; p = 0.005, oral candidiasis (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.18 – 0.44; p = 0.003 and oral hairy leukoplakia (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.85; p = 0.03. There was no significant reduction in occurrence of oral lesions in children on HAART (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.11–1.14; p = 0.15. There was also a significant association between the presence of oral lesions and CD4+ cell count 3 (χ2 = 52.4; df = 2; p = 0.006 and with WHO clinical stage (χ2 = 121; df = 3; p = 0.008. Oral lesions were also associated with tobacco smoking (χ2 = 8.17; df = 2; p = 0.04. Conclusion Adult patients receiving HAART had a significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. There was no significant change in occurrence of oral lesions in children

  14. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Two Thermal Energy Storage Tank Design Concepts for Use with a Solid Particle Receiver-Based Solar Power Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman El-Leathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an extensive study of two thermal energy storage (TES systems. The goal of the research is to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of electricity. A small-scale TES system was first built. The inner to outer layers were made of firebrick (FB, autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC and reinforced concrete brick (CB. The experiments were conducted at temperatures of up to 1000 °C for sustained periods of time. AAC was found to be prone to cracking at temperatures exceeding 900 °C; as a result, AAC was eliminated from the second TES system. The second, larger-scale TES system was subsequently built of multiple layers of readily available materials, namely, insulating firebrick (IFB, perlite concrete (PC, expansion joint (EJ, and CB. All of the surfaces were instrumented with thermocouples to estimate the heat loss from the system. The temperature was maintained at approximately 800 °C to approximate steady state conditions closely. The steady state heat loss was determined to be approximately 4.4% for a day. The results indicate that high-temperature TES systems can be constructed of readily available materials while meeting the heat loss requirements for a falling particle receiver system, thereby contributing to reducing the overall cost of concentrating solar power systems.

  15. Comparison of long-term outcomes between children with aplastic anemia and refractory cytopenia of childhood who received immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Ito, Masafumi; Narita, Atsushi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Etsuro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization classification proposed a new entity in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, refractory cytopenia of childhood. However, it is unclear whether this morphological classification reflects clinical outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed bone marrow morphology in 186 children (median age 8 years; range 1-16 years) who were enrolled in the prospective study and received horse antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine between July 1999 and November 2008. The median follow-up period was 87 months (range 1-146 months). Out of 186 patients, 62 (33%) were classified with aplastic anemia, 94 (49%) with refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 34 (18%) with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia. Aplastic anemia patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor more frequently and for longer durations than other patients (Paplastic anemia, 4 patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 3 patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia. Although the cumulative incidence of total clonal evolution at ten years was not significantly different among the 3 groups, the cumulative incidence of monosomy 7 development was significantly higher in aplastic anemia than in the other groups (P=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed that only granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration duration of 40 days or more was a significant risk factor for monosomy 7 development (P=0.02). These findings suggest that even the introduction of a strict morphological distinction from hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome cannot eradicate clonal evolution in children with aplastic anemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  16. Heart rate, salivary α-amylase activity, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Menexes, George; Coolidge, Trilby; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Psychosomatic indicators, such as heart rate (HR), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity, and behavior, can be used to determine stress. This study's aim was to assess the pattern of changes of salivary alpha amylase, heart rate, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental treatment under local anesthesia. Included were 30 children with no prior dental experience who needed 4 or more sessions of dental treatment involving local anesthesia. In each session, sAA, HR, and behavior were assessed before and during the application of local anesthesia and at the end of the treatment. The highest sAA value was always observed at the end of each session; overall, the value was lower in the fourth session. HR always increased during the local anesthesia, and did not vary across sessions. No significant relationship was found between child cooperation and either sAA or HR. In this sample, child cooperation may not be an accurate indicator of stress. Based on salivary alpha amylase activity changes, dental treatment involving local anesthesia in naïve children appeared to be less stressful after 3 sessions.

  17. Primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine in Costa Rican children who had received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idis Faingezicht

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine has been developed following recommendations of the World Health Organization for the introduction of hepatitis B (HB and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into routine childhood vaccination programs. The objectives of this study were to: 1 analyze the immunogenicity and the reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination in a group of children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth and 2 in the second year of life to assess the antibody persistence as well as the response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster. Methods. In the first part of the study (primary-vaccination stage, conducted in 1998-1999, we analyzed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in 207 Costa Rican children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth. Later, in the booster-vaccination stage of the study, in 1999-2000, in a subset of the children (69 toddlers, now 15-18 months old, antibody persistence was measured, and response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster was also assessed. Results. In both primary-vaccination groups, at least 97.5% of the infants reached protective levels of antibodies (seropositivity against the antigens employed in the vaccines. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine did not result in more local reactions than did the DTPw-HB vaccine alone, and, in terms of general reactions, there was no clinically significant difference between the combination or separate injections, and with the pentavalent vaccine having the benefit of needing one less injection. Nine months after the third dose of the primary-vaccination course, antibody persistence was similar in both groups, with over 93% of children still having

  18. Levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM Receiving Vitamin D3 Supplementation

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    Tjahyo Suryanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM has become a health problem in many countries. T1DM is the consequence of autoimmune destruction process of β cells. There was relationship between vitamin D deficiency with T1DM. The destruction process was caused by an imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. One of the pro-inflammatory cytokines is IL-2. C-peptide examination to see the function of beta cells due to destruction of pancreatic beta cell. Administration of vitamin D3 supplementation still cause controversy and give varying results. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in people with T1DM who received vitamin D3 supplementation. The subjects were 26 children with T1DM, divided into K1 group (received vitamin D3 supplementation and K2 group (received placebo. The results showed higher levels of 25(OHD3 in the K1 group and statistically found a significant difference (p = 0.00. Higher levels of IL-2 and lower C-peptide were obtained in the K1 group and no statistically significant differences were found (p = 0.76 and p= 0.26. The insignificant relationship and the negative correlation were found between 25(OHD3 and IL-2 (p = 0.71; r = - 0.12, 25(OHD3 and C-peptide (p = 0.59; r = -0.16, also levels of IL-2 and C-peptide (p = 0.13; r = -0.44 in children with type 1 diabetes who received vitamin D3 supplementation. From this study can be concluded that administration vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with T1DM can increase levels 25(OHD3 significantly. This increase has not significantly lowered levels of IL-2 and increased levels of C-peptide. However, there was an absolute decrease in the rate of slower C-peptide in the supplemented group than in the placebo group.

  19. The impact of prophylactic fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate on the incidence of central nervous system thrombosis and hemorrhage in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Lesleigh S; Deevska, Mariana; Fernandez, Conrad V; Dix, David; Price, Victoria E; Wang, Hao; Parker, Louise; Yhap, Margaret; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Barnard, Dorothy R; Berman, Jason N

    2009-12-10

    Asparaginase (ASP) therapy is associated with depletion of antithrombin (AT) and fibrinogen (FG). Potential toxicities include central nervous system thrombosis (CNST) and hemorrhage. Historical practice at the Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre (IWK) involves measuring AT and FG levels after ASP administration and transfusing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate (CRY) to prevent thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. To determine whether this reduced these complications in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), incidence, outcome, and clinical characteristics of ASP-related CNST in ALL patients at IWK were compared with a similar cohort from BC Children's Hospital (BCCH), where prophylaxis was not performed. Costs associated with preventative versus expectant management were estimated. From 1990 to 2005, 240 patients were treated at IWK and 479 at BCCH. Seven BCCH patients developed venous CNST (1.5%), compared with none at IWK. CNST occurred exclusively during induction. Six patients received anticoagulation and continued ASP. All 7 patients remain in remission. National Cancer Institute high-risk ALL predicted CNST risk (P = .02), whereas sex, age, race, and body mass index did not. Neither FFP nor CRY protected against CNST, suggesting prophylaxis is unwarranted for unselected ALL patients. However, prophylactic replacement for HR patients in induction may be cost-effective.

  20. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  1. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjut Jansson B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta Spjut Jansson,1–3 Carmela Miniscalco,1,4 Joakim Westerlund,1,5 Anne-Katrin Kantzer,1,6 Elisabeth Fernell,1 Christopher Gillberg1 1Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Habilitation, 3Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 4Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Organization, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular and only home-based (IL Modified and eclectic interventions.Results: There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion: The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preschool children, early intervention, ABA, cognitive function, follow-up

  2. A Comparative Evaluation of Normal Tissue Doses for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma on the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and Recent Children's Oncology Group Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Rachel; Ng, Angela; Constine, Louis S.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Friedman, Debra L.; Kelly, Kara; FitzGerald, Thomas J.; Hodgson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are recognized to have an increased risk of delayed adverse health outcomes related to radiation therapy (RT). However, the necessary latency required to observe these late effects means that the estimated risks apply to outdated treatments. We sought to compare the normal tissue dose received by children treated for HL and enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) (diagnosed 1970-1986) with that of patients treated in recent Children's Oncology Group (COG) trials (enrolled 2002-2012). Methods and Materials: RT planning data were obtained for 50 HL survivors randomly sampled from the CCSS cohort and applied to computed tomography planning data sets to reconstruct the normal tissue dosimetry. For comparison, the normal tissue dosimetry data were obtained for all 191 patients with full computed tomography–based volumetric RT planning on COG protocols AHOD0031 and AHOD0831. Results: For early-stage patients, the mean female breast dose in the COG patients was on average 83.5% lower than that for CCSS patients, with an absolute reduction of 15.5 Gy. For advanced-stage patients, the mean breast dose was decreased on average by 70% (11.6 Gy average absolute dose reduction). The mean heart dose decreased on average by 22.9 Gy (68.6%) and 17.6 Gy (56.8%) for early- and advanced-stage patients, respectively. All dose comparisons for breast, heart, lung, and thyroid were significantly lower for patients in the COG trials than for the CCSS participants. Reductions in the prescribed dose were a major contributor to these dose reductions. Conclusions: These are the first data quantifying the significant reduction in the normal tissue dose using actual, rather than hypothetical, treatment plans for children with HL. These findings provide useful information when counseling families regarding the risks of contemporary RT.

  3. Evaluation of the Slope of Amplitude Growth Function Changes of the Electrically Evoked Action Potential in Three Months after Receiving the Device in Children with Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Pourjavid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In neural response telemetry, intracochlear electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve and record the neural responses. The electrical stimulation is sent to the auditory nerve by an electrode and the resulted response, called electrically evoked compound action potential, is recorded by an adjacent electrode. The most important clinical applications of this test are evaluation and monitoring the intra and postoperative responses of auditory nerve and help to primary setting of speech processor. The aim of this study was evaluating the potential's slope of amplitude growth function changes three monthes after receiving the devise in pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Materials & Methods: This longitudinal study evaluated the potentials' slope of amplitude growth function changes in four given electrodes in four sessions after receiving the devise by approximately one month's intervals in all of the children who implanted in Amir Alam and Hazrat-e-Rasoul hospitals in 2007, July to December. Friedman test was used to analyse the results. Results: Electrically evoked compound action potential's mean slope of each electrode was more in later sessions relative to first session, while there was significant difference between the 1st and the other electrodes’ responses in every session (P<0.05. Conclusion: The reliabiliy of the responses results in more assurance of clinician to fit the speech processor for along time. Better responses in apical electrodes may lead to develope an effective coding strategy.

  4. Nominal group technique-elicited barriers and facilitators to following the Dietary Guidelines for solid fats and added sugars in children: The HEALTH Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US population has a high intake of discretionary solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) which currently exceeds federal dietary recommendations. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to following the DGA. Thirty-eight 5th grade children across six Human Nutrition Resear...

  5. Pattern of malignant solid tumors and lymphomas in children in the east delta of Egypt: A five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesham, Mervat; Atfy, Mervat; Hassan, Tamer; Abdo, Mohamed; Morsy, Saed; El Malky, Mohamed; Latif, Dalia Abdel

    2014-11-01

    Worldwide, the incidence and mortality rates of childhood cancers differ. The study of incidence patterns and survival rates in childhood malignancies is important in aiding in the planning of treatment centers and in obtaining further information with regard to the etiology. Few studies have investigated the survival in cases of childhood solid tumors in Egypt. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the patterns, frequency and outcome of solid tumors and lymphomas in children admitted to and followed up at the Pediatric Oncology Department of Zagazig University Hospital (Zagazig, Egypt) over a duration of 5 years (January 2004 to December 2008). A retrospective study was conducted, which included 155 children with solid tumors and lymphomas. The medical records were reviewed and the relevant data collected, in particular, those concerning demographic, clinical, histopathological, laboratory and imaging data as well as the treatment plans and outcomes. The mean age of patients was 5.6±3.04 years at diagnosis. The patients comprised 94 males and 61 females. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was the most common tumor type, followed by neuroblastoma (31.0 and 29.0%, respectively). When patients were stratified in terms of age (<5, ≥5 but <10, and ≥10 years), the <5-years-of-age group exhibited the greatest number of patients. Fever, pallor and pain were the most frequent initial clinical presentations among the patients and stage II was the most common stage (39.1%) followed by stage IV, III and I (35.0, 20.3 and 5.6% respectively). The overall 5-year survival rate in the study group was 66.7%. The survival rate was significantly higher in patients with Wilm's tumor and Hodgkin lymphoma, followed by NHL (92.0, 88.0 and 72.0%, respectively; P<0.001), while the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with neuroblastoma (P<0.001). In conclusion, NHL and neuroblastoma were the most common tumors; the survival rates were higher in patients with Wilm's tumor

  6. How do professionals assess the quality of life of children with advanced cancer receiving palliative care, and what are their recommendations for improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoine-Blondin, Josianne; Parent, Véronique; Fasse, Léonor; Lopez, Clémentine; Humbert, Nago; Duval, Michel; Sultan, Serge

    2018-05-08

    It is known that information regarding the quality of life of a patient is central to pediatric palliative care. This information allows professionals to adapt the care and support provided to children and their families. Previous studies have documented the major areas to be investigated in order to assess the quality of life, although it is not yet known what operational criteria or piece of information should be used in the context of pediatric palliative care. The present study aims to: 1) Identify signs of quality of life and evaluation methods currently used by professionals to assess the quality of life of children with cancer receiving palliative care. 2) Collect recommendations from professionals to improve the evaluation of quality of life in this context. We selected a qualitative research design and applied an inductive thematic content analysis to the verbal material. Participants included 20 members of the Department of Hematology-Oncology at CHU Sainte-Justine from various professions (e.g. physicians, nurses, psychosocial staff) who had cared for at least one child with cancer receiving palliative care in the last year. Professionals did not have access to pre-established criteria or to a defined procedure to assess the quality of life of children they followed in the context of PPC. They reported basing their assessment on the child's non-verbal cues, relational availability and elements of his/her environment. These cues are typically collected through observation, interpretation and by asking the child, his/her parents, and other members of the care. To improve the assessment of quality of life professionals recommended optimizing interdisciplinary communication, involving the child and the family in the evaluation process, increasing training to palliative care in hematology/oncology, and developing formalized measurement tools. The formulation of explicit criteria to assess the quality of life in this context, along with detailed

  7. Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to identify top dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among 2- to 18-year-olds in the United States. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study, were used to examine food sources (percentage contribution and mean intake with standard errors) of total energy (data from 2005-2006) and energy from solid fats and added sugars (data from 2003-2004). Differences were investigated by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family income, and the consumption of empty calories-defined as the sum of energy from solid fats and added sugars-was compared with the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance. The top sources of energy for 2- to 18-year-olds were grain desserts (138 kcal/day), pizza (136 kcal/day), and soda (118 kcal/day). Sugar-sweetened beverages (soda and fruit drinks combined) provided 173 kcal/day. Major contributors varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income. Nearly 40% of total energy consumed (798 of 2,027 kcal/day) by 2- to 18-year-olds were in the form of empty calories (433 kcal from solid fat and 365 kcal from added sugars). Consumption of empty calories far exceeded the corresponding discretionary calorie allowance for all sex-age groups (which range from 8% to 20%). Half of empty calories came from six foods: soda, fruit drinks, dairy desserts, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. There is an overlap between the major sources of energy and empty calories: soda, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk. The landscape of choices available to children and adolescents must change to provide fewer unhealthy foods and more healthy foods with less energy. Identifying top sources of energy and empty calories can provide targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment. However, product reformulation alone is not sufficient-the flow of empty calories into the food supply must be reduced.

  8. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for detection of skeletal metastases in children and young people with primary solid tumors - systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, A.M.; Deurloo, E.E.; Slager, T.J.E.; Stoker, J.; Bipat, S. [Academic Medical Center (AMC), Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2018-02-15

    Many solid neoplasms have a propensity for osteomedullary metastases of which detection is important for staging and subsequent treatment. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has been shown to accurately detect osteomedullary metastases in adults, but these findings cannot be unconditionally extrapolated to staging of children with malignant solid tumors. To conduct a literature review on the sensitivity of WB-MRI for detecting skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors. Searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to 15 May 2017 were performed to identify studies on the diagnostic value of WB-MRI. Inclusion criteria were children and adolescents (age <21 years) with a primary solid tumor who were evaluated for skeletal metastases by WB-MRI and compared to any type of reference standard. The number of included patients had to be at least five and data on true positives, true negatives, false-positives and false-negatives had to be extractable. Five studies including 132 patients (96 patients with solid tumors) were eligible. Patient groups and used reference tests were heterogeneous, producing unclear or high risk of bias. Sensitivity of WB-MRI ranged between 82% and 100%. The positive predictive value of WB-MRI was variable among the studies and influenced by the used reference standard. Although WB-MRI may seem a promising radiation-free technique for the detection of skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors, published studies are small and too heterogeneous to provide conclusive evidence that WB-MRI can be an alternative to currently used imaging techniques. (orig.)

  9. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for detection of skeletal metastases in children and young people with primary solid tumors - systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, A.M.; Deurloo, E.E.; Slager, T.J.E.; Stoker, J.; Bipat, S.

    2018-01-01

    Many solid neoplasms have a propensity for osteomedullary metastases of which detection is important for staging and subsequent treatment. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has been shown to accurately detect osteomedullary metastases in adults, but these findings cannot be unconditionally extrapolated to staging of children with malignant solid tumors. To conduct a literature review on the sensitivity of WB-MRI for detecting skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors. Searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to 15 May 2017 were performed to identify studies on the diagnostic value of WB-MRI. Inclusion criteria were children and adolescents (age <21 years) with a primary solid tumor who were evaluated for skeletal metastases by WB-MRI and compared to any type of reference standard. The number of included patients had to be at least five and data on true positives, true negatives, false-positives and false-negatives had to be extractable. Five studies including 132 patients (96 patients with solid tumors) were eligible. Patient groups and used reference tests were heterogeneous, producing unclear or high risk of bias. Sensitivity of WB-MRI ranged between 82% and 100%. The positive predictive value of WB-MRI was variable among the studies and influenced by the used reference standard. Although WB-MRI may seem a promising radiation-free technique for the detection of skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors, published studies are small and too heterogeneous to provide conclusive evidence that WB-MRI can be an alternative to currently used imaging techniques. (orig.)

  10. Outcome for children with metastatic solid tumors over the last four decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Perkins

    Full Text Available Outcomes for pediatric solid tumors have significantly improved over the last 30 years. However, much of this improvement is due to improved outcome for patients with localized disease. Here we evaluate overall survival (OS for pediatric patients with metastatic disease over the last 40 years.The United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database was used to conduct this study. Patients diagnosed between 0 and 18 years of age with metastatic Ewings sarcoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma or Wilms tumor were included in the analysis.3,009 patients diagnosed between 1973-2010 met inclusion criteria for analysis. OS at 10 years for patients diagnosed between 1973-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2010 was 28.3%, 37.2%, 44.7% and 49.3%, respectively (p<0.001. For patients diagnosed between 2000-2010, 10-year OS for patients with Ewing sarcoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Wilms tumor was 30.6%, 54.4%, 29.3%, 27.5%, and 76.6%, respectively, as compared to 13.8%, 25.1%, 13.6%, 17.9% and 57.1%, respectively, for patients diagnosed between 1973-1979. OS for neuroblastoma significantly increased with each decade. For patients with osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, there was no improvement in OS over the last two decades. There was no improvement in outcome for patients with rhabdomyosarcoma or Wilms tumor over the last 30 years.OS for pediatric patients with metastatic solid tumors has significantly improved since the 1970s. However, outcome has changed little for some malignancies in the last 20-30 years. These data underscore the importance of continued collaboration and studies to improve outcome for these patients.

  11. Feasibility of Cancer Immunotherapy with WT1 Peptide Vaccination for Solid and Hematological Malignancies in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihisa; Inoue, Masami; Kondo, Osamu; Yamada-Nakata, Kayo; Ishihara, Takashi; Kuwae, Yuko; Nishikawa, Masanori; Ammori, Yasuhiro; Tsuboi, Akihiro; Oji, Yusuke; Koyama-Sato, Maho; Oka, Yoshihiro; Yasui, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Haruo; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-02-01

    Advances in cancer immunotherapy in the pediatric field are needed in order to improve the prognosis of children with malignancies. We conducted a prospective phase I/II study of WT1 peptide vaccination for children with relapsed or refractory malignancies. The main eligibility criteria were affected tissues or leukemic cells expressing the WT1 gene, and patients (and donors for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) having HLA-A*24:02. Vaccination using the WT1 peptide (CYTWNQMNL), which was modified for higher affinity to this HLA-type molecule with the adjuvant Montanide ISA51, was performed weekly 12 times. Twenty-six patients were enrolled and 13 (50.0%) completed the vaccination 12 times. Evidence for the induction of WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses without severe systemic side effects was obtained. Two out of 12 patients with bulky disease exhibited a transient clinical effect (one mixed response and one stable disease), three out of six patients with minimal residual disease achieved transient molecular remission, and five out of eight patients without a detectable level of the molecular marker, but with a high risk of relapse, had the best outcome of long-term continuous complete remission. WT1 vaccination is a safe immunotherapy and induced WT1-specific CTL responses in children; however, as a single agent, vaccination only provided patients in remission, but with a high risk of relapse, with "long-term benefits" in the context of its use for relapse prevention. WT1 peptide-based treatments in combination with other modalities, such as anti-tumor drugs or immunomodulating agents, need to be planned. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3 genotype in children receiving HAART: an eight-year retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rocco

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes have shown to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Our objective was to confirm the association between the APOC3 genotype and plasma lipid levels in an HIV-1-infected pediatric cohort exposed to HAART. A total of 130 HIV-1-infected children/adolescents that attended a reference center in Argentina were selected for an 8-year longitudinal study with retrospective data collection. Longitudinal measurements of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed under linear or generalized linear mixed models. The contribution of the APOC3 genotype at sites -482, -455 and 3238 to plasma lipid levels prediction was tested after adjusting for potential confounders. Four major APOC3 haplotypes were observed for sites -482/-455/3238, with estimated frequencies of 0.60 (C/T/C, 0.14 (T/C/C, 0.11 (C/C/C, and 0.11 (T/C/G. The APOC3 genotype showed a significant effect only for the prediction of total cholesterol levels (p<0.0001. However, the magnitude of the differences observed was dependent on the drug combination (p = 0.0007 and the drug exposure duration at the time of the plasma lipid measurement (p = 0.0002. A lower risk of hypercholesterolemia was predicted for double and triple heterozygous individuals, mainly at the first few months after the initiation of Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. We report for the first time a significant contribution of the genotype to total cholesterol levels in a pediatric cohort under HAART. The genetic determination of APOC3 might have an impact on a large portion of HIV-1-infected children at the time of choosing the treatment regimens or on the counter-measures against the adverse effects of drugs.

  13. Higher CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses in the graft increase the incidence of acute GVHD in children receiving BMT for thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziev, J; Isgrò, A; Marziali, M; Daniele, N; Gallucci, C; Sodani, P; Simone, M D; Adorno, G; Paciaroni, K; Andreani, M; Lanti, A; Del Proposto, G; Testi, M; De Angelis, G; Roveda, A; Alfieri, C; Saltarelli, F; Lucarelli, G

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence of GVHD, risk factors and the impact of graft composition on acute GVHD (aGVHD) in 92 children who underwent BMT for thalassemia following busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BUCY)-based conditioning regimens and GVHD prophylaxis with CSA/short-MTX and methylprednisolone. The incidence of grade 2-4 and 3-4 aGVHD was 35% (95% confidence interval (CI) 25-44) and 9% (95% CI 4-16), respectively. We found that CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses above the median were associated with high incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD (49 vs 20%, P=0.005 and 46 vs 23%, P=0.021, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high CD3(+) (hazard ratio (HR) 4.6; 95% CI 1.4-14.7; P=0.010) and CD34(+) (HR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-12.7; P=0.011) cell doses were associated with grade 2-4 aGVHD. We further examined the effect of CD3(+) and CD34(+) cell doses on aGVHD using quartile cutoff points and found a minimum threshold for CD3(+) (38 × 10(6)/kg) and CD34(+) (4 × 10(6)/kg) cells above which the incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD is significantly increased. This study shows for the first time a positive correlation between the number of CD3(+) and CD34(+) cells and aGVHD in children receiving sibling BMT, and indicates that using tailored and more intensive post transplant immunosuppression may permit to better control aGVHD.

  14. Liquid versus solid energy intake in relation to body composition among Australian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M; Allman-Farinelli, M; Heitmann, B L

    2014-01-01

    intake (1 MJ day(-1) ) was more closely associated with both △BMIz8-11.5y (β = 0.23, P = 0.02) and %BF11.5y (β = 2.31%, P = 0.01) than solid energy intake (△BMIz8-11.5y: β = 0.12, P = 0.01 and %BF11.5y : β = 0.80%, P = 0.07). SSB consumption (100 g day(-1) ) was directly associated with △BMIz8-11.5y (β...... = 0.08, P = 0.02) and %BF11.5y (β = 0.92%, P = 0.004),whereas diet drinks (100 g day(-1) ) were inversely associated with △BMIz8-11.5y (β = 0.18, P = 0.02). Substitution of 100 g of SSB by 100 g of water or diet drink, but not other beverages, was inversely associated with both △BMIz8-11.5y and %BF11.......5y (P water can have long-term beneficial effects on childhood adiposity....

  15. Hepatomegaly as the first symptom of malignant solid tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Widłak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatomegaly is a physical symptom that may suggest primary liver disease, or it may be present as a component of the generalized disorder. One of uncommon reasons of hepatomegaly, which occur in children of all ages, but most common in infants and toodlers, are primary and metastatic neoplasms, such as hepatoblastoma (HB and neuroblastoma (NB. The aim of this work is to prove how significant implementation of appropriate diagnostics after detecting hepatomegaly in a child is by presenting an example of two patients’ medical history. Cases report: A 3-month-old girl and a 2-year-old boy were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Hematooncology because of the tumors, which were detected in abdominal ultasound examinations. The examinations were performed in order to find the causes of growing abdominal circumferences observed by the parents and significant hepatomegaly, which were shown in physical examination of both children. A tumor of the right adrenal gland with numerous metastatic changes in the liver was detected in the girl and a single tumor coming out most likely from the liver was revealed in the boy. Laboratory tests have shown a significant increase in the levels of tumor markers: NSE in the girl (51 μg/l and AFP (327 830 U/ml in the boy. On the basis of the performed tests’ results, the girl was suspected to have NB with liver metastases and the boy appeared to have HB with lung metastases, inferior vena cava and right hepatic vein invasion. Conclusions: Attention should be paid to palpation and percussion examination of the abdomen in order to detect hepatomegaly at the earliest possible stage. It is important to implement appropriate diagnostics after detecting the enlargement of the liver in a child, because this symptom may be a sign of developing dangerous tumor process.

  16. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas in children: a 15-year experience and the identification of a unique immunohistochemical marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Pablo; Bhatti, Tricia R; Adzick, N Scott

    2013-10-01

    To review our 15-year experience in the management of children with solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPPN) of the pancreas at a single pediatric institution, to delineate a unique immunohistochemical marker for SPPN, and to analyze cumulative data on this rare entity in the literature. We did a retrospective analysis of the demographic data, clinical presentation, immunohistochemical characteristics, surgical approach, and long-term outcomes of all patients diagnosed with SPPN between 1997 and 2012. There were 6 patients in the series, 5 females and 1 male. Median age at presentation and at surgery was 15 years (11-18 years). Abdominal pain was the presenting symptom in 5 cases and jaundice in 1 case. Two patients had a pancreatic head tumor and underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Two patients had the tumor in the pancreatic tail and underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Two patients had the tumor in the pancreatic body and underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy in one case and with preservation of the spleen in the other. All tumors were completely resected with pathologic margins free of disease. The median maximum diameter was 6.8 cm (3 to 15 cm). On immunohistochemistry the tumors exhibited different combinations of non-specific markers like chromogranin, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase, but all tumors showed the highly SPPN-specific paranuclear dot-like immunoreactivity pattern for CD99 in the solid as well as in the pseudopapillary areas. No patient had metastasis at presentation. Median follow-up was 6.5 years (6 months to 15 years). There were no recurrences, no long-term metastasis, and all patients are disease-free. Our series supports the concept that complete resection is necessary to achieve the best possible long-term results. Additionally, we demonstrate that SPPN exhibits a very unique immunostaining pattern for CD99 that is present in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An assessment of the dose received by children from CT examinations along with the quality control parameters from a conventional CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghyani, T.; Hashemi Malayeri, B.; Hashemi, H.; Sharafi, A. A.

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the UNSCEAR reported that CT constitutes 5% of all the medical x-ray examinations and it contributes 34% of the resultant collective dose worldwide. Children are more sensitive to the ionizing radiations than adults. So, routine quality control tests are expected to be carried out periodically on the CT scanners. The aim of this research was to estimate the effective doses received by the children below two years of age from routine CT examinations carried out at an educational imaging center in Tehran. It was also aimed to evaluate the quality control parameters of the mentioned CT scanner at the same time. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Computed Tomography Dose Index were measured at the central axis of the CT gantry in air and in the standard quality control phantoms of the head and body (as recommended by the FDA) using a pencil ionization chamber and LiF TLD pellets for a single scan. By using the measured Computed Tomography Dose Index values and the IrnPACT software, the effective doses were calculated for every routine CT examination protocol. In this study, the quality control parameters such as noise, CT number calibration, high and low contrast resolution and the flatness of the CT image were also evaluated. These parameters were also measured using standard procedures and test objects. Results: The effective dose estimated in this research ranged from 2.05 to 21.45 and 2.05 to 15.7 mSv for the female and male children, respectively. The measured values of the Computed Tomography Dose Index in the standard head and body phantoms were 20.6) 2.01 and 11.13 f 1.04 mGy1100 mAs, respectively. The high and low contrast resolution was estimated to be 0.8 mm and 1.0 rnm, respectively. Conclusion: The estimated values of the effective doses in this research were less than the values reported for the Netherlands, the USA, Germany and were comparable with the values reported in the UK. The measured Computed Tomography Dose Index values were 11

  18. Testing the effectiveness of in-home behavioral economics strategies to increase vegetable intake, liking, and variety among children residing in households that receive food assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Swenson, Alison; Vickers, Zata; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph P; Rendahl, Aaron; Reicks, Marla

    2015-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of behavioral economics strategies for increasing vegetable intake, variety, and liking among children residing in homes receiving food assistance. A randomized controlled trial with data collected at baseline, once weekly for 6 weeks, and at study conclusion. Family homes. Families with a child (9-12 years) will be recruited through community organizations and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 36) or control (n = 10) group. The intervention group will incorporate a new behavioral economics strategy during home dinner meal occasions each week for 6 weeks. Strategies are simple and low-cost. The primary dependent variable will be child's dinner meal vegetable consumption based on weekly reports by caregivers. Fixed independent variables will include the strategy and week of strategy implementation. Secondary dependent variables will include vegetable liking and variety of vegetables consumed based on data collected at baseline and study conclusion. Mean vegetable intake for each strategy across families will be compared using a mixed-model analysis of variance with a random effect for child. In additionally, overall mean changes in vegetable consumption, variety, and liking will be compared between intervention and control groups. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Speech and Language Outcomes in Prelingually Deaf Children, Adolescents and Young Adults Who Received Cochlear Implants in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Chad V.; Kronenberger, William G.; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated long-term speech and language outcomes in 51 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received cochlear implants (CIs) prior to 7 years of age and used their implants for at least 7 years. Average speech perception scores were similar to those found in prior research with other samples of experienced CI users. Mean language test scores were lower than norm-referenced scores from nationally representative normal-hearing, typically-developing samples, although a majority of the CI users scored within one standard deviation of the normative mean or higher on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (63%) and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (69%). Speech perception scores were negatively associated with a meningitic etiology of hearing loss, older age at implantation, poorer pre-implant unaided pure tone average thresholds, lower family income, and the use of Total Communication. Users of CIs for 15 years or more were more likely to have these characteristics and were more likely to score lower on measures of speech perception compared to users of CIs for 14 years or less. The aggregation of these risk factors in the > 15 years of CI use subgroup accounts for their lower speech perception scores and may stem from more conservative CI candidacy criteria in use at the beginning of pediatric cochlear implantation. PMID:23988907

  20. A Single-Arm Feasibility Trial of Problem-Solving Skills Training for Parents of Children with Idiopathic Chronic Pain Conditions Receiving Intensive Pain Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Fales, Jessica L; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Failo, Alessandro; Logan, Deirdre; Randall, Edin; Weiss, Karen; Durkin, Lindsay; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-05-01

    To adapt problem-solving skills training (PSST) for parents of children receiving intensive pain rehabilitation and evaluate treatment feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction. Using a prospective single-arm case series design, we evaluated the feasibility of delivering PSST to 26 parents (84.6% female) from one of three pediatric pain rehabilitation programs. Parents completed four to six sessions of PSST delivered during a 2-4-week period. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess treatment acceptability and satisfaction. We also assessed changes in parent mental health and behavior outcomes from pretreatment to immediate posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Parents demonstrated excellent treatment adherence and rated the intervention as highly acceptable and satisfactory. Preliminary analyses indicated improvements in domains of mental health, parenting behaviors, health status, and problem-solving skills. Findings demonstrate the potential role of psychological interventions directed at reducing parent distress in the context of intensive pediatric pain rehabilitation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. No evidence of chromosome damage in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma after receiving {sup 131}I radiometabolic therapy, as evaluated by micronucleus assay and microarray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, Giovanni; Fiore, Lisa; Massart, Francesco; Saggese, Giuseppe [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pisa (Italy); Boni, Giuseppe; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Mariani, Giuliano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Fabiani, Barbara; Verola, Carmela; Scarpato, Roberto [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Unit of Genetics, Mutagenesis and Environmental Epidemiology, Pisa (Italy); Traino, Claudio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Health Physics Service, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    As {sup 131}I therapy, used to achieve ablation of thyroid gland remnant, can cause chromosome damage in cultured peripheral lymphocytes especially, we investigated whether administration of radioiodine may induce early genome damage in peripheral T lymphocytes of adolescents with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We studied 11 patients, aged 14.8 {+-} 3.1 years, who assumed {sup 131}I (range: 1.11-4.44 GBq) to ablate thyroid remnant. A blood sample for micronucleus assay and for evaluating expression of some genes involved in the DNA repair or the apoptosis pathways was obtained from each patient 1 h before (T{sub 0}) and 24 (T{sub 1}) and 48 h (T{sub 2}) post-radioiodine administration. Compared to T{sub 0}, we did not find any difference in the number of micronucleated cells at both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} in any subject. Nine out of 11 patients had altered expression levels in a majority of the DNA repair and apoptosis genes at T{sub 1}, which decreased at T{sub 2}. We demonstrated for the first time that peripheral cells of DTC children and adolescents who received {sup 131}I at a mean dosage of 3.50 {+-} 0.37 GBq did not show chromosome damage within 48 h from the end of radiometabolic therapy. This may be due to a prompt activation of the cell machinery that maintains the integrity of the genome to prevent harmful double-strand breaks from progressing to chromosome mutations, either by repairing the lesions or by eliminating the most seriously damaged cells via apoptosis. (orig.)

  2. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  3. Trends in intakes and sources of solid fats and added sugars among U.S. children and adolescents: 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, M M; Popkin, B M

    2013-08-01

    There are increasing global concerns about improving the dietary intakes of children and adolescents. In the United States (U.S.), the focus is on reducing energy from foods and beverages that provide empty calories from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). We examine trends in intakes and sources of solid fat and added sugars among U.S. 2-18 year olds from 1994 to 2010. Data from five nationally representative surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals Surveys (1994-1996) and the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010) were used to examine key food sources and energy from solid fats and added sugars. Sample sizes ranged from 2594 to 8259 per survey period, for a total of 17 268 observations across the five surveys. Food files were linked over time to create comparable food groups and nutrient values. Differences were examined by age, race/ethnicity and family income. Daily intake of energy from SoFAS among U.S. 2-18 year olds decreased from 1994 to 2010, with declines primarily detected in the recent time periods. Solid fats accounted for a greater proportion of total energy intake than did added sugars. Although the consumption of solid fats and added sugars among children and adolescents in the U.S. decreased between 1994-1998 and 2009-2010, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Received, Understanding and Satisfaction of National Health Insurance Premium Subsidy Scheme by Families of Children with Disabilities: A Census Study in Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Ya-Wen; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chwo, Miao-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to provide the first data on utilization, understanding and satisfaction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) premium subsidy for families of children with disabilities in Taipei. Data from the 2001 Taipei Early Intervention Utilization and Evaluation Survey for Aged 0-6 Children with Disabilities were…

  5. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Njie-Jobe, Jainaba; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Risk factors for pneumonia in infants and young children and the role of solid fuel for cooking: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalanabis, D.; Gupta, S.; Paul, D.; Gupta, A.; Lahiri, M.; Khaled, M.A. [Society of Applied Studies, Calcutta (India)

    2002-08-01

    The paper evaluates the risk factors for childhood pneumonia with particular reference to indoor air-pollution associated with solid fuel use for cooking (e.g. coal, wood, dung), using a case-control study in a children's hospital in Calcutta. Cases were 127 children aged 2-35 months of either sex admitted with pneumonia and controls were 135 children attending their immunization clinic. Solid fuel use (odds ratio = 3.97, CI = 2.00-7.88), history of asthma in the child (OR = 5.49, CI = 2.37-12.74), poor economic status indicator (OR = 4.95, CI = 2.38 to 10.28), keeping large animals (OR = 6.03, CI = 1.13-32.27) were associated with high risk of pneumonia after adjusting for confounding (logistic regression analysis). Nearly 80% of people in India use such smoke producing fuel and the population attributable risk would be very high. This finding has important health policy implications. Furthermore, history of asthma is a useful prognostic indicator for early action for prevention of severe pneumonia.

  7. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. Methods The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of su...

  8. Solid fat and added sugar intake among U.S. children: The role of stores, schools, and fast food, 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the role of location in U.S. children's excess intake of energy from solid fat and added sugar, collectively referred to as SoFAS. The goal of this study was to compare the SoFAS content of foods consumed by children from stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants and to determine whether trends from 1994 to 2010 differ across these locations. Children aged 2-18 years (N=22,103) from five nationally representative surveys of dietary intake from 1994 to 2010 were studied. SoFAS content was compared across locations for total intake and key foods. Regression models were used to test and compare linear trends across locations. Data were analyzed in 2012. The mean percentage of total energy intake consumed from each location that was provided by SoFAS remained above recommendations, despite significant improvements between 1994 and 2010 at stores (1994, 38.3%; 2004, 33.2%); schools (1994, 38.7%; 2004, 31.2%); and fast-food restaurants (1994, 34.6%; 2004, 34.6%). For each key food, SoFAS content decreased significantly at stores and schools, yet progress at schools was comparatively slower. Milk was higher in SoFAS at schools compared to stores because of shifts toward flavored milk at schools. Schools provided french fries that were higher in solid fat than store-bought versions and pizza that was not significantly different in SoFAS content than fast-food pizza. However, schools made significantly greater progress for sugar-sweetened beverages, as lower-sugar beverages replaced regular sodas. Key fast foods showed little improvement. These findings can inform future strategies targeted to the specific locations and foods where continued progress is needed to reduce children's SoFAS consumption. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  9. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  10. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Simon, E.N.; Kikwilu, E.N.; Moshi, M.J.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW van; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results with respect to immunogenicity as well as reactogenicity of a monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccine (MonoMen) used as booster vaccination in children previously vaccinated with a hexavalent MenB vaccine. The participants in this study were immunised in 1995-1996 with

  12. Monitoring the adequacy of catch-up growth among moderately malnourished children receiving home-based therapy using mid-upper arm circumference in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year more children die from moderate than severe malnutrition. Home-based therapy (HBT) using Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) has proven to successfully treat uncomplicated childhood malnutrition on an outpatient basis. This study attempts to discern if Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ...

  13. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-08-01

    Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of surgery: clear or green nasal secretion, dry or moist cough, nasal congestion, or fever. RAE such as laryngospasm, bronchospasm, oxygen desaturation and sustained cough were collected before induction, during intubation, during extubation, after extubation and in the postanesthesia care unit. Forty-five patients had RAE. The patients with RAE were younger than those without RAE. There were more passive smokers and a greater number of intubation attempts in patients with RAE than in those without RAE. The type of surgery and type of inhalation agents were not different between patients with and without RAE. Passive smoking was the only independent risk factor for RAE. In children with an active URI using orotracheal tube and inhalation anesthetics, passive smoking is an important risk factor for RAE.

  14. Mortality risk disparities in children receiving chronic renal replacement therapy for the treatment of end-stage renal disease across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Schaefer, Franz; Bonthuis, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    HR) and the explained variation were modelled for patient-level and country-level factors with multilevel Cox regression. The primary outcome studied was all-cause mortality while on renal replacement therapy. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2013, the overall 5 year renal replacement therapy mortality rate......BACKGROUND: We explored the variation in country mortality rates in the paediatric population receiving renal replacement therapy across Europe, and estimated how much of this variation could be explained by patient-level and country-level factors. METHODS: In this registry analysis, we extracted...... patient data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry for 32 European countries. We included incident patients younger than 19 years receiving renal replacement therapy. Adjusted hazard ratios (a...

  15. Virological response and resistance among HIV-infected children receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy without virological monitoring in Uganda and Zimbabwe: Observational analyses within the randomised ARROW trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Szubert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although WHO recommends viral load (VL monitoring for those on antiretroviral therapy (ART, availability in low-income countries remains limited. We investigated long-term VL and resistance in HIV-infected children managed without real-time VL monitoring.In the ARROW factorial trial, 1,206 children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe between 15 March 2007 and 18 November 2008, aged a median 6 years old, with median CD4% of 12%, were randomised to monitoring with or without 12-weekly CD4 counts and to receive 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI, mainly abacavir+lamivudine with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI or 3 NRTIs as long-term ART. All children had VL assayed retrospectively after a median of 4 years on ART; those with >1,000 copies/ml were genotyped. Three hundred and sixteen children had VL and genotypes assayed longitudinally (at least every 24 weeks. Overall, 67 (6% switched to second-line ART and 54 (4% died. In children randomised to WHO-recommended 2NRTI+NNRTI long-term ART, 308/378 (81% monitored with CD4 counts versus 297/375 (79% without had VL <1,000 copies/ml at 4 years (difference = +2.3% [95% CI -3.4% to +8.0%]; P = 0.43, with no evidence of differences in intermediate/high-level resistance to 11 drugs. Among children with longitudinal VLs, only 5% of child-time post-week 24 was spent with persistent low-level viraemia (80-5,000 copies/ml and 10% with VL rebound ≥5,000 copies/ml. No child resuppressed <80 copies/ml after confirmed VL rebound ≥5,000 copies/ml. A median of 1.0 (IQR 0.0,1.5 additional NRTI mutation accumulated over 2 years' rebound. Nineteen out of 48 (40% VLs 1,000-5,000 copies/ml were immediately followed by resuppression <1,000 copies/ml, but only 17/155 (11% VLs ≥5,000 copies/ml resuppressed (P < 0.0001. Main study limitations are that analyses were exploratory and treatment initiation used 2006 criteria, without pre-ART genotypes.In this study, children

  16. Dynamics of Destructive Joint Changes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Children who Received Methotrexate or Methotrexate-Tocilizumab Combination: a Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Davydova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Destructive joint damages in juvenile arthritis inevitably lead to persistent disability in adulthood. These consequences can be avoided by resorting to early therapy of the disease.Objective. Our aim was to assess the dynamics of destructive joint changes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA in children, depending on a basic therapy.Methods. We studied the treatment results of children with systemic-onset JIA with active joint syndrome without active  systemic manifestations hospitalized in the regional clinical  cardiological health center. JIA activity criteria at the time of  hospitalization: 3 joints with active arthritis; the assessment of the disease activity by a doctor 3 points out of 10; the assessment of  wellbeing by the patient or a parent 3 points out of 10; the  appointment of basic therapy no later than 6 months from the  disease onset. Treatment results were compared in the groups of  methotrexate (hospitalization from January 2008 to December 2010 and methotrexate + tocilizumab (January 2014 — September 2016. The main outcome of JIA therapy was the severity of joint  destruction in 6, 12 and 24 months as determined by the modified  Sharpe ratio according to radiographs obtained from patients' medical records.Results. The study groups were comparable in terms of sex and age of the patients, JIA onset age, the disease activity at the time of  hospitalization, and the initial assessment of joint destruction —  (median 165 (131; 187 and 162 (124; 171 (p = 0.116. Under  pressure of therapy, the modified Sharpe score in the group of  methotrexate monotherapy was higher than in the group of combined therapy: in 6 months — 142 (126; 163 and 87 (72; 112 (p < 0.001; in 12 months — 166 (121; 210 and 75 (29; 89 (p <  0.001; in 24 months — 165 (113; 198 and 52 (26; 73 (p <  0.001. At the first administration of tocilizumab, 4 children had nausea and abdominal pain, and 3 children had

  17. Predictors of treatment failure and time to detection and switching in HIV-infected Ethiopian children receiving first line anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Tigist

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of resistance to first line antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen leads to the need for more expensive and less tolerable second line drugs. Hence, it is essential to identify and address factors associated with an increased probability of first line ART regimen failure. The objective of this article is to report on the predictors of first line ART regimen failure, the detection rate of ART regime failure, and the delay in switching to second line ART drugs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2005 to 2011. All HIV infected children under the age of 15 who took first line ART for at least six months at the four major hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were included. Data were collected, entered and analyzed using Epi info/ENA version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16. The Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the predictors of first line ART failure. Results Data of 1186 children were analyzed. Five hundred seventy seven (48.8% were males with a mean age of 6.22 (SD = 3.10 years. Of the 167(14.1% children who had treatment failure, 70 (5.9% had only clinical failure, 79 (6.7% had only immunologic failure, and 18 (1.5% had both clinical and immunologic failure. Patients who had height for age in the third percentile or less at initiation of ART were found to have higher probability of ART treatment failure [Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR, 3.25 95% CI, 1.00-10.58]. Patients who were less than three years old [AHR, 1.85 95% CI, 1.24-2.76], chronic diarrhea after initiation of antiretroviral treatment [AHR, 3.44 95% CI, 1.37-8.62], ART drug substitution [AHR, 1.70 95% CI, 1.05-2.73] and base line CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 [AHR, 2.30 95% CI, 1.28-4.14] were also found to be at higher risk of treatment failure. Of all the 167 first line ART failure cases, only 24 (14.4% were switched to second line ART with a mean delay of 24 (SD = 11.67 months. The remaining 143 (85.6% cases were diagnosed

  18. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  19. Does Receiving a Blood Transfusion Predict for Length of Stay in Children Undergoing Cranial Vault Remodeling for Craniosynostosis? Outcomes Using the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Michael R; Alden, Tord; Momin, Mohmed Vasim; Olsson, Alexis B; Jurado, Ray J; Abdullah, Fizan; Miloro, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Recent interventions have aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusions in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling. However, little is known regarding whether the receipt of a blood transfusion influences the length of hospital stay. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the receipt of a blood transfusion in patients undergoing cranial vault remodeling is associated with an increased length of stay. To address the research purposes, we designed a retrospective cohort study using the 2014 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP Peds) dataset. The primary predictor variable was whether patients received a blood transfusion during cranial vault remodeling. The primary outcome variable was length of hospital stay after the operation. The association between the receipt of blood transfusions and length of stay was assessed using the Student t test. The association between other covariates and the outcome variable was assessed using linear regression, analysis of variance, and the Tukey test for post hoc pair-wise comparisons. The sample was composed of 756 patients who underwent cranial vault remodeling: 503 who received blood transfusions and 253 who did not. The primary predictor variable of blood transfusion was associated with an increased length of stay (4.1 days vs 3.0 days, P = .03). Other covariates associated with an increased length of stay included race, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premature birth, presence of a congenital malformation, and number of sutures involved in craniosynostosis. The receipt of a blood transfusion in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling was associated with an increased length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Gao, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Qi-Feng; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Ling; Peng, Yun

    2017-04-05

    Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors. Forty-five patients with solid tumors who had initial CT (Group B) and follow-up CT (Group A) after chemotherapy were enrolled. The initial diagnostic CT scan (Group B) was performed using the standard two-phase enhanced CT with 320 mgI/ml concentration contrast, and the follow-up scan (Group A) was performed using a single-phase enhanced CT at 45 s after the beginning of the 270 mgI/ml contrast injection using spectral mode. Forty percent ASiR was used for the images in Group B and monochromatic images with energy levels ≥60 keV in Group A. In addition, filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction was used for monochromatic images hounsfield unit (HU). The abdominal organs of Groups A and B had similar degrees of absolute and relative enhancement (t = 0.36 and -1.716 for liver, -0.153 and -1.546 for pancreas, and 2.427 and 0.866 for renal cortex, all P> 0.05). Signal-to-noise ratio of the abdominal organs was significantly lower in Group A than in Group B (t = -8.11 for liver, -7.83 for pancreas, and -5.38 for renal cortex, all P 3, indicating clinically acceptable image quality. Single-phase, dual-energy spectral CT used for children with solid abdominal tumors can reduce contrast dose and radiation dose and can also maintain clinically acceptable image quality.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Solid Phases of Bronchoalveolar Lavage and Oral Fluid in Children with Acute Necrotizing Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Grona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of acute lung abscesses, and pleural empyema, high invalidization and mortality determine the necessity for search of new methods of its diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this research was to study the morphological characteristics of in bronchoalveolar lavage and oral fluid facies in children with acute destructive pneumonias and to find out correlations between them. We examined 24 patients of department of purulent surgery in age from 1 to 14 years. Collection of mixed unstimulated oral fluid was carried out by spitting into special tubes, bronchoalveolar lavage was obtained by bronchoscopy. There has been revealed a correlation between morphological pattern of bronchoalveolar lavage and oral fluid in children depending on the pathological condition of the body.

  2. Mortality risk disparities in children receiving chronic renal replacement therapy for the treatment of end-stage renal disease across Europe: an ESPN-ERA/EDTA registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Schaefer, Franz; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Holman, Rebecca; Baiko, Sergey; Baskın, Esra; Bjerre, Anna; Cloarec, Sylvie; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A M; Espinosa, Laura; Heaf, James; Stone, Rosário; Shtiza, Diamant; Zagozdzon, Ilona; Harambat, Jérôme; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W; van Stralen, Karlijn J

    2017-05-27

    We explored the variation in country mortality rates in the paediatric population receiving renal replacement therapy across Europe, and estimated how much of this variation could be explained by patient-level and country-level factors. In this registry analysis, we extracted patient data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ESPN/ERA-EDTA) Registry for 32 European countries. We included incident patients younger than 19 years receiving renal replacement therapy. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and the explained variation were modelled for patient-level and country-level factors with multilevel Cox regression. The primary outcome studied was all-cause mortality while on renal replacement therapy. Between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2013, the overall 5 year renal replacement therapy mortality rate was 15·8 deaths per 1000 patient-years (IQR 6·4-16·4). France had a mortality rate (9·2) of more than 3 SDs better, and Russia (35·2), Poland (39·9), Romania (47·4), and Bulgaria (68·6) had mortality rates more than 3 SDs worse than the European average. Public health expenditure was inversely associated with mortality risk (per SD increase, aHR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52-0·91) and explained 67% of the variation in renal replacement therapy mortality rates between countries. Child mortality rates showed a significant association with renal replacement therapy mortality, albeit mediated by macroeconomics (eg, neonatal mortality reduced from 1·31 [95% CI 1·13-1·53], p=0·0005, to 1·21 [0·97-1·51], p=0·10). After accounting for country distributions of patient age, the variation in renal replacement therapy mortality rates between countries increased by 21%. Substantial international variation exists in paediatric renal replacement therapy mortality rates across Europe, most of which was explained by disparities in public health expenditure, which seems to limit the availability and

  3. Infectious Complications during Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Children with High-Risk or Recurrent Solid Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Choi

    Full Text Available We retrospectively analyzed infectious complications during tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT in children and adolescents with high-risk or recurrent solid tumors. A total of 324 patients underwent their first HDCT/auto-SCT between October 2004 and September 2014, and 283 of them proceeded to their second HDCT/auto-SCT (a total of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs. During the early transplant period of 607 HDCT/auto-SCTs (from the beginning of HDCT to day 30 post-transplant, bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI, respiratory virus infection, and varicella zoster virus (VZV reactivation occurred in 7.1%, 2.3%, 13.0%, and 2.5% of HDCT/auto-SCTs, respectively. The early transplant period of the second HDCT/auto-SCT had infectious complications similar to the first HDCT/auto-SCT. During the late transplant period of HDCT/auto-SCT (from day 31 to 1 year post-transplant, bacteremia, UTI, and VZV reactivation occurred in 7.5%, 2.5%, and 3.9% of patients, respectively. Most infectious complications in the late transplant period occurred during the first 6 months post-transplant. There were no invasive fungal infections during the study period. Six patients died from infectious complications (4 from bacterial sepsis and 2 from respiratory virus infection. Our study suggests that infectious complications are similar following second and first HDCT/auto-SCT in children.

  4. Effects of separate delivery of zinc or zinc and vitamin A on hemoglobin response, growth, and diarrhea in young Peruvian children receiving iron therapy for anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Karl; Kolsteren, Patrick W; Prada, Ana M; Chian, Ana M; Velarde, Ruth E; Pecho, Iris L; Hoeree, Tom F

    2004-11-01

    Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world. Attempts to improve iron indexes are affected by deficiency of and interaction between other micronutrients. Our goal was to assess whether zinc added to iron treatment alone or with vitamin A improves iron indexes and affects diarrheal episodes. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted in Peru. Anemic children aged 6-35 mo were assigned to 3 treatment groups: ferrous sulfate (FS; n = 104), ferrous sulfate and zinc sulfate (FSZn; n = 109), and ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate, and vitamin A (FSZnA; n = 110). Vitamin A or its placebo was supplied only once; iron and zinc were provided under supervision >/=1 h apart 6 d/wk for 18 wk. The prevalence of anemia was 42.97%. The increase in hemoglobin in the FS group (19.5 g/L) was significantly less than that in the other 2 groups (24.0 and 23.8 g/L in the FSZn and FSZnA groups, respectively). The increase in serum ferritin in the FS group (24.5 mug/L) was significantly less than that in the other 2 groups (33.0 and 30.8 mug/L in the FSZn and FSZnA groups, respectively). The median duration of diarrhea and the mean number of stools per day was significantly higher in the FS group than in other 2 groups (P < 0.005). Adding zinc to iron treatment increases hemoglobin response, improves iron indexes, and has positive effects on diarrhea. No additional effect of vitamin A was found.

  5. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Sharp, Susan E.; Gelfand, Michael J.; Turpin, Brian K.; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  6. What parents of children who have received emergency care think about deferring consent in randomised trials of emergency treatments: postal survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrol Gamble

    Full Text Available To investigate parents' views about deferred consent to inform management of trial disclosure after a child's death.A postal questionnaire survey was sent to members of the Meningitis Research Foundation UK charity, whose child had suffered from bacterial meningitis or meningococcal septicaemia within the previous 5 years. Main outcome measures were acceptability of deferred consent; timing of requesting consent; and the management of disclosure of the trial after a child's death.220 families were sent questionnaires of whom 63 (29% were bereaved. 68 families responded (31%, of whom 19 (28% were bereaved. The majority (67% was willing for their child to be involved in the trial without the trial being explained to them beforehand; 70% wanted to be informed about the trial as soon as their child's condition had stabilised. In the event of a child's death before the trial could be discussed the majority of bereaved parents (66% 12/18 anticipated wanting to be told about the trial at some time. This compared with 37% (18/49 of non-bereaved families (p = 0.06. Parents' free text responses indicated that the word 'trial' held strongly negative connotations. A few parents regarded gaps in the evidence base about emergency treatments as indicating staff lacked expertise to care for a critically ill child. Bereaved parents' free text responses indicated the importance of individualised management of disclosure about a trial following a child's death.Deferred consent is acceptable to the majority of respondents. Parents whose children had recovered differed in their views compared to bereaved parents. Most bereaved parents would want to be informed about the trial in the aftermath of a child's death, although a minority strongly opposed such disclosure. Distinction should be drawn between the views of bereaved and non-bereaved parents when considering the acceptability of different consent processes.

  7. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Sharp, Susan E.; Gelfand, Michael J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Turpin, Brian K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  8. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  9. Timing of solid food introduction and association with later childhood overweight and obesity: The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Savva, Savvas C; Hunsberger, Monica; Jilani, Hannah; Michels, Nathalie; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Molnár, Dénes; Siani, Alfonso; Moreno, Luis A; Hadjigeorgiou, Charis

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated associations between timing of solid food introduction and childhood obesity and explored maternal characteristics influencing early feeding practices. Cross-sectional data from children 2-9 years (n = 10,808; 50.5% boys) residing in 8 European countries of the IDEFICS study (2007-2008) were included. Late solid food introduction (≥7 months of age) was associated with an increased prevalence of later childhood overweight/obesity among exclusively breastfed children (OR [odds ratio]: 1.38, 95% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 1.88]). In contrast, early solid food introduction (associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity among children that ceased exclusive breastfeeding earlier than 4 months (OR: 0.63, 95% CI [0.47, 0.84]). Children that were introduced to solids right after 6 months exclusive breastfeeding and continued to receive breastmilk (≥12 months) were less likely to become overweight/obese (OR: 0.67, 95% CI [0.51, 0.88]) compared to children that discontinued to receive breastmilk. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, country, birth weight, parental education level, parental body mass index, tobacco use in pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and gestational diabetes. Underweight mothers, overweight mothers, mothers who reported daily smoking during pregnancy, and low-educated mothers were less likely to follow recommendations on breastfeeding and timely solids introduction. Future studies should examine whether guidelines for solid food introduction timing have to distinguish between exclusively breastfed, formula fed, and too early exclusive breastfeeding-ceased infants. There is also need for more prospective studies; recall bias was an important current limitation. In conclusion, health professionals should emphasize benefits of breastfeeding and appropriate solid food introduction, especially to mothers that are less likely to follow recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  11. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  12. A Comparative Evaluation of Normal Tissue Doses for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma on the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and Recent Children's Oncology Group Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Rachel; Ng, Angela [Department of Radiation Therapy, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T. [Epidemiology/Cancer Control Department, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Friedman, Debra L. [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Kelly, Kara [Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/Stem Cell Transplant, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); FitzGerald, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Hodgson, David C., E-mail: David.hodgson@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are recognized to have an increased risk of delayed adverse health outcomes related to radiation therapy (RT). However, the necessary latency required to observe these late effects means that the estimated risks apply to outdated treatments. We sought to compare the normal tissue dose received by children treated for HL and enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) (diagnosed 1970-1986) with that of patients treated in recent Children's Oncology Group (COG) trials (enrolled 2002-2012). Methods and Materials: RT planning data were obtained for 50 HL survivors randomly sampled from the CCSS cohort and applied to computed tomography planning data sets to reconstruct the normal tissue dosimetry. For comparison, the normal tissue dosimetry data were obtained for all 191 patients with full computed tomography–based volumetric RT planning on COG protocols AHOD0031 and AHOD0831. Results: For early-stage patients, the mean female breast dose in the COG patients was on average 83.5% lower than that for CCSS patients, with an absolute reduction of 15.5 Gy. For advanced-stage patients, the mean breast dose was decreased on average by 70% (11.6 Gy average absolute dose reduction). The mean heart dose decreased on average by 22.9 Gy (68.6%) and 17.6 Gy (56.8%) for early- and advanced-stage patients, respectively. All dose comparisons for breast, heart, lung, and thyroid were significantly lower for patients in the COG trials than for the CCSS participants. Reductions in the prescribed dose were a major contributor to these dose reductions. Conclusions: These are the first data quantifying the significant reduction in the normal tissue dose using actual, rather than hypothetical, treatment plans for children with HL. These findings provide useful information when counseling families regarding the risks of contemporary RT.

  13. Evaluation of two educational interventions regarding prevention of early childhood caries on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-year-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Razeghi

    2017-02-01

    (pamphlet and pamphlet along with reminder on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-years-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia was assessed. Thirty seven couples of children and mothers in two groups were randomly selected. Before and three months after interventions, a standard questionnaire regarding self-reported practice of mothers on prevention of early childhood caries was completed by respondents. Moreover, oral examination including Simplified oral hygiene index (S-OHI, dmft, and white spot lesions were rerecorded at the beginning and three months after interventions. At this time in one of the groups reminder phone calls were made every month. Finally, the answers were scored and data were statistically analyzed to be compared in pre- and post-test. Results: Comparing each of the groups before and after interventions showed that in both groups there were significant differences in mothers’ perception of perceived ability to make child brush his teeth twice a day (P=0.001, and child’s tooth brushing frequency more than once a day (P=0.03. S-OHI had no significant difference after the intervention between two groups. But each group had a significant decrease three months after intervention (P=0.003. Also the mean number of white spots showed a significant decrease before and after intervention in each groups. Regarding mothers’ self-reported practice no significant difference was observed between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Using pamphlets along with or without reminder as educational measures had similar enhancing effects on the mothers’ self-reported practice on oral health of children within three months.

  14. Duration of Breastfeeding, but Not Timing of Solid Food, Reduces the Risk of Overweight and Obesity in Children Aged 24 to 36 Months: Findings from an Australian Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sarah; Yew, Sarah Siau Yi; Devenish, Gemma; Ha, Diep; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-03-26

    This study aimed to determine whether breastfeeding duration and the timing of solid food were independently associated with being overweight or obese in early childhood. Subjects were 953 children participating in the Study of Mothers and Infants Life Events Affecting Oral Health (SMILE) birth cohort study, based in Adelaide, Australia. Socio-demographic information and data on breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of solid food were collected at birth, 3, 4, 6, 12, and 24 months via mailed or online questionnaires completed by mothers. The weight and height of children were measured at a dental examination when children were aged between 24 and 36 months. Body mass index was calculated, and children were categorised into weight groups according to the World Health Organization growth standards. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, adjusting for maternal age at birth, education, socio-economic status, pre-pregnancy weight, smoking in pregnancy, method of delivery, and child's birthweight. Risk of overweight/obesity was independently associated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking in pregnancy, and birthweight. Children that were breastfed for 12 months or more had a significantly lower risk of being overweight/obese than those breastfed for less than 17 weeks (AOR 0.49; 95%CI 0.27, 0.90; p for trend =0.009). Age of introduction of solid food, however, was not associated with the risk of being overweight/obese at 24 to 36 months. This study provides further evidence of an inverse relationship between breastfeeding and risk of overweight/obesity, however, no association with the timing of solid food was detected.

  15. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  16. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Colin D. Rehm; Adam Drewnowski

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm se...

  17. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p -trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  18. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  19. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  20. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  1. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  2. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  3. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  4. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Jackson, Angela; Munzer, Martine; N'Guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Bridier, André; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  6. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  7. Percepción y expectativas de cuidadoras de niños con gran discapacidad: Sobre la atención sanitaria recibida Perception and expectations of mothers with seriously disable children on received sanitary attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Cruz-Escobosa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: (1 Conocer la percepción que tienen las cuidadoras principales de niños con Gran Discapacidad respecto a la atención recibida dentro del Sistema Sanitario Público de Andalucía. (2 Identificar propuestas de mejora para la atención integral tanto de los niños, como de sus cuidadoras. Metodología: estudio cualitativo mediante Grupo Focal con madres/padres de niños y niñas diagnosticados de patologías crónicas que generan gran dependencia con edades comprendidas entre 4 y 12 años. Resultados: las repercusiones de la enfermedad de sus hijos en sus familias y en ellas supusieron un impacto total. Expresan una falta de apoyo familiar efectivo y de tiempo para su autocuidado. Perciben un trato y una atención mejorable por parte de algunos de los profesionales de Atención Especializada. En el Centro de Salud ven muy positivo el trato de los profesionales, la accesibilidad, las facilidades que encuentran ante cualquier problema que les surge y ahora el plan de atención a cuidadoras de grandes discapacitados. Conclusiones: es necesario tener en cuenta la visión de las madres en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de sus hijos. Asumirla por los profesionales como una información valiosa va a producir una mejora en la calidad prestada. Valoran que se les informe con claridad y no técnicamente. Cualquier intervención del sistema socio-sanitario debe abarcar al paciente, a la cuidadora y a la familia, aumentar las prestaciones ofrecidas, especialmente el tratamiento rehabilitador y facilitar recursos para minimizar la sobrecarga económica y emocional.Objectives: (1 To know the perception which they have the main nursemaids of children with seriously disabilities about the attention received within the Public System Sanitary of Andalusia, identifying strong and weak points. (2 To as much identify proposals of improvement for the integral attention of the children, as of its nursemaids. Methodology: qualitative study by means of Focal

  8. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  9. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  10. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  11. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  12. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  13. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Rehm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001, added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001, SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL/day; p-trend < 0.001, and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001. Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  14. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  15. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Calixto FRAIZ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there was no significant difference between the preschool children who presented with caries and those who did not present with caries. However, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the upper incisors was strongly associated with the presence of dental caries. Other factors associated with the presence of caries were: period of formal education of the father or of both parents equal or inferior to 8 years, high sugar consumption and bottle-feeding during sleep. In the studied population, the dietary pattern is still the main cause of carious lesions. In addition, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the labial surface of the upper incisors must be considered as an important clinical sign, often associated with inadequate patterns of diet and oral hygiene.Esta pesquisa estudou os fatores associados com o desenvolvimento de cárie dentária em pré-escolares que recebem acompanhamento e intervenção odontológica. O estudo abrangeu 200 crianças, de 24 a 48 meses de idade, que participavam do programa da Bebê-Clínica (Universidade Estadual de Londrina havia pelo menos 12 meses. A comparação entre as crianças com cárie e sem cárie não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes com relação aos hábitos de higiene bucal. No entanto, a presença de placa visível nos incisivos superiores esteve fortemente associada com a presença de cárie dentária. Outros fatores relacionados à presença de cárie foram a educação formal

  16. Improved noise-adding radiometer for microwave receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, P. D.; Stelzried, C. T.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Use of input switch and noise reference standard is avoided by using noise-adding technique. Excess noise from solid state noise-diode is coupled into receiver through directional coupler and square-wave modulated at low rate. High sensitivity receivers for radioastronomy applications are utilized with greater confidence in stability of radiometer.

  17. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  18. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  19. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  20. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  1. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  2. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  3. Introduction of Solid Food to Young Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Alice A.; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M.; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants? initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4?35?months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-...

  4. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  5. solid phase extraction method for selective determination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FATOKI

    determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in rivers and marine water samples. Of the ... samples that receive effluent from industries that use phthalate esters. ... Keywords Phthalates, Plasticizers, Solid Phase Gas Chromatography.

  6. Contrast Dose and Radiation Dose Reduction in Abdominal Enhanced Computerized Tomography Scans with Single-phase Dual-energy Spectral Computerized Tomography Mode for Children with Solid Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Yu; Jun Gao; Zhi-Min Liu; Qi-Feng Zhang; Yong Liu; Ling Jiang; Yun Peng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Contrast dose and radiation dose reduction in computerized tomography (CT) scan for adult has been explored successfully, but there have been few studies on the application of low-concentration contrast in pediatric abdominal CT examinations. This was a feasibility study on the use of dual-energy spectral imaging and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) for the reduction of radiation dose and iodine contrast dose in pediatric abdominal CT patients with solid tumors...

  7. Disparities in Diagnoses Received Prior to a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Levy, Susan E.; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimated differences by ethnicity in the diagnoses assigned prior to the diagnosis of autism. In this sample of 406 Medicaid-eligible children, African-Americans were 2.6 times less likely than white children to receive an autism diagnosis on their first specialty care visit. Among children who did not receive an autism diagnosis on…

  8. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  9. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  10. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. The Swiss lodized Salt Program Provides Adequate Iodine for School Children and Pregnant Women, but Weaning Infants Not Receiving Iodine-Containing Complementary Foods as well as Their Mothers Are Iodine Deficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Aeberli, I.; Wüst, N.; Piacenza, A.M.; Bucher, T.; Henschen, I.; Haldimann, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: If children and pregnant women in the population are iodine sufficient, it is generally assumed infants are also sufficient. But weaning infants may be at risk of iodine deficiency because iodized salt contributes little dietary iodine during this period. To fill this gap, iodine

  12. A survey of attitudes, knowledge and practice of dentists in London towards child protection. Are children receiving dental treatment at the Eastman Dental Hospital likely to be on the child protection register?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habsi, S A; Roberts, G J; Attari, N; Parekh, S

    2009-02-28

    To investigate the attitudes, knowledge and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs), specialists and consultants in paediatric dentistry in London, towards child protection. Additionally, to determine if children attending paediatric dental casualty at the Eastman Dental Hospital (EDH) and those who need treatment of caries under general anaesthesia (GA) are on the child protection register (CPR). The survey was conducted by postal questionnaires with 14 closed questions. A total of 228 dentists were invited to participate in the study. Children who attended EDH and required treatment under GA or at paediatric dental casualty were checked against the CPR. The respond rate was 46% (105/228). Overall 15% (16/105) of dentists had seen at least one patient with suspected child abuse in the last six months, but only 7% (7/105) referred or reported cases to child protection services. Reasons for dentists not referring included: fear of impact on practice (10%; 11/105); fear of violence to child (66%; 69/105); fear of litigation (28%; 29/105); fear of family violence against them (26%; 27/105); fear of consequences to the child (56%; 59/105); lack of knowledge regarding the procedures for referral (68%; 71/105); and lack of certainty about the diagnosis (86%; 90/105). Of the 220 children attending for dental GA and casualty from October 2004 to March 2005, one child was found to be on the CPR. More information and training is required to raise awareness of the potential importance of the role of dentists in child protection. Improved communication between dental and medical departments is important for safeguarding children.

  13. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  14. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  15. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  16. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  17. Submillimeter heterodyne receiver for the CSO telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1988-01-01

    This task is to build a cryogenically cooled 620 to 700 GHz astronomical receiver that will be used as a facility instrument at the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The receiver will have applications as a very high resolution spectrometer to investigate spectral lines in planetary and satellite atmospheres, and comets. The receiver will also be used to make continuum measurements of planets, satellites, and asteroids. During FY88, a scale model (200 GHz) SIS mixer radiometer was built and intrgrated into a cryostat designed for use on the CSO telescope. This system will serve as a model to guide the work on the higher frequency mixer. A solid state local oscillator source that covers two bands in the 600 to 700 GHz has been developed under contract JPL and will be delivered before the end of the year. Work has continued on the SIS materials needed for the 620 to 700 GHz mixer. Test hardware has been developed which allow the 1 to 5 curves for SIS material to be easily measured

  18. Solid malignant neoplasms after childhood irradiation: decrease of the relative risk with time after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathaire, F. de; Shamsaldin, A.; Grimaud, E.; Campbell, S.; Guerra, M.; Raquin, M.; Hardiman, C.; Jan, P.; Rumeau, N.; Diallo, I.; Nicolazic, G.; Lamon, A.; Oberlin, O.; Cervens, C. de; Suarez, A.; Meresse, V.; Eschwege, F.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Chavaudra, J.; Lermerle, J.; Bessa, E.; Bell, J.; Hawkins, M.; Schlienger, J.Y.; Panis, X.; Lagrande, J.L.; Gaboriaud, G.; Zucker, J.M.; Daly-Schveitzer, N.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern of the temporal distribution of solid cancer incidence after irradiation in childhood is not well known, although, its importance in radioprotection is well known. We studied a cohort of 1 055 children from 8 European cancer centres, who received radiotherapy between 1942 and 1985 for a first cancer in childhood. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, 26 children developed a solid second malignant neoplasm (SMN), as compared to 5.6 expected from general population rates. Both the excess relative risk and the excess of absolute risk of solid SMN were higher among children who were younger at time of the irradiation. After reaching a maximum 15 to 20 years after irradiation, the excess relative risk of SMN decreased with time after irradiation, when controlling for age at irradiation and sex. The analysis of the risk of thyroid, brain and breast cancer together, as a function of the dose averaged on these 3 organs lead to similar results. (authors). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Phase I results of a phase I/II study of weekly nab-paclitaxel in paediatric patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumours: A collaboration with innovative therapies for children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lucas; Casanova, Michela; Chisholm, Julia C; Berlanga, Pablo; Chastagner, Pascal B; Baruchel, Sylvain; Amoroso, Loredana; Melcón, Soledad Gallego; Gerber, Nicolas U; Bisogno, Gianni; Fagioli, Franca; Geoerger, Birgit; Glade Bender, Julia L; Aerts, Isabelle; Bergeron, Christophe; Hingorani, Pooja; Elias, Ileana; Simcock, Mathew; Ferrara, Stefano; Le Bruchec, Yvan; Slepetis, Ruta; Chen, Nianhang; Vassal, Gilles

    2018-06-21

    nab-Paclitaxel has demonstrated efficacy in adults with solid tumours and preclinical activity in paediatric solid tumour models. Results from phase I of a phase I/II study in paediatric patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumours treated with nab-paclitaxel are reported. Patients with recurrent/refractory extracranial solid tumours received nab-paclitaxel on days 1, 8 and 15 every 4 weeks at 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, or 270 mg/m 2 (rolling-6 dose-escalation) to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Sixty-four patients were treated. Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 dizziness at 120 mg/m 2 and grade 4 neutropenia >7 days at 270 mg/m 2 . The most frequent grade 3/4 adverse events were haematologic, including neutropenia (36%), leukopenia (36%) and lymphopenia (25%). Although the MTD was not reached, 270 mg/m 2 was declared non-tolerable due to grade 3/4 toxicities during cycles 1-2 (neutropenia, n = 5/7; skin toxicity, n = 2/7; peripheral neuropathy, n = 1/7). Of 58 efficacy-evaluable patients, complete response occurred in one patient (2%; Ewing sarcoma) and partial responses in four patients (7%; rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, renal tumour with pulmonary metastases [high-grade, malignant] and sarcoma not otherwise specified); all responses occurred at ≥210 mg/m 2 . Thirteen patients (22%) had stable disease (5 lasting ≥16 weeks) per RECIST. nab-Paclitaxel 240 mg/m 2 qw3/4 (nearly double the adult recommended monotherapy dose for this schedule in metastatic breast cancer) was selected as the RP2D based on the tolerability profile, pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity. Phase II is currently enrolling patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01962103. 2013-000144-26. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral Cryotherapy for Preventing Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; McCabe, Martin G; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In patients receiving treatment for cancer, does oral cryotherapy prevent oral mucositis? Oral cryotherapy is effective for the prevention of oral mucositis in adults receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for solid cancers, and for the prevention of severe oral mucositis in adults receiving high-dose melphalan-based chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

  1. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, J.W.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO)

  2. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  3. Introduction of solid food to young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alice A; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2011-11-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants' initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4-35 months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-sampled. Analyses in this report include bivariate tests and logistic regressions. 62% of parents reported introducing solids to their child between 4-6 months of age. African-American mothers (OR=0.5 [0.3, 0.9]), English-speaking Latino mothers (OR=0.4 [0.2, 0.7]), White mothers with more than high school education (OR=0.5 [0.2, 1.0]), and mothers who breastfed for 4 months or longer (OR=0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) were less likely to introduce solids early. Most parents (92%) of children 4-9 months of age reported that their pediatric provider had discussed introduction of solids with them since the child's birth, and provider discussion of feeding was not associated with the timing of introduction of solids. Although most parents recall discussing the introduction of solid foods with their child's physician, several subgroups of mothers introduce solid foods earlier than the AAP recommendation of 4-6 months. More effective discussion of solid food introduction linked to counseling and support of breastfeeding by the primary health care provider may reduce early introduction of solids.

  4. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  5. Knowledge assessment regarding poliomyelitis among the caregivers of children who received oral polio vaccine reveals lack of awareness of the vaccine vial monitor (VVM): Implications extending beyond polio eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhilwar, Meenakshi; Lal, Panna

    2017-07-01

    Vaccine vial monitor (VVM) is now commonly used for vaccines that are included in the National Immunization Schedule in India. It helps to indicate the viability of the vaccine and of the proper functioning of the cold chain. This is useful as it prevents health personnel from administering damaged vaccine. Studies have shown a lack of awareness of health workers regarding the use and interpretation of a VVM. The current study, undertaken among the caregivers of children who were immunized, showed that this lack of information about the VVM also exists among the caregivers. This deficiency in knowledge, both in the health workers and the caregivers, can affect the health of the child and needs urgent attention.

  6. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  7. The impact of morbid obesity on solid organ injury in children using the ATOMAC protocol at a pediatric level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Nathan; Tweed, Jeff; Greenwell, Cynthia; Notrica, David M; Langlais, Crystal S; Peter, Shawn D St; Leys, Charles M; Ostlie, Daniel J; Maxson, R Todd; Ponsky, Todd; Tuggle, David W; Eubanks, James W; Bhatia, Amina; Greenwell, Cynthia; Garcia, Nilda M; Lawson, Karla A; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Letton, Robert W; Alder, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (hepatic injury (36.8% versus 15.3%, P=0.048) but not a significant difference in likelihood of severe (grade 4 or 5) splenic injury (15.3% versus 10.5%, P=0.736). Obese patients had a higher mean ISS (22.5 versus 16.1, P=0.021) and mean abdominal AIS (3.5 versus 2.9, P=0.024). Obesity is a risk factor for more severe abdominal injury, specifically liver injury, but without an associated increase in failure of NOM. This may be explained by the presence of hepatic steatosis making the liver more vulnerable to injury. A protocol based upon physiologic parameters was associated with a low rate of failure regardless of the pediatric obesity status. Level II prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FFT analysis of sensible-heat solar-dynamic receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kurt O.

    The use of solar dynamic receivers with sensible energy storage in single-phase materials is considered. The feasibility of single-phase designs with weight and thermal performance comparable to existing two-phase designs is addressed. Linearized heat transfer equations are formulated for the receiver heat storage, representing the periodic input solar flux as the sum of steady and oscillating distributions. The steady component is solved analytically to produce the desired receiver steady outlet gas temperature, and the FFT algorithm is applied to the oscillating components to obtain the amplitudes and mode shapes of the oscillating solid and gas temperatures. The results indicate that sensible-heat receiver designs with performance comparable to state-of-the-art two-phase receivers are available.

  9. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  10. STUDY OF PAEDIATRIC SOLID TUMOURS FOR A PERIOD OF 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basumitra Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric Solid Neoplasms (PSN are a global problem. There is significant variation of incidence of paediatric solid neoplasms in various regions of the world. Benign tumours are more common than cancer. In an effort to better understand the prevalence of paediatric solid tumours in our region, a retrospective review of the tumours diagnosed histopathologically was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary care hospital for a period of five years. All the benign and malignant paediatric solid tumours of children below 14 years from January 2012 to December 2016 were retrieved and analysed according to age, sex and histopathological diagnosis. Leukaemias were excluded from our study. All tumours were diagnosed on conventional haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. RESULTS A total of 109 cases of solid paediatric tumours were received during this period. Of these, maximum of 30 tumours were of soft tissue tumours followed by Central Nervous System (CNS and bone tumours with 24 and 23 cases, respectively. 7 cases of blastomas were also observed. CONCLUSION This study showed benign and malignant tumours to be of near-equal prevalence. Soft tissue tumours were the most common. Ratio of benign tumours to malignant were almost equal below 4 years. Malignant tumours were higher in 5-9 years group.

  11. Pediatric solid organ transplantation and osteoporosis: a descriptive study on bone histomorphometric findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Inari S; Valta, Helena; Jalanko, Hannu; Salminen, Sari; Mäyränpää, Mervi K; Isaksson, Hanna; Kröger, Heikki; Mäkitie, Outi

    2014-08-01

    Organ transplantation may lead to secondary osteoporosis in children. This study characterized bone histomorphometric findings in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients who were assessed for suspected secondary osteoporosis. Iliac crest biopsies were obtained from 19 children (7.6-18.8 years, 11 male) who had undergone kidney (n = 6), liver (n = 9), or heart (n = 4) transplantation a median 4.6 years (range 0.6-16.3 years) earlier. All patients had received oral glucocorticoids at the time of the biopsy. Of the 19 patients, 21 % had sustained peripheral fractures and 58 % vertebral compression fractures. Nine children (47 %) had a lumbar spine BMD Z-score below -2.0. Histomorphometric analyses showed low trabecular bone volume (bone turnover at biopsy, and low turnover was found in 6 children (32 %), 1 of whom had adynamic bone disease. There was a great heterogeneity in the histological findings in different transplant groups, and the results were unpredictable using non-invasive methods. The observed changes in bone quality (i.e. abnormal turnover rate, thin trabeculae) rather than the actual loss of trabecular bone, might explain the increased fracture risk in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

  12. Experiment study of a quartz tube falling particle receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjian WANG; Fengwu BAI; Shunzhou CHU; Xiliang ZHANG; Zhifeng WANG

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of a specially designed falling particle receiver.A quartz tube was used in the design,with which the particles would not be blown away by wind.Concentrated solar radiation was absorbed and converted into thermal energy by the solid particles flowed inside the quartz tube.Several experiments were conducted to test the dynamic thermal performance of the receiver on solar furnace system.During the experiments,the maximum particle temperature rise is 212℃,with an efficiency of 61.2%,which shows a good thermal performance with a falling distance of 0.2 m in a small scale particle receiver.The average outlet particle temperature is affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI) and other factors such as wind speed.The solid particles obtain a larger viscosity with a higher temperature while smaller solid particles are easier to get stuck in the helix quartz tube.The heat capacity of the silicon carbide gets larger with the rise of particle temperature,because as the temperature of solid particles increases,the temperature rise of the silicon carbide decreases.

  13. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  14. Near-Blackbody Enclosed Particle-Receiver Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sakadjian, Bartev [Babcock and Wilcox Research Center, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This 3-year project develops a technology using gas/solid, two-phase flow as a heat-transfer fluid and separated, stable, solid particles as a thermal energy storage (TES) medium for a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, to address the temperature, efficiency, and cost barriers associated with current molten-salt CSP systems. This project focused on developing a near-blackbody particle receiver and an integrated fluidized-bed heat exchanger with auxiliary components to achieve greater than 20% cost reduction over current CSP plants, and to provide the ability to drive high-efficiency power cycles.

  15. ???????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???

    OpenAIRE

    ????????????, ?. ?.; ????????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

    2012-01-01

    ? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? SolidWorks/SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks)/SolidWorks Simulation ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???. ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? SolidWorks Flow Simulation (COSMOSFloWorks). ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ...

  16. What's Possible for First-Grade At-Risk Literacy Learners Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Janet; Wang, Chuang; Gomez-Bellenge, Francisco X.; Zalud, Garreth

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study that was conducted on data from children who received a one-on-one intervention called Reading Recovery[R] during the first half of their first-grade year in school. The purpose was to investigate the relationship between accelerated progress children made during and after receiving a Reading Recovery intervention,…

  17. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  18. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  19. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  20. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, J. W.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO) signal injection scheme. Measurements show that the HEB mixer stability is limited by gain fluctuations with a 1/f spectral distribution. In a 60 MHz noise bandwidth this results in an Allan varian...

  1. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  2. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anal sphincter using a dedicated endoanal receiver coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSouza, N.M.; Williams, A.D.; Gilderdale, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a surface coil in MR imaging improves signal-to-noise ratio of adjacent tissues of interest. We therefore devised an endoanal receiver coil for imaging the anal sphincter. The probe is solid and re-usable: it comprises a saddle geometry receiver with integral tuning, matching and decoupling. It is placed in the anal canal and immobilised externally. Both in vitro and in vivo normal anatomy is identified. The mucosa is high signal intensity, the submucosa low signal intensity, the internal sphincter uniformly high signal intensity and the external sphincter low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. In females, the transverse perineal muscle bridges the inferior part of the external sphincter anteriorly. In perianal sepsis, collections and the site of the endoanal opening are identified. In early-onset fecal incontinence following obstetric trauma/surgery, focal sphincter defects are demonstrated; in late-onset fecal incontinence external sphincter atrophy is seen. In fecally incontinent patients with scleroderma, forward deviation of the anterior sphincter musculature with descent of rectal air and feces into the anal canal is noted. The extent of sphincter invasion is assessed in low rectal tumours. In children with congenital anorectal anomalies, abnormalities of the muscle components are defined using smaller-diameter coils. Such information is invaluable in the assessment and surgical planning of patients with a variety of anorectal pathologies. (orig.)

  3. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anal sphincter using a dedicated endoanal receiver coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSouza, N.M.; Williams, A.D.; Gilderdale, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    The use of a surface coil in MR imaging improves signal-to-noise ratio of adjacent tissues of interest. We therefore devised an endoanal receiver coil for imaging the anal sphincter. The probe is solid and re-usable: it comprises a saddle geometry receiver with integral tuning, matching and decoupling. It is placed in the anal canal and immobilised externally. Both in vitro and in vivo normal anatomy is identified. The mucosa is high signal intensity, the submucosa low signal intensity, the internal sphincter uniformly high signal intensity and the external sphincter low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. In females, the transverse perineal muscle bridges the inferior part of the external sphincter anteriorly. In perianal sepsis, collections and the site of the endoanal opening are identified. In early-onset fecal incontinence following obstetric trauma/surgery, focal sphincter defects are demonstrated; in late-onset fecal incontinence external sphincter atrophy is seen. In fecally incontinent patients with scleroderma, forward deviation of the anterior sphincter musculature with descent of rectal air and feces into the anal canal is noted. The extent of sphincter invasion is assessed in low rectal tumours. In children with congenital anorectal anomalies, abnormalities of the muscle components are defined using smaller-diameter coils. Such information is invaluable in the assessment and surgical planning of patients with a variety of anorectal pathologies. (orig.) With 15 figs., 26 refs.

  4. Proposal of a novel gravity-fed, particle-filled solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evan; Baker, Derek; Tari, Ilker

    2017-06-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity power plants utilizing solid particles as heat transfer and storage media have been proposed by several research groups, with studies citing benefits of increased thermal efficiency and lower cost. Several types of solid particle receivers have been proposed, with leading designs consisting of particles falling or suspended in air. A new solid particle receiver is proposed here, consisting of a receiver fully packed with particles flowing downward with gravity. Particle flow rate is regulated with an outlet valve. This Particle-Filled receiver concept is compared to other receiver designs, and initial cold and hot experiments are conducted. Mass flux values of up to 379 kg m-2 s-1 are demonstrated, and heat transfer coefficients between 136 and 251 W m-2 K-1 are found.

  5. Relationships between Liquid Atomization and Solid Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    1 2. Basic Definitions ...expressions for average fragment sizes. These observations are surprising, given the fundamental phenomenological differences between liquid and solid...smaller children droplets in the secondary stage. The basic phenomenology of the second stage is much the same as that of the first stage. For

  6. Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  7. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  8. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  9. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  10. The influence of a solid and liquid bolus on food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, A.; Behrens, J.K.; Vejen-Christiansen, L.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.; Aarhus Kommunehospital

    1992-01-01

    Using a radiological method to demonstrate food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux (GER), a comparative study was carried out employing a solid, already validated bolus versus a liquid one. One hundred and four consecutive patients received both a solid and a liquid bolus in randomized order. GER was observed in 37 (35.6%) patients receiving the solid bolus versus 28 (26.9%) with the liquid one. This means that the solid bolus provokes significantly more reflux (P [de

  11. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  12. Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prada, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, María; García-García, Rebeca; García-Corte, María Dolores; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen

    2018-02-01

    Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics. Primary Care immunisation and clinical records of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department were reviewed. Of the 99 children who had received chemotherapy, 51 (70.6% males) were included in the study. As regards the type of tumour, 54.9% had a solid organ tumour, and 45.1% had a haematological tumour. Post-chemotherapy immunisation was administered to 70.6%. The most common vaccines received were: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus (54.9%), meningococcus C (41.2%), and seasonal influenza (39.2%). The rate of adaptation of the immunisation schedule after chemotherapy was 9.8%. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against 7v or 13v was administered to 21.6% of study subjects. However, only 17.6% received polysaccharide 23v. None received vaccination against hepatitis A. No statistically significant differences were observed between adherence to immunisation schedules and type of tumour (P=.066), gender (P=.304), or age (P=.342). Post-chemotherapy immunisation of children with cancer is poor. The participation of health professionals in training programs and referral of paediatric cancer patients to Vaccine Units could improve the rate of schedule adaptation and proper immunisation of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Children's Developing Understanding of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The issue of children's conceptions of technology and technology education is seen as important by technology educators. While there is a solid body of literature that documents groups of children's understandings of technology and technology education, this is primarily focused on snapshot studies of children aged 11 and above. There is little…

  15. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  16. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  17. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  18. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  19. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  20. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  1. Solar receiver with integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large emissivity of the encapsulation material. Many commercial PV/T products therefore require a high concentration (more than 10x) to reach an acceptable thermal efficiency for their receivers. Such a concentration system inevitably has to track or semi-track, which induces additional cost and collects only the direct radiation from the sun. We propose a new PV/T design using a vacuum encapsulated thin film cell to solve this problem. The proposed design also collects the diffuse sun light efficiently by using an external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC). Since the transparent electrode (TCO) of thin film cell is inherently transparent in visible light and reflective beyond infrared, this design uses this layer instead of the conventional solar cell encapsulation as the outmost heat loss surface. By integrating such a vacuum design with a tube shaped absorber, we reduce the complexity of conducting the heat energy and electricity out of the device. A low concentration standalone non-tracking solar collector is proposed in this paper. We also analyzed the thermosyphon system configuration using heat transfer and ray tracing models. The economics of such a receiver are presented.

  2. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  3. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered paracetamol...

  4. Thyroid dysfunction in children receiving neck irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atahan, I.L.; Yildiz, F.; Oezyar, E.; Uzal, D.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid function was studied in 46 long-term survivors of pediatric Hodgkin's disease with a median follow-up time of 10.5 years. The mean age of the patients at the time of treatment was 8 years. Treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in seven patients and combined radiation and chemotherapy in 39 patients. The radiotherapy dose to the thyroid gland was less than 2000 cGy in one, 2000-5000 cGy in 15, 2500-3000 cGy in 17, and greater than 3000 cGy in 13 patients. Evaluation consisted of clinical examination and thyroid function tests of total and free triiodothyronine, thyroxin, arid thyroid stimulating hormone levels. Twenty-one of 46 patients (45.6%) showed thyroid function abnormalities, however only nine of them had diffuse or nodular hyperplasia on physical examination. Risk factors of age, chemotherapy schema, total radiation dose, and dose per fraction did not significantly influence the incidence of thyroid dysfunction. (author)

  5. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system

  6. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  7. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  8. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  9. Desempenho de pais de crianças em dieta de exclusão do leite de vaca na identificação de alimentos industrializados com e sem leite vaca The performance of parents of children receiving cow's milk free diets at indentification of commercial food products with and without cows's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabata Koester Weber

    2007-10-01

    of children on exclusion diets (4.0 was greater than for the control group (3.0; p = 0.005. Reading at least one label was associated with a greater chance of correctly identifying more than five of the 10 products (odds ratio = 8.0. CONCLUSIONS: Despite having received guidance, the parents of children on exclusion diets were not fully prepared to manage these diets, indicating a need for improvements to the instruction provided when indicating exclusion diets.

  10. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  11. Radiation treatment of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.; Rugg, B.; Rogers, C.

    1977-01-01

    Solid waste is now generally recognized as both a major problem and an underutilized renewable resource for materials and energy recovery. Current methods for dealing with solid wastes are admittedly inadequate for cost effective utilization of the latest material and energy values, especially of cellulose and other organics. Processes for production of energy from organic wastes including incineration, pyrolysis and biodegradation, are receiving considerable attention even though the heating value of dried organic wastes is substantially less than that of fossil fuels. An attractive alternative approach is conversion into chemical feedstocks for use as fuels, intermediates for plastics, rubbers, fibers etc., and in the preparation of foods. Radiation treatment of solid wastes offers attractive possibilities for upgrading the value of such organic waste components as cellulose and putrescible matter. The latter can be cold sterilized by radiation treatments for the production of animal feed supplements. The wide availability of cellulosic wastes warrants their consideration as an alternate feedstock to petrochemicals for fuels, intermediates and synthesis of single cell protein. The crucial step in this developing technology is optimizing the conversion of cellulose to its monomer glucose which can be accomplished by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A combination pretreatment consisting of radiation of hydropulped cellulosic wastes has shown considerable promise in improving the yields of glucose for acid hydrolysis reactions at substantially lower cost than presently used methods such as grinding. Data are presented to compare the effectiveness of this pretreatment with other techniques which have been investigated. (author)

  12. Portal Vein Thrombosis in Sudanese Children | Sabir | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten children received liver support for portal biliopathy, five children had splenectomy because of hypersplenism. Four children died. Propranolol was stopped in 50 children out of 150 children who cleared their varices after two years. Conclusions: PVT in children is common in Sudanese children, and represents the ...

  13. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  14. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  15. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  16. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  18. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  19. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  20. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  1. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Investigation of Tank 241-AN-101 Floating Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Douglas P. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, VA (United States); Meznarich, H. K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, VA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Tank 241-AN-101 is the receiver tank for retrieval of several C-Farms waste tanks, including Tanks 241-C-102 and 241-C-111. Tank 241 C 111 received first-cycle decontamination waste from the bismuth phosphate process and Plutonium and Uranium Extraction cladding waste, as well as hydraulic fluid. Three grab samples, 1AN-16-01, 1AN-16-01A, and 1AN-16-01B, were collected at the surface of Tank 241-AN-101 on April 25, 2016, after Tank 241-C-111 retrieval was completed. Floating solids were observed in the three grab samples in the 11A hot cell after the samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory. Routine chemical analyses, solid phase characterization on the floating and settled solids, semivolatile organic analysis mainly on the aqueous phase for identification of degradation products of hydraulic fluids were performed. Investigation of the floating solids is reported.

  3. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-105 Grab Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, T. M.; LaMothe, M. E.; Lachut, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The solid phase characterization (SPC) of three grab samples from single-shell Tank 241-C-105 (C-105) that were received at the laboratory the week of October 26, 2015, has been completed. The three samples were received and broken down in the 11A hot cells.

  4. Sample Results from MCU Solids Outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries: A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate; An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate; A solids sample from ; A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed. Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or

  5. Universal decoherence in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2004-03-26

    Symmetry implications for the decoherence of quantum oscillations of a two-state system in a solid are studied. When the oscillation frequency is small compared to the Debye frequency, the universal lower bound on the decoherence due to the atomic environment is derived in terms of the macroscopic parameters of the solid, with no unknown interaction constants.

  6. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  7. A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaassen, T. O. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Hajenius, M. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Adam, A. J. L. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Baryshev, A. (SRON National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands); Kumar, Sushil (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Baselmans, J. J. A. (SRON National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands); Hu, Qing (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Yang, Z. Q. (SRON National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands); Hovenier, J. N. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Williams, Benjamin S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Gao, J. R. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Reno, John Louis

    2005-03-01

    We report the first demonstration of an all solid-state heterodyne receiver that can be used for high-resolution spectroscopy above 2 THz suitable for space-based observatories. The receiver uses a NbN superconducting hot-electron bolometer as mixer and a quantum cascade laser operating at 2.8 THz as local oscillator. We measure a double sideband receiver noise temperature of 1400 K at 2.8 THz and 4.2 K, and find that the free-running QCL has sufficient power stability for a practical receiver, demonstrating an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and stability.

  8. Review and future perspective of central receiver design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology provides a commercial solar option to the utility-scale electricity market. CSP is unique in its ability to include low-cost thermal storage; thus, it can generate electricity when the sun is not available and dispatch electricity to meet varying load requirements. Within the suite of CSP technologies, the central receiver design represents the state-of-the-art technology, promising low cost, high performance, and dispatchable energy production. Current total capacity of central receiver plants worldwide is about 1.0 gigawatt (electric) with operating plants in Spain and the United States, as well as projects under construction in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Central receiver technology has been under development since the 1950s, and a variety of central receiver designs have been explored. A distinguishing feature is the heat transfer medium. Central receiver designs exist that use dense fluids, gases, and solid particles in this role. Water/steam and molten salt receivers have been adopted in current commercial plants and are often coupled with a steam-Rankine power cycle with an operating temperature of less than 600°C. Many new central receiver concepts, such as the volumetric air, supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), solid particle, and liquid-metal receiver designs, are under active research and development (R&D). New designs target operating temperatures generally higher than 700°C-800°C—and even above 1000°C—so that higher-performance power cycles such as the sCO2-Brayton cycle or air-Brayton/steam-Rankine combined cycle can be used to promote greater overall system efficiency. Central receiver thermal storage provides dispatchability unavailable from variable-output renewables such as solar photovoltaic and wind power. Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can accommodate, beyond which

  9. Review and Future Perspective of Central Receiver Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-27

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology provides a commercial solar option to the utility-scale electricity market. CSP is unique in its ability to include low-cost thermal storage; thus, it can generate electricity when the sun is not available and dispatch electricity to meet varying load requirements. Within the suite of CSP technologies, the central receiver design represents the state-of-the-art technology, promising low cost, high performance, and dispatchable energy production. Current total capacity of central receiver plants worldwide is about 1.0 gigawatt (electric) with operating plants in Spain and the United States, as well as projects under construction in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Central receiver technology has been under development since the 1950s, and a variety of central receiver designs have been explored. A distinguishing feature is the heat transfer medium. Central receiver designs exist that use dense fluids, gases, and solid particles in this role. Water/steam and molten salt receivers have been adopted in current commercial plants and are often coupled with a steam-Rankine power cycle with an operating temperature of less than 600 degrees C. Many new central receiver concepts, such as the volumetric air, supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), solid particle, and liquid-metal receiver designs, are under active research and development (R&D). New designs target operating temperatures generally higher than 700 degrees C-800 degrees C -- and even above 1000 degrees C -- so that higher-performance power cycles such as the sCO2-Brayton cycle or air-Brayton/steam-Rankine combined cycle can be used to promote greater overall system efficiency. Central receiver thermal storage provides dispatchability unavailable from variable-output renewables such as solar photovoltaic and wind power. Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can

  10. Applied mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    Modern computer simulations make stress analysis easy. As they continue to replace classical mathematical methods of analysis, these software programs require users to have a solid understanding of the fundamental principles on which they are based. Develop Intuitive Ability to Identify and Avoid Physically Meaningless Predictions Applied Mechanics of Solids is a powerful tool for understanding how to take advantage of these revolutionary computer advances in the field of solid mechanics. Beginning with a description of the physical and mathematical laws that govern deformation in solids, the text presents modern constitutive equations, as well as analytical and computational methods of stress analysis and fracture mechanics. It also addresses the nonlinear theory of deformable rods, membranes, plates, and shells, and solutions to important boundary and initial value problems in solid mechanics. The author uses the step-by-step manner of a blackboard lecture to explain problem solving methods, often providing...

  11. Primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine in Costa Rican children who had received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine Vacunación primaria y de refuerzo con la vacuna pentavalente DTPw-HB/Hib en niños costarricenses vacunados al nacer contra la hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idis Faingezicht

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine has been developed following recommendations of the World Health Organization for the introduction of hepatitis B (HB and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into routine childhood vaccination programs. The objectives of this study were to: 1 analyze the immunogenicity and the reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination in a group of children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth and 2 in the second year of life to assess the antibody persistence as well as the response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster. Methods. In the first part of the study (primary-vaccination stage, conducted in 1998-1999, we analyzed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in 207 Costa Rican children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth. Later, in the booster-vaccination stage of the study, in 1999-2000, in a subset of the children (69 toddlers, now 15-18 months old, antibody persistence was measured, and response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster was also assessed. Results. In both primary-vaccination groups, at least 97.5% of the infants reached protective levels of antibodies (seropositivity against the antigens employed in the vaccines. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine did not result in more local reactions than did the DTPw-HB vaccine alone, and, in terms of general reactions, there was no clinically significant difference between the combination or separate injections, and with the pentavalent vaccine having the benefit of needing one less injection. Nine months after the third dose of the primary-vaccination course, antibody persistence was similar in both groups, with over 93% of children still having

  12. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  13. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  14. A solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A; Greuner, H; Jaksic, N; Böswirth, B; Maier, H; Neu, R; Vorbrugg, S

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is presented. The Div-III design is compatible with the existing divertor structure. It re-establishes the energy and heat receiving capability of a graphite divertor and overcomes the limitations of tungsten coatings. In addition, a solid tungsten divertor allows us to investigate erosion and bulk deuterium retention as well as test castellation and target tilting. The design criteria as well as calculations of forces due to halo and eddy currents are presented. The thermal properties of the proposed sandwich structure are calculated with finite element method models. After extensive testing of a target tile in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS, two solid tungsten tiles were installed in AUG for in-situ testing.

  15. Solid craniopharyngiomas treated by stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backlund, E.-O.

    1979-01-01

    The radiological changes of solid craniopharyngiomas treated by stereotactic radiosurgery have been followed. Nine cases are considered, the patients having received gamma radiation treatment with a dose distribution permitting no part of the tumour to receive doses less than 2-3 Gy. Target doses were 20 to 50 Gy. Tumour shrinkage was registered and no complications which could be attributed with certainty to the irradiation were encountered. The results did not allow an optimal single dose to be determined with accuracy but vaguely indicated that lower doses than those used are sufficient for desired effect on the tumour without jeopardizing its surroundings. (Auth./C.F.)

  16. Horses Helping Children Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Louise B.; Lindsey, Allison

    2017-01-01

    A review of Animal-Assisted Therapy and related terms such as "Animal-Assisted Activities" is presented as an introduction to the exploration of additional equine applications with children. Animal-Assisted Therapy has been studied, but Animal-Assisted Activities with children facing normal developmental struggles has not received much…

  17. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  18. Design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changhai; Han Kuixia; Wang Fei

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the theory of infrasonic generation and reception of nuclear explosion. An idea of the design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver using CPLD technology is given in it. Compare with the single capacitance infrasonic receiver, sensitivity of the improved receiver can be improved scores of times, dynamic range can be improved largely, and the whole performance gets improvement a lots

  19. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as cleaning... transportation applications as railways, vehicles or cranes. (b) Gauges and valves. (1) Air receivers shall be... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...

  20. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...

  1. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...

  2. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Primary energy production from solid biomass (wood, wood waste and other solid vegetal and animal materials) reached 62,4 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2006, i-e 3,1 more than in 2005. The primary energy coming from the direct combustion of renewable origin solid urban waste in incineration unit scan also be added to this figure. In 2006 this represented a production of 5,3 Mtoe, i-e 0,1 Mtoe more than in 2005. (author)

  3. Applications in solid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Kristian Breum; Wells, Garth N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems in solid mechanics constitute perhaps the largest field of application of finite element methods. The vast majority of solid mechanics problems involve the standard momentum balance equation, posed in a Lagrangian setting, with different models distinguished by the choice of nonlinear...... or linearized kinematics, and the constitutive model for determining the stress. For some common models, the constitutive relationships are rather complex. This chapter addresses a number of canonical solid mechanics models in the context of automated modeling, and focuses on some pertinent issues that arise...

  4. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  5. Acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e impactos na saúde de crianças residentes em assentamentos periurbanos de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Household solid waste bagging and collection and their health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Santos Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta estudo do acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e o impacto na saúde de crianças, por meio de pesquisa realizada em nove assentamentos humanos localizados em área periurbana da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Como indicadores epidemiológicos foram utilizados, em 1.893 crianças entre 5 e 14 anos, a infecção por nematóides intestinais, expressa pela prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e ancilostomídeos, e em 1.204 crianças menores de cinco anos, a incidência de diarréia e o estado nutricional, este expresso por indicadores antropométricos. Os resultados apresentam a maior prevalência dos três nematóides nas crianças dos domicílios que não dispõem de acondicionamento adequado e de coleta de resíduos sólidos que naquelas de domicílios com acondicionamento adequado e coleta regular, sendo a diferença encontrada estatisticamente significante, mesmo quando outros fatores de risco sócio-econômicos, culturais, demográficos e ambientais são considerados. Resultado semelhante é também observado com relação aos indicadores epidemiológicos, incidência de diarréia e estado nutricional.This paper presents a study on the bagging and collection of household solid waste and the health implications for children. The research was conducted in nine human settlements on the outskirts of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Intestinal nematode infection, predominantly involving Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, was used as an epidemiological indicator in 1,893 children from 5 to 14 years of age. The study also included diarrhea incidence and nutritional status as shown by anthropometric indicators in 1,204 children less than 5 years of age. There was a higher prevalence of the three nematodes in children living in households without proper bagging/isolation and collection of household solid waste as compared to those in areas with regular garbage

  6. Radiation resistance of plastic solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Noboru; Dojiri, Shigeru; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    The radiation from nucleides contained in solidified wates have some effects on the degradation of the solidification materials. This report deals with effects of such radiation on the mechanical strength of waste-plastics composites and on the generation of gasses. It is shown that the mechanical strength of polyethylene and polyester solids will not decrease at a total absorbed dose of 10 6 rad, a dose which a low-level waste composite is expected to receive during an infinite period of time. Rather, it increases in the case of polyethylene. The amount of gas generated from degraded polyethylene is about three times as large as that from polyester, namely, about 6 l per 200 l drum can at 10 6 rad. Hydrogen accounts for about 80 % of the total gas generated from polyethylene. On the other hand, the gas from polyester solid mainly contains hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane, with a composition greatly dependent on the type of the waste contained. It is concluded from these results that plastic materials can serve satisfactorily as for as the effects of radiation on their mechanical strength and gas generation are concerned. A more important problem still remaining to be solved is the effects of radiation on the leaching of radioactive nuclides. (Nogami, K.)

  7. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  8. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  9. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic ... We expect that m is a key order parameter for amorphous solids or glasses. .... It satisfies the mechanical equilibrium condition and can be calculated ...

  10. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  11. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  12. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  13. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  14. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  15. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  16. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Mortelmans, L.; Cutsem, E. van; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111 In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99m Tc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.) [de

  17. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencova Erika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054 mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084 mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010 and 0.018 (SD 0.008 mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake

  18. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, M.A.; Cammann, J.W.; McBeath, R.S.; Rode, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    A new Hanford waste management facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility (planned to be operational by FY 1994) will receive, inspect, process, and repackage contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) contaminated solid wastes. The wastes will be certified according to the waste acceptance criteria for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geologic repository in southeast New Mexico. Three alternatives which could cost effectively be applied to certify Hanford CH-TRU waste to the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) have been examined in this updated engineering study. The alternatives differed primarily in the reference processing systems used to transform nonconforming waste into an acceptable, certified waste form. It is recommended to include the alternative of shredding and immobilizing nonconforming wastes in cement (shred/grout processing) in the WRAP facility. Preliminary capital costs for WRAP in mid-point-of-construction (FY 1991) dollars were estimated at $45 million for new construction and $37 million for modification and installation in an existing Hanford surplus facility (231-Z Building). Operating, shipping, and decommissioning costs in FY 1986 dollars were estimated at $126 million, based on a 23-y WRAP life cycle (1994 to 2017). During this period, the WRAP facility will receive an estimated 38,000 m 3 (1.3 million ft 3 ) of solid CH-TRU waste. The study recommends pilot-scale testing and evaluation of the processing systems planned for WRAP and advises further investigation of the 231-Z Building as an alternative to new facility construction

  19. Inadequate feeding practices and impaired growth among children from subsistence farming households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael; Arbide, Isabel; Teshome, Aklilu; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2009-07-01

    Whether current child feeding practices and behaviours among rural households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia conform to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles for complementary feeding is uncertain. We assessed socio-demographic status, anthropometry, breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and behaviours, and motor development milestones in a convenience sample of 97 breastfed children aged 6-23 months from three rural Sidama communities. Energy and nutrient intakes from complementary foods were also calculated from 1-day in-home weighed records. Prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% for infants aged 6-8 months to 52% for children aged 12-23 months, whereas for wasting, the corresponding prevalence was 10% and 14%, respectively. Very few children were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age (n = 2), or received solids/semi-solids for the recommended minimum number of times containing the recommended number of food groups. Responsive feeding was not practised and no cellular animal products were consumed. Median intakes of energy, and intakes and densities of micronutrients from complementary foods (but not protein) were below WHO recommendations, assuming average breast milk intakes; greatest shortfalls were for retinol, vitamin C and calcium densities. Mothers of stunted children were shorter and lighter, and from households of lower socio-economic status than non-stunted children (P feeding practices and behaviours, as well as prenatal influences on growth, are urgently required in this setting.

  20. Who Receives Speech/Language Services by 5 Years of Age in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve; Cook, Michael; Morano, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to identify factors predictive of or associated with receipt of speech/language services during early childhood. We did so by analyzing data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; Andreassen & Fletcher, 2005), a nationally representative data set maintained by the U.S. Department of Education. We addressed two research questions of particular importance to speech-language pathology practice and policy. First, do early vocabulary delays increase children's likelihood of receiving speech/language services? Second, are minority children systematically less likely to receive these services than otherwise similar White children? Method Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for a population-based sample of 9,600 children and families participating in the ECLS-B. Results Expressive vocabulary delays by 24 months of age were strongly associated with and predictive of children's receipt of speech/language services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 4.32–16.60). Black children were less likely to receive speech/language services than otherwise similar White children at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 0.42–0.55). Lower socioeconomic status children and those whose parental primary language was other than English were also less likely to receive services. Being born with very low birth weight also significantly increased children's receipt of services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Conclusion Expressive vocabulary delays at 24 months of age increase children’s risk for later speech/language services. Increased use of culturally and linguistically sensitive practices may help racial/ethnic minority children access needed services. PMID:26579989

  1. Parental and aloparental care received by children in public and private schools in Vitória, ES / Cuidados parentais e aloparentais recebidos por crianças de escolas públicas e particulares de Vitória – ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Wright Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the participation of parents and other adults in the caretaking of children in two socio-economic contexts. We found the caretaking is predominant whith participation of related and non that parental related aloparents in all the caretaking tasks assessed. There were differences due to the contexts. Parents of children attending public schools shared more caretaking tasks than parents of children attending private schools. Related aloparents were more frequently responsible for the caretaking of children from public schools while employees were more frequently responsible for children from private schools. Our results show that the socio-economic context is an important factor in the variation of caretaking of children, both for parents and aloparents.

  2. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food ... per day, but will eat more at each feeding than the first 6 months. If you feed ...

  3. KANSAS KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2000: Kansas Children at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This KIDS COUNT Data Book provides state and county data on the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 22 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children living in poverty; (3) children receiving free school meals; (4) children in families receiving economic assistance; (5) childhood deaths; (6)…

  4. Translational Research in Pediatrics IV: Solid Tissue Collection and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Zielke, H Ronald; Fraser, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Solid tissues are critical for child-health research. Specimens are commonly obtained at the time of biopsy/surgery or postmortem. Research tissues can also be obtained at the time of organ retrieval for donation or from tissue that would otherwise have been discarded. Navigating the ethics of solid tissue collection from children is challenging, and optimal handling practices are imperative to maximize tissue quality. Fresh biopsy/surgical specimens can be affected by a variety of factors, including age, gender, BMI, relative humidity, freeze/thaw steps, and tissue fixation solutions. Postmortem tissues are also vulnerable to agonal factors, body storage temperature, and postmortem intervals. Nonoptimal tissue handling practices result in nucleotide degradation, decreased protein stability, artificial posttranslational protein modifications, and altered lipid concentrations. Tissue pH and tryptophan levels are 2 methods to judge the quality of solid tissue collected for research purposes; however, the RNA integrity number, together with analyses of housekeeping genes, is the new standard. A comprehensive clinical data set accompanying all tissue samples is imperative. In this review, we examined: the ethical standards relating to solid tissue procurement from children; potential sources of solid tissues; optimal practices for solid tissue processing, handling, and storage; and reliable markers of solid tissue quality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  6. RF subsystem design for microwave communication receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, W. J.; Brodsky, W. G.

    A system review of the RF subsystems of (IFF) transponders, tropscatter receivers and SATCOM receivers is presented. The quantity potential for S-band and X-band IFF transponders establishes a baseline requirement. From this, the feasibility of a common design for these and other receivers is evaluated. Goals are established for a GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) device and related local oscillator preselector and self-test components.

  7. Práticas alimentares e estado nutricional de crianças no segundo semestre de vida atendidas na rede pública de saúde Feeding practices and nutritional status of children in the second semester of life who receive care in public health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Paula Modesto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e as práticas alimentares de crianças no segundo semestre de vida atendidas na rede pública de saúde do município de Taboão da Serra, SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal conduzido em Unidades Básicas de Saúde, classificadas em dois agrupamentos (região central e região periférica. A amostra foi constituída por 180 crianças, sendo 90 de cada agrupamento. O consumo alimentar foi registrado pelo método recordatório de 24 horas. Foram tomadas medidas de peso e dosagem de hemoglobina por punção capilar. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia encontrada foi de 30,5% sem diferença entre os grupos. Os valores das medianas do escore-Z (peso/idade foram: 0,02 e 0,03, para os agrupamentos central e periférico, respectivamente. A utilização de suplemento de ferro apresentou diferença entre os grupos (p=0,001, sendo mais presente no agrupamento periférico, enquanto que para a vitamina A, a suplementação foi significantemente maior no agrupamento central (p=0,044. Verificou-se introdução precoce de alimentos distintos do leite materno na dieta infantil e diferença significante entre os grupos na idade de introdução de chá, suco de fruta, sopa e sopa com carne no esquema alimentar. Em relação à ingestão de nutrientes verificou-se consumo adequado de energia e proteínas, mas quanto aos micronutrientes estudados, há grande probabilidade de inadequação do consumo de ferro e vitamina C. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de anemia é relativamente reduzida, comparada com os dados obtidos em outros locais, e o esquema de introdução de alimentos complementares é inadequado, frente às recomendações atuais. A utilização de suplementos de nutrientes deve ser revista.OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional status and feeding practices of children in the second semester of life who receive care in public health facilities of the city of Taboão da Serra, SP. METHODS: This is a cross

  8. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  9. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on Receiving Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Woolley, Joshua D; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2017-11-27

    Receiving help can be a "mixed blessing." Despite the many psychosocial benefits it can carry, it sometimes has negative psychological consequences, such as loss in self-esteem or enhanced guilt. It is, therefore, important to understand the factors that modify responses to receiving help from others. We explored the role of the hormone oxytocin (OT) on affective and social responses to receiving help, given the putative role of OT in social bonding and attunement. To this end, we manipulated whether help was received from a same-sex interaction partner (confederate) versus a control condition, crossed with a double-blind administration of intranasal OT (vs. placebo), and examined subjective and observer-rated participant responses to help. We observed significant interactions between OT and the help manipulation. In the placebo condition, receiving help from the interaction partner compared with the control condition had negative consequences, such that participants reported greater negative affect and came to view themselves and their interaction partners more negatively after interacting together on several tasks. What is important, however, is that OT administration buffered against these negative subjective responses to receiving help. Further, outside observers rated participants who received OT administration as expressing greater happiness and gratitude in response to help, relative to those who received placebo. In sum, in the context of receiving help from a stranger, oxytocin administration fostered more positive affective and social responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  11. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... the bit error rate performance is degraded by the subsampling in the CS-enabled receivers, this may be remedied by including quantization in the receiver model.We also study the computational complexity of the proposed receiver design under different sparsity and measurement ratios. Our work shows...

  12. Um estudo com egressos de instituições para crianças em situação de rua: percepção acerca da situação atual de vida e do atendimento recebido A study on street children who have left institutions: perceptions of current life situations and received treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normanda Araújo de Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva identificar a situação atual de vida de egressos de uma instituição de atendimento para crianças e adolescentes em situação de rua, a avaliação que fazem do momento atual de vida, bem como compreender a sua percepção acerca da referida instituição e do atendimento recebido. Participaram nove adolescentes do sexo masculino (18-20 anos. Utilizou-se uma entrevista semi-estruturada, a qual foi analisada a partir do procedimento de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostraram uma variedade de situações de vida. O momento atual de vida foi descrito como satisfatório e a instituição frequentada no passado também foi avaliada de forma positiva. Os resultados são discutidos à luz da trajetória de vinculação institucional (TVI, das modalidades de saída da rua descritas na literatura e da importância da vinculação educador - criança/adolescente. Implicações para as políticas públicas de atendimento a essa população são discutidas.This article aims to identify the life situations of street children and adolescents after leaving care institutions; note how they evaluate their current life; and understand how they perceive the institution in which they stayed and the treatment they received there. Nine male adolescents participated (18-20 years old. A semi-structured interview script, evaluated through content analysis, was used. The results revealed a variety of life situations. The participants tended to describe their current life situation as satisfactory and they also positively evaluated the institution in which they stayed. The results are discussed in the context of Institutional Tie Trajectory (ITT; the modalities for leaving the streets as described in the literature; and the importance of the relationship between educator and child/adolescent. The implications for public policies treating this population are discussed.

  13. 42 CFR 435.117 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public..., Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is receiving...

  14. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  15. Metronomic Chemotherapy vs Best Supportive Care in Progressive Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Raja; Agarwala, Sandeep; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Batra, Atul; Dhawan, Deepa; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2017-09-01

    Although oral metronomic chemotherapy is often used in progressive pediatric solid malignant tumors, a literature review reveals that only small single-arm retrospective or phase 1 and 2 studies have been performed. Skepticism abounds because of the lack of level 1 evidence. To compare the effect of metronomic chemotherapy on progression-free survival (PFS) with that of placebo in pediatric patients with primary extracranial, nonhematopoietic solid malignant tumors that progress after at least 2 lines of chemotherapy. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted from October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015, at the cancer center at All India Institute of Medical Sciences in children aged 5 to 18 years with primary extracranial, nonhematopoietic solid malignant tumors that progressed after at least 2 lines of chemotherapy and had no further curative options. One arm received a 4-drug oral metronomic regimen of daily celecoxib and thalidomide with alternating periods of etoposide and cyclophosphamide, whereas the other arm received placebo. Disease status was assessed at baseline, 9 weeks, 18 weeks, and 27 weeks or at clinical progression. The primary end point was PFS as defined by the proportion of patients without disease progression at 6 months, and PFS duration and overall survival (OS) were secondary end points. A total of 108 of the 123 patients screened were enrolled, with 52 randomized to the placebo group (median age, 15 years; 40 male [76.9%]) and 56 to the metronomic chemotherapy group (median age, 13 years; 42 male [75.0%]). At a median follow-up of 2.9 months, 100% of the patients had disease progression by 6 months in the placebo group vs 96.4% in the metronomic chemotherapy group (P = .24). Median PFS and OS in the 2 groups was similar (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47-1.03 [P = .07] for PFS; and HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.50-1.09 [P = .13] for OS). In post hoc subgroup analysis, cohorts receiving more than

  16. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The European (EU 25) wish to substitute solid biomass origin energy consumption (principally wood and wood waste, but also straw, crop harvest residues, vegetal and animal waste) for a part of that of fossil fuel origin (petrol, gas and coal) is beginning to pay off. 58,7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) of solid biomass was produced in 2005, i.e. a 3.1 Mtoe increase with respect to 2004. Production of primary energy coming from direct combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in incineration plants should also be added on to this figure. The 0,2 Mtoe increase in this production with respect to 2004 brings valorization of this type of waste up to 5,3 Mtoe in 2005. (author)

  17. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  18. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  19. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  20. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  3. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  4. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  5. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  6. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  7. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  8. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  9. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  10. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  11. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford's SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford's future solid waste management requirements

  12. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  13. Physical properties of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies

  14. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  15. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  16. Solid biomass barometer 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  18. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  19. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  20. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  1. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  2. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  3. GPU Acceleration of DSP for Communication Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Jake; Gunther, Hyrum; Moon, Todd

    2017-09-01

    Graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of signal processing algorithms can outperform CPU-based implementations. This paper describes the GPU implementation of several algorithms encountered in a wide range of high-data rate communication receivers including filters, multirate filters, numerically controlled oscillators, and multi-stage digital down converters. These structures are tested by processing the 20 MHz wide FM radio band (88-108 MHz). Two receiver structures are explored: a single channel receiver and a filter bank channelizer. Both run in real time on NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 graphics card.

  4. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  5. Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2018-01-01

    Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.

  6. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  7. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  8. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  9. Effects of Bio solids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.; Butler, C.; Cody, J.; Warne, M.S.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; Bell, M.; Barry, G.; Pritchard, D.; Penny, N.; Penny, N.

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with bio solids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Bio solids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, bio solids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did bio solids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Bio solids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the bio solids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that bio solids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  12. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... of interest accrued to the date of the balance sheet on bonds, notes, and other commercial paper...

  13. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  14. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  15. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  16. Breastfeeding pattern and nutritional status of children under two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 16.6% express breast-milk and the median duration for continued breastfeeding in this study was 18months. Complementary foods given to the children are mostly home prepared cereals, solids and semi-solid foods. About 30.4% of the children were stunted, 25.4% were underweight and 15.3% were wasted.

  17. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Phillip J., E-mail: pt06@aub.edu.lb [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Khater, Nabil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, University of St. Joseph, P.O. Box 166830, Alfred Naccache Blvd, Beirut (Lebanon); Zhang, Rui [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Geara, Fady B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Mahajan, Anita [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Jalbout, Wassim [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Pérez-Andújar, Angélica [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Youssef, Bassem [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Newhauser, Wayne D. [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care.

  18. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B.; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care

  19. Single-Receiver GPS Phase Bias Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, William I.; Haines, Bruce J.; Weiss, Jan P.; Harvey, Nathaniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing software has been modified to yield the benefits of integer fixed double-differenced GPS-phased ambiguities when processing data from a single GPS receiver with no access to any other GPS receiver data. When the double-differenced combination of phase biases can be fixed reliably, a significant improvement in solution accuracy is obtained. This innovation uses a large global set of GPS receivers (40 to 80 receivers) to solve for the GPS satellite orbits and clocks (along with any other parameters). In this process, integer ambiguities are fixed and information on the ambiguity constraints is saved. For each GPS transmitter/receiver pair, the process saves the arc start and stop times, the wide-lane average value for the arc, the standard deviation of the wide lane, and the dual-frequency phase bias after bias fixing for the arc. The second step of the process uses the orbit and clock information, the bias information from the global solution, and only data from the single receiver to resolve double-differenced phase combinations. It is called "resolved" instead of "fixed" because constraints are introduced into the problem with a finite data weight to better account for possible errors. A receiver in orbit has much shorter continuous passes of data than a receiver fixed to the Earth. The method has parameters to account for this. In particular, differences in drifting wide-lane values must be handled differently. The first step of the process is automated, using two JPL software sets, Longarc and Gipsy-Oasis. The resulting orbit/clock and bias information files are posted on anonymous ftp for use by any licensed Gipsy-Oasis user. The second step is implemented in the Gipsy-Oasis executable, gd2p.pl, which automates the entire process, including fetching the information from anonymous ftp

  20. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms

  1. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    , orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition......Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first...

  2. School Performance and Disciplinary Problems among Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, John; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Neglected, or physically or sexually abused, children performed poorer on standardized tests, received lower grades, were more likely to repeat a grade and had more discipline referrals than nonmaltreated children. Among maltreated children, neglected children showed the poorest academic performance, and physically abused children had the most…

  3. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.

    2016-08-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  4. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G

    2015-12-23

    , although the uncertainty surrounding the effect estimate means that the 95% CI ranges from 2 NNTB, to 111 NNTH (number needed to treat in order to harm one additional person, i.e. for one additional person to develop oral mucositis).The results were similar for moderate to severe oral mucositis (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.09, 5 studies, 270 analysed, low quality evidence). NNTB 3 (95% CI 2 NNTB to 17 NNTH).Severe oral mucositis is probably reduced (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.72, 5 studies, 270 analysed, moderate quality evidence). Where 427 per 1000 would develop severe oral mucositis, oral cryotherapy would reduce this to 162 (95% CI 85 to 308), NNTB 4 (95% CI 3 to 9).Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance, and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.There was limited or no evidence on the secondary outcomes of this review, or on patients undergoing other chemotherapies, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, or on comparisons of oral cryotherapy with other interventions or different oral cryotherapy regimens. Therefore no further robust conclusions can be made. There was also no evidence on the effects of oral cryotherapy in children undergoing cancer treatment. We are confident that oral cryotherapy leads to large reductions in oral mucositis of all severities in adults receiving 5FU for solid cancers. We are less confident in the ability of oral cryotherapy to reduce oral mucositis in adults receiving high-dose melphalan before HSCT. Evidence suggests that it does reduce oral mucositis in these adults, but we are less certain about the size of the reduction, which could be large or small. However, we are confident that there is an appreciable reduction in severe oral mucositis in these adults.This Cochrane review includes some very recent and currently unpublished data, and strengthens international guideline statements

  5. Vivencias psicosociales reveladas por niños que reciben tratamiento con quimioterapia por cáncer Vivências psicossociais de crianças com tratamento de quimioterapia por câncer Psychosocial experiences of children receiving chemotherapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA CECILIA VANEGAS DE AHOGADO

    áveis; as duas primeiras afetam de forma diferente na vida pessoal, familiar, escolar e geral das crianças. é importante salientar que normalmente a queda de cabelo nas crianças provoca deboche e repulsão por parte de seus companheiros, o que produz o efeito mais notório sobre a imagem própria; por outro lado, o absentismo escolar traz dificuldades acadêmicas e sentimentos de tristeza nessas crianças, situação que se agrava quando, por causa do tratamento, elas devem viajar longe de seu domicilio e ficar afastados da sua família e seus amigos por muito tempo. Conclui-se que a maior parte das revelações são chocantes devido a o alto conteúdo de sofrimento e dor para essas crianças, o que demonstra a urgência de retomar os achados do estudo para orientar o cuidado de enfermagem para uma forma mais integral e fazer tudo que for preciso para fazer o mesmo no lar e nas instituições educativas.A qualitative study was carried out in order to discover psychosocial experiences of boys and girls receiving chemotherapy treatment for cancer. Information was collected through ludic encounters with the support of some basic questions to facilitate narrative disclosures. Three aspects stand out among findings in the study: unfavorable experiences, experiences related to self esteem and favorable experiences; the first two, in different ways, affect boys and girls' personal, family and school life, and in general, all of their environment. It is worth highlighting that, as a consequence of hair loss, they are frequently the object of mockery and rejection by school mates, which produces the most notorious effect over their self image; on the other hand, school absenteeism causes academic difficulties and feelings of sadness in these children, situations get worse when, due to treatment, they have to live far away from the city, being subject to long periods of separation, not only from their families, but also from their peers. It is concluded that most disclosures are

  6. Vivencias psicosociales reveladas por niños que reciben tratamiento con quimioterapia por cáncer Psychosocial experiences of children receiving chemotherapy for cancer Vivências psicossociais de crianças com tratamento de quimioterapia por câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIVERA ZABALA JOHANNA MARCELA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio cualitativo con el propósito de descubrir las vivencias psicosociales de niños y niñas de 9 a 12 años que recibían tratamiento con quimioterapia por cáncer. La recolección de la información se hizo mediante encuentros lúdicos con el apoyo de algunas preguntas básicas que facilitaron las revelaciones narrativas. Tres aspectos se destacan en los hallazgos del estudio: vivencias desfavorables, vivencias relacionadas con la autoestima y vivencias favorables; las dos primeras, de diversa manera, afectan en estos niños su vida personal, familiar, escolar y, en general, todo su entorno. Es de resaltar que, como consecuencia de la caída del cabello, con frecuencia han sido objeto de burla y de rechazo por sus compañeros de estudio, lo que produce el más notorio efecto sobre su autoimagen; por otra parte, el ausentismo escolar conlleva dificultades académicas y sentimientos de tristeza en estos niños, situación que empeora cuando, por motivos de tratamiento, su lugar de residencia está alejado de la ciudad, viéndose sometidos a largos periodos de separación, no solo de su familia sino de sus pares. Se concluye que la mayor parte de las revelaciones son impactantes por su gran contenido de sufrimiento y dolor para estos niños, lo que demuestra la urgencia de retomar los hallazgos del estudio para orientar el cuidado de enfermería de manera más integral y apoyar para que se haga lo propio en el hogar y en las instituciones educativas.A qualitative study was carried out in order to discover psychosocial experiences of boys and girls receiving chemotherapy treatment for cancer. Information was collected through ludic encounters with the support of some basic questions to facilitate narrative disclosures. Three aspects stand out among findings in the study: unfavorable experiences, experiences related to self esteem and favorable experiences; the first two, in different ways, affect boys and girls’ personal

  7. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  8. THE ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE SYSTEM INFLUENCE ON RECEIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pluta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing waste water discharges to the receiver is now one of the most important activities to ensure the protection of surface waters. This is caused mainly by progressive urbanization and increasing impervious surfaces. Discharge of sewage with a large load of pollutants affect the receivers in a negative way. The quality of waste water varies and depends on many factors, but above all, it is closely linked with sewer system applied to the drainage catchment. The article presents a comparative analysis of the environmental impact of three basic sewer systems: combined, separate and semi-separate. The analysis was performed for a typical urban catchment, using the average concentration of the basic indicators of pollution, which total suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorus, COD, BOD5, selected heavy metals are merked. The results concluded that each of these sewer systems characterized by varying environmental impacts depending on the indicator of pollution. The best of today available technical solutions seem to be semi-separate sewer system, using the storage tank with the control in real time (RTC for controlling the flow.

  9. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  10. Acoustics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Beltzer, Abraham I

    1988-01-01

    Technological developments in composite materials, non-destructive testing, and signal processing as well as biomedical applications, have stimulated wide-ranging engineering investigations of heterogeneous, anisotropic media and surface waves of different types. Wave propagation in solids is now of considerable importance in a variety of applications. The book presents many of the key results in this field and interprets them from a unified engineering viewpoint. The conceptual importance and relevance for applications were the prevailing criteria in selecting the topics. Included are body and surface waves in elastic, viscoelastic, and piezoelectric media and waveguides, with emphasis on the effects of inhomogeneity and anisotropy. The book differs in many aspects from the other monographs dealing with wave propagation in solids. It focuses on physically meaningful theoretical models, a broad spectrum of which is covered, and not on mathematical techniques. Some of the results, particularly those dealing wi...

  11. Edge remap for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  13. Probing solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The wide application of scattering experiments in the study of the structures of solids and liquids is surveyed. Part 1 of the review (Martin. Contemp. Phys.;vol. 18, No. 1: Jan. 1977:pp. 81-98) showed how the angular distribution of a scattered beam of photons or neutrons is related by Fourier transform to the space and time-dependent distributions of electrons and nuclei in the scattering target. The use of x-rays and of neutrons in determining time-averaged density distributions was examined. In this part the time-dependent aspects of the distributions for solids and liquids, including helium, are discussed. The dynamical distributions of magnetism (or angular momentum) density are considered, and the present limitations and future possibilities of scattering experiments are examined. (U.K.)

  14. Solid propellant impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1976-03-01

    Future space missions, as in the past, call for the continued use of radioisotopes as heat sources for thermoelectric power generators. In an effort to minimize the risk of radioactive contamination of the environment, a complete safety analysis of each such system is necessary. As a part of these analyses, the effects on such a system of a solid propellant fire environment resulting from a catastrophic launch pad abort must be considered. Several impact tests were conducted in which either a simulant MHW-FSA or a steel ball was dropped on the cold, unignited or the hot, burning surface of a block of UTP-3001 solid propellant. The rebound velocities were measured for both surface conditions of the propellant. The resulting coefficient of restitution, determined as the ratio of the components of the impact and rebound velocities perpendicular to the impact surface of the propellant, were not very dependent on whether the surface was cold or hot at the time of impact

  15. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  16. Solid phase extraction membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  17. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  18. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  20. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  1. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The economic and financial crisis has not brought solid biomass energy growth to a standstill. Primary energy production in the European Union member states increased in 2008 by 2,3%, which represents a gain of 1,5% million tonnes of oil equivalent over 2007. This growth was particularly marked in electricity production which increased output by 10,8% over 2007, an additional 5,6 TWh. (A.L.B.)

  2. Solid waste management: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The source, effect and characterization of solid wastes are discussed. Constituents of municipal solid wastes and a comparative compositions of municipal solid waste with some data on Lebanon are given. Collection, transport and processing practices are next introduced. Finally treatment and disposal techniques are presented with emphasis on the solid waste as energy source and as material source. Methods of recycling are evaluated in respect with their environmental impact. 7 refs. 2 tabs

  3. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  4. Conformal solids and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.

    2017-12-01

    We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.

  5. Volatiles from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, C T

    1939-08-24

    To remove volatiles from solids, such as oil shale, gases, and/or vapours are passed through a mass of the materials, the vapours and gases separated, and the vapours condensed. The volatile-containing solid materials are fed to a retort, and a shaft is driven to rotate an impeller so as to displace the liquid and create a vortex tube, which draws in gas from the atmosphere through an intake, twyer, interstices in the material in the retort, a conduit, chamber, tubes, another chamber and cylinder. This gas is carried outwardly and upwardly by the vortices in the liquid and is carried to discharge through three conduits. The vapours entrained by the gas are part condensed in the liquid and the remainder directed to a condenser. Steam may be delivered to the twyer through a nozzle of a pipe, with or without air, and combustible hydrocarbon fuel may be fed through the burner nozzle or solid fuel may be directed from feeder and combusted in the twyer.

  6. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  7. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  8. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it is possible, every effort is made to limit the amount of radiation children may receive from ... CT scanner or may be over the weight limit—usually 450 pounds—for the moving table. Other ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation children may receive from a CT scan. One of the best ways of limiting radiation exposure ... or pediatrician and the radiologist will decide which type of examination is best for your child. top ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ... radiation children may receive from a CT scan. One of the best ways of limiting radiation exposure ...

  12. Solid targetry for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present experimental results of solid targetry for compact cyclotrons. It is concluded: Solid targetry is not restricted to large accelerator centers anymore; Small and medium scale radioisotope production is feasible with compact cyclotrons; The availability of versatile solid target systems is expected to boost the radiochemistry of 'exotic' positron emitters

  13. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  14. ASTRID© - Advanced Solar Tubular ReceIver Design: A powerful tool for receiver design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas; Uhlig, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    In solar tower power plants the receiver is one of the critical components. It converts the solar radiation into heat and must withstand high heat flux densities and high daily or even hourly gradients (due to passage of clouds). For this reason, the challenge during receiver design is to find a reasonable compromise between receiver efficiency, reliability, lifetime and cost. There is a strong interaction between the heliostat field, the receiver and the heat transfer fluid. Therefore, a proper receiver design needs to consider these components within the receiver optimization. There are several design and optimization tools for receivers, but most of them focus only on the receiver, ignoring the heliostat field and other parts of the plant. During the last years DLR developed the ASTRIDcode for tubular receiver concept simulation. The code comprises both a high and a low-detail model. The low-detail model utilizes a number of simplifications which allow the user to screen a high number of receiver concepts for optimization purposes. The high-detail model uses a FE model and is able to compute local absorber and salt temperatures with high accuracy. One key strength of the ASTRIDcode is its interface to a ray tracing software which simulates a realistic heat flux distributions on the receiver surface. The results generated by the ASTRIDcode have been validated by CFD simulations and measurement data.

  15. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Ba-hat t B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: jean-claude.commercon@insa-lyon.fr; Badard, Robert [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Bat B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: robert.badard@insa-lyon.fr

    2005-02-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal.

  16. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  17. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  18. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan

    2009-01-01

    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  19. The ARSQ: the athletes' received support questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul; Coffee, Pete; Moll, Tjerk; Rees, Tim; Sammy, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    To address calls for context-specific measurement of social support, this article reports the development of the Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) and demonstrates initial evidence for its validity. Across four studies there was support for a four-dimensional structure reflecting emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible received support. There was also support for unidimensional and higher-order models. Further, Study 3 provided some support for convergent validity, with significant correlations between the corresponding dimensions of the ARSQ and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors. Study 4 provided evidence for the nomological validity of the ARSQ. Emotional and esteem support significantly predicted self-confidence and positive affect, and tangible support significantly moderated the relationship between stress and negative affect. Collectively, these results provide initial evidence for the validity of the ARSQ, and offer researchers flexibility to adopt either a multidimensional or aggregated approach to measuring received support.

  20. Precision Continuum Receivers for Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers find widespread use in radioastronomy receivers. In recent years, these devices have also been commonly employed in broadband receivers for precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In this setting, the combination of ultra-low-noise and low-spectral-resolution observations reinforce the importance achieving suitable control over the device environment to achieve fundamentally limited receiver performance. The influence of the intrinsic amplifier stability at low frequencies on data quality (e.g., achievable noise and residual temporal correlations), observational and calibration strategies, as well as architectural mitigation approaches in this setting will be discussed. The implications of device level 1/f fluctuations reported in the literature on system performance will be reviewed.

  1. Multistandard Receiver Design for Telemedicine Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In short-distance wireless communications for telemedicine monitoring, different medical data measurement equipment has different wireless transmission modes. A multistandard receiver is designed that can adapt to different medical data measuring equipment. Using a second-order bandpass sampling for the design of antialiasing filters, two aliasing signals can be separated. Simultaneously, constraint conditions for sampling frequency are not as critical. The design is useful for a multistandard receiver in a telemedicine monitoring system and has the advantages such as saving spectrum resources and facilitating spectrum planning.

  2. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  3. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.

    2014-01-01

    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  4. Billing and accounts receivable: fundamentals for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, M M

    1993-07-01

    If a healthcare facility's accounts receivable operation is experiencing problems, the patient accounts manager should survey all areas of his or her responsibility to determine the best method of resolving the difficulties. One effective technique to reduce billing problems is to take a proactive--not reactive--approach. If mistakes can be corrected before they get out of control, and if the patient accounts manager can ensure that claims will not be denied, a healthcare facility's accounts receivable should remain in good condition.

  5. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available are transmitted to the receiver. In the proposed method, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide reliable estimates of a soft timing signal, which in turn, improves the decoding time. The derived method... as ( ) ( )( )1 2 1 2, ,..., , ,...,Q Qk k k k k k k k ka a x x x P a x x xη∗ ∗∈Β= ∑ (29) where ( )1 2, ,..., Qk k kx x x are the Q coded bits in a multilevel symbol modulation scheme [32]. According to [29], the soft information demapper computes posteriori...

  6. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2018-03-01

    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.

  7. Emerging applications of spark plasma sintering in all solid-state lithium-ion batteries and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongzheng; Liu, Jian

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state batteries have received increasing attention due to their high safety aspect and high energy and power densities. However, the development of solid-state batteries is hindered by inferior solid-solid interfaces between the solid-state electrolyte and electrode, which cause high interfacial resistance, reduced Li-ion and electron transfer rate, and limited battery performance. Recently, spark plasma sintering (SPS) is emerging as a promising technique for fabricating solid-state electrolyte and electrode pellets with clean and intimate solid-solid interfaces. During the SPS process, the unique reaction mechanism through the combination of current, pressure and high heating rate allow the formation of desirable solid-solid interfaces between active material particles. Herein, this work focuses on the overview of the application of SPS for fabricating solid-state electrolyte and electrode in all solid-state Li-ion batteries, and beyond, such as solid-state Li-S and Na-ion batteries. The correlations among SPS parameters, interfacial resistance, and electrochemical properties of solid-state electrolytes and electrodes are discussed for different material systems. In the end, we point out future opportunities and challenges associated with SPS application in the hot area of solid-state batteries. It is expected that this timely review will stimulate more fundamental and applied research in the development of solid-state batteries by SPS.

  8. Richard W. Ziolkowski Receives Honorary Doctorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    At the annual Commemoration of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on April 27, 2012, Prof. Richard W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona (UoA), received DTU's highest academic degree, the Honorary Doctor degree: Doctor Technices Honoris Causa (Figure 1). Prof. Ziolkowski has been a close...

  9. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2004-01-01

    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  10. 7 CFR 966.124 - Approved receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, the following information: (1) Name, address, contact person, telephone number, and e-mail... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved receiver. 966.124 Section 966.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  11. Optimization of Passive Coherent Receiver System Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    spheroid object with a constant radar cross section (RCS). Additionally, the receiver and transmitters are assumed to be notional isotropic antennae...software- defined radio for equatorial plasma instability studies,” Radio Science, vol. 48, pp. 1–11. Aug. 2013. [2] P. C. Zhang and B. Y. Li, “Passive

  12. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  13. 8. Prevalence of Epistaxis among Patients Receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The aim of this study was thus to determine the prevalence, aetiology and treatment modalities of epistaxis among patients receiving otorhinolaryngology services at MNH and MOI. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, hospital based study was done to 427 patients at Muhimbili. National Hospital (MNH) and Muhimbili.

  14. Receiving Assistance and Local Food System Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Som Castellano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A body of literature has noted that local food systems (LFSs may not involve active participation by individuals with lower incomes. This is, in part, a function of racial and class hegemony, as well as physical and financial accessibility of LFSs. LFS institutions, such as farmers’ markets, have been working to facilitate receipt of food assistance programs, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. Charitable assistance programs, such as food banks, have also been actively working to engage in LFSs, for example, by making local foods available. However, little research has explored the role that receiving public or charitable assistance can play in influencing LFS participation. In this article, I utilize quantitative and qualitative data collected from across the state of Ohio to examine the relationship between receiving assistance and LFS participation for women, who remain predominately responsible for food provisioning in the U.S., including among those who participate in LFSs. Quantitative results suggest that receiving assistance can increase participation in LFSs. Qualitative data provides more nuanced information about the importance of food assistance for women who want to participate in LFSs, and suggest that it is essential that food cooperatives and farmers’ markets are equipped to receive food assistance programs, such as SNAP, in order for women with lower incomes to participate in LFSs.

  15. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  16. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  17. Atomic mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A K

    1990-01-01

    This volume brings together some of the presently available theoretical techniques which will be useful in the design of solid-state materials. At present, it is impossible to specify the atomic composition of a material and its macroscopic physical properties. However, the future possibilities for such a science are being laid today. This is coming about due to the development of fast, cheap computers which will be able to undertake the calculations which are necessary.Since this field of science is fairly new, it is not yet quite clear which direction of analysis will eventually prov

  18. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  19. Physics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive text covers the basic physics of the solid state starting at an elementary level suitable for undergraduates but then advancing, in stages, to a graduate and advanced graduate level. In addition to treating the fundamental elastic, electrical, thermal, magnetic, structural, electronic, transport, optical, mechanical and compositional properties, we also discuss topics like superfluidity and superconductivity along with special topics such as strongly correlated systems, high-temperature superconductors, the quantum Hall effects, and graphene. Particular emphasis is given to so-called first principles calculations utilizing modern density functional theory which for many systems now allow accurate calculations of the electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties.

  20. Contacting solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    A solids/liquid (or slurry/liquid) contactor is described comprising a container through which the phases flow, rotatable discs with a rotor dividing the container into a series of interconnected compartments and, in at least some of the compartments, receptacles extending between the discs to effect phase transfer. At least one of the compartments is free of receptacles or has receptacles arranged on a smaller diameter than in other compartments to form a settling chamber. The contactor may be used in the extraction of oil-sands or uranium or purification of china clay. (author)