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Sample records for children receiving highly

  1. Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*

    OpenAIRE

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa; Hazra, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercho...

  2. MRI in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial MRI was obtained in 13 of a group of 57 children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition, who were being investigated for hypermanganasaemia. Increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images has been reported in adult patients on long-term parenteral nutrition and with encephalopathy following chronic manganese exposure in arc welding. It has been postulated that these changes are due to deposition of the paramagnetic trace element manganese. In excess manganese is hepato- and neurotoxic and we present the correlation of whole blood manganese levels with imaging findings. The age range of our patients was 6 months to 10 years, and the duration of therapy 3 months to 10 years. In 7 children we found characteristic increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with no abnormality on T2-weighted images. All patients had elevated whole blood manganese levels, suggesting that the basis for this abnormality is indeed deposition of manganese within the tissues. (orig.). With 3 figs

  3. High rates of virological failure and drug resistance in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving lifelong antiretroviral therapy in routine clinics in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounerou Salou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving ART in Togo. Methods: HIV viral load (VL testing was consecutively proposed to all children and adolescents who were on ART for at least 12 months when attending HIV healthcare services for their routine follow-up visit (June to September 2014. Plasma HIV-1 VL was measured using the m2000 RealTime HIV-1 assay (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA. Genotypic drug resistance was done for all samples with VL>1000 copies/ml. Results and discussion: Among 283 perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents included, 167 (59% were adolescents and 116 (41% were children. The median duration on ART was 48 months (interquartile range: 28 to 68 months. For 228 (80.6%, the current ART combination consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs (zidovudine and lamivudine and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz. Only 28 (9.9% were on a protease inhibitor (PI-based regimen. VL was below the detection limit (i.e. 40 copies/ml for 102 (36%, between 40 and 1000 copies/ml for 35 (12.4% and above 1000 copies/ml for 146 (51.6%. Genotypic drug-resistance testing was successful for 125/146 (85.6%; 110/125 (88.0% were resistant to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, 1/125 (0.8% to NRTIs only, 4/125 (3.2% to NNRTIs only and three harboured viruses resistant to reverse transcriptase and PIs. Overall, 86% (108/125 of children and adolescents experiencing VF and successfully genotyped, corresponding thus to at least 38% of the study population, had either no effective ART or had only a single effective drug in

  4. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikx Frans HM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were recruited consecutively at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH HIV clinic from October 2004 to September 2005. Investigations included; interviews, physical examinations, HIV testing and enumeration of CD4+ T cells. Results A total of 237 HIV-associated oral lesions were observed in 210 (39.5% patients. Oral candidiasis was the commonest (23.5%, followed by mucosal hyperpigmentation (4.7%. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (χ2 = 4.31; df = 1; p = 0.03 and parotid enlargement (χ2 = 36.5; df = 1; p = 0.04 between children and adults. Adult patients who were on HAART had a significantly lower risk of; oral lesions (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22 – 0.47; p = 0.005, oral candidiasis (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.18 – 0.44; p = 0.003 and oral hairy leukoplakia (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.85; p = 0.03. There was no significant reduction in occurrence of oral lesions in children on HAART (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.11–1.14; p = 0.15. There was also a significant association between the presence of oral lesions and CD4+ cell count 3 (χ2 = 52.4; df = 2; p = 0.006 and with WHO clinical stage (χ2 = 121; df = 3; p = 0.008. Oral lesions were also associated with tobacco smoking (χ2 = 8.17; df = 2; p = 0.04. Conclusion Adult patients receiving HAART had a significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. There was no significant change in occurrence of oral lesions in children

  5. Improving child support enforcement for children receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschke, S

    Less than half of all children who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and live in a single-parent home receive child support services. Although filing for child support is a condition of eligibility for income assistance programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), it is not a condition of eligibility for SSI benefits. Requiring single custodial parents applying for SSI on behalf of their children to pursue child support payments might result in more children on SSI receiving child support, and since the Social Security Administration (SSA) excludes one-third of child support when determining benefit amounts, increased receipt of child support would enhance the financial well-being of SSI children. Improving access to data on child support would enhance the integrity of the SSI program by reducing overpayments to children receiving child support. This article looks at the child support provisions in SSI and other means-tested programs and discusses policy options for improving receipt of child support and access to related data. Requiring cooperation with child support enforcement agencies would be consistent with the philosophy that the SSI program should serve as a program of last resort. Whenever possible, both parents should take primary responsibility for their children. While such a requirement has the potential to improve the financial status of children receiving SSI, factors such as their low-income status and their involvement with the TANF program raise questions about how much those children will actually benefit from such a requirement. Even if many additional children do not receive child support, the requirement demonstrates SSA's dedication to the stewardship of the SSI program. However, if custodial parents fail to comply with the requirement, children may be worse off as a result of the requirement. SSA should carefully pursue a requirement to induce cooperation while protecting children to the greatest extent

  6. Should children with inherited metabolic disorders receive varicella vaccination?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varghese, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to determine the rate of varicella infection and complications in children with disorders of intermediary metabolism (IEM) between the ages of 1 and 16 years attending our national metabolic referral centre. Of 126 children identified, a response was received from 122. A history of previous varicella infection was identified in 64 cases (53%) and of varicella vaccination in 5 (4%). Fifty-three (43%) patients apparently did not have a history of clinical varicella infection. Of the 64 children with a history of varicella infection, five required hospitalisation for complications, including life-threatening lactic acidosis in one patient with mitochondrial disease and metabolic decompensation in four patients. In conclusion, varicella infection may cause an increased risk of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEMs. We propose that a trial of varicella vaccination be considered for this cohort of patients with monitoring of its safety and efficacy.

  7. High-stability detectors for radioastronomical receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Ute; Schmidt, Axel

    The increased bandwidths of radioastronomical receivers has increased the detector stability requirements. A detector with a short-term stability of 0.01 percent, required in a receiver with a 9 mm wavelength receiver, could not be achieved using previously available detectors and dc amplifiers. This paper describes a switched detector which meets these requirements, and presents resulting rms values as a function of integration time.

  8. Parameters of anesthesia/sedation in children receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous reports establish low risk of complications in pediatric treatments under anesthesia/sedation (A/S) in the outpatient setting. Here, we present our institutional experience with A/S by age and gender in children receiving daily proton RT. After Institutional Review Board approval, we reviewed our center’s records between 9/9/2004 and 6/30/2013 with respect to age and gender of A/S requirement in our pediatric patients (defined as patients ≤18 years of age). Of 390 patients treated in this era, 182 were girls. Children aged ≤3 invariably required A/S; and by age 7–8, approximately half of patients do not. For pediatric patients ≥ 12 years of age, approximately 10% may require A/S for different reasons. There was no difference by gender. Beyond age 3, the requirement for A/S decreases in an age-dependent fashion, with a small cadre of older children having difficulty enough with sustained immobilization that A/S is necessary. In our experience, there is no difference in A/S requirement by gender

  9. 25 CFR 20.400 - Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.400 Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and...

  10. The GREHDA Project: Galileo Software Receiver for High Dynamic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cintio, Andrea; Montenbruck, Oliver; Lo Presti, Leticia; Guyader, Eric; Reidevall, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The GREHDA project (GALILEO Software Receiver for High Dynamic Applications) is funded by the Galileo Joint Undertaking under the 6th Framework Program, and addresses the design of Galileo receivers for space applications with limited financial and engineering budgets. The project objectives are: to design, develop and validate highdynamics tracking and acquisition algorithms by means of dedicated simulation tools; to propose a conceptual design of the receiver basic hardware and software pla...

  11. Brief Report: Adherence to Fluid Recommendations in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Felt, Barbara T.; Patton, Susana R

    2009-01-01

    Objective Limited data are available regarding whether children being treated for retentive encopresis are adherent to recommendations to increase their daily fluid intake. The purpose of this study was to examine fluid adherence in children who received treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed using diet diary data for 26 children (ages 3–12) who completed a group behavioral intervention for retentive encopresis. Results Mean daily intake of clea...

  12. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered......INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent......-administered paracetamol in toddlers during a winter-period in relation to symptoms, doctor contacts and severity-rated illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as a prospective diary study covering a three-month winter-period. It comprised a cohort of 183 infants born in February 2001 in a district of the...... capital area in Denmark. RESULTS: According to the parents, a total of 119 toddlers (65%) received paracetamol at least once during the study period; 9.3% of the toddlers received paracetamol for more than ten days. The administration of paracetamol rose as the number of symptoms increased. Paracetamol...

  13. High temperature helical tubular receiver for concentrating solar power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In the field of conventional cleaner power generation technology, concentrating solar power systems have introduced remarkable opportunity. In a solar power tower, solar energy concentrated by the heliostats at a single point produces very high temperature. Falling solid particles or heat transfer fluid passing through that high temperature region absorbs heat to generate electricity. Increasing the residence time will result in more heat gain and increase efficiency. A novel design of solar receiver for both fluid and solid particle is approached in this paper which can increase residence time resulting in higher temperature gain in one cycle compared to conventional receivers. The helical tubular solar receiver placed at the focused sunlight region meets the higher outlet temperature and efficiency. A vertical tubular receiver is modeled and analyzed for single phase flow with molten salt as heat transfer fluid and alloy625 as heat transfer material. The result is compared to a journal paper of similar numerical and experimental setup for validating our modeling. New types of helical tubular solar receivers are modeled and analyzed with heat transfer fluid turbulent flow in single phase, and granular particle and air plug flow in multiphase to observe the temperature rise in one cyclic operation. The Discrete Ordinate radiation model is used for numerical analysis with simulation software Ansys Fluent 15.0. The Eulerian granular multiphase model is used for multiphase flow. Applying the same modeling parameters and boundary conditions, the results of vertical and helical receivers are compared. With a helical receiver, higher temperature gain of heat transfer fluid is achieved in one cycle for both single phase and multiphase flow compared to the vertical receiver. Performance is also observed by varying dimension of helical receiver.

  14. 42 CFR 435.110 - Individuals receiving aid to families with dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... essential to the well-being of a recipient (see 45 CFR 233.20(a)(2)(vi)) and who could be a recipient under... with dependent children. (a) A Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to individuals receiving AFDC. (b) For purposes of this section, an individual is receiving AFDC if his needs are included in...

  15. Development of a window cooling for high temperature solar receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Ralf; Röger, Marc

    2004-01-01

    ANSYS/FLOTRAN had been used to calcualte the air flow in a gap between two quartz glass windows. This was done to design a cooling system for high temperature solar receivers, which are used to convert concentrated sunlight into high temperature heat. The most important thermal influences as radiation exchange between the windows and the absorber as well as the radiation to space of the pressure window had been considered. With a 2D axially symmetric parametric modell the CPU t...

  16. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care

    OpenAIRE

    FRAIZ Fabian Calixto; Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo WALTER

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there...

  17. Caregiver Participation in Community-based Mental Health Services for Children Receiving Outpatient Care

    OpenAIRE

    Fawley-King, Kya; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Trask, Emily V.; Zhang, Jinjin; Garland, Ann F

    2013-01-01

    Caregiver participation in child mental health treatment has been associated with better youth outcomes, but little is known about the amount and type of caregiver participation in usual care services for children. This study examined 1255 caregivers’ reports of their participation in the outpatient services their children received through a large, public mental health system in the Southwest. The majority of the caregivers reported that they participated in their child's services. Extent of ...

  18. The effect of chewing gum on oral mucositis in children receiving chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ocakcı, Ayşe Ferda; Ayverdi, Didem; Ekim, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral mucositis is an important clinical problem, resulting in significant patient morbidity, a change in health-related quality of life, and supportive care. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chewing gum on children, who are receiving chemotherapy regimens, for prevention and treatment of oral mucositis. Method and Material: The study sample consisted of 60 children (30 study group-30 control group) between the ages 6-...

  19. A Comparison of Concept Development and Human Figure Drawings of Children Who Receive Preschool Education vs Those Who Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balat, Gulden Uyanik

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated from a developmental point of view the basic concept knowledge and human figure drawings of children who did and did not attend preschool. A total of 118 children who received preschool education and 147 children who did not do so participated in the study. The mean age of children was 75.4 months. Their concept knowledge was…

  20. Impact of effective nursing interventions to the fatigue syndrome in children who receive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekti Genc, Rabia; Conk, Zeynep

    2008-01-01

    This experimental, randomized controlled study was conducted for children with cancer who are 7 to 12 years of age and receiving chemotherapy treatment to detect the impact of appropriate nursing interventions on decreasing the fatigue syndrome. The research sample is composed of a total of 60 children with cancer, with 30 children being included in the experimental group and 30 children included in the control group with their mothers. In the experimental group, after the 7th to 10th day of the chemotherapy treatment, throughout a week, the researcher conducted the effective nursing interventions every day for 45 to 60 minutes. In the control group, routine nursing interventions were carried out. The experimental and control group children's mean scores for the Fatigue Scale-Child and those of mothers for Fatigue Scale-Parent were compared. A statistically significant difference was found between the Fatigue Scale-Child and Fatigue Scale-Parent mean scores of the experimental and the control group children (P < .00). These results suggest that fatigue of children with cancer can be reduced by implementing appropriate nursing interventions. PMID:18600119

  1. Design of a High Sensitivity GNSS receiver for Lunar missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Luciano; Dovis, Fabio; Silva, João S.; da Silva, Pedro F.; Lopes, Hugo D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a satellite navigation receiver architecture tailored for future Lunar exploration missions, demonstrating the feasibility of using Global Navigation Satellite Systems signals integrated with an orbital filter to achieve such a scope. It analyzes the performance of a navigation solution based on pseudorange and pseudorange rate measurements, generated through the processing of very weak signals of the Global Positioning System (GPS) L1/L5 and Galileo E1/E5 frequency bands. In critical scenarios (e.g. during manoeuvres) acceleration and attitude measurements from additional sensors complementing the GNSS measurements are integrated with the GNSS measurement to match the positioning requirement. A review of environment characteristics (dynamics, geometry and signal power) for the different phases of a reference Lunar mission is provided, focusing on the stringent requirements of the Descent, Approach and Hazard Detection and Avoidance phase. The design of High Sensitivity acquisition and tracking schemes is supported by an extensive simulation test campaign using a software receiver implementation and navigation results are validated by means of an end-to-end software simulator. Acquisition and tracking of GPS and Galileo signals of the L1/E1 and L5/E5a bands was successfully demonstrated for Carrier-to-Noise density ratios as low as 5-8 dB-Hz. The proposed navigation architecture provides acceptable performances during the considered critical phases, granting position and velocity errors below 61.4 m and 3.2 m/s, respectively, for the 99.7% of the mission time.

  2. Transient occult cardiotoxicity in children receiving continuous beta-agonist therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher L Carroll; Melinda Coro; Allison Cowl; Kathleen A Sala; Craig M Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Background: Continuous beta-agonist therapy, typically in the form of inhaled albuterol, is the first line therapy for the treatment of acute and severe bronchospasm in children. Although this treatment is commonly used, concerns about cardiotoxicity have been raised. We aimed to investigate the cardiotoxic effects of continuous beta-agonist therapy in children. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between May 2008 and April 2009, who were treated with continuous beta-agonist therapy (intravenous and nebulized). Results: Twenty of the 36 children treated with continuous albuterol had repeated serum troponin-T and lactate levels measured. Eleven patients (55%) were also treated with continuous intravenous terbutaline. Elevated levels of troponin-T levels were found in 25% of children, and elevated lactate levels were found in 60%. However, all returned to normal levels within 48 hours of ICU admission, despite continued beta-agonist therapy. No children experienced arrhythmias during therapy. There was no association between intravenous terbutaline use and elevated troponin-T [odds ratio (OR), 1.3; 95% CI, 0.2-10.3] or with elevated serum lactate (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-3.7). There was also no association between elevated troponin-T or lactate and ICU or hospital length of stay. Conclusions: In this small study, a significant proportion of children had elevated serum troponin-T and lactate levels while receiving inhaled continuous beta-agonist therapy, irrespective of intravenous therapy. However, these abnormal values all returned to normal within 48 hours of ICU admission and were not associated with increased duration of hospitalization.

  3. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  4. Evaluation of a High-Sensitivity GPS Receiver for Kinematics Application in Regions with High Shading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandri, H. F.; Becker, D.; Kleusberg, A.

    2009-04-01

    GPS positioning has been very much improved with high-sensitivity GPS (HSGPS) receivers. This kind of receiver can track the signal until 20-25dB below the level of conventional receivers. Obviously, no problem occurs when GPS technology is used for air and ocean vehicles navigation; sufficient and/or redundant signals can be easily acquired due to good hemispherical signal reception. A problem arises whenever signals cannot be traced anymore, if not enough satellites are available or if there is very weak signal reception in forest areas or between buildings. Those situations cannot be avoided or eliminated in land vehicle navigation. The HSGPS technology tries to solve those problems by tracking signals below the normal signal threshold of non-HSGPS receivers. This paper discusses the two factors of availability and accuracy in the context of navigation with HSGPS receivers. In order to investigate these issues some scenarios of receivers-placing will be examined which represent various receiver environments: good hemispherical signal reception, strong signal shading environment and indoor environment. The signal availability and accuracy are investigated during observation sessions of several hours by comparing the measurements of the HSGPS receiver with the measurements of a conventional, non-HSGPS receiver. As expected, the non-HSGPS receiver yields the same level of availability as the HSGPS receiver in an environment with good hemispherical signal reception. When both receivers are located in an environment with significant signal shading, the percentage of availability will significantly decay for the non-HSGPS receiver whereas the availability of the HSGPS receiver is much less reduced. However the results from the HSGPS receiver in this case are at a significantly reduced accuracy level. The accuracy level is assessed by using three parameters: i) the difference between the C/A code and the carrier phase in order to investigate how big the multipath and

  5. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  6. Percentage of Children Aged 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability, United States, 2007--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5--17 Years Ever Receiving a Diagnosis of Learning Disability,* by Race/Ethnicity † and Family Income Group § --- National ... professional ever told you that [child] had a learning disability?" † White and black children are non-Hispanic children ...

  7. Metabolic and Hormonal Changes of Severely Burned Children Receiving Long-Term Oxandrolone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przkora, Rene; Jeschke, Marc G.; Barrow, Robert E.; Suman, Oscar E.; Meyer, Walter J.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Sanford, Arthur P.; Lee, Jong; Chinkes, David L.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Herndon, David N.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: When given to children for 1 year after a severe burn, oxandrolone significantly improves lean body mass, bone mineral content, and muscle strength. The beneficial effects of oxandrolone on height and weight were observed 1 year after treatment was discontinued. To study the efficacy of oxandrolone in severely burned children for 12 months after burn and 12 months after the drug was discontinued. Summary Background Data: Oxandrolone attenuates body catabolism during the acute phase after burn. It is unclear whether oxandrolone would have any beneficial effects during long-term treatment or if there were any effects after the drug was stopped. Methods: Sixty-one children with 40% total body surface area burns were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomized into those to receive oxandrolone (n = 30) or placebo (n = 31) for the first 12 months. Treatment was discontinued after 12 months, and the patients were studied without the drug for the following 12 months. At discharge and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after burn, height, weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure, muscle strength, and serum human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3, insulin, cortisol, parathyroid hormone, tri-iodothyronine uptake (T3 uptake), and free thyroxine index (FTI) were measured. Statistical analysis used Tukey multiple comparison test. Significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: Oxandrolone improved lean body mass, bone mineral content and muscle strength compared with controls during treatment, P < 0.05. Serum IGF-1, T3 uptake, and FTI were significantly higher during drug treatment compared with controls, P < 0.05. Significant increases in height and weight with oxandrolone were observed after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Oxandrolone improved body composition and strength in severely burned children during the 12 months of treatment. Its effect on height and weight continued after treatment was discontinued. PMID

  8. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  9. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anal sphincter using a dedicated endoanal receiver coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSouza, N.M.; Williams, A.D.; Gilderdale, D.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    The use of a surface coil in MR imaging improves signal-to-noise ratio of adjacent tissues of interest. We therefore devised an endoanal receiver coil for imaging the anal sphincter. The probe is solid and re-usable: it comprises a saddle geometry receiver with integral tuning, matching and decoupling. It is placed in the anal canal and immobilised externally. Both in vitro and in vivo normal anatomy is identified. The mucosa is high signal intensity, the submucosa low signal intensity, the internal sphincter uniformly high signal intensity and the external sphincter low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. In females, the transverse perineal muscle bridges the inferior part of the external sphincter anteriorly. In perianal sepsis, collections and the site of the endoanal opening are identified. In early-onset fecal incontinence following obstetric trauma/surgery, focal sphincter defects are demonstrated; in late-onset fecal incontinence external sphincter atrophy is seen. In fecally incontinent patients with scleroderma, forward deviation of the anterior sphincter musculature with descent of rectal air and feces into the anal canal is noted. The extent of sphincter invasion is assessed in low rectal tumours. In children with congenital anorectal anomalies, abnormalities of the muscle components are defined using smaller-diameter coils. Such information is invaluable in the assessment and surgical planning of patients with a variety of anorectal pathologies. (orig.) With 15 figs., 26 refs.

  10. PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTE NITRIC OXIDE LEVELS IN EPILEPTIC CHILDREN RECEIVING LONG-TERM SODIUM VALPROATE THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEROL, Elif; ÖZEROL, İbrahim; Aslan, Mehmet; GÜLEÇ, Mukaddes; YAKINCI, Cengiz; AKYOL, ÖMER

    2003-01-01

    Valproate (VPA) is a widely used drug as the first-line treatment for epilepsy in children. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important intercellular physiological messenger capable of evoking a number of cellular responses. It is generally believed that the erytrocyte membrane is highly permeable to NO. It has been claimed that VPA may show its antiepileptic effect throughout NO. Therefore, the aim of our study were to evaluate whether differences exist in the plasma and erythrocyte NO concentrati...

  11. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-03-15

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed.

  12. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties

  13. Detection of TT Virus Among Thalassaemic Children With Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C Receiving Irradiated and Non Irradiated RBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TTV was first identified in the serum of a patient with post transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997.As a consequence of the high prevalence of TTV in blood donors, thalassemia patients frequently acquire various genotypes of this virus through therapeutic blood transfusions.TTV as a cause of chronic hepatitis has not yet determined . Ten healthy and twenty-eight poly-transfused thalassemia children were evolved in this study where ten patients were receiving irradiated RBCs and eighteen receiving non irradiated ones.TTV was detected in serum samples by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primer. Transaminases levels, hepatitis B and C virus markers were interpreted for possible association with TTV infection. As a result, TTV was found in 50% of thalassemia patients and in 20 % of the controls. Among thalassemia patients, isolated HBsAG, isolated HCV-AB, HBsAG and TTV-DNA and HCV-AB and TTV-DNA distributions were: 6 (21.43%) ,8 ( 28.57%) , 4 ( 14.29%) and 10 (35.7%) respectively. Regarding thalassemia patients receiving irradiated RBCs, the frequency of viral infections were 8(80%), 2(20%) and 0% for TTV co-infections, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence of viral infections among patients receiving non irradiated RBCs were 6(33.3%), 4(22.2%) and 8(44.5%) for TTV co-infection, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. These data may give evidence that radiation raises the levels of blood safety especially regarding HCV. Furthermore, liver transaminase levels were significantly higher in all patients versus the controls, meanwhile, transaminase values were not different in HBsAG-positive subjects as compared with subjects who had both HBsAG and TTV-DNA positive. Also, there was no significant difference between isolated HCV infection and HCV and TTV co-infection. So, no convincing evidence was found to support TTV involvement in the D. F. EL-MAGHRABY, et al. / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci

  14. Infrared-Reflective Coating on Fused Silica for a Solar High-Temperature Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Röger, Marc; Rickers, Christoph; Uhlig, Ralf; Neumann, Frank; Polenzky, Christina

    2007-01-01

    In concentrating solar power, high-temperature solar receivers can provide heat to highly efficient cycles for electricity or chemical production. Excessive heating of the fused-silica window and the resulting recrystallization are major problems of high-temperature receivers using windows. Excessive window temperatures can be avoided by applying an infrared-reflective solar-transparent coating on the fused-silica window inside. Both glass temperatures and receiver losses can be reduced. An i...

  15. An open-label trial of enhanced brief interpersonal psychotherapy in depressed mothers whose children are receiving psychiatric treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Holly A; Zuckoff, Allan; Frank, Ellen; Spielvogle, Heather N; Shear, M Katherine; Fleming, M A Dana; Scott, John

    2006-01-01

    Major depression affects one out of five women during her lifetime. Depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill children represent an especially vulnerable population. Challenged by the demands of caring for ill children, these mothers often put their own needs last; consequently, their depressions remain untreated. This population is especially difficult to engage in treatment. We have developed a nine-session intervention, an engagement session followed by eight sessions of brief interpersonal psychotherapy designed to increase maternal participation in their own psychotherapy, resolve symptoms of maternal depression, and enhance relationships (IPT-MOMS). This open-label trial assesses the feasibility and acceptability of providing this treatment to depressed mothers. Thirteen mothers meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from a pediatric mental health clinic where their school-age children were receiving psychiatric treatment. Subjects (mothers) were treated openly with IPT-MOMS. Eighty-five percent (11/13) completed the study. Subjects were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and completed self-report measures of quality of life and functioning at three time points: baseline, after treatment completion, and 6-months posttreatment. A signed rank test was used to compare measurement changes between assessment time points. Subjects showed significant improvement from baseline to posttreatment on measures of maternal symptoms and functioning. These gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Therapy was well tolerated and accepted by depressed mothers, who are typically difficult to engage in treatment. A high proportion of subjects completed treatment and experienced improvements in functioning. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this approach. PMID:16841341

  16. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  17. 7 CFR 245.8 - Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination practices for children eligible to receive free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.8 Section 245.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY...

  18. High Sensitivity, Radiation Hard InGaAs LIDAR Receiver for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a requirement for a large-area, high-quantum-efficiency, high-throughput optical receiver for ground-, air-, and space-based LIDAR systems. A...

  19. Hypercorrection of High Confidence Errors in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether the hypercorrection effect--the finding that errors committed with high confidence are easier, rather than more difficult, to correct than are errors committed with low confidence--occurs in grade school children as it does in young adults. All three experiments showed that Grade 3-6 children hypercorrected…

  20. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  1. Increasing Daily Water Intake and Fluid Adherence in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Patton, Susana R

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Results Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI...

  2. Comparison of Environmental Attitudes and Experiences of Five-Year-Old Children Receiving Preschool Education in the Village and City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Nazmi; Güngör, Hande; Fetihi, Leyla; Erol, Ahmet; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare environmental attitudes and experiences of five-year-old children receiving preschool education in the village and city centre. The first group comprised 54 five-year-old children who received preschool education and attended kindergartens of two primary schools in the Karateke and Kocabas villages of Honaz…

  3. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  4. Outcome for Children Receiving the Early Start Denver Model before and after 48 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is an intervention program recommended for pre-schoolers with autism ages 12-48 months. The rationale for this recommendation is the potential for intervention to affect developmental trajectories during early sensitive periods. We investigated outcomes of 32 children aged 18-48 months and 28 children aged…

  5. Asking, Giving, Receiving: Friendship as Survival Strategy among Accra's Street Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizen, Phillip; Ofosu-Kusi, Yaw

    2010-01-01

    This article considers friendship among street children in Accra. Drawing upon the findings of a three-year qualitative research project, the article argues that friendship is a neglected element of research yet cooperation, mutuality and exchange between friends are essential to street children's survival. Living within the extremities of the…

  6. Demonstration of a high sensitivity GNSS software receiver for indoor positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Martin; Broumandan, Ali; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    Advances in signal processing techniques contributed to the significant improvements of GNSS receiver performance in dense multipath environments and created the opportunities for a new category of high-sensitivity GNSS (HS-GNSS) receivers that can provide GNSS location services in indoor environments. The difficulties in improving the availability, reliability, and accuracy of these indoor capable GNSS receivers exceed those of the receivers designed for the most hostile urban canyon environments. The authors of this paper identified the vector tracking schemes, signal propagation statistics, and parallel processing techniques that are critical to a robust HS-GNSS receiver for indoor environments and successfully incorporated them into a fully functional high-sensitivity software receiver. A flexible vector-based receiver architecture is introduced to combine these key indoor signal processing technologies into GSNRx-hs™ - the high sensitivity software navigation receiver developed at the University of Calgary. The resulting receiver can perform multi-mode vector tracking in indoor environment at various levels of location and timing uncertainties. In addition to the obvious improvements in time-to-first-fix (TTFF) and signal sensitivity, the field test results in indoor environments surrounded by wood, glass, and concrete showed that the new techniques effectively improved the performance of indoor GNSS positioning. With fine GNSS timing, the proposed receiver can consistently deliver indoor navigation solution with the horizontal accuracy of 2-15 m depending on the satellite geometry and the indoor environments. If only the coarse GNSS timing is available, the horizontal accuracy of the indoor navigation solution from the proposed receiver is around 30 m depending on the coarse timing accuracy, the satellite geometry, and the indoor environments. From the preliminary field test results, it has been observed that the signal processing sensitivity is the

  7. Fabry-Perot Based Ranging Interferometer Receiver for High Spectral Resolution Lidar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) is pleased to present the following Phase II proposal for a Fabry-Perot Based Interferometer Receiver for the High Spectral...

  8. Carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children with solid malignancies receiving doxorubicin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anant Khositseth; Suwadee Jirasakpisarn; Samart Pakakasama; Lulin Choubtuym; Duangrurdee Wattanasirichaigoon

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Previous studies demonstrated l-carnitine decreasing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Our objectives were to study carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children treated with doxorubicin and the effect of short-term l-carnitine supplements. Materials and Methods: Serial carnitine levels and cardiac functions were obtained in children with newly diagnosed solid malignancies before doxorubicin, after cumulative doses of ≥150 mg/m 2 and ≥300 mg/m 2 , respectively. Oral l-carnitine 10...

  9. STUDY OF THE ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC, ANTIOXIDATIVE AND ANTIATHEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM LINN. IN RABBIT RECEIVING HIGH FAT DIET

    OpenAIRE

    Das Swarnamoni; Hakim Abdul; Mittal Ajay

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to study of the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidative and antiatherogenic activity of Triticum aestivum Linn. in rabbit receiving high fat diet. Twenty rabbits of either sex were taken and divided into four groups five in each as - Normal Control- received normal diet, Hyperlipidemic control- received high fat diet, Test drug group - received high fat diet plus ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum 500 mg/Kg /day orally and Standard Drug group- received high fat diet plus Atorvastati...

  10. Comparison of Square and Radial Geometries for High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Fast, Brian R.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.; Jalics, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to further advance a realizable form of wireless power transmission (WPT), high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) has been developed for both space and terrestrial applications. Unique optical-to-electrical receivers are employed with near infrared (IR-A) continuous-wave (CW) semiconductor lasers to experimentally investigate the HILPB system. In this paper, parasitic feedback, uneven illumination and the implications of receiver array geometries are considered and experimental hardware results for HILPB are presented. The TEM00 Gaussian energy profile of the laser beam presents a challenge to the effectiveness of the receiver to perform efficient photoelectric conversion, due to the resulting non-uniform illumination of the photovoltaic cell arrays. In this investigation, the geometry of the receiver is considered as a technique to tailor the receiver design to accommodate the Gaussian beam profile, and in doing so it is demonstrated that such a methodology is successful in generating bulk receiver output power levels reaching 25 W from 7.2 sq cm of photovoltaic cells. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers to achieve a 1.0 sq m receiver capable of generating over 30 kW of electrical power. This type of system would enable long range optical "refueling" of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion. In addition, a smaller HILPB receiver aperture size could be utilized to establish a robust optical communications link within environments containing high levels of background radiance, to achieve high signal to noise ratios.

  11. Survival and secondary tumors in children with medulloblastoma receiving radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: results of Children's Oncology Group trial A9961

    OpenAIRE

    PACKER, ROGER J.; Zhou, Tianni; Holmes, Emi; Vezina, Gilbert; Gajjar, Amar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the trial was to determine the survival and incidence of secondary tumors in children with medulloblastoma receiving radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. Three hundred seventy-nine eligible patients with nondisseminated medulloblastoma between the ages of 3 and 21 years were treated with 2340 cGy of craniospinal and 5580 cGy of posterior fossa irradiation. Patients were randomized between postradiation cisplatin and vincristine plus either CCNU or cyclophosphamide. Survival, pattern...

  12. High-fidelity modeling and simulation for wideband receiving system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Young, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Research experience has shown that it is expensive to design, build and test a RF/microwave system that is comprised of various RF/microwave components. In order to mitigate the problem, High-Fidelity Modeling and Simulation (HFM&S) is a practical approach that includes high-fidelity behavioural model (HFBM) of the receiving system and scenarios embedded with different Concept of Operations (CONOPS). HFM&S is also an essential way to develop receiving system specifications that can be used for system validation and verification. This paper presents the HFBM of a wideband digital receiver using Matlab/Simulink and the RF Toolbox/SimRF, and the use of the model to build a multi-channel receiving system that has a linear antenna array. The receiving system is installed on an UAV to intercept a ground-based emitter signal in a scenario that is built in Systems Tool Kit. Through the design and build of the UAV receiver and its deployment in a scenario, this paper demonstrates the following: what is meant by HFBM of a system and how it can simulate real hardware; how signal integrity in the HFM&S can be and should be retained; why amplitude and phase are important for signal waveform level M&S why the modern high performance computing technology should be used for signal waveform level M&S and

  13. Design of a high linearity and high gain accuracy analog baseband circuit for DAB receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analog baseband circuit of high linearity and high gain accuracy for a digital audio broadcasting receiver is implemented in a 0.18-μm RFCMOS process. The circuit comprises a 3rd-order active-RC complex filter (CF) and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA). An automatic tuning circuit is also designed to tune the CF's pass band. Instead of the class-A fully differential operational amplifier (FDOPA) adopted in the conventional CF and PGA design, a class-AB FDOPA is specially employed in this circuit to achieve a higher linearity and gain accuracy for its large current swing capability with lower static current consumption. In the PGA circuit, a novel DC offset cancellation technique based on the MOS resistor is introduced to reduce the settling time significantly. A reformative switching network is proposed, which can eliminate the switch resistor's influence on the gain accuracy of the PGA. The measurement result shows the gain range of the circuit is 10–50 dB with a 1-dB step size, and the gain accuracy is less than ±0.3 dB. The OIP3 is 23.3 dBm at the gain of 10 dB. Simulation results show that the settling time is reduced from 100 to 1 ms. The image band rejection is about 40 dB. It only draws 4.5 mA current from a 1.8 V supply voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. Which Sexual Abuse Victims Receive a Forensic Medical Examination?: The Impact of Children's Advocacy Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.; Simone, Monique; Kolko, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of Children's Advocacy Centers (CAC) and other factors, such as the child's age, alleged penetration, and injury on the use of forensic medical examinations as part of the response to reported child sexual abuse. Methods: This analysis is part of a quasi-experimental study, the Multi-Site Evaluation of…

  15. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa

    2007-01-01

    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  16. Effects of ketamine and midazolam on emergence agitation after sevoflurane anaesthesia in children receiving caudal block: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozcan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Methods: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2–7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in a mixture of 50% oxygen and nitrous oxide. After achieving adequate depth of anaesthesia, a laryngeal mask was placed and then caudal block was performed with 0.75 mL kg−1, 0.25% bupivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ketamine 0.25 mg kg−1, midazolam 0.03 mg kg−1 and saline were given to ketamine, midazolam and control groups, respectively. Agitation was assessed using Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and postoperative pain was evaluated with modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. Results and conclusions: Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores were found higher in control group than in ketamine and midazolam groups. Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores were similar between groups. Modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale and Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores showed a significant decrease by time in all groups during follow-up in postanaesthesia care unit. The present study resulted in satisfactory Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium scores which are below 10 in all groups. As a conclusion, neither ketamine nor midazolam added to caudal block under sevoflurane anaesthesia did show further effect on emergence agitation. In addition, pain relief still seems to be the major factor in preventing emergence agitation after

  17. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  18. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  19. PREVALENCE OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS IN CHILDREN WHO RECEIVE BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION BY MEANS OF REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Montanero Edith Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The citomegalovirus (CMV is an important virus worldwide. The early and mass-produced detection of the viral load for CMV helps to treat in an early way the infection and to avoid the disease in immunodeficient patients that in several cases could be lethal. Objective: To determine the prevalence of CMV in immunodeficient children who received bone marrow transplantation by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The viral load was determined in plasma samples recollected since 2009 to 2012 in children who received bone marrow transplantation in the Hospital de la Sociedad de Lucha contra el Cáncer (SOLCA in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Results: 38 samples were analyzed. The average age was 7.2 years, and 57.9% (n=22 were men and 42.1% (n=16 women, with a male-female relationship 1:4. Of the analyzed samples, five patients presented positive results in the mentioned technique, who were the 80% of the female gender. And the population with the higher number of cases with positive results were Los Ríos, Guayas and Esmeraldas. The patients who were transplanted due to acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma with leukemization to acute lymphoblastic leukemia had positive results for active infection by CMV, 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of CMV in children who received bone marrow transplantation by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction was of 13%, higher in the female gender. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2015;6(1:53-59 KEYWORDS Cytomegalovirus; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Transplant Recipients; Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  20. Evaluation of Adverse Events Noted in Children Receiving Continuous Infusions of Dexmedetomidine in the Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Brooke L.; Harrison, Donald L.; Gormley, Andrew K.; Johnson, Peter N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with sedative and analgesic effects in mechanically ventilated adults and children. Safety and efficacy data are limited in children. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively identify the incidence and types of adverse events noted in children receiving continuous infusions of dexmedetomidine and evaluate potential risk factors for adverse events. METHODS Between July 1, 2006, and July 31, 2007, data were collected on all children (< 18 years) who received continuous infusions of dexmedetomidine. Data collection included demographics, dexmedetomidine regimen, and type/number of adverse events. The primary endpoint was the total number of adverse events noted, including: transient hypertension, hypotension, neurological manifestations, apnea, and bradycardia. Secondary endpoints included categorization of each type of adverse event and an assessment of risk factors. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship of adverse events with independent variables including length of ICU stay, cumulative dose, peak infusion rate, duration of therapy, PRISM III score, and bolus dose. RESULTS Thirty-six patients received dexmedetomidine representing 41 infusions. The median age was 16 months (range, 0.1–204 months) and median PRISM III score was 2 (range, 0–18). Eighteen (43.9%) patients received a bolus dose of dexmedetomidine. The median cumulative dose (mcg/kg) and peak dose (mcg/kg/hr) were 8.5 (range, 2.2–193.7) and 0.5 (range, 0.2–0.7), respectively. Dexmedetomidine was continued for a median of 20 (range, 3–263) hours. Six (14.6%) patients were slowly tapered off the continuous infusions. Twenty-one adverse events were noted in 17 patients, including 4 neurologic manifestations. Fourteen patients required interventions for adverse events. ICU length of stay was the only independent risk factor (p=0.036) for development of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Several potential

  1. The descriptive statistics and health implications of occupational radiation doses received by men at the Sellafield nuclear installation before the conception of their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a database of a quarter of a million births in Cumbria during 1950-1989, 10 363 children have been positively linked to paternal employment at the Sellafield nuclear installation in West Cumbria at, or before, the conception of the child. 9256 children have been associated with paternal preconceptional radiation exposure. The doses of external whole-body radiation received by fathers prior to conception have been estimated from annual recorded doses, and the detailed distributions of these preconceptional doses are presented. The collective paternal total preconceptional dose is 539 person-Sv, a mean individual preconceptional dose per paternally exposed child of 58 mSv. The number of serious hereditary effects predicted to be induced by this collective dose among these first generation children is less than two, and these will not be discernible against the much larger number of background cases. There is no evidence of an excess of hereditary disorders in the immediate vicinity of Sellafield, although comprehensive studies have not, as yet, been carried out. The suggestion advanced by Gardner et al (1990b) that paternal preconceptional irradiation is sufficient to account for the excess of childhood leukaemia cases in the West Cumbrian village of Seascale is highly unlikely to be correct because, inter alia, of the absence of a comparable excess among children born outside Seascale who are associated with the great majority (93%) of the collective paternal preconceptional dose. (Author)

  2. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary...

  3. Parent Perceptions of Care Received by Children With an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sarah; McCloskey, Cynthia Ricci

    2016-01-01

    Research in the post-genomic era has provided substantial contributions toward identification of medical, genetic and environmental heritability factors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A specific etiology related to the diagnosis remains unclear, although prevalence statistics continue to rise with profound impact on families and their primary care providers (PCPs). Support professionals encounter significant challenges delivering comprehensive management for this complex neurobehavioral and developmental disorder. Children with ASD experience significantly higher risk for unmet healthcare needs, and parents report less satisfaction with their care although current literature does not fully explain why this issue persists. This study sought parent insight for the missing answers needed to inform practice. Eleven parents of children with an ASD participated in the study. Parent perceptions of care were examined utilizing Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and the Measure of Process of Care (MPOC-20) to illuminate and describe their lived experiences raising children with ASD, and interactions with their PCPs. Most parents utilized their child's PCP for general health maintenance, and many felt their PCP was unable to manage issues specifically related to their child's ASD. Most did not have an expectation for support with behavioral management in the home and school setting or identification of community and mental health resources, although many struggled with unaddressed needs in both of these realms. Utilizing parent perceptions to highlight practice deficiencies can build a foundation for care models that are more comprehensive and family centered. PMID:26724967

  4. Carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children with solid malignancies receiving doxorubicin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Khositseth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Previous studies demonstrated l-carnitine decreasing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Our objectives were to study carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children treated with doxorubicin and the effect of short-term l-carnitine supplements. Materials and Methods: Serial carnitine levels and cardiac functions were obtained in children with newly diagnosed solid malignancies before doxorubicin, after cumulative doses of ≥150 mg/m 2 and ≥300 mg/m 2 , respectively. Oral l-carnitine 100 mg/kg/day for 3 days were given to the children treated with doxorubicin at cumulative doses of ≥150 mg/m 2 and ≥300 mg/m 2 . Carnitine levels and cardiac functions were also obtained in those children before and after short-term oral l-carnitine at each cumulative dose of doxorubicin. Results: Five children (3 females, median age of 9.1 years (range 1.5-13 years with newly diagnosed solid malignancies were enrolled in the study. Free carnitine (FC tended to decrease while acyl-carnitine (AC increased making AC/FC ratio increased after cumulative dose of ≥150 and ≥300 mg/m 2 but the statistics was not significant. Left ventricular (LV systolic function was not significantly changed. Interestingly, LV global function (LV myocardial performance index was significantly increased after 150 mg/m 2 (median 0.39, 0.27-0.51 and 300 mg/m 2 (median 0.46, 0.27-0.50 when compared to baseline (median 0.28, 0.14-0.48 (P=0.05. Carnitine levels and cardiac functions were not significantly changed after oral l-carnitine supplement at cumulative dose of ≥150 mg/m 2 (n=6 and ≥300 mg/m 2 (n=9. Conclusions: Carnitine levels tended to decrease after doxorubicin treatment. LV global dysfunction was documented early after doxorubicin. However, short-term l-carnitine supplement did not improve cardiac function.

  5. Patching the gaps towards the 90–90–90 targets: outcomes of Nigerian children receiving antiretroviral treatment who are co-infected with tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick D Chamla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nigeria has a high burden of children living with HIV and tuberculosis (TB. This article examines the magnitude of TB among children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART, compares their ART outcomes with their non-TB counterparts and argues that addressing TB among children on ART is critical for achieving the 90–90–90 targets. Methods: This was a facility-based, retrospective analysis of medical records of children aged <15 years who were newly initiated on ART between 2011 and 2012. Structured tools were used to collect data. STATA software was used to perform descriptive, survival and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 1142 children with a median age of 3.5 years from 20 selected facilities were followed for 24 months. Of these, 95.8% were assessed for TB at ART initiation and 14.7% had TB. Children on ART were more likely to have TB if they were aged 5 years or older (p<0.01 and had delayed ART initiation (p<0.05. The cotrimoxazole and isoniazid prophylaxes were provided to 87.9 and 0.8% of children, respectively. The rate of new TB cases was 3 (2.2–4.0 per 100 person-years at six months and declined to 0.2 (0.06–1.4 per 100 person-years at 24 months. TB infection [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR: 4.3; 2.3–7.9], malnutrition (aHR: 5.1; 2.6–9.8, delayed ART initiation (aHR: 3.2; 1.5–6.7 and age less than 1 year at ART initiation (aHR: 4.0; 1.4–12.0 were associated with death. Additionally, patients with TB (aHR: 1.3; 1.1–1.6 and children below the age of 1 at ART initiation (aHR: 2.9; 1.7–5.2 were more likely to be lost to follow-up (LFU. Conclusions: Children on ART with TB are less likely to survive and more likely to be LFU. These risks, along with low isoniazid uptake and delayed ART initiation, present a serious challenge to achieving the 90–90–90 targets and underscore an urgent need for inclusion of childhood TB/HIV in global plans and reporting mechanisms.

  6. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  7. Acupressure in Controlling Nausea in Young Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Acupressure wristbands may prevent or reduce nausea and caused by chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether standard care is more effective with or without acupressure wristbands in controlling acute and delayed nausea. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well acupressure wristbands work with or without standard care in controlling nausea in young patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. |

  8. A Tradeoff between Rich Multipath and High Receive Power in MIMO Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimu Cheng

    2013-01-01

    channel condition varyies. When the scatterer number in channel is low, the high receive SNR is more important to capacity. The multipath richness will have greater influence when the scatterer number exceeds a certain threshold. However, the channel capacity will not change much as the scatterers continue to increase.

  9. Design requirements, challenges, and solutions for high-temperature falling particle receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford

    2016-05-01

    Falling particle receivers (FPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. Previous analysis for FPR systems include computational fluid dynamics (CFD), analytical evaluations, and experiments to determine the feasibility and achievability of this CSP technology. Sandia National Laboratories has fabricated and tested a 1 MWth FPR that consists of a cavity receiver, top hopper, bottom hopper, support structure, particle elevator, flux target, and instrumentation. Design requirements and inherent challenges were addressed to enable continuous operation of flowing particles under high-flux conditions and particle temperatures over 700 °C. Challenges include being able to withstand extremely high temperatures (up to 1200°C on the walls of the cavity), maintaining particle flow and conveyance, measuring temperatures and mass flow rates, filtering out debris, protecting components from direct flux spillage, and measuring irradiance in the cavity. Each of the major components of the system is separated into design requirements, associated challenges and corresponding solutions. The intent is to provide industry and researchers with lessons learned to avoid pitfalls and technical problems encountered during the development of Sandia's prototype particle receiver system at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF).

  10. Performance Analysis of Ultra Wideband Receivers for High Data Rate Wireless Personal Area Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramaditya Das

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For high data rate ultra wideband communication system, performance comparison of Rake, MMSE andRake-MMSE receivers is attempted in this paper. Further a detail study on Rake-MMSE time domainequalizers is carried out taking into account all the important parameters such as the effect of the numberof Rake fingers and equalizer taps on the error rate performance. This receiver combats inter-symbolinterference by taking advantages of both the Rake and equalizer structure. The bit error rateperformances are investigated using MATLAB simulation on IEEE 802.15.3a defined UWB channelmodels. Simulation results show that the bit error rate probability of Rake-MMSE receiver is much betterthan Rake receiver and MMSE equalizer. Study on non-line of sight indoor channel models illustratesthat bit error rate performance of Rake-MMSE (both LE and DFE improves for CM3 model with smallerspread compared to CM4 channel model. It is indicated that for a MMSE equalizer operating at low tomedium SNR values, the number of Rake fingers is the dominant factor to improve system performance,while at high SNR values the number of equalizer taps plays a more significant role in reducing the errorrate.

  11. Large Aperture "Photon Bucket" Optical Receiver Performance in High Background Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture groundbased "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications, with acceptable performance even when pointing close to the sun, is receiving considerable attention. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere becomes significant at micron wavelengths when pointing to a few degrees from the sun, even with the narrowest bandwidth optical filters. In addition, high quality optical apertures in the 10-30 meter range are costly and difficult to build with accurate surfaces to ensure narrow fields-of-view (FOV). One approach currently under consideration is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of large 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large FOV generated by state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels with rms surface accuracies on the order of a few microns, corresponding to several-hundred micro-radian FOV, hence generating centimeter-diameter focused spots at the Cassegrain focus of 34-meter antennas. Assuming pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Poisson-distributed photon-counting detection, a "polished panel" photon-bucket receiver with large FOV will collect hundreds of background photons per PPM slot, along with comparable signal photons due to its large aperture. It is demonstrated that communications performance in terms of PPM symbol-error probability in high-background high-signal environments depends more strongly on signal than on background photons, implying that large increases in background energy can be compensated by a disproportionally small increase in signal energy. This surprising result suggests that large optical apertures with relatively poor surface quality may nevertheless provide acceptable performance for deep-space optical communications, potentially enabling the construction of cost-effective hybrid RF/optical receivers in the future.

  12. High accuracy alignment facility for the receiver and transmitter of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Sumita; Affolter, Michael; Gunderson, Kurt; Neubert, Jakob; Thomas, Nicolas; Beck, Thomas; Gerber, Michael; Graf, Stefan; Piazza, Daniele; Pommerol, Antoine; Röthlisberger, Guillaume; Seiferlin, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The accurate co-alignment of the transmitter to the receiver of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter is a challenging task for which an original alignment concept had to be developed. We present here the design, construction and testing of a large collimator facility built to fulfill the tight alignment requirements. We describe in detail the solution found to attenuate the high energy of the instrument laser transmitter by an original beam splitting pentaprism group. We list the different steps o...

  13. A Si Schottky Diode Demultiplexer Circuit for High Bit Rate Fiber Optical Receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung Han

    2007-01-01

    A novel demultiplexer circuit using flip-chip bonded Si Schottky diodes sampling circuit is demonstrated for optical communication receiver. A sampler-based demultiplexer circuit theory is presented and simulated for an optically preamplified direct detection system. For its experimental demonstration, very high-speed Si Schottky diodes are modelled applying the Root-diode model. The flip-chip bonding connections are simulated with the 3-dimensional electro-magnetic simulator and an equivalen...

  14. An Integrated Chip High-Voltage Power Receiver for Wireless Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijith Vijayakumaran Nair

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In near-field wireless-powered biomedical implants, the receiver voltage largely overrides the compliance of low-voltage power receiver systems. To limit the induced voltage, generally, low-voltage topologies utilize limiter circuits, voltage clippers or shunt regulators, which are power-inefficient methods. In order to overcome the voltage limitation and improve power efficiency, we propose an integrated chip high-voltage power receiver based on the step down approach. The topology accommodates voltages as high as 30 V and comprises a high-voltage semi-active rectifier, a voltage reference generator and a series regulator. Further, a battery management circuit that enables safe and reliable implant battery charging based on analog control is proposed and realized. The power receiver is fabricated in 0.35-μm high-voltage Bipolar-CMOS-DMOStechnology based on the LOCOS0.35-μm CMOS process. Measurement results indicate 83.5% power conversion efficiency for a rectifier at 2.1 mA load current. The low drop-out regulator based on the current buffer compensation and buffer impedance attenuation scheme operates with low quiescent current, reduces the power consumption and provides good stability. The topology also provides good power supply rejection, which is adequate for the design application. Measurement results indicate regulator output of 4 ± 0.03 V for input from 5 to 30 V and 10 ± 0.05 V output for input from 11 to 30 V with load current 0.01–100 mA. The charger circuit manages the charging of the Li-ion battery through all if the typical stages of the Li-ion battery charging profile.

  15. Low-Cost High-Performance 10 G Transmitter and Receiver Optical Subassembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.; Cheng; E.; Cheung; R.; Cheung; S.; Cheung; A.; Chow; C.W.; Fan; H.W.; Ho; A.; Hui; M.W.K.; Mak; S.K.; Lam; S.L.; Lau; K.S.; Lee; A.; Siu; S.K.; Yau; F.; Tong

    2003-01-01

    We describe briefly here the recent R&D activities in the optical subassembly packaging technologies at the Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute (ASTRI). We have designed, developed and prototyped multiple of low-cost high performance packages for serial and parallel transmitters and receivers, in particular, the novel chip-in-plastic (CiP) package designed for 10G serial transmission for data communications.

  16. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness undergoing psychiatric rehabilitation receiving high dose antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapu V Ravindranath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review evidence of chronic antipsychotic medication and the association with metabolic syndrome in mentally ill patients. This evidence was used to analyse a cohort of patients with severe mental illness and to deduce a correlation between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and their dose regimens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male patients undergoing Psychiatric rehabilitation underwent a review of current medication and assessment of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Assessment criteria was based upon National Cholesterol Education Programme expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria, incorporating waist circumference, raised triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein, raised blood pressure and fasting blood glucose. PubMed, Nature and Science Direct databases have been used to compile the medical and scientific background on metabolic syndrome and antipsychotic medication and the effect on patients particularly on high dose. Results: Out of 24 patients, 10 patients (41.7% were receiving high dose antipsychotics (HDA and four were on maximum dosage limits of 100%. 8.3% (2/24 patients were receiving only one first generation antipsychotics (FGA, 37.5% (9/24 patients were receiving only one second generation antipsychotic (SGA, 45.8% patients (11/24 were receiving two or more SGA only, and only one patient was receiving two or more FGA. One patient was receiving a combination of FGA and SGA. PRN ("as needed" therapy was not included in this study as their usage was limited. Clozapine was mostly prescribed in these patients (10/24, 41.6%. Four out of the 24 patients refused blood tests therefore were excluded from the following results. In the patients evaluated, 55% (11/20 had confirmed metabolic syndrome. In these patients with metabolic syndrome, 45.4% (5/11 were on HDA and 27.3% (3/11 were on maximum British National

  17. Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nancy K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents. Methods The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents. Results The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. Conclusions Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children

  18. Performance Analysis of Ultra Wideband Receivers for High Data Rate Wireless Personal Area Network System

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Bikramaditya; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2104

    2010-01-01

    For high data rate ultra wideband communication system, performance comparison of Rake, MMSE and Rake-MMSE receivers is attempted in this paper. Further a detail study on Rake-MMSE time domain equalizers is carried out taking into account all the important parameters such as the effect of the number of Rake fingers and equalizer taps on the error rate performance. This receiver combats inter-symbol interference by taking advantages of both the Rake and equalizer structure. The bit error rate performances are investigated using MATLAB simulation on IEEE 802.15.3a defined UWB channel models. Simulation results show that the bit error rate probability of Rake-MMSE receiver is much better than Rake receiver and MMSE equalizer. Study on non-line of sight indoor channel models illustrates that bit error rate performance of Rake-MMSE (both LE and DFE) improves for CM3 model with smaller spread compared to CM4 channel model. It is indicated that for a MMSE equalizer operating at low to medium SNR values, the number o...

  19. A high temperature ceramic heat exchanger element for a solar thermal receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Kotchick, D. M.; Coombs, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a high-temperature ceramic heat exchanger element to be integrated into a solar receiver producing heated air was studied. A number of conceptual designs were developed for heat exchanger elements of differing configuration. These were evaluated with respect to thermal performance, pressure drop, structural integrity, and fabricability. The final design selection identified a finned ceramic shell as the most favorable concept. The shell is surrounded by a larger metallic shell. The flanges of the two shells are sealed to provide a leak-tight pressure vessel. The ceramic shell is to be fabricated by a innovative combination of slip casting the receiver walls and precision casting the heat transfer finned plates. The fins are bonded to the shell during firing. The unit is sized to produce 2150 F air at 2.7 atm pressure, with a pressure drop of about 2 percent of the inlet pressure. This size is compatible with a solar collector providing a receiver input of 85 kw(th). Fabrication of a one-half scale demonstrator ceramic receiver was completed.

  20. Hybrid solar receiver as a source of high-temperature medium for an absorption chiller supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przenzak Estera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems related with the cold production, i.e. energy efficiency of the process. The idea of solar cooling systems has been presented as the solution of the problem of big electricity demand. The paper discusses the principle of the operation of absorption chillers. Disadvantages and advantages of the solar cooling systems were discussed. The installation for manufacturing high-temperature heat based on solar collectors and concentrator of solar radiation constructed in AGH in Cracow has been presented. This installation is a first stage of projected, complete solar cooling system. The special attention is paid to the dedicated solar high-temperature heat receiver as a most important element of the system. The achieved values of temperature, power and efficiency depending on the working medium flow has been presented and discussed. The intensity of solar radiation during the measurements has been taken into account. Two versions of heat receiver were investigated: non-insulated and insulated with mineral wool. The obtained efficiency of the heat receiver (less than 30% is not satisfactory but possibility of improvements exist.

  1. Hybrid solar receiver as a source of high-temperature medium for an absorption chiller supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przenzak, Estera; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the problems related with the cold production, i.e. energy efficiency of the process. The idea of solar cooling systems has been presented as the solution of the problem of big electricity demand. The paper discusses the principle of the operation of absorption chillers. Disadvantages and advantages of the solar cooling systems were discussed. The installation for manufacturing high-temperature heat based on solar collectors and concentrator of solar radiation constructed in AGH in Cracow has been presented. This installation is a first stage of projected, complete solar cooling system. The special attention is paid to the dedicated solar high-temperature heat receiver as a most important element of the system. The achieved values of temperature, power and efficiency depending on the working medium flow has been presented and discussed. The intensity of solar radiation during the measurements has been taken into account. Two versions of heat receiver were investigated: non-insulated and insulated with mineral wool. The obtained efficiency of the heat receiver (less than 30%) is not satisfactory but possibility of improvements exist.

  2. High-temperature ceramic heat exchanger element for a solar thermal receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Kotchick, D. M.; Coombs, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been completed on the development of a high-temperature ceramic heat exchanger element to be integrated into a solar reciver producing heated air. A number of conceptual designs were developed for heat exchanger elements of differing configuration. These were evaluated with respect to thermal performance, pressure drop, structural integrity, and fabricability. The final design selection identified a finned ceramic shell as the most favorable concept. The ceramic shell is surrounded by a larger metallic shell. The flanges of the two shells are sealed to provide a leak-tight pressure vessel. The ceramic shell is fabricated by an innovative combination of slip casting the receiver walls and precision casting the heat transfer finned plates. The fins are bonded to the shell during firing. Fabrication of a one-half scale demonstrator ceramic receiver has been completed.

  3. Terahertz oscillators and receivers using electron devices for high-capacity wireless communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Recent progress in room-temperature resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) terahertz (THz) oscillators and high-electron-mobility- transistor (HEMT) THz receivers is reported in this paper. In this study, oscillations up to 1.86 THz were obtained using an optimized antenna and RTD. Using a two-element oscillator array, high output power of 0.6 mW at 620 GHz was obtained. THz communication up to 3 Gbps was demonstrated. A structure for high-speed direct modulation was fabricated, and the intensity modulation up to 30 GHz was achieved. A novel oscillator structure was proposed and fabricated for extraction of output power without using a Si lens. A short-gate InGaAs HEMT detector integrated with a broadband bow-tie antenna was fabricated, and a high current sensitivity of ~5 A/W was obtained at 280 GHz.

  4. 30 CFR 75.704 - Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.704 Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems. The frames of all stationary high-voltage equipment receiving...

  5. A differential low-voltage high gain current-mode integrated RF receiver front-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A differential low-voltage high gain current-mode integrated RF front end for an 802.11b WLAN is proposed. It contains a differential transconductance low noise amplifier (Gm-LNA) and a differential current-mode down converted mixer. The single terminal of the Gm-LNA contains just one MOS transistor, two capacitors and two inductors. The gate-source shunt capacitors, Cx1 and Cx2, can not only reduce the effects of gate-source Cgs on resonance frequency and input-matching impedance, but they also enable the gate inductance Lg1,2 to be selected at a very small value. The current-mode mixer is composed of four switched current mirrors. Adjusting the ratio of the drain channel sizes of the switched current mirrors can increase the gain of the mixer and accordingly increase the gain of RF receiver front-end. The RF front-end operates under 1 V supply voltage. The receiver RFIC was fabricated using a chartered 0.18 μm CMOS process. The integrated RF receiver front-end has a measured power conversion gain of 17.48 dB and an input referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of -7.02 dBm. The total noise figure is 4.5 dB and the power is only 14 mW by post-simulations. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. High exposures to radiation received by workers inside the Chernobyl sarcophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevan`kaev, A.V.; Moiseenko, V.V. [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    Data are presented from quartz fibre electrometer measurements and chromosomal aberration analyses for six men sampled from a group of about 15 subjects who, for several years, have undertaken a variety of tasks inside the sarcophagus that covers the ruined reactor at Chernobyl. Personal doses estimated by both methods are subject to a number of uncertainties and approximations which are discussed. Broad agreement between the physical and biological dosimetry methods was found indicating that very high, albeit fractionated and protracted, exposures have been received with approximate total doses ranging from 1-15 Gy. (author).

  7. Fiber optic transmitters and receivers for use in high dose-rate ionizing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the technology of fiber optic communications have prompted interest in developing links for use in ionizing-radiation environments. One major application area is related to data transmission subsystems within spacecraft, aircraft, and ground systems. A second area of application is concerned with instrumentation links for test measurements within radiation environments. A description is provided of work related to the design, fabrication, and test of several fiber optic (FO) transmitters and receivers for use in high dose-rate environments, taking into account both considered areas of FO application. Attention is given to digital units, an analog laser transmitter, and experimental results

  8. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  9. Multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver and its advantages in high-precision positioning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen; Cai, Miaomiao; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Minghua; Yu, Chao; Zheng, Zhengqi; Wang, Yuanfei

    2016-02-01

    The multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver is a high precision, low cost, and widely used emerging receiver. Using this type of receiver, the satellite and receiver clock errors can be eliminated simultaneously by forming between antenna single-differences, which is equivalent to the conventional double-difference model. However, current multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver products have not fully realized their potential to achieve better accuracy, efficiency, and broader applications. This paper introduces the conceptual design and derivable products of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers involving the aspects of attitude determination, multipath effect mitigation, phase center variation correction, and ground-based carrier phase windup calibration. Through case studies, the advantages of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers in high-precision positioning applications are demonstrated.

  10. 30 CFR 77.703 - Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems. 77.703 Section 77.703 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems. The frames of all...

  11. A novel high precision adaptive equalizer in digital coherent optical receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiurong; Xu, Yujun; Wang, Xiao; Ding, Zhaocai

    2015-10-01

    A novel high precision adaptive equalization method is introduced and applied to dynamic equalization for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) coherent optical communication system in this paper. A frequency-domain constant modulus algorithm (CMA) method is used to equalize the received signal roughly. Then, some non-ideal output signals will be picked out through the error measurement, and they will be equalized accurately further in a fixed time-domain CMA equalizer. This high precision equalization method can decrease the equalization error, then it can reduce the bit error ratio (BER) of coherent communication system. Simulation results show that there is a 6% decrease for computation complexity by proposed scheme when compared with time-domain CMA. Furthermore, compared with time-domain CMA and frequency-domain CMA, about 2 dB and 2.2 dB in OSNR improvement can be obtained by proposed scheme at the BER value of 1e-3, respectively.

  12. A high temperature superconductor tape RF receiver coil for a low field magnetic resonance imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, M C; Yan, B P; Lee, K H; Ma, Q Y; Yang, E S [Jockey Club MRI Centre, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-08-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) thin films have been applied in making a low loss RF receiver coil for improving magnetic resonance imaging image quality. However, the application of these coils is severely limited by their limited field of view (FOV). Stringent fabrication environment requirements and high cost are further limitations. In this paper, we propose a simpler method for designing and fabricating HTS coils. Using industrial silver alloy sheathed Bi{sub (2-x)}Pb{sub x}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} (Bi-2223) HTS tapes, a five-inch single-turn HTS solenoid coil has been developed, and human wrist images have been acquired with this coil. The HTS tape coil has demonstrated an enhanced FOV over a six-inch YBCO thin film surface coil at 77 K with comparable signal-to-noise ratio.

  13. ROCS: receiver operating characteristic surface for class-skewed high-throughput data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwei Yu

    Full Text Available The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve is an important tool to gauge the performance of classifiers. In certain situations of high-throughput data analysis, the data is heavily class-skewed, i.e. most features tested belong to the true negative class. In such cases, only a small portion of the ROC curve is relevant in practical terms, rendering the ROC curve and its area under the curve (AUC insufficient for the purpose of judging classifier performance. Here we define an ROC surface (ROCS using true positive rate (TPR, false positive rate (FPR, and true discovery rate (TDR. The ROC surface, together with the associated quantities, volume under the surface (VUS and FDR-controlled area under the ROC curve (FCAUC, provide a useful approach for gauging classifier performance on class-skewed high-throughput data. The implementation as an R package is available at http://userwww.service.emory.edu/~tyu8/ROCS/.

  14. Performance and durability of high emittance heat receiver surfaces for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Roig, David M.; Burke, Christopher A.; Shah, Dilipkumar R.

    1994-01-01

    Haynes 188, a cobalt-based superalloy, will be used to make thermal energy storage (TES) containment canisters for a 2 kW solar dynamic ground test demonstrator (SD GTD). Haynes 188 containment canisters with a high thermal emittance (epsilon) are desired for radiating heat away from local hot spots, improving the heating distribution, which will in turn improve canister service life. In addition to needing a high emittance, the surface needs to be durable in an elevated temperature, high vacuum environment for an extended time period. Thirty-five Haynes 188 samples were exposed to 14 different types of surface modification techniques for emittance and vacuum heat treatment (VHT) durability enhancement evaluation. Optical properties were obtained for the modified surfaces. Emittance enhanced samples were exposed to VHT for up to 2692 hours at 827 C and less than or equal to 10(exp -6) torr with integral thermal cycling. Optical properties were taken intermittently during exposure, and after final VHT exposure. The various surface modification treatments increased the emittance of pristine Haynes 188 from 0.11 up to 0.86. Seven different surface modification techniques were found to provide surfaces which met the SD GTD receiver VHT durability requirement. Of the 7 surface treatments, 2 were found to display excellent VHT durability: an alumina based (AB) coating and a zirconia based coating. The alumina based coating was chosen for the epsilon enhancement surface modification technique for the SD GTD receiver. Details of the performance and vacuum heat treatment durability of this coating and other Haynes 188 emittance surface modification techniques are discussed. Technology from this program will lead to successful demonstration of solar dynamic power for space applications, and has potential for application in other systems requiring high emittance surfaces.

  15. A differential low-voltage high gain current-mode integrated RF receiver front-end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chunhua; Ma Minglin; Sun Jingru; Du Sichun; Guo Xiaorong; He Haizhen, E-mail: wch1227164@sina.com [School of Information Science and Technology, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A differential low-voltage high gain current-mode integrated RF front end for an 802.11b WLAN is proposed. It contains a differential transconductance low noise amplifier (G{sub m}-LNA) and a differential current-mode down converted mixer. The single terminal of the G{sub m}-LNA contains just one MOS transistor, two capacitors and two inductors. The gate-source shunt capacitors, C{sub x1} and C{sub x2}, can not only reduce the effects of gate-source C{sub gs} on resonance frequency and input-matching impedance, but they also enable the gate inductance L{sub g1,2} to be selected at a very small value. The current-mode mixer is composed of four switched current mirrors. Adjusting the ratio of the drain channel sizes of the switched current mirrors can increase the gain of the mixer and accordingly increase the gain of RF receiver front-end. The RF front-end operates under 1 V supply voltage. The receiver RFIC was fabricated using a chartered 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. The integrated RF receiver front-end has a measured power conversion gain of 17.48 dB and an input referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of -7.02 dBm. The total noise figure is 4.5 dB and the power is only 14 mW by post-simulations. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Caregiver perceptions and motivation for disclosing or concealing the diagnosis of HIV infection to children receiving HIV care in Mbarara, Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Kiwanuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disclosure of the diagnosis of HIV to HIV-infected children is challenging for caregivers. Despite current recommendations, data suggest that levels of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children receiving care in resource-limited settings are very low. Few studies describe the disclosure process for children in these settings, particularly the motivators, antecedent goals, and immediate outcomes of disclosure to HIV-infected children. This study examined caregivers' perception of the disclosure concept prior to disclosure, their motivation towards or away from disclosure, and their short- and long-term intentions for disclosure to their HIV-infected children. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of 40 HIV-infected children (ages 5-15 years who were receiving HIV care but did not know their HIV status. RESULTS: Caregivers of HIV-infected children mainly perceived disclosure as a single event rather than a process of gradual delivery of information about the child's illness. They viewed disclosure as potentially beneficial both to children and themselves, as well as an opportunity to explain the parents' role in the transmission of HIV to the children. Caregivers desired to personally conduct the disclosure; however, most reported being over-whelmed with fear of negative outcomes and revealed a lack of self-efficacy towards managing the disclosure process. Consequently, most cope by deception to avoid or delay disclosure until they perceive their own readiness to disclose. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for HIV disclosure should consider that caregivers may desire to be directly responsible for disclosure to children under their care. They, however, need to be empowered with practical skills to recognize opportunities to initiate the disclosure process early, as well as supported to manage it in a phased, developmentally appropriate manner. The potential role for peer counselors in the disclosure

  17. Benzodiazepine prescribing in children under 15 years of age receiving free medical care on the General Medical Services scheme in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K

    2015-06-01

    To examine the prevalence and secular trends in benzodiazepine (BZD) prescribing in the Irish paediatric population. In addition, we examine coprescribing of antiepileptic, antipsychotic, antidepressant and psychostimulants in children receiving BZD drugs and compare BZD prescribing in Ireland to that in other European countries.

  18. High performance felt-metal-wick heat pipe for solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraka, Charles E.; Moss, Timothy A.; Baturkin, Volodymyr; Zaripov, Vladlen; Nishchyk, Oleksandr

    2016-05-01

    Sodium heat pipes have been identified as a potentially effective heat transport approach for CSP systems that require near-isothermal input to power cycles or storage, such as dish Stirling and highly recuperated reheat-cycle supercritical CO2 turbines. Heat pipes offer high heat flux capabilities, leading to small receivers, as well as low exergetic losses through isothermal coupling with the engine. Sandia developed a felt metal wick approach in the 1990's, and demonstrated very high performance1. However, multiple durability issues arose, primarily the structural collapse of the wick at temperature over short time periods. NTUU developed several methods of improving robustness of the wick2, but the resulting wick had limited performance capabilities. For application to CSP systems, the wick structures must retain high heat pipe performance with robustness for long term operation. In this paper we present our findings in developing an optimal balance between performance and ruggedness, including operation of a laboratory-scale heat pipe for over 5500 hours so far. Application of heat pipes to dish-Stirling systems has been shown to increase performance as much as 20%3, and application to supercritical CO2 systems has been proposed.

  19. High accuracy alignment facility for the receiver and transmitter of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumita; Affolter, Michael; Gunderson, Kurt; Neubert, Jakob; Thomas, Nicolas; Beck, Thomas; Gerber, Michael; Graf, Stefan; Piazza, Daniele; Pommerol, Antoine; Roethlisberger, Guillaume; Seiferlin, Karsten

    2012-07-10

    The accurate co-alignment of the transmitter to the receiver of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter is a challenging task for which an original alignment concept had to be developed. We present here the design, construction and testing of a large collimator facility built to fulfill the tight alignment requirements. We describe in detail the solution found to attenuate the high energy of the instrument laser transmitter by an original beam splitting pentaprism group. We list the different steps of the calibration of the alignment facility and estimate the errors made at each of these steps. We finally prove that the current facility is ready for the alignment of the flight instrument. Its angular accuracy is 23 μrad. PMID:22781273

  20. High fetal irradiation: about one pregnant woman receiving infra diaphragmatic radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a 19-year-old young woman for whom was discovered a pregnancy at the end of the irradiation for a Hodgkin lymphoma (stage IV bone Bb), initially treated by chemotherapy. The radiotherapy delivered 36 Gy in infra-diaphragmatic volumes (lumbo-aortic, spleen, L5), beginning in a pregnant patient for less than 4 amenorrhea weeks. The calculated received fetal dose (literature data, measurement with software T.P.S., measurement on phantom) is high: it's between 2.8 and 5 Gy. With a current follow-up of 4 years since the radiotherapy's end, the patient is in complete remission and her child presents with a normal development for the age, in spite of the infra diaphragmatic irradiation. (authors)

  1. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  2. High Bandwidth, Multi-Purpose Passive Radar Receiver Design For Aerospace and Geoscience Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertatschitsch, Laura

    Passive radar permits inexpensive and stealthy detection and tracking of aerospace and geoscience targets. Transmitters of opportunity such as commercial FM broadcast, DTV broadcast, and cell phone towers are already illuminating many populated areas with continuous power. Passive radar receivers can be located at a distance from the transmitter, and can sense this direct transmission as well as any reflections from ground clutter, aircraft, ionospheric turbulence and meteor trails. The 100% duty cycle allows for long coherent integration, increasing the sensitivity of these instruments greatly. Traditional radar receivers employ analog front end downconverters to translate the radio frequency spectrum to an intermediate frequency (IF) for sampling and signal processing. Such downconverters limit the spectrum available for study, and can introduce nonlinearities which limit the detectability of weak signals in the presence of strong signals. With suitably fast digitizers one can bypass the downconversion stage completely. Very fast digitizers may have relatively few bits, but precision is recovered in subsequent signal processing. We present a new passive radar receiver designed to utilize a broad spectrum of commercial transmitters without the use of a front end analog downconverter. The receiver centers around a Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) group. Fast sampling rates (8-bit samples as fast as 3 GSps) combined with 640 multiply/addition operations on the Virtex-5 FPGA centered on the ROACH allows for coherent processing of broad spectrum and dynamic decision-making on one device all while sharing a single front end, putting this device on the cutting edge of wideband receiver technology. The radar is also designed to support mobile operation. It fits within a 19'' rack, it is equipped with solid state hard drives, and can run off an

  3. Ge on Si waveguide-integrated photodiodes for high speed and low power receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Léopold; Vivien, Laurent; Hartmann, Jean Michel; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cassan, Eric; Baudot, Charles; Boeuf, Frédéric

    2013-05-01

    Development of fast silicon photonics integrated circuit is mainly driven by the reduction of the power consumption. As a result, photodetectors with high efficiency, high speed and low dark current are needed to reduce the global link consumption. Germanium is now considered as the ideal candidate for fully integrated receivers based on SOI substrate and CMOS-like processes. We report on low power and high speed waveguide-integrated Ge photodetectors. Butt coupled lateral PIN structure photodiodes have been fabricated by Germanium selective growth and ion implantation at the end of silicon waveguide. Three types of photodiodes are reported, with dark current as low as 6nA at 1V reverse bias, optical bandwidth over 40GHz at zero bias and responsivity up to 0.8A/W at a wavelength of 1550nm. Such devices are suitable for data rate over 40Gbps and can be easily integrated with other photonic devices to fabricate wafer scale integrated circuits for datacom and telecom applications.

  4. High Fat Intakes Are Unhealthy But Do Children Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Emma

    1996-01-01

    A British survey of dietary awareness and food preferences received 7,825 replies from 9,600 children in years 7 and 10. Although aware of the link between fat consumption and heart disease, many lacked knowledge about the fat content of foods and ways to make healthy lifestyle choices. (SK)

  5. An assessment of the dose received by children from CT examinations along with the quality control parameters from a conventional CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the UNSCEAR reported that CT constitutes 5% of all the medical x-ray examinations and it contributes 34% of the resultant collective dose worldwide. Children are more sensitive to the ionizing radiations than adults. So, routine quality control tests are expected to be carried out periodically on the CT scanners. The aim of this research was to estimate the effective doses received by the children below two years of age from routine CT examinations carried out at an educational imaging center in Tehran. It was also aimed to evaluate the quality control parameters of the mentioned CT scanner at the same time. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Computed Tomography Dose Index were measured at the central axis of the CT gantry in air and in the standard quality control phantoms of the head and body (as recommended by the FDA) using a pencil ionization chamber and LiF TLD pellets for a single scan. By using the measured Computed Tomography Dose Index values and the IrnPACT software, the effective doses were calculated for every routine CT examination protocol. In this study, the quality control parameters such as noise, CT number calibration, high and low contrast resolution and the flatness of the CT image were also evaluated. These parameters were also measured using standard procedures and test objects. Results: The effective dose estimated in this research ranged from 2.05 to 21.45 and 2.05 to 15.7 mSv for the female and male children, respectively. The measured values of the Computed Tomography Dose Index in the standard head and body phantoms were 20.6) 2.01 and 11.13 f 1.04 mGy1100 mAs, respectively. The high and low contrast resolution was estimated to be 0.8 mm and 1.0 rnm, respectively. Conclusion: The estimated values of the effective doses in this research were less than the values reported for the Netherlands, the USA, Germany and were comparable with the values reported in the UK. The measured Computed Tomography Dose Index values were 11

  6. Placental malaria among HIV-infected and uninfected women receiving anti-folates in a high transmission area of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsey Grant

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection increases the risk of placental malaria, which is associated with poor maternal and infant outcomes. Recommendations in Uganda are for HIV-infected pregnant women to receive daily trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TS and HIV-uninfected women to receive intermittent sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP. TS decreases the risk of malaria in HIV-infected adults and children but has not been evaluated among pregnant women. Methods This was a cross sectional study comparing the prevalence of placental malaria between HIV-infected women prescribed TS and HIV-uninfected women prescribed intermittent preventive therapy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP in a high malaria transmission area in Uganda. Placental blood was evaluated for malaria using smear and PCR. Results Placentas were obtained from 150 HIV-infected women on TS and 336 HIV-uninfected women on IPT-SP. The proportion of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with placental malaria was 19% vs. 26% for those positive by PCR and 6% vs. 9% for those positive by smear, respectively. Among all infants, smear+ placental malaria was most predictive of low birth weight (LBW. Primigravidae were at higher risk than multigravidae of having placental malaria among HIV-uninfected, but not HIV-infected, women. Adjusting for gravidity, age, and season at the time of delivery, HIV-infected women on TS were not at increased risk for placental malaria compared to HIV-uninfected women on IPT-SP, regardless of the definition used. Conclusion Prevalence of placental malaria was similar in HIV-infected women on TS and HIV-uninfected women on IPT-SP. Nonetheless, while nearly all of the women in this study were prescribed anti-folates, the overall risk of placental malaria and LBW was unacceptably high. The population attributable risk of placental malaria on LBW was substantial, suggesting that future interventions that further diminish the risk of placental malaria may have a

  7. Message-Passing Receiver for OFDM Systems over Highly Delay-Dispersive Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbu, Oana-Elena; Manchón, Carles Navarro; Rom, Christian; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2016-01-01

    Wireless OFDM receivers operating over channels with maximum excess delay exceeding the duration of the cyclic prefix experience intersymbol and intercarrier interference. When not accounted for, this interference impairs the ability of the receiver to estimate the channel response and thereby...... severely limits its equalization and detection capabilities. As a result, the bit-error-rate performance is drastically impaired. In this paper, we propose a receiver algorithm designed to cope with the interference resulting in these channel conditions. The algorithm works with blocks of received OFDM...... contain a few non-negligible multipath components, channel estimation is implemented using a sparse Bayesian learning method. This approach allows for the design of accurate channel estimators with affordable complexity. Results from Monte Carlo simulations show that the receiver employing the proposed...

  8. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3 genotype in children receiving HAART: an eight-year retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rocco

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes have shown to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Our objective was to confirm the association between the APOC3 genotype and plasma lipid levels in an HIV-1-infected pediatric cohort exposed to HAART. A total of 130 HIV-1-infected children/adolescents that attended a reference center in Argentina were selected for an 8-year longitudinal study with retrospective data collection. Longitudinal measurements of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed under linear or generalized linear mixed models. The contribution of the APOC3 genotype at sites -482, -455 and 3238 to plasma lipid levels prediction was tested after adjusting for potential confounders. Four major APOC3 haplotypes were observed for sites -482/-455/3238, with estimated frequencies of 0.60 (C/T/C, 0.14 (T/C/C, 0.11 (C/C/C, and 0.11 (T/C/G. The APOC3 genotype showed a significant effect only for the prediction of total cholesterol levels (p<0.0001. However, the magnitude of the differences observed was dependent on the drug combination (p = 0.0007 and the drug exposure duration at the time of the plasma lipid measurement (p = 0.0002. A lower risk of hypercholesterolemia was predicted for double and triple heterozygous individuals, mainly at the first few months after the initiation of Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. We report for the first time a significant contribution of the genotype to total cholesterol levels in a pediatric cohort under HAART. The genetic determination of APOC3 might have an impact on a large portion of HIV-1-infected children at the time of choosing the treatment regimens or on the counter-measures against the adverse effects of drugs.

  9. High Dynamic Range RF Front End with Noise Cancellation and Linearization for WiMAX Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with verification of the high dynamic range for a heterodyne radio frequency (RF front end. A 2.6 GHz RF front end is designed and implemented in a hybrid microwave integrated circuit (HMIC for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX receivers. The heterodyne RF front end consists of a low-noise amplifier (LNA with noise cancellation, an RF bandpass filter (BPF, a downconverter with linearization, and an intermediate frequency (IF BPF. A noise canceling technique used in the low-noise amplifier eliminates a thermal noise and then reduces the noise figure (NF of the RF front end by 0.9 dB. Use of a downconverter with diode linearizer also compensates for gain compression, which increases the input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3 of the RF front end by 4.3 dB. The proposed method substantially increases the spurious-free dynamic range (DRf of the RF front end by 3.5 dB.

  10. Partitioning of heavy metals in sub-surface flow treatment wetlands receiving high-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Ewa; Gajewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The retention of heavy metals at two pilot-scale treatment wetlands (TWs), consisting of two vertical flow beds (VSSF) followed by a horizontal flow bed (HSSF) was studied. The TWs received high-strength wastewater: reject waters from sewage sludge centrifugation (RW) and landfill leachate (LL). The concentrations of the metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, and Ni were measured in treated wastewater, substrate of the beds and in plant material harvested from the beds (separately in above ground (ABG) parts and below ground (BG) parts). The TWs differed in metals retention. In the RW treating TW the metal removal efficiencies varied from 27% for Pb to over 97% for Fe and Al. In the LL treating system the concentrations of most metals decreased after VSSF-1 and VSSF-2 beds; however, in the outflow from the last (HSSF) bed, the concentrations of metals (apart from Al) increased again, probably due to the anaerobic conditions at the bed. A major removal pathway was sedimentation and adsorption onto soil substrate as well as precipitation and co-precipitation. In the LL treating facility the plants contained substantially higher metal concentrations in BG parts, while the upward movement of metals was restricted. In the RW treating facility the BG/ABG ratios were lower, indicating that metals were transported to shoots. PMID:23863445

  11. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  12. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. PMID:26574184

  13. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of providing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on the I status of young Burkinabe children. In total, thirty-four communities were assigned to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). IC children were randomly assigned to receive 20 g lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)/d containing 90 µg I with 0 or 10 mg Zn from 9 to 18 months of age, and NIC children received no SQ-LNS. All the children were exposed to iodised salt through the national salt iodization programme. Spot urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in dried blood spots as well as plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations were assessed at 9 and 18 months of age among 123 IC and fifty-six NIC children. At baseline and at 18 months, UI, TSH and T4 did not differ between cohorts. Tg concentration was higher in the NIC v. IC at baseline, but this difference did not persist at 18 months of age. In both cohorts combined, the geometric mean of UI was 339·2 (95% CI 298·6, 385·2) µg/l, TSH 0·8 (95% CI 0·7, 0·8) mU/l, T4 118 (95 % CI 114, 122) nmol/l and Tg 26·0 (95% CI 24·3, 27·7) µg/l at 18 months of age. None of the children had elevated TSH at 18 months of age. Marginally more children in NIC (8·9%) had low T4 (15 ppm). A reduction of SQ-LNS I content could be considered in settings with similarly successful salt iodisation programmes. PMID:26411504

  14. Preliminary studies of radiation port in children receiving cranial irradiation for preventing central nervous system (CNS) disease of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For preventing CNS leukemia in children with ALL, simple whole skull irradiation that included only retro-orbital spaces and not anterior part of the cribriform plate and first two cervical vertebrae had been given until March 1982 to patients who had remission after drug therapy. Since March 1982, however, such patients have received new modified cranial irradiation of Pinkel's method of preventive CNS therapy to include the cribriform plate. Pinkel's method usually includes first two cervical vertebrae in radiation port, but sometimes his method of radiation fails to reach the brain and the meninges on the anterior parts of the lamina cribrosa. In this study, a comparison of CNS-relapes ratio between these two methods of preventive CNS therapy was carried out. The frequency of CNS leukemia was remarkably high in patients given the simple whole skull irradiation. Of 18 patients, 7 developed CNS leukemia. Among these 7, 5 patients (71 %) had occurence of CNS-relapse within 1 year 7 months with the other one patient, making a total of 86 %, having CNS-relapse within 1 year 11 months. On the other hand, 17 of 39 patients who received new modified cranial irradiation were followed up for more than 1 year 9 months, and all patient had no CNS-relapse to date. This result showed that the irradiation of whole circulation areas of cerebrospinal fluid of the brain and the spine at first two cervical vertebra levels had great importance in preventing CNS-relapse after achievement of drug-induced remission. (author)

  15. Thermogravimetric Study of Oxidation-Resistant Alloys for High-Temperature Solar Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Rene I.; Stein, Wes; Marvig, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Three special alloys likely to be suitable for high-temperature solar receivers were studied for their resistance to oxidation up to a temperature of 1050°C in dry atmospheres of CO2 and air. The alloys were Haynes HR160, Hastelloy X, and Haynes 230, all nickel-based alloys with greater than 20% chromium content. The oxidation rate of specimens cut from sample master alloys was followed by thermogravimetry by continuously monitoring the weight change with a microbalance for a test duration of 10 h. The corrosion resistance was deduced from the total weight increase of the specimens and the morphology of the oxide scale. The surface oxide layer formed (scale) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and in all cases was found to be chromia. Oxidation was analyzed by means of parabolic rate law, albeit in some instances linear breakaway corrosion was also observed. For the temperature range investigated, all alloys corroded more in CO2 than in air due to the formation of a stronger and more protective oxide scale in the presence of air. At 1000°C, the most resistant alloy to corrosion in CO2 was Haynes 230. Alloy Haynes HR160 was the most oxidized alloy at 1000°C in both CO2 and air. Hastelloy X oxidized to a similar extent in CO2 at both 900°C and 1000°C, but in air, it resisted oxidation better at 1000°C than either at 900°C or 1000°C.

  16. Experimental evaluation of a non-isothermal high temperature solar particle receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental evaluation of a solar particle receiver is reported. Concentrated irradiation was converted into thermal energy in a gas flow by a cloud of radiation absorbing sub-micrometre carbon particles. Average solar concentration was 2500 on an 80 mm diameter aperture. Cloud particle mass fractions were in the range of 0.2-0.5%. Exit gas temperatures exceeding 2100 K were measured with nitrogen, 1900 K with CO2, and 2000 K with air, which is 1000 K higher than previously reported using a particle receiver. The air heating tests reveal that the particle/gas heat transfer exceeded the oxygen/carbon oxidation rate up to 2000 K. A carbon particle mass fraction of less than 0.5% in the gas stream ensures that the heated air contains only a negligible amount of CO2 and NOx. The axial receiver cavity wall temperature increased with distance from the aperture, peaking at 60% of the total cavity length, and then slightly decreasing towards the exit plane. At steady conditions, the wall temperatures in the gas exit plane were at least 100 K cooler than the gas's, alleviating structural constraints associated with conventional volumetric receivers. Estimated radiation to thermal energy conversion efficiencies surpassed 80% at the highest mass flow rates. The receiver accumulated over 12 net hours at temperatures above 1700 K without any major failures

  17. THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Endaryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.

  18. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ae-Na Choi; Myeong Soo Lee; Jung-Sook Lee

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-...

  19. NIH Research: Children Research Volunteers Receive Care and Help Advance Knowledge | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hereditary illness found in fewer than 1,000 children worldwide. It used to be a death sentence for kids before they reached age 10. But thanks to her mother, who wouldn’t accept that scenario, at age ...

  20. A randomized controlled trial comparing mandibular local anesthesia techniques in children receiving nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation.

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Sinuba; Loughlin, Pat; Coldwell, Susan E.; Noonan, Carolyn J.; Milgrom, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dental pain control using infiltration/intrapapillary injection was less effective than inferior alveolar block/long buccal infiltration anesthesia in children. A total of 101 healthy children, aged 5-8 years, who had no contraindication for local anesthetic and who needed a pulpotomy treatment and stainless steel crown placement in a lower primary molar were studied. A 2-group randomized blinded controlled design was employed comparing th...

  1. Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with High Functioning Autism and Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Sims, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…

  2. High-precision coseismic displacement estimation with a single-frequency GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bofeng; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Li, Xingxing

    2015-07-01

    To improve the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS) in the earthquake/tsunami early warning and rapid response applications, minimizing the blind zone and increasing the stability and accuracy of both the rapid source and rupture inversion, the density of existing GPS networks must be increased in the areas at risk. For economic reasons, low-cost single-frequency receivers would be preferable to make the sparse dual-frequency GPS networks denser. When using single-frequency GPS receivers, the main problem that must be solved is the ionospheric delay, which is a critical factor when determining accurate coseismic displacements. In this study, we introduce a modified Satellite-specific Epoch-differenced Ionospheric Delay (MSEID) model to compensate for the effect of ionospheric error on single-frequency GPS receivers. In the MSEID model, the time-differenced ionospheric delays observed from a regional dual-frequency GPS network to a common satellite are fitted to a plane rather than part of a sphere, and the parameters of this plane are determined by using the coordinates of the stations. When the parameters are known, time-differenced ionospheric delays for a single-frequency GPS receiver could be derived from the observations of those dual-frequency receivers. Using these ionospheric delay corrections, coseismic displacements of a single-frequency GPS receiver can be accurately calculated based on time-differenced carrier-phase measurements in real time. The performance of the proposed approach is validated using 5 Hz GPS data collected during the 2012 Nicoya Peninsula Earthquake (Mw 7.6, 2012 September 5) in Costa Rica. This shows that the proposed approach improves the accuracy of the displacement of a single-frequency GPS station, and coseismic displacements with an accuracy of a few centimetres are achieved over a 10-min interval.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Spontaneous Social Interactions of Children with High-Functioning Autism and Children with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    A comparative observational study was undertaken of the spontaneous social interactions of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. The sample comprised 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's disorder and 17 typically developing children matched on chronological age and overall mental age. A…

  4. STUDY OF THE ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC, ANTIOXIDATIVE AND ANTIATHEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM LINN. IN RABBIT RECEIVING HIGH FAT DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Swarnamoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study of the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidative and antiatherogenic activity of Triticum aestivum Linn. in rabbit receiving high fat diet. Twenty rabbits of either sex were taken and divided into four groups five in each as - Normal Control- received normal diet, Hyperlipidemic control- received high fat diet, Test drug group - received high fat diet plus ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum 500 mg/Kg /day orally and Standard Drug group- received high fat diet plus Atorvastatin 2.1 mg/Kg/day orally for 12 weeks and then animals were sacrificed. Blood sample were collected and lipid profile, catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were measured. The antiatherogenic effect was examined by histopathology of aorta. Data were statistically analysed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. Triticum aestivum significantly decreased serum lipids towards normal levels. It also increases catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and decreases malondialdehyde level and histopathological examination revealed prevention of atherosclerosis. Triticum aestivum has antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and anti atherogenic effects.

  5. Special Education Services Received by Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders from Preschool through High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Wagner, Mary; Christiano, Elizabeth R. A.; Shattuck, Paul; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how special education services received by students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) differ by age, disability severity, and demographic characteristics. Using three national data sets, the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study, the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study, and the National Longitudinal…

  6. High sensitivity broadband 360GHz passive receiver for TeraSCREEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Oldfield, Matthew; Maestrojuán, Itziar; Platt, Duncan; Brewster, Nick; Viegas, Colin; Alderman, Byron; Ellison, Brian N.

    2016-05-01

    TeraSCREEN is an EU FP7 Security project aimed at developing a combined active, with frequency channel centered at 360 GHz, and passive, with frequency channels centered at 94, 220 and 360 GHz, imaging system for border controls in airport and commercial ferry ports. The system will include automatic threat detection and classification and has been designed with a strong focus on the ethical, legal and practical aspects of operating in these environments and with the potential threats in mind. Furthermore, both the passive and active systems are based on array receivers with the active system consisting of a 16 element MIMO FMCW radar centered at 360 GHz with a bandwidth of 30 GHz utilizing a custom made direct digital synthesizer. The 16 element passive receiver system at 360 GHz uses commercial Gunn diode oscillators at 90 GHz followed by custom made 90 to 180 GHz frequency doublers supplying the local oscillator for 360 GHz sub-harmonic mixers. This paper describes the development of the passive antenna module, local oscillator chain, frequency mixers and detectors used in the passive receiver array of this system. The complete passive receiver chain is characterized in this paper.

  7. High-speed optical receivers with integrated photodiode in nanoscale CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Tavernier, Filip

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the design of optical receivers that use the most economical integration technology, while enabling performance that is typically only found in very expensive devices. To achieve this, all necessary functionality, from light detection to digital output, is integrated on a single piece of silicon. All building blocks are thoroughly discussed, including photodiodes, transimpedance amplifiers, equalizers and post amplifiers.

  8. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Campbell

    Full Text Available Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%, the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool. Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.

  9. A Conceptual Design Study of a High Temperature Solar Thermal Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C. S.; Ehde, C. L.; Stacy, L. E.; Abujawdeh, S. S.; Narayanan, R.; Mccreight, L. R.; Gatti, A.; Rauch, H. W., Sr.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design was made for a solar thermal receiver capable of operation in the 1095 to 1650 C (2000 to 3000 F) temperature range. This receiver is designed for use with a two-axis paraboloidal concentrator in the 25 to 150 kW sub t power range, and is intended for industrial process heat, Brayton engines, or chemical/fuels reactions. Three concepts were analyzed parametrically. One was selected for conceptual design. Its key feature is a helical coiled tube of sintered silicon nitride which serves as the heat exchanger between the incident solar radiation and the working fluid. A mechanical design of this concept was prepared, and both thermal and stress analysis performed. The analysis showed good performance, low potential cost in mass production, and adaptability to both Brayton cycle engines and chemical/fuels production.

  10. Reversible skeletal disease and high fluoride serum levels in hematologic patients receiving voriconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Bernhard; Guggenberger, Roman; Fasler, David; Nair, Gayathri; Manz, Markus G.; Stussi, Georg; Schanz, Urs

    2012-01-01

    We here investigate the occurrence of fluoride intake-associated alterations in patients with hematologic disease on triazol antifungal medication. Clinical, laboratory, and radiology data of overall 43 patients with hematologic malignancies taking voriconazole (n = 20), posaconazole (n = 8), and itraconazole (n = 4), and a hematologic patient control group (n = 11) are described. Bone pain and radiologic evidence of periostitis were exclusively observed in patients receiving long-term vorico...

  11. Design and evaluation of a high temperature/pressure supercritical carbon dioxide direct tubular receiver for concentrating solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jesus Daniel

    This work focuses on the development of a solar power thermal receiver for a supercritical-carbon dioxide (sCO2), Brayton power-cycle to produce ~1 MWe. Closed-loop sCO2 Brayton cycles are being evaluated in combination with concentrating solar power to provide higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies relative to conventional steam Rankine cycles. High temperatures (923--973 K) and pressures (20--25 MPa) are required in the solar receiver to achieve thermal efficiencies of ~50%, making concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. In this study, the CSP receiver is required to achieve an outlet temperature of 923 K at 25 MPa or 973 K at 20 MPa to meet the operating needs. To obtain compatible receiver tube material, an extensive material review was performed based the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ASME B31.1 and ASME B313.3 codes respectively. Subsequently, a thermal-structural model was developed using a commercial computational fluid (CFD) dynamics and structural mechanics software for designing and analyzing the tubular receiver that could provide the heat input for a ~2 MWth plant. These results were used to perform an analytical cumulative damage creep-fatigue analysis to estimate the work-life of the tubes. In sequence, an optical-thermal-fluid model was developed to evaluate the resulting thermal efficiency of the tubular receiver from the NSTTF heliostat field. The ray-tracing tool SolTrace was used to obtain the heat-flux distribution on the surfaces of the receiver. The K-ω SST turbulence model and P-1 radiation model used in Fluent were coupled with SolTrace to provide the heat flux distribution on the receiver surface. The creep-fatigue analysis displays the damage accumulated due to the cycling and the permanent deformation of the tubes. Nonetheless, they are able to support the required lifetime. The receiver surface temperatures were found to be within the safe

  12. A Study of Messages Received by Children Who Viewed an Episode of "The Harlem Globetrotters Popcorn Machine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Research Service, Inc., New York, NY.

    A total of 687 children, aged 7 through 11, was interviewed in fall, 1974 to determine the extent to which the Harlem Globetrotters Popcorn Machine television programs communicated "pro-social" messages to its audience. Viewers of four different episodes of the Globetrotters were questioned about the program they had seen. Among the findings were:…

  13. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Small...

  14. High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianlorenzo Masini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss our approach to monolithic intergration of Ge photodectors with CMOS electronics for high-speed optical transceivers. Receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors achieve a sensitivity of −14.2 dBm (10−12 bit error rate (BER at 10 Gbps and 1550 nm.

  15. A clinically prognostic scoring system for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: results from the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda; Gatell, Jose M; Ledergerber, Bruno; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Hermans, Philippe; Goebel, Frank-Detlef; Blaxhult, Anders; Kirk, Ole; Phillips, Andrew N; NN, NN

    2002-01-01

    The risk of clinical progression for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons receiving treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is poorly defined. From an inception cohort of 8457 HIV-infected persons, 2027 patients who started HAART during prospective follow-up wer...

  16. A 128-Channel Receive-Only Cardiac Coil for Highly Accelerated Cardiac MRI at 3 Tesla

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Melanie; Potthast, Andreas; Sosnovik, David E; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Wiggins, Graham C.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2008-01-01

    A 128-channel receive-only array coil is described and tested for cardiac imaging at 3T. The coil is closely contoured to the body with a “clam-shell” geometry with 68 posterior and 60 anterior elements, each 75 mm in diameter, and arranged in a continuous overlapped array of hexagonal symmetry to minimize nearest neighbor coupling. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification for parallel imaging (G-factor) were evaluated in phantom and volunteer experiments. These results were compar...

  17. Clinical Inquiries Received by CDC Regarding Suspected Ebola Virus Disease in Children--United States, July 9, 2014-January 4, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyson B; Meites, Elissa; Anstey, Erica H; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Jayatilleke, Achala; Ruben, Wendy; Koumans, Emily; Oster, Alexandra M; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Dziuban, Eric; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Glover, Maleeka; Lowe, Luis; Peacock, Georgina; Mahon, Barbara; Griese, Stephanie E

    2015-09-18

    The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic is the largest in history and represents the first time Ebola has been diagnosed in the United States. On July 9, 2014, CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center and established an Ebola clinical consultation service to assist U.S. state and local public health officials and health care providers with the evaluation of suspected cases. CDC reviewed all 89 inquiries received by the consultation service during July 9, 2014– January 4, 2015, about children (persons aged ≤18 years). Most (56 [63%]) children had no identifiable epidemiologic risk factors for Ebola; among the 33 (37%) who did have an epidemiologic risk factor, in every case this was travel from an Ebola-affected country. Thirty-two of these children met criteria for a person under investigation (PUI) because of clinical signs or symptoms. Fifteen PUIs had blood samples tested for Ebola virus RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction; all tested negative. Febrile children who have recently traveled from an Ebola-affected country can be expected to have other common diagnoses, such as malaria and influenza, and in the absence of epidemiologic risk factors for Ebola, the likelihood of Ebola is extremely low. Delaying evaluation and treatment for these other more common illnesses might lead to poorer clinical outcomes. Additionally, many health care providers expressed concerns about whether and how parents should be allowed in the isolation room. While maintaining an appropriate level of vigilance for Ebola, public health officials and health care providers should ensure that pediatric PUIs receive timely triage, diagnosis, and treatment of other more common illnesses, and care reflecting best practices in supporting children’s psychosocial needs. PMID:26390343

  18. Motor outcome differences between two groups of children with spastic diplegia who received different intensities of early onset physiotherapy followed for 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Toyoko; Pidcock, Frank S; Hayakawa, Katumi; Yamori, Yuriko; Shikata, Yuko

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the clinical effectiveness of early onset long-term intensive physiotherapy on motor development in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The study was a non-randomized cohort study with 62 months (mean) follow-up. The participants were ten infants who were first examined before 3 months of age corrected for prematurity. All had a gestational age of less than 33 weeks and a birth weight of less than 2000 g. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed periventricular white matter injury in nine subjects and moderate grade bilateral porencephaly in one. Five completed a full course of training of 52 months (mean), two did not receive therapy, and three received an insufficient course of therapy. The study was conducted at the Regional Center for Children with Disabilities including outpatient clinics and a school for children with special needs. The Vojta Method was used, which is an extensive family oriented physiotherapy program which uses isometric strengthening of muscles with tactile stimulation. Subjects were evaluated for the highest motor developmental level at the outcome evaluation 59 months (mean) after initiation of therapy. Four of the five who completed training could either stand still for 5 s or walk at the time of the outcome evaluation 52 months after the beginning of the therapy program. None of the five subjects with no training or insufficient training could accomplish this task when evaluated 64 months following therapy initiation. This was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0278). A consistently applied physiotherapy program resulted in better motor outcomes in this group of children at risk for developing spastic diplegic CP. PMID:15036431

  19. Application of Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Receivers in Optical Satellite to High-Altitude Platform Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Oswald Wallner; Franz Fidler

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In a free-space optical communication system employing fiber-optic components, the phasefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence limit the efficiency with which the laser beam is coupled into a single-mode fiber. We analyze different link scenarios including a geostationary (GEO) satellite, a high-altitude platform (HAP), and an optical ground station (OGS). Single-mode coupled optically preamplified receivers allow for efficient suppression of background noise and highly ...

  20. Older white people's experiences of giving care to or receiving care from their children / Sonia S. Howes

    OpenAIRE

    Howes, Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Social and demographic changes have a tremendous effect on the care for older people to the effect that caring for older people might have become a rare commodity. Increased life expectancy during the past century has prolonged the period in which older people need care and has made family care giving an increasingly recurrent activity for adult children. After the demolition of the apartheid area in South Africa, most research focused on previously disadvantaged groups, namely Black and Brow...

  1. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  2. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  3. Retention in care and outpatient costs for children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie A Scott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few published estimates of the cost of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa. Our objective was to estimate the outpatient cost of providing ART to children remaining in care at six public sector clinics in Zambia during the first three years after ART initiation, stratified by service delivery site and time on treatment. METHODS: Data on resource utilization (drugs, diagnostics, outpatient visits, fixed costs and treatment outcomes (in care, died, lost to follow up were extracted from medical records for 1,334 children at six sites who initiated ART at 50% at four sites. At the two remaining sites, outpatient visits and fixed costs together accounted for >50% of outpatient costs. The distribution of costs is slightly skewed, with median costs 3% to 13% lower than average costs during the first year after ART initiation depending on site. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient costs for children initiating ART in Zambia are low and comparable to reported outpatient costs for adults. Outpatient costs and retention in care vary widely by site, suggesting opportunities for efficiency gains. Taking advantage of such opportunities will help ensure that targets for pediatric treatment coverage can be met.

  4. Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...

  5. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sevgi Gözdaşoğlu; İsmail Haluk Gökçora; Ömer Uluoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs). A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of o...

  6. Patterns of postural sway in high anxious children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dokkum Elisabeth H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that elevated levels of anxiety have a negative impact on the regulation of balance. However, most studies to date examined only global balance performance, with little attention to the way body posture is organized in space and time. The aim of this study is to examine whether posturographic measures can reveal (subclinical balance deficits in children with high levels of anxiety. Methods We examined the spatio-temporal structure of the centre-of-pressure (COP fluctuations in children with elevated levels of anxiety and a group of typically developing children while maintaining quiet stance on a force plate in various balance challenging conditions. Balance was challenged by adopting sensory manipulations (standing with eyes closed and/or standing on a foam surface and using a cognitive manipulation (dual-tasking. Results Across groups, postural performance was strongly influenced by the sensory manipulations, and hardly by the cognitive manipulation. We also found that children with anxiety had overall more postural sway, and that their postural sway was overall less complex than sway of typically developing children. The postural differences between groups were present even in the simple baseline condition, and the group differences became larger with increasing task difficulty. Conclusion The pattern of postural sway suggests that balance is overall less stable and more attention demanding in children with anxiety than typically developing children. The findings provide further evidence for a neuro-behavioral link between psychopathology and the effectiveness of postural control.

  7. Exploratory study describing 6 month outcomes for young children with autism who receive treatment as usual in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratori F

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Filippo Muratori,1,2 Antonio Narzisi1IDIA group 1Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy; 2University of Pisa, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Background: In the last few years, the results of different studies have confirmed, in different ways, the importance of early intervention for autism. This study aims to evaluate the role of early "as usual" interventions in the outcome of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Method: Seventy children with ASD aged between 24 and 48 months were recruited at different centers in Italy. They were evaluated by blind researchers at baseline and after 6 months of using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G, Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales. Parents filled out the MacArthur Inventory, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Check List. All children were referred to community providers for available interventions. Results: At the endpoint, most of the children were still classified as having an ADOS-G classification of ASD. However, 21 (34.2% passed from autism to autism spectrum, and 3 (4.2% passed from autism spectrum to no spectrum. Treatment effects were obtained for cognitive functioning, language, adaptive behavior, and child behavior without differences between development-oriented and behavior-oriented interventions. Parent involvement was a mediator for the best clinical outcome. Baseline low impairments of communication, language comprehension, and gesture were predictors of positive outcome. Conclusion: Treatment as usual, composed of individual therapy plus school-supported inclusion, may be an effective intervention in ASD. Better initial levels of communication in child and parent involvement during treatment have an important role for a positive outcome. Keywords: autism, preschoolers, treatment as usual, early intervention

  8. Prevention of oral mucositis in children receiving cancer therapy: a systematic review and evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutob, Akram F; Gue, Sumant; Revesz, Tamas; Logan, Richard M; Keefe, Dorothy

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review investigated, critically appraised, and rated the evidence on agents used to prevent oral mucositis in children. A comprehensive search of the relevant literature was performed up to December 2011. Articles were included according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critically appraised for validation and quality assessment using a checklist consisting of 18 categories. Each article was then rated for its strength of evidence. 16,471 articles were retrieved from 19 different databases and then reduced to 27 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. Five articles on oral care protocols supported their use to prevent oral mucositis in children. Seven articles on chlorhexidine mouthwash and three on laser therapy had conflicting evidence of its use. The preventative agents that were supported by one or two articles included: benzydamine mouthwash, iseganan mouthwash, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwash, oral/enteral glutamine, oral propantheline and cryotherapy, oral cryotherapy, oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and chewing gum. The reduction in the rates of occurrence of oral mucositis when using agents of fair (B) to good (A) evidence ranged from 22% to 52%. In conclusion, this review suggests the use of oral care protocols to prevent oral mucositis in children because of their strength of evidence (fair to good). The authors suggest avoiding agents with fair to good evidence against their use (oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and GM-CSF mouthwash). Agents with conflicting evidence (chlorhexidine mouthwash (used solely), laser therapy, and glutamine) should also be avoided until further research confirms their efficacy. PMID:22959949

  9. Peer Victimization of Children with Disabilities: Examining Prevalence and Early Risk and Protective Factors among a National Sample of Children Receiving Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Peer victimization is a serious social problem that can negatively affect a child's psychosocial development and school adjustment, and may have lasting effects for victims. Previous studies on peer victimization have suggested that children with disabilities (CWD) are likely to be more frequent targets of peer victimization. This longitudinal…

  10. Characterization of bacterial communities in sediments receiving various wastewater effluents with high-throughput sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

    2014-04-01

    454 Pyrosequencing was applied to examine bacterial communities in sediment samples collected from a river receiving effluent discharge from rural domestic sewage (RDS) and various factories, including a tannery (TNS), clothing plant (CTS), and button factory (BTS), respectively. For each sample, 4,510 effective sequences were selected and utilized to do the bacterial diversity and abundance analysis, respectively. In total, 1,288, 2,036, 1,800, and 2,150 operational taxonomic units were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in TNS, CTS, BTS, and RDS, respectively. Bacterial phylotype richness in RDS was higher than the other samples, and TNS had the least richness. The most predominant class in the TNS, CTS, and BTS samples is Betaproteobacteria. Cyanobacteria (no_rank) is the most predominant one in the RDS sample. Circa 31% sequences in TNS were affiliated with the Rhodocyclales order. In the four samples, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Clostridium, Legionella, Leptospira, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Treponema genera containing pathogenic bacteria were detected. Characterization of bacterial communities in sediments from various downstream branches indicated that distinct wastewater effluents have similar potential to reduce the natural variability in river ecosystems and contribute to the river biotic homogenization. PMID:24477925

  11. Receiving voluntary family planning services has no relationship with the paradoxical situation of high use of contraceptives and abortion in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vietnam shows a paradoxical situation where high contraceptive prevalence goes together with high abortion rates. This study examined the associations between self-reports of having received voluntary family planning (VFP services and induced abortions. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Thai Nguyen province, covering a total of 1281 women. Data were derived from a sample of 935 married women aged 18–49 years who were ever-users (93.5% and current users of contraceptives (84%, and had completed birth histories. The dependent variables were the likelihood of having an induced abortion and repeated (two or more induced abortions. The main independent variable was having received the three VFP dimensions (counselling, broader information, and access to availability. The association was examined using multivariate logistic regressions, taking into account women’s socio-demographic characteristics. Results The overall induced abortion percentage was 19.4 per 100 pregnancies. None of the three VFP dimensions was significantly associated with the odds of having an induced abortion or having repeated induced abortions. Mother’s age of 35 or older, having more than three living children, and ever used female contraception methods significantly doubled or more the odds of having an induced abortion and significantly tripled the odds of having repeated abortions. Conclusions Results indicate that women receiving VFP services were not less likely to have induced abortions. The provision of family planning counselling, information on contraceptive method mix, and management skills to ensure availability, are in need of reinforcement in a new set of policy and program strategies in the future.

  12. Mother-Child Interactions in Depressed Children and Children at High Risk and Low Risk for Future Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Ehmann, Mary; Ryan, Neal D.

    2008-01-01

    A study to investigate the differences in mother and child interactions of depressed children and adolescents, nondepressed high-risk youths, and healthy controls was conducted. Results revealed increased family discord with depressed children whereas intermediate levels of control and disengagement were seen in families with high-risk children.

  13. The High Burden of Malaria in Primary School Children in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathanga, Don P.; Halliday, Katherine E.; Jawati, Mpumulo; Verney, Allison; Bauleni, Andrew; Sande, John; Ali, Doreen; Jones, Rebecca; Witek-McManus, Stefan; Roschnik, Natalie; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria among school children has received increased attention recently, yet there remain few detailed data on the health and educational burden of malaria, especially in southern Africa. This paper reports a survey among school children in 50 schools in Zomba District, Malawi. Children were assessed for Plasmodium infection, anemia, and nutritional status and took a battery of age-appropriate tests of attention, literacy, and numeracy. Overall, 60.0% of children were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, 32.4% were anemic and 32.4% reported sleeping under a mosquito net the previous night. Patterns of P. falciparum infection and anemia varied markedly by school. In multivariable analysis, higher odds of P. falciparum infection were associated with younger age and being stunted, whereas lower odds were associated with reported net use, higher parental education, and socioeconomic status. The odds of anemia were significantly associated with P. falciparum infection, with a dose–response relationship between density of infection and odds of anemia. No clear relationship was observed between health status and cognitive and educational outcomes. The high burden of malaria highlights the need to tackle malaria among school children. PMID:26283750

  14. The High Burden of Malaria in Primary School Children in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathanga, Don P; Halliday, Katherine E; Jawati, Mpumulo; Verney, Allison; Bauleni, Andrew; Sande, John; Ali, Doreen; Jones, Rebecca; Witek-McManus, Stefan; Roschnik, Natalie; Brooker, Simon J

    2015-10-01

    Malaria among school children has received increased attention recently, yet there remain few detailed data on the health and educational burden of malaria, especially in southern Africa. This paper reports a survey among school children in 50 schools in Zomba District, Malawi. Children were assessed for Plasmodium infection, anemia, and nutritional status and took a battery of age-appropriate tests of attention, literacy, and numeracy. Overall, 60.0% of children were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, 32.4% were anemic and 32.4% reported sleeping under a mosquito net the previous night. Patterns of P. falciparum infection and anemia varied markedly by school. In multivariable analysis, higher odds of P. falciparum infection were associated with younger age and being stunted, whereas lower odds were associated with reported net use, higher parental education, and socioeconomic status. The odds of anemia were significantly associated with P. falciparum infection, with a dose-response relationship between density of infection and odds of anemia. No clear relationship was observed between health status and cognitive and educational outcomes. The high burden of malaria highlights the need to tackle malaria among school children. PMID:26283750

  15. High resolution Moho topography map beneath Iberia and Northern Morocco from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Diaz, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Crustal thickness maps at regional scales are typically compiled using estimations inferred from different geophysical datasets providing a variable coverage of the investigated area. Consequently, spurious effects related to changes in data resolution or artifacts in grid interpolation may affect significant zones of those maps. The TopoIberia-IberArray broad-band seismic network, covering the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Morocco with stations distributed on a regular 60 × 60 km grid provides a unique opportunity to avoid such technical problems and to obtain a crustal thickness map derived from a same method sampling evenly all the region. Data from more than 340 stations has been gathered and analyzed using the P-to-S conversion phases at the Moho discontinuity (receiver functions). The crustal thickness has been inferred applying the classical H-κ stacking technique, though in regions of complex crustal structure, we have preferred to estimate the thickness directly from the arrival time of the converted phase at some sites. The topography of the Moho discontinuity is strongly correlated with tectonic processes. The investigated area, extending from the Sahara platform to the Bay of Biscay, has a great geodynamic diversity, including, North to South, crustal imbrication in the Pyrenean and Cantabrian range, a large and relatively undisturbed Variscan Massif in the center of Iberia and areas of complex and still not completely understood geodynamics in the Alboran crust domain and the Atlas range. The crustal thickness map reflects this diversity, showing variations reaching 30 km between the thickest and thinnest zones of continental crust. The final map has an overall similarity with previous estimations of the crustal thickness using independent data, as those coming from more sparse deep seismic sounding profiles, but provides further constraints at regional scale.

  16. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted) Children

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Vaivre-Douret

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills ea...

  17. Development, solar test, and evaluation of a high-temperature air receiver for point-focusing parabolic dish applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanseth, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature solar receiver was fabricated and tested in excess of 1370 C on an 11-meter-diameter test bed concentrator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site, Edwards, California. The 60-kilowatt thermal receiver design utilizes state-of-the-art silicon carbide honeycomb matrix panels to receive and transfer the solar energy and mullite elements for thermal buffer storage. Solar tests were conducted with indicated air exit temperatures ranging from 885 C (1625 F) to 1427 C (2600 F), mass flow rates of 75 to 105 g/sec (0.16 to 0.23 lbm/sec), and pressures up to 265 kPa absolute (38.4 psia). Estimates of efficiency are 59.7% at 1120 C (2048 F) to 80.6% at 885 C (1625 F) when aperture spillage losses are considered separately. Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative receiver concept for point-focusing parabolic dish applications over a wide temperature range.

  18. High-latitude geomagnetically induced current events observed on very low frequency radio wave receiver systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Dietrich, Sarah; Raita, Tero; Ulich, Thomas; Clarke, Ellen; Thomson, Alan W.P.; Kavanagh, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Noise burst events observed at Sodankylä, Finland, in the frequency range 20–25 kHz during January–April 2005 last up to 4 s, occur more often at midnight, are associated with high geomagnetic activity, and exhibit a quasi-constant amplitude perturbation ∼15 dB above the background noise levels. We considered the possibility that the events could be caused by lightning noise breakthrough. The association of the noise burst events with local midnight and high geomagnetic activity argues agains...

  19. Development of a high temperature solar receiver for high-efficient thermionic conversion systems; Fukugo netsuden henkan system yo chokoon taiyo junetsuki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeoka, T.; Naito, H.; Yugami, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    For thermionic conversion systems (TIC) using concentrated sunlight as heat source, the newly developed solar receiver was tested. Concentrated sunlight aims at the inner surface of the cavity type solar receiver. The emitter of TIC installed in the rear of the solar receiver is uniformly heated over 1700K by thermal radiation from the rear of the solar receiver, emitting thermion. Electric power is generated by collecting the thermion by collector. Mo is used as emitter material, however, because of poor heat absorption of Mo, high-absorptive TiC is used for heat absorption surface to heat Mo by thermal conduction from high-temperature TiC. Functionally gradient material (FGM) with an intermediate layer of gradient TiC/Mo ratios between TiC and Mo is used as emitter material. The emitter is thus uniformly heated at high temperatures of 1723{plus_minus}12K. As a result, the developed solar receiver is applicable to heat the emitter of TIC. Heat flux measurement at the graphite cavity clarified that cavity temperature of as high as 1780K and heat flow of 50W/cm{sup 2} are obtained at 4.7kW in input. 6 figs.

  20. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin's Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözdaşoğlu, Sevgi; Pamir, Ali; Ünal, Emel; Gökçora, İsmail Haluk; Uluoğlu, Ömer; Ceyhan, Koray; Deda, Haluk; Işıkman, Erdoğan; Yavuz, Gülsan; Taçyıldız, Nurdan; Çavdar, Ayhan

    2016-03-01

    Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs). A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of our patients. A hypopharyngeal epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor as an unusual secondary malignant neoplasm developed in another patient, while a benign thyroid nodule and invasive ductal breast carcinoma were observed at different times in the female patient. Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland developed in one of our patients. PMID:26377258

  1. Secondary Neoplasms in Children with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Receiving C-MOPP and Radiotherapy: Presentation of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Gözdaşoğlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients who survive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL are at increased risk of secondary neoplasms (SNs. A wide variety of SNs have been reported, including leukemias, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and solid tumors, specifically breast and thyroid cancers. Herein we report subsequent neoplasms in four patients with HL receiving chemoradiotherapy. It is interesting that three SNs, fibrosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and retrobulbar meningioma, were observed in the radiation area in one of our patients. A hypopharyngeal epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor as an unusual secondary malignant neoplasm developed in another patient, while a benign thyroid nodule and invasive ductal breast carcinoma were observed at different times in the female patient. Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland developed in one of our patients.

  2. High pollutant removal efficacy of a large constructed wetland leads to receiving stream improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Michael A; McAuliffe, Janie A; McIver, Matthew R; Mayes, David; Hanson, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Hewletts Creek, in Wilmington, North Carolina, drains a large suburban watershed and as such is affected by high fecal bacteria loads and periodic algal blooms from nutrient loading. During 2007, a 3.1-ha wetland was constructed to treat stormwater runoff from a 238-ha watershed within the Hewletts Creek drainage. A rain event sampling program was performed in 2009-2010 to evaluate the efficacy of the wetland in reducing pollutant loads from the stormwater runoff passing through the wetland. During the eight storms sampled, the wetland greatly moderated the hydrograph and retained and/or removed 50 to 75% of the inflowing stormwater volume. High removal rates of fecal coliform bacteria were achieved, with an average load reduction of 99% and overall concentration reduction of >90%. Particularly high (>90%) reductions of ammonium and orthophosphate loads also occurred, and lesser but still substantial reductions of total phosphorus (89%) and total suspended solids loads (88%) were achieved. Removal of nitrate was seasonally dependent, with lower removal occurring in cold weather and a high percentage (90%+) of nitrate load removal occurring in the growing season when water temperature exceeded 15°C. Long-term before-and-after sampling in downstream Hewletts Creek proper showed that, after wetland construction, statistically significant average decreases of 43% for nitrate, 72% for ammonium, and 59% for fecal coliform bacteria were realized. Wetland features contributing to the high pollutant control efficacy included available space for a large wetland, construction of deep forebays, and a dense and diverse aquatic and shoreline plant assemblage. PMID:23128761

  3. The High Burden of Malaria in Primary School Children in Southern Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathanga, DP; Halliday, KE; Jawati, M; Verney, A; Bauleni, A; van de Sande, J.; Ali, D; Jones, R.; Witek-McManus, S; Roschnik, N; Brooker, SJ

    2015-01-01

    Malaria among school children has received increased attention recently, yet there remain few detailed data on the health and educational burden of malaria, especially in southern Africa. This paper reports a survey among school children in 50 schools in Zomba District, Malawi. Children were assessed for Plasmodium infection, anemia, and nutritional status and took a battery of age appropriate tests of attention, literacy, and numeracy. Overall, 60.0% of children were infected with Plasmodium...

  4. Application of Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Receivers in Optical Satellite to High-Altitude Platform Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald Wallner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In a free-space optical communication system employing fiber-optic components, the phasefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence limit the efficiency with which the laser beam is coupled into a single-mode fiber. We analyze different link scenarios including a geostationary (GEO satellite, a high-altitude platform (HAP, and an optical ground station (OGS. Single-mode coupled optically preamplified receivers allow for efficient suppression of background noise and highly sensitive detection. While GEO-to-OGS communication suffers from atmospheric turbulence, we demonstrate that GEO-to-HAP communication allows for close to diffraction-limited performance when applying tip-tilt correction.

  5. Application of Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Receivers in Optical Satellite to High-Altitude Platform Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidler Franz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a free-space optical communication system employing fiber-optic components, the phasefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence limit the efficiency with which the laser beam is coupled into a single-mode fiber. We analyze different link scenarios including a geostationary (GEO satellite, a high-altitude platform (HAP, and an optical ground station (OGS. Single-mode coupled optically preamplified receivers allow for efficient suppression of background noise and highly sensitive detection. While GEO-to-OGS communication suffers from atmospheric turbulence, we demonstrate that GEO-to-HAP communication allows for close to diffraction-limited performance when applying tip-tilt correction.

  6. High Speed Digital Sample Rate Conversion for a Real-Time Ground Station Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Carrick, Brian Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Small satellites are becoming a popular spacecraft option because of their low cost, and complexity. Past small satellites had simple communication systems with low data rates that rarely exceeded 38.4 kbps. Engineers, researchers, and students, from Space Dynamics Laboratory and Utah State University, have recently created and launched a pair of small satellites called the Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment (DICE). This mission was revolutionary because of its high-speed data link, with d...

  7. Hybrid solar receiver as a source of high-temperature medium for an absorption chiller supply

    OpenAIRE

    Przenzak Estera; Filipowicz Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the problems related with the cold production, i.e. energy efficiency of the process. The idea of solar cooling systems has been presented as the solution of the problem of big electricity demand. The paper discusses the principle of the operation of absorption chillers. Disadvantages and advantages of the solar cooling systems were discussed. The installation for manufacturing high-temperature heat based on solar collectors and concentrator of solar radiation construct...

  8. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  9. Wireless power-receiving assembly for a telemetry system in a high-temperature environment of a combustion turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevly, III, Alex J.; McConkey, Joshua S.

    2016-08-16

    In a telemetry system (100) in a high-temperature environment of a combustion turbine engine (10), a wireless power-receiving coil assembly (116) may be affixed to a movable component (104) of the turbine engine. Power-receiving coil assembly (116) may include a radio-frequency transparent housing (130) having an opening (132). A lid (134) may be provided to close the opening of the housing. Lid (134) may be positioned to provide support against a surface (120) of the movable component. An induction coil (133) is disposed in the housing distally away from the lid and encased between a first layer (136) and a last layer (140) of a potting adhesive. Lid (134) is arranged to provide vibrational buffering between the surface (120) of the movable component (104) and the layers encasing the induction coil.

  10. Evaluation of the children on trial in the Ankara 1st children s High Criminal Court for peer abuse

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Hasan Atakan; CANTÜRK, Nergis; Cantürk, Gürol; Dağalp, Rukiye

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Children performing acts defined as criminal law are the children who are dragged into crime When the victim of the identified actions are children both the number of children who need protection and who are dragged into crime increases and the victim of both sides in the incident become children Material and Method: The case files and cartons of decisions of 188 events sentenced in the Ankara 1st Children rsquo;s High Criminal Court for 4 year period between 2007 2010 in which victims a...

  11. Direct contrast enhanced Venography MR in the study of central venous accesses in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To present direct contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Venography, a recently developed method for the study of central venous accesses. Materials and methods. Six patients (4 males and 2 females; age range 15-18 Years) with severe intestinal failure treated with indwelling central Venous catheter since childhood were studied by MR-angiography. The examination was carried out with a 1.5 Philips Gyroscan Intera Magnet, sequences during the simultaneous injection of about 60 ml/limb paramagnetic contrast material, Gd DTPA, diluted with saline solution at a ratio of 1:12. The images were processed with maximum intensity coronal projections and compared with the phlebographic images obtained earlier. Results. In 4 cases the method demonstrated superior vena cava occlusion, in 2 cases inferior vena cava occlusion. The examination was well tolerated by all patients and image quality was very similar to that of the gold standard Study, conventional phlebography. Conclusions. We believe direct contrast-enhanced MR-venography to be a minimally invasive, panoramic and diagnostically reliable method, which should be considered the first choice in the study of central venous accesses of patients receiving total parental nutrition for the medical treatment of intestinal failure. The method does not expose the patients to ionizing radiation or require iodinated contrast material, and is relatively short with a room lime of about 30-40 minutes

  12. Peer Acceptance of Highly Gifted Children in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The variables associated with peer acceptance and rejection have been the subject of considerable investigation over the past few years, therefore, the present study was designed to answer three questions: (1) How socially accepted are highly gifted children in the elementary-school classroom? (2) What is the intellectual level of the children…

  13. Radio receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, V. N.; Barulin, L. G.; Zhodzishskii, M. I.; Malyshev, I. V.; Petrusinskii, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the design of microelectronic radio receivers and their components based on semiconductor and hybrid integrated circuits. Topics discussed include the hierarchical structure of radio receivers, the synthesis of structural schemes, the design of the principal functional units, and the design of radio receiver systems with digital signal processing. The discussion also covers the integrated circuits of multifunctional amplifiers, analog multipliers, charge-transfer devices, frequency filters, piezoelectronic devices, and microwave amplifiers, filters, and mixers.

  14. Birth outcomes in South African women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, a triple-drug combination, in HIV-infected pregnant women markedly reduces mother to child transmission of HIV and decreases maternal morbidity. However, there remains uncertainty about the effects of in utero exposure to HAART on foetal development. Methods Our objectives were to investigate whether in utero exposure to HAART is associated with low birth weight and/or preterm birth in a population of South African women with advanced HIV disease. A retrospective observational study was performed on women with CD4 counts ≤250 cells/mm3 attending antenatal antiretroviral clinics in Johannesburg between October 2004 and March 2007. Low birth weight ( Results Among HAART-unexposed infants, 27% (60/224 were low birth weight compared with 23% (90/388 of early HAART-exposed (exposed 3 increase, 95% CI 0.45-0.71, p 3 increase, 95% CI 0.55-0.85, p = 0.001. HAART exposure was associated with an increased preterm birth rate (15%, or 138 of 946, versus 5%, or seven of 147, in unexposed infants, p = 0.001, with early nevirapine and efavirenz-based regimens having the strongest associations with preterm birth (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 2.1-13.7, p Conclusions In this immunocompromised cohort, in utero HAART exposure was not associated with low birth weight. An association between NNRTI-based HAART and preterm birth was detected, but residual confounding is plausible. More advanced immunosuppression was a risk factor for low birth weight and preterm birth, highlighting the importance of earlier HAART initiation in women to optimize maternal health and improve infant outcomes.

  15. Multi-transmitter/multi-receiver high-speed measurements of soil resistivity and induced polarization - Hydrological application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance, Julien; Texier, Benoît; Leite, Orlando; Bernard, Jean; Truffert, Catherine; Lebert, François; Yamashita, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is an adapted tool for the monitoring of soil moisture variations in aquifers (Binley et al., 2015). Nevertheless, in some specific cases, like for highly permeable soils or fractured aquifers, the measurements from the device can be slower than the water flow through the entire investigated zone. Therefore, the monitoring of such phenomena cannot be performed with classical devices. In such cases, we require a high-speed measurement of soils resistivity. Since 20 years, the speed of acquisition of the resistivity meters has been improved by the development of multi-channel devices allowing to perform multi-electrode (> 4) measurements. The switching capabilities of the actual devices allow to measure over long profiles up to hundreds of electrodes only using one transmitter. Based on this multi-receiver technology and on previous work from Yamashita et al. (2013), authors have developed a 250 W multi-transmitter device for the high speed measurement of resistivity and induced polarization. Current is therefore injected simultaneously in the soil through six injection electrodes. The injected current is coded for each transmitter using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA, Yamashita et al., 2014) so that the different voltages induced by each sources can be reconstructed from the total potential measurement signal at each receiver, allowing to save acquisition time. The first operational prototype features 3 transmitters and 6 receivers. Its performances are compared to a mono-transmitter device for different sequences of acquisition in 2D and 3D configurations both in theory and on real field data acquired on a shallow sedimentary aquifer in the Loire valley in France. This device is promising for the accurate monitoring of rapid water flows in heterogeneous aquifers.

  16. Hookah use among high school children in an Indian city

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal Vishal; Nayak Ullal Anand; Khandelwal Sushma; Ninawe Nupur

    2013-01-01

    Context: Use of hookah is on the rise among youngsters. A growing body of evidence suggests that these children are experimenting with this form of tobacco. Aims: The study was carried out to know prevalence estimates of hookah use and factors associated with it among high school students.Settings and Design: This study adds to the current literature by providing prevalence estimates and factors associated with hookah use among high school students of Indore - a city in central India.Material...

  17. Emerging pneumococcal carriage serotypes in a high-risk population receiving universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbs Liz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods. Results 902 children (mean age 25 months living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and 23PPV-non-7PCV-type carriage from 31% to 25% respectively. Thus non-23PPV-type carriage increased from 57% to 67%. All these changes were statistically significant, as were changes for some specific serotypes. Shifts could not be attributed to vaccination alone. The top 10 of 40 serotypes identified were (in descending order 16F, 19A, 11A, 6C, 23B, 19F, 6A, 35B, 6B, 10A and 35B. Carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > = 0.12 μg/mL strains (15% overall was detected in serotypes (descending order 19A, 19F, 6B, 16F, 11A, 9V, 23B, and in 4 additional serotypes. Carriage of azithromycin resistant (MIC > = 2 μg/mL strains (5% overall, was detected in serotypes (descending order 23B, 17F, 9N, 6B, 6A, 11A, 23F, and in 10 additional serotypes including 6C. Conclusion Pneumococcal carriage remains high (~80% in this vaccinated population. Uptake of both pneumococcal vaccines increased, and carriage was reduced between 2003 and 2005. Predominant serotypes in combined

  18. A high-efficiency, low-noise power solution for a dual-channel GNSS RF receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-efficiency low-noise power solution for a dual-channel GNSS RF receiver is presented. The power solution involves a DC—DC buck converter and a followed low-dropout regulator (LDO). The pulse-width-modulation (PWM) control method is adopted for better noise performance. An improved low-power high-frequency PWM control circuit is proposed, which halves the average quiescent current of the buck converter to 80 μA by periodically shutting down the OTA. The size of the output stage has also been optimized to achieve high efficiency under a light load condition. In addition, a novel soft-start circuit based on a current limiter has been implemented to avoid inrush current. Fabricated with commercial 180-nm CMOS technology, the DC—DC converter achieves a peak efficiency of 93.1% under a 2 MHz working frequency. The whole receiver consumes only 20.2 mA from a 3.3 V power supply and has a noise figure of 2.5 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Hypertension, high-dose corticosteroids, and renal infiltration in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Andry Juliansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension is a rarely recognized complication of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. The incidence of hypertension in ALL patients in Indonesia remains unknown, but the most common risk factors are corticosteroid use during induction-phase chemotherapy and renal leukemic infiltration. Objective To determine the incidence of hypertension in children with ALL, and to assess for associations of high-dose corticosteroids, renal infiltration, and hyperleukocytosis to hypertension. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 100 children aged 2-18 years. Subjects were newly diagnosed ALL patients and those underwent induction-phase chemotherapy in the Pediatric Ward or Outpatient Clinic at Cipto Mangunkusumo or Dharmais Hospitals. Results Hypertension occurred in 6 (10% of 60 newly diagnosed ALL patients and 8 (20% of 40 patients who had received high-dose corticosteroids, but the difference was not statistically significant (OR=2.25; 95%CI 0.72 to 7.07; P=0.239. Hypertension was reported in 8 of 29 subjects who received dexamethasone, but in none of the subjects who received prednisone. However, the difference in these subgroups was also not statistically significant. Renal enlargement was found in 1 of 14 hypertensive patients, but it was not associated with hypertension (OR=0.80; 95%CI 0.52 to 1.24; P=0.417. Hyperleukocytosis was also not associated with hypertension (OR= 0.79; 95% CI 0.20 to 3.11; P=1.000. Conclusion The incidence of hypertension in ALL patients was 14%. Hypertension is not associated with renal infiltration or hyperleukocytosis. Furthermore, hypertension is not associated with corticosteroid dose, though is found only in subjects who receive dexamethasone. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:372-6.].

  20. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Bree, Elise H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with…

  1. Design of high-order HTS dual-band bandpass filters with receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, N.

    2016-08-01

    We have developed two high-order high-temperature superconducting (HTS) dual-band bandpass filters (BPFs) with a receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems. They feature stub-loaded hair-pin resonators with two types of microstrip lines between them. One has a six-pole design, and the other has an eight-pole design. Both were designed to operate at 2.15 GHz with a 43-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the lower passband and at 3.50 GHz with a 70-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the upper one. They were fabricated using YBa2Cu3Oy thin film on a CeO2-bufferd r-Al2O3 substrate. The measured results for both filters agree well with the simulated ones. The HTS dual-band BPF receiver subsystem uses a pulse tube cryocooler and a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA). We measured the frequency response of the six-pole dual-band BPF with and without a wideband LNA with a gain of 10 dB. The measured return losses were close.

  2. High prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among hospitalized children in Rakai, Uganda.

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    Valerian L Kiggundu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on malaria among hospitalized children in malaria endemic areas. We determined the prevalence, presentation and treatment outcomes of malaria and anemia among children in two hospitals in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: Children under five years hospitalized in Kalisizo hospital or Bikira health center in Rakai district, Uganda between May 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled and followed-up until discharge, death or referral. Data were collected on social-demographic characteristics, current and past illnesses and clinical signs and symptoms. Blood smears, hemoglobin (Hgb levels and HIV testing were performed from finger/heel prick blood. The associations between malaria infection and other factors were estimated using log-binomial regression to estimate adjusted prevalence risk ratios (aPRR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs, controlling for clustering at health facilities. RESULTS: 2471 children were enrolled. The most common medical presentations were fever (96.2%, cough (61.7%, vomiting (44.2%, diarrhea (20.8%, and seizures (16.0%. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 54.6%. Children with malaria were more likely to present with a history of fever (aPRR 2.23; CI 1.18-4.24 and seizures (aPRR 1.12; CI 1.09-1.16. Confirmed malaria was significantly lower among girls than boys (aPRR 0.92; CI 0.91-0.93, HIV infected children (aPRR 0.60 CI 0.52-0.71, and children with diarrhea (aPRR 0.76; CI 0.65-0.90. The overall prevalence of anemia (Hgb<10 g/dl was 56.3% and severe anemia (Hgb<6 g/dL was 17.8%. Among children with severe anemia 76.8% had malaria parasitemia, of whom 93.1% received blood transfusion. Malaria associated mortality was 0.6%. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among inpatient children under five years. Malaria prevention is a priority in this population.

  3. Receiver system for radio observation of high-energy cosmic ray air showers and its behaviour in self trigger mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observation of high-energy cosmic rays is carried out by indirect measurements. Thereby the primary cosmic particle enters into the earth's atmosphere and generates a cosmic ray air shower by interactions with the air molecules. The secondary particles arriving at ground level are detected with particle detector arrays. The fluorescence light from the exited nitrogen molecules along the shower axis is observed with reflector telescopes in the near-ultraviolet range. In addition to these well-established detection methods, the radio observation of the geosynchrotron emission from cosmic ray air showers is investigated at present as a new observation method. Geosynchrotron emission is generated by the acceleration of the relativistic electron-positron-pairs contained in the air shower by Lorentz forces in the earth's magnetic field. At ground level this causes a single pulse of the electric field strength with a continuous frequency spectrum ranging from a few MHz to above 100 MHz. In this work, a suitable receiver concept is developed based on the signal properties of the geosynchrotron emission and the analysis of the superposed noise and radio frequency interferences. As the required receiver system was not commercially available, it was designed in the framework of this work and realised as system including the antenna, the receiver electronics and suitable data acquisition equipment. In this concept considerations for a large scale radio detector array have already been taken into account, like low power consumption to enable solar power supply and cost effectiveness. The result is a calibrated, multi-channel, digital wideband receiver for the complete range from 40 MHz to 80 MHz. Its inherent noise and RFI suppression essentially results from the antenna directional characteristic and frequency selectivity and allows effective radio observation of cosmic ray air showers also in populated environment. Several units of this receiver station have been deployed

  4. 儿童髓母细胞瘤34例三维适形放射治疗的疗效分析%The follow-up of 34 children with medulloblastoma who received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfeng He; Siheng Ha; Changsheng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In our investigation, we studied the patients with medulloblastoma who received 3-dimensional con- formal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and recorded their effects, side effects and failure reasons. Methods: From August 2001 to August 2007, 34 children with medulloblastoma were treated in our hospital. The age at diagnosis was 3-16 years old, and the mean age at diagnosis was 9.5 years old. Among all the patients, 16 cases were included in the high risk group and 18cases were included in the low risk group. All the patients were performed total resection or subtotal resection and no patientsreceived radiotherapy or chemotherapy before operation. All patients received 3DCRT within 3 weeks after resection. The dose of 30 Gy were given to the whole brain and whole spine, followed by 20-25 Gy boosted to the posterior brain fossa. The median fraction dose was 180 cGy. Every patient received the chemotherapy scheme of the Lomustine, Cisplatinum and Vincristine. Nobody received intrathecal chemotherapy. The tests of the complete blood count, blood biochemistry, hepatic and renal functions were required before every cycle of chemotherapy. Results: 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were 71% and 62% respectively. The median follow-up time was 36.5 months. The 5-year OS of the high risk group was 71% compared to 62% of the low risk group. There were significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.01). There were 13 failure cases in all the patients. Of these 13 patients, 10 were dead and the other 3 were alive with tumor. The complete remission (CR) rate was 70.5% and the partial remission (PR) rate was 14%. Among the failure patients, there were 3 patients (8.8%) with the recurrences located in the brain of cribriform region. The 5-year OS of the patients with preoperative metastases was 12.5% (1/8), and which of the patients with residual tumor volume > 1.5 cm3 was 0% (0/5). Through the statistic analysis, it was found that both

  5. High flow nasal cannula in children: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalsen, Ingvild Bruun; Davis, Peter; Øymar, Knut

    2016-01-01

    High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a relatively new non-invasive ventilation therapy that seems to be well tolerated in children. Recently a marked increase in the use of HFNC has been seen both in paediatric and adult care settings. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of HFNC regarding mechanisms of action, safety, clinical effects and tolerance in children beyond the newborn period.We performed a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane up to 12th of May 2016. Twenty-six clinical studies including children on HFNC beyond the newborn period with various respiratory diseases hospitalised in an emergency department, paediatric intensive care unit or general ward were included. Five of these studies were interventional studies and 21 were observational studies. Thirteen studies included only children with bronchiolitis, while the other studies included children with various respiratory conditions. Studies including infants hospitalised in a neonatal ward, or adults over 18 years of age, as well as expert reviews, were not systematically evaluated, but discussed if appropriate.The available studies suggest that HFNC is a relatively safe, well-tolerated and feasible method for delivering oxygen to children with few adverse events having been reported. Different mechanisms including washout of nasopharyngeal dead space, increased pulmonary compliance and some degree of distending airway pressure may be responsible for the effect. A positive clinical effect on various respiratory parameters has been observed and studies suggest that HFNC may reduce the work of breathing. Studies including children beyond the newborn period have found that HFNC may reduce the need of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and invasive ventilation, but these studies are observational and have a low level of evidence. There are no international guidelines regarding flow rates and the optimal maximal flow for HFNC is not known, but few

  6. High resolution ultrasound characterization of soft tissue masses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two soft tissue masses in infants and children were examined with high resolution ultrasonography. Sonography was diagnostically specific in 17/42 (40%), useful but not diagnostic in 24/42 (58%), and misleading in 1/42 (2%) of soft tissue masses. Lesions with diagnostic sonographic features included cystic hygroma, fibromatosis colli, lymphadenopathy with abscess formation, and one case of osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  7. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    OpenAIRE

    FRAIZ Fabian Calixto; Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo WALTER

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there...

  8. Dental Caries Prevalence in Human Immunodeficiencyb Virus Infected Patients Receiving Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Loghman Rezaei-Soufi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Introduction of new approaches for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection such as anti-retroviral medicines has resulted in an increase in the life expectancy of HIV patient. Evaluating the dental health status as a part of their general health care is needed in order to improve the quality of life in these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the root and crown caries rate in HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART with that rate in HIV patients without treatment option. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study consisting of 100 individuals of both genders with human immunodeficiency virus were divided into two groups: i. group 1 (treatment group including 50 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS receiving HAART and ii. group 2 (control group including 50 HIV infected patients not receiving HAART. Dental examinations were done by a dentist under suitable light using periodontal probe. For each participant, numbers of decay (D, missed (M, filled (F, Decayed missed and filled teeth (DMFT, decay surface (Ds, missed surface (Ms, filled surface (Fs, Decayed missed and filled surfaces (DMFS, and tooth and root caries were recorded. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and independent t test using SPSS 13.0, while p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant in all analysis. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD of decayed, missed and filled teeth of those who were on highly active antiretroviral therapy was 6.86 ± 3.57, 6.39 ± 6.06 and 1.89 ± 1.93, respectively. There was no significant difference between these values regarding to the treatment of patients. The mean and standard deviation of DMFT, DMFS and the number of decayed root surfaces were 15.14 ± 6.09, 56.79 ± 28.56, and 4.96 ± 2.89 in patients treated by anti-retroviral medicine which were not significantly different compared to those without this treatment

  9. Performance Investigation on Scan-On-Receive and Adaptive Digital Beam-Forming for High-Resolution Wide-Swath Synthetic Aperture Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoni, Federica; Younis, Marwan; Makhoul Varona, Eduardo; Gebert, Nicolas; Krieger, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The work investigates the performance of the Smart Multi-Aperture Radar Technique (SMART) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system for high-resolution wide-swath imaging based on Scan-on-Receive (SCORE) algorithm for receive beam steering. SCORE algorithm works under model mismatch conditions in presence of topographic height. A study on the potentiality of an adaptive approach for receive beam steering based on spatial spectral estimation is presented. The impact of topographic height on SCORE ...

  10. Ultra-High-Efficiency Multijunction Cell and Receiver Module, Phase 1B: High Performance PV Exploring and Accelerating Ultimate Pathways; Final Subcontract Report, 13 May 2005 - 10 December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R. R.

    2010-03-01

    Spectrolab's two High Performance Photovoltaics primary objectives: (1) develop ultra-high-efficiency concentrator multijunction cells and (2) develop a robust concentrator cell receiver package.

  11. Use of occlusal sealant in a community program and caries incidence in high- and low-risk children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Baldini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of sealant placement under the guidelines of the Oral Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (Portugal, and to test the influence of clinical and socioeconomic variables on the DMFT increment in 277 children, born in 1997. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dental hygienist performed the initial examinations and sealant placement (Helioseal, Vivadent on the permanent first molars in 2005. These activities were registered in dental records that were assessed in 2007. Children were classified according to caries risk at baseline [high (HR: DMFT+dmft>0; low (LR: DMFT+dmft=0 risk] and sealant placement as follows: HR-S and LR-S Groups (with sealant placement; HR-NS and LR-NS Groups (without sealant placement. A calibrated dentist performed the final examination in 2007 at school, based on the World Health Organization recommendations. The variables collected were: dental caries, visible dental plaque, malocclusions, and socioeconomic level (questionnaire sent to children's parents. For univariate (Chi-square or Fisher tests and multivariate (Multiple logistic regression analyses the DMFT increment >0 was selected as dependent variable. RESULTS: Approximately 17.0% of the children showed DMFT increment>0 (mean=0.25. High-risk children presented a significant increase in the number of decayed and/or filled teeth. These children had 7.94 more chance of developing caries. Children who did not receive sealant were 1.8 more prone to have DMFT increment >0. CONCLUSION: It appears that sealant placement was effective in preventing dental caries development. Moreover, the variables "risk" and "sealant placement" were predictors for DMFT increment in the studied children.

  12. Plasma uric acid and tumor volume are highly predictive of outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined predictive value of plasma uric acid and primary tumor volume in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has not yet been determined. In this retrospective study, plasma uric acid level was measured after treatment in 130 histologically-proven NPC patients treated with IMRT. Tumor volume was calculated from treatment planning CT scans. Overall (OS), progression-free (PFS) and distant metastasis-free (DMFS) survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test, and Cox multivariate and univariate regression models were created. Patients with a small tumor volume (<27 mL) had a significantly better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a large tumor volume. Patients with a high post-treatment plasma uric acid level (>301 μmol/L) had a better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a low post-treatment plasma uric acid level. Patients with a small tumor volume and high post-treatment plasma uric acid level had a favorable prognosis compared to patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level (7-year overall OS, 100% vs. 48.7%, P <0.001 and PFS, 100% vs. 69.5%, P <0.001). Post-treatment plasma uric acid level and pre-treatment tumor volume have predictive value for outcome in NPC patients receiving IMRT. NPC patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level may benefit from additional aggressive treatment after IMRT

  13. The relationship between moral judgment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Liqi; Gummerum, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moral judgment in children with high-functioning autism and their cooperation in prisoner's dilemma game with partners of different moralities. Thirty-eight 6- to 12-year-old high-functioning autistic (HFA) children and 31 typically developing (TD) children were recruited. Children were asked to judge story protagonists' morality. After making this moral judgment correctly, they were asked to play with the morally nice and the morally naughty child in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game. Results showed that both HFA and TD children made correct moral judgments, and that HFA children might even have more rigid criteria for what constitutes morally naughty acts. HFA children's cooperation did not differ depending on the morality of the interaction partner, while TD children showed higher cooperation when interacting with the morally nice than the morally naughty child did. Thus, partner's morality did influence TD children's but not HFA children's subsequent cooperation. PMID:24603775

  14. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in 24 children (median age 57.9 months) suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). In 23 patients (one examination unacceptable because of motion artifacts) the most frequent finding was bronchial wall thickening, shown in 21 patients (91%), followed by bronchiectasis in 15 patients (65%). Less frequent findings were mucus plugging and patchy consolidations, which could be demonstrated in 11 patients each (48%). Findings were classified using a CT scoring system and including only irreversible pulmonary changes; a statistically significant correlation with lung function tests could be established. HRCT to date seems to be the most valuable method to determine extent and severity of lung involvement in children with CF and should therefore be routinely used for the staging of this disease. (orig.)

  15. Immune Activation and Viral Replication after Vaccination with an Influenza A H1N1 2009 Vaccine in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawat Onlamoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group. The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.

  16. Cognitive and psychosocial development of HIV pediatric patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy: a case-control study

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    Theodoridou Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychosocial development of pediatric HIV patients has not been extensively evaluated. The study objectives were to evaluate whether emotional and social functions are differentially associated with HIV-related complications. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted. The case group (n = 20 consisted of vertically infected children with HIV (aged 3-18 years receiving HAART in Greece. Each case was matched with two randomly selected healthy controls from a school-based population. CNS imaging and clinical findings were used to identify patients with HIV-related neuroimaging abnormalities. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale III and Griffiths Mental Abilities Scales were applied to assess cognitive abilities. The age specific Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to evaluate emotional adjustment and social skills. The Fisher's exact test, student's t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare categorical, continuous, and ordinal scores, respectively, of the above scales between groups. Results HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities did not differ from patients with neuroimaging abnormalities with respect to either age at HAART initiation (p = 0.306 or months of HAART treatment (p = 0.964. While HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had similar cognitive development with their healthy peers, patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had lower mean General (p = 0.027 and Practical (p = 0.042 Intelligence Quotient scores. HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of both Abnormal Emotional Symptoms (p = 0.047 and Hyperactivity scores (p = 0.0009. In contrast, HIV patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of presenting with Abnormal Peer Problems (p = 0.033. Conclusions HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities are more likely to experience maladjustment with respect to their emotional and activity spheres

  17. Why are children still having preventable extractions under general anaesthetic? A service evaluation of the views of parents of a high caries risk group of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, R C; Hosey, M T; Renton, T; Gallagher, J

    2011-04-23

    Introduction Despite overall improvements in oral health, the number of children admitted to hospital for extraction of teeth due to caries under general anaesthesia (GA) has been reported as increasing dramatically in England. The new UK government plans to transform NHS dentistry by improving oral health.Aim To evaluate the dental care received by children who required caries-related extractions under GA and obtain the views of their parents or guardians on their experiences of oral health services and the support they would like to improve their child's oral health, to inform future planning.Method An interview questionnaire was designed and piloted to collect data from a consecutive sample of 100 parents or guardians during their child's pre-operative assessment appointment. This took place at one London dental hospital between November 2009 and February 2010.Results Most children were either white (43%) or black British (41%); the average age was seven years (range 2-15, SD 3.1, SE 0.31) and the female:male ratio was 6:5. Most (84%) had experienced dental pain and 66% were referred by a general dental practitioner (GDP). A large proportion of parents or guardians (47%) reported previous dental treatment under GA in their children or child's sibling/s. Challenges discussed by parents in supporting their child's oral health included parenting skills, child behaviour, peer pressure, insufficient time, the dental system and no plans for continuing care for their child. Three out of four parents (74%) reported that they would like support for their child's oral health. Sixty percent of all parents supported school/nursery programmes and 55% supported an oral health programme during their pre-assessment clinic.Discussion These findings suggest that the oral health support received by high caries risk children is low. Health promotion programmes tailored to this cohort are necessary and our findings suggest that they would be welcomed by parents. PMID:21508990

  18. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders. PMID:27107672

  19. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  20. Hookah use among high school children in an Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Prathibha Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Use of hookah is on the rise among youngsters. A growing body of evidence suggests that these children are experimenting with this form of tobacco. Aims: The study was carried out to know prevalence estimates of hookah use and factors associated with it among high school students.Settings and Design: This study adds to the current literature by providing prevalence estimates and factors associated with hookah use among high school students of Indore - a city in central India.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1000 students from high schools was conducted to find hookah users and factors associated with its use. Results: Hookah users in this study population were 7.6%. Most of them first learned about hookah from friends (63.2%. They usually smoked in hookah lounges (85.5%. These children believed that hookah was safer and more socially acceptable than cigarettes.Conclusions: Misperceptions of safety and popularity of hookah among the younger generation are cause for concern. Presence of hookah lounges should be a target for further regulation. Prevention activities are necessary to prevent this rising public health concern.

  1. Fast-scanning heterodyne receiver for measurement of the electron cyclotron emission from high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast-scanning heterodyne receiver was developed that measures the fundamental cyclotron emission from the PLT plasma and thus ascertains the time evolution of the electron temperature profile. The receiver scans 60 to 90 GHz every 10 milliseconds and is interfaced to a computer for completely automated calibrated temperature measurements

  2. Association of visceral adiposity with increased intrarenal artery resistive index in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grima Pierfrancesco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT, a parameter of central obesity, is related to kidney function and intrarenal artery resistive index (IARI in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected patients. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 102 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months in a prospective cohort study. Echographically, the PRFT and IARI were measured and the serum metabolic parameters were evaluated. PRFT and IARI were measured using a 3.75 MHz convex linear probe. Results: The mean of PRFT and IARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than that in patients without it (P <0.001 and <0.01, respectively. Using the average IARI as the dependent variable, age (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.14; P < 0.5 and PRFT (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.51; P<0.01 were independent factors associated with IARI. Conclusion: Our data indicate that ultrasonographic assessment of PRFT may have a potential to be a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the renal vascular district in HIV-1-infected patients.

  3. Low Noise and Highly Linear Wideband CMOS RF Front-End for DVB-H Direct-Conversion Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ilku; Moon, Hyunwon; Woo, Doo Hyung

    In this paper, a wideband CMOS radio frequency (RF) front-end for digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) receiver is proposed. The RF front-end circuit is composed of a single-ended resistive feedback low noise amplifier (LNA), a single-to-differential amplifier, an I/Q down-conversion mixer with linearized transconductors employing third order intermodulation distortion cancellation, and a divide-by-two circuit with LO buffers. By employing a third order intermodulation (IMD3) cancellation technique and vertical NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) switching pair for an I/Q down-conversion mixer, the proposed RF front-end circuit has high linearity and low low-frequency noise performance. It is fabricated in a 0.18µm deep n-well CMOS technology and draws 12mA from a 1.8V supply voltage. It shows a voltage gain of 31dB, a noise figure (NF) lower than 2.6dB, and an IIP3 of -8dBm from 470MHz to 862MHz.

  4. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Clinical phenotype among a high-risk group of children and adolescents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Seung; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Lee, Hae Kook; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or spectrum disorders (FASD) in Korea. This study was performed to describe the distribution of alcohol-related physical features in a genetically homogeneous sample of children and adolescents in institutional settings in Korea. Children and adolescents receiving services in one of seven institutions in Seoul, Korea were screened for growth deficiency. Those who screened positive were assessed using a structured protocol for the key cardinal features of FAS, and for 11 additional alcohol-related dysmorphologic features. Based on these findings, children and adolescents were categorized as FAS, Deferred (some characteristic features of FAS), and No FAS. Groups were compared on the prevalence of specific additional features and number of additional features, stratified by gender and age. Of 307 children and adolescents screened, 87 received the dysmorphology evaluation. Thirteen were classified as FAS, 44 Deferred, and 30 No FAS. The frequency of 10 of the 11 additional alcohol-related features did not differ significantly by FAS category. Palmar crease abnormalities were more common in FAS (53.8%) than in the Deferred category (25.0%) or the No FAS category (6.7%) (P = 0.003). A high prevalence across all groups was found for midfacial hypoplasia and epicanthal folds, whereas only one child exhibited ptosis. This study suggests that an FASD phenotype variant related to ethnic differences in the range of defects specific to prenatal alcohol exposure may be present in the Korean population. PMID:26384109

  5. Conversion factors for determining organ doses received by paediatric patients in high-resolution single slice computed tomography with narrow collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations of organ doses DT received during computed tomographic examinations are usually performed by applying conversion factors to basic dose indicators like the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) or the dose-length-product (DLP). In addition to the existing conversion factors for beam apertures of 5 mm or 10 mm, we present new DLP-DT conversion factors adapted to high-resolution CT (HRCT) examinations of infants and young children with beam apertures of the order of 1 mm and under consideration of bow tie filtration. Calculations are performed on mathematical MIRD phantoms for an age range from 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 up to (for comparison) 30 years by adapting PCXMC, a Monte Carlo algorithm originally developed by STUK (Helsinki, Finland) for dose reconstructions in projection radiography. For this purpose, each single slice CT examination is approximated by a series of corresponding virtual planar radiographies comprising all focus positions. The transformation of CT exposure parameters into exposure parameters of the series of corresponding planar radiographies is performed by a specially developed algorithm called XCT. The DLP values are evaluated using the EGSRay code. The new method is verified at a beam aperture of 10 mm by comparison with formerly published conversion factors. We show that the higher spatial resolution leads to an enhanced DLP-DT conversion factor if a small organ (e.g. thyroid gland, mammae, uterus, ovaries, testes) is exactly met by the chosen CT slice, while the conversion factor is drastically reduced if the chosen CT slice is positioned above or below the organ. This effect is utilized for dose-saving examinations with only a few single slices instead a full scan, which technique is applied in about 10% of all paediatric chest CT examinations. (orig.)

  6. Conversion factors for determining organ doses received by paediatric patients in high-resolution single slice computed tomography with narrow collimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenbusch, Michael C; Harder, Dietrich; Regulla, Dieter F; Schneider, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Estimations of organ doses DT received during computed tomographic examinations are usually performed by applying conversion factors to basic dose indicators like the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) or the dose-length-product (DLP). In addition to the existing conversion factors for beam apertures of 5 mm or 10 mm, we present new DLP-DT conversion factors adapted to high-resolution CT (HRCT) examinations of infants and young children with beam apertures of the order of 1 mm and under consideration of bow tie filtration. Calculations are performed on mathematical MIRD phantoms for an age range from 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 up to (for comparison) 30 years by adapting PCXMC, a Monte Carlo algorithm originally developed by STUK (Helsinki, Finland) for dose reconstructions in projection radiography. For this purpose, each single slice CT examination is approximated by a series of corresponding virtual planar radiographies comprising all focus positions. The transformation of CT exposure parameters into exposure parameters of the series of corresponding planar radiographies is performed by a specially developed algorithm called XCT. The DLP values are evaluated using the EGSRay code. The new method is verified at a beam aperture of 10 mm by comparison with formerly published conversion factors. We show that the higher spatial resolution leads to an enhanced DLP-DT conversion factor if a small organ (e. g. thyroid gland, mammae, uterus, ovaries, testes) is exactly met by the chosen CT slice, while the conversion factor is drastically reduced if the chosen CT slice is positioned above or below the organ. This effect is utilized for dose-saving examinations with only a few single slices instead a full scan, which technique is applied in about 10% of all paediatric chest CT examinations. PMID:24630933

  7. Conversion factors for determining organ doses received by paediatric patients in high-resolution single slice computed tomography with narrow collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael C.; Schneider, Karl [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Paediatric Radiology; Harder, Dietrich [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Medical Physics and Biophysics; Regulla, Dieter F. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics

    2014-09-01

    Estimations of organ doses D{sub T} received during computed tomographic examinations are usually performed by applying conversion factors to basic dose indicators like the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) or the dose-length-product (DLP). In addition to the existing conversion factors for beam apertures of 5 mm or 10 mm, we present new DLP-D{sub T} conversion factors adapted to high-resolution CT (HRCT) examinations of infants and young children with beam apertures of the order of 1 mm and under consideration of bow tie filtration. Calculations are performed on mathematical MIRD phantoms for an age range from 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 up to (for comparison) 30 years by adapting PCXMC, a Monte Carlo algorithm originally developed by STUK (Helsinki, Finland) for dose reconstructions in projection radiography. For this purpose, each single slice CT examination is approximated by a series of corresponding virtual planar radiographies comprising all focus positions. The transformation of CT exposure parameters into exposure parameters of the series of corresponding planar radiographies is performed by a specially developed algorithm called XCT. The DLP values are evaluated using the EGSRay code. The new method is verified at a beam aperture of 10 mm by comparison with formerly published conversion factors. We show that the higher spatial resolution leads to an enhanced DLP-D{sub T} conversion factor if a small organ (e.g. thyroid gland, mammae, uterus, ovaries, testes) is exactly met by the chosen CT slice, while the conversion factor is drastically reduced if the chosen CT slice is positioned above or below the organ. This effect is utilized for dose-saving examinations with only a few single slices instead a full scan, which technique is applied in about 10% of all paediatric chest CT examinations. (orig.)

  8. Digital Beamforming on Receive: Techniques and Optimization Strategies for High-Resolution Wide-Swath SAR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gebert, Nicolas; Krieger, Gerhard; Moreira, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a well-proven imaging technique for remote sensing of the earth. However, conventional SAR systems are not capable to fulfill the increasing demands for im-proved spatial resolution and wider swath coverage. To overcome these inherent limitations, several innovative techniques have been suggested which employ multiple receive-apertures to gather addi-tional information along the synthetic aperture. This paper reviews these digital beamforming (DBF) on receive...

  9. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of "high-level potentialities" (highly gifted) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since "gifted" children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as "high-level potentialities" or "intellectually gifted" develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities. PMID:21977044

  10. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vaivre-Douret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities.

  11. Predictors of treatment failure and time to detection and switching in HIV-infected Ethiopian children receiving first line anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha Tigist

    2012-08-01

    to have treatment failure retrospectively by the authors based on their records. Hence, they were not detected and these patients were not offered second line ARTs. Conclusions Having chronic malnutrition, low CD4 at base line, chronic diarrhea after initiation of first line ART, substitution of ART drugs and age less than 3 years old were found to be independent predictors of first line ART failure in children. Most of the first line ART failure cases were not detected early and those that were detected were not switched to second line drugs in a timely fashion. Children with the above risk factors should be closely monitored for a timely switch to second line highly active anti-retroviral therapy.

  12. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  13. Meeting High Expectations: Healthy Thinking, Resiliency, and Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Lisalee D.; LaMarr, Todd; Hossler, Tami; Davenport, Carrie; Crace, Jodee

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a positive outlook for deaf and hard of hearing children in meeting the high expectations set before them. Like all children, deaf and hard of hearing children thrive in environments that support and promote healthy ways of thinking. When individuals have healthy ways of thinking, they have what researchers call a "growth…

  14. Fate and transport of some selected PhACs in a river receiving a high load of treated sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendz, D.; Ginn, T. R.; Paxeus, N.

    2003-04-01

    Pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) have lately been acknowledged to constitute a risk for humans and for the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Human and veterinary applications are the main sources of PhACs in the environment and the major pathway are excretion and discharge to the environment. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) play a crucial role for the introduction of the human PhACs in the environment through its removal efficiency and by separating these compounds into two exposure pathways associated with the aquatic and the solid (sludge) phase, respectively. Actually, STPs are recognized as being the main point discharge sources of human PhACs to the aquatic environment. In this study the fate and transport of a selected human PhACs belonging to different therapeutic classes (NSAIDs- non-steroidal antiinflamatory drugs, lipid regulators, antiepileptics, antibiotics and &beta-blockers) are investigated in a small river in the very south of Sweden receiving a high load of treated wastewater. In addition to the PhACs, triclosan (commonly used biocide) was included in this study. Water samples were taken of incoming and outgoing wastewater from the treatment plant, at the effluent in the river, and along the river up to 8 kilometers downstream were the river flows into the sea. After enrichment by solid-phase extraction the compounds were analyzed using GC-MS (methylated derivatives) or LC-MS/MS. In addition to the target compounds a screening analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of other wastewater related pollutants (caffeine, flame retardants, antioxidants). Several of the investigated substances demonstrate a surprising persistence in the aquatic environment. This emphasizes the need for a broader view on the concept of persistence by taking into account the recharge/loading rate in addition to removal mechanisms; transformation, volatility and physical sequestration by solids and the influence of different environmental media (Soil organic

  15. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Slot, Esther M; de Bree, Elise H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties. PMID:24935885

  16. [Sex education : representations of 13- to 15-year-old junior high school children and slow learners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Dominique; Rochigneux, Jean-Claude; Bernard, Sandie; Morand, Josette; Mougniotte, Alain

    2015-01-01

    In France, the National Education system has attributed an important health and sex education role to its teachers, based on a global and positive vision of sexuality Parents, teachers, public services and specialized resources each have a role to play in sex education for children and adolescents so that each young person can receive an education allowing him or her to enjoy a healthy sexuality. This study investigated the individual representations of sexuality, declared practices and knowledge of junior high schoolchildren and Section d'Enseignement G6n6ral et Professionnel Adapt6 (SEGPA) students, a structure for children with serious learning difficulties. The study methodology was based on administration of questionnaires (n = 524) to the two cohorts concerned. The secondary objective was to compare these two populations and identify the specificities of SEGPA pupils. The conclusions of this study should allow adults in charge of sex education in junior high schools and SEGPA to adapt sex education tools. PMID:26164952

  17. High occurrence of giardiasis in children living on a 'landless farm workers' settlement in Araras, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Aparecido de Lima Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteric parasitosis remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world including in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. Research carried out over the course of a year revealed that 96.6% (28/29 of children randomly selected from a 'landless farm workers' settlement in Araras, São Paulo, aged 4 - 15 years, presented Giardia intestinalis cysts. After referral to the neighborhood Health Office, all the children received tinidazole, given as a single dose of 50 mg/kg and 12 months later, new fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Despite the low adherence to the study, a high percentage (64.3% - 9/14 of the children remained positive for the parasite. This study showed a high positivity of giardiasis in child residents of the settlement, even after treatment; adults were not sensitized to the study and did not collected and/or deliver children fecal samples. The precarious living conditions are consistent with a high susceptibility to parasitic diseases, suggesting that the treatment of the infected individuals without identifying and eradicating the means of contamination is simply a palliative measure.

  18. High Fluoride Concentration Toothpastes for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the available evidence to support the use of dentifrices with high (>1,500 ppm) concentrations of fluoride to help in the prevention and treatment of caries in high-risk children and adolescents. Recent evidence from high-quality systematic reviews supports the dose-response relationship between caries prevention and fluoride levels, and there is good evidence from randomised clinical trials to support the use of high fluoride dentifrices. Such products are typically prescribed oral pharmaceuticals that require thorough risk assessment by the clinician and restricting use in those less than 6 years old to cases where the risk of severe morbidity caused by caries is greater than that of aesthetically objectionable fluorosis and which should mitigate the risk of fluorosis. Further research is required on the use of population- or community-based interventions using such products and currently, the evidence for dentifrices containing more than 2,900 ppm is weaker than for those containing 2,800 ppm or less. PMID:27101304

  19. A fixed collector employing reversible vee-trough concentrator and a vacuum tube receiver for high temperature solar energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    A solar heat collection system employing non-tracking reflectors integrated with a fixed vacuum tube receiver which achieves modest year-round concentration (about 2) of the sunlight at low capital costs is discussed. The axis of the vee-trough reflector lies in a east-west direction and requires reversal of the reflector surfaces only twice a year without disturbing the receiver tubes and associated plumbing. It collects most of the diffuse flux. The vacuum tube receiver with selective absorber has no convection losses while radiation and conduction losses are minimal. Significant cost reductions are offered since the vee-trough can be fabricated from inexpensive polished or plastic reflector laminated sheet metal covering 2/3 of the collection area, and only about 1/3 of the area is covered with the more expensive vacuum tube receivers. Thermal and economic performance of the vee-trough vacuum tube system, year-round variation of the concentration factor, incident flux, useful heat per unit area at various operation temperatures and energy cost estimates are presented. The electrical energy cost is estimated to be 77 mills/kWh, and the system construction cost is estimated to be $1140/kWe.

  20. Functional Literacy and/or Minimum Competency Testing in the Nation's Schools as a Prerequisite to Receiving a High School Diploma: Some Economic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, R. Grann

    1980-01-01

    In addition to stigmatizing and prejudicing the future of young people, the denial of a high school diploma based on test scores represents a waste of public funds and human resources. In recent years, however, the educational system has been increasingly concerned with testing school children rather than teaching them. (Author/GC

  1. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  2. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  3. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author)

  4. 高温热管太阳能接收器的可靠性比较%Reliability Comparison of High Temperature Heat Pipe Solar Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许辉; 张红; 白穜; 丁莉; 庄骏

    2012-01-01

    接收器是碟式太阳能热发电系统的核心部件,为太阳能/电能的转换提供吸热传热功能。介绍了几种高温热管接收器的结构,针对高温太阳能热利用的特点,提出了高温热管太阳能接收器的可靠性评估模型,比较组合式高温热管接收器与典型高温热管接收器的可靠性和寿命。结果表明:在热管单体故障率相同的情况下,组合式高温热管接收器具有更高的可靠性,因此具有更长的使用寿命,可以适应碟式太阳能热发电系统的运行需求。%As the core component of dish solar thermal power system,the receiver can absorb incoming concentrated solar energy and then transmit thermal power to the working fluid of the engine.This paper describes the structure characteristics of various types of high temperature heat pipe receivers.Then the reliability model of high temperature heat pipe solar receivers is presented in the light of the utilization features of high temperature solar thermal power.The reliabilities and life span are compared between combined high temperature heat pipe receiver and typical heat pipe receiver by the model.The research results indicate that the combined type high temperature heat pipe solar receiver possesses higher reliability and longer working life,adaptable to the requirements of dish solar thermal power system.

  5. Ready or Not: Predicting High and Low School Readiness Among Teen Parents’ Children*

    OpenAIRE

    MOLLBORN, STEFANIE; Dennis, Jeff A.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has documented compromised development for teenage mothers’ children compared to others, but less is known about predictors of school readiness among these children or among teenage fathers’ children. Our multidimensional measures of high and low school readiness incorporated math, reading, and behavior scores and parent-reported health. Using parent interviews and direct assessments from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we predicted high and low school readi...

  6. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    OpenAIRE

    Torabi, Fatemeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Amiri, Saba; Soleimani, Farin; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4-60 months.Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4-60 months) who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2...

  7. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia in children with AIDS: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary involvement in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a wide spectrum of diseases. Among the non-infectious, non-neoplastic affections associated with AIDS, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is now a well-recognized entity, but its radiological pattern studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has rarely been described in children. The aim of this study was to illustrate the HRCT spectrum of pulmonary involvement in children with LIP and to evaluate its usefulness in the early diagnosis of this entity. Twelve children with AIDS, aged 3-9 years (mean age 5 years 7 months), underwent chest radiographs and HRCT. A control group of 7 healthy aged-matched children was also studied in the same conditions. Diagnosis of LIP was based on clinical data and HRCT findings. Eight children of 12 had a reticulonodular pattern on chest radiographs. Two children had normal chest films and two children showed peribronchiolar thickening. High-resolution CT displayed micronodules, 1-3 mm in diameter, with a perilymphatic distribution in all patients. High-resolution CT demonstrated also subpleural nodules in children without reticulonodular opacities on chest radiographs. High-resolution CT is able to define a more specific pattern of abnormalities than conventional chest radiographs in children with LIP, allows an earlier and more confident diagnosis and may be useful for the detection of other pathologies associated with AIDS, such as opportunistic infections or superimposed malignancies. (orig.)

  8. Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Drubi Nogueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the breastfeeding history (BF and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SCD aged between 2 and 6 years, regularly followed at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and gender. RESULTS: The mean (SD age was 3.7 (1.1 years, 52.9% were boys and 53.5% had SCA (hemoglobin SS. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBR up to six months of age was 31.5%, the median EBR times (p25-p75 was 90.0 (24.0-180.0 days and the median weaning ages (p25-p75 was 360.0 (90.0-720.0 days respectively. Normal W/H children experienced EBR for a mean duration almost four times longer than malnourished children (p=0.01, and were weaned later (p<0.05. Height deficit was found in 5.0% of children, while all the children with severe short stature had had SCA (hemoglobin SS and were older than 4 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: EBF time and weaning age were greater than that found in the literature, which is a possible effect of the multidisciplinary follow-up. Duration of EBF and later weaning were associated with improved anthropometric indicators.

  9. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per…

  10. Relationship between Social Competence and Sensory Processing in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia; Graver, Kathleen; LaVesser, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between social competence and sensory processing in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Methodology: Children, ages 6-10 (N = 36), with high functioning autism spectrum disorders were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Sensory Profile (SP). A bivariate…

  11. The Developmental Costs of High Self-Esteem for Antisocial Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhavi; Tobin, Desiree D.; Corby, Brooke C.; Menon, Meenakshi; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Two hypotheses--high self-esteem leads children to act on antisocial cognitions (disposition-activating hypothesis) and high self-esteem leads children to rationalize antisocial conduct (disposition-rationalizing hypothesis)--were investigated in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (N = 189; mean age = 11.1 years), antisocial behavior was…

  12. First Episode of Depression in Children at Low and High Familial Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Douglas E.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the development of first-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) in children at high and low familial risk for depression in a prospective study. Method: High-risk children (n = 76) who were free of any lifetime affective disorder and had at least one first-degree and one second-degree relative with a lifetime history of…

  13. Social Skills and Problem Behaviours in School Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…

  14. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning its national holdings of civil high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the note verbale and its attachment dated 1 July 1998 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Permanent Mission to the IAEA of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, making available information on its national holdings of civil high enriched uranium as of 31 December 1997

  15. Association between larger thymic size and higher thymic output in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Lilian; Dreves, Anne-Mette; Ersbøll, Annette K; Strandberg, Charlotte; Jeppesen, Dorthe L; Nielsen, Jens O; Ryder, Lars P; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2002-01-01

    To examine the impact of thymic size on immune recovery in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the thymus was visualized, using computed tomographic scans, in 25 HIV-infected patients who had received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for 6-18 months and had...

  16. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  17. Fractional model for pharmacokinetics of high dose methotrexate in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Jovan K.; Spasić, Dragan T.; Tošić, Jela; Kolarović, Jovanka L.; Malti, Rachid; Mitić, Igor M.; Pilipović, Stevan; Atanacković, Teodor M.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to promote a model based on the fractional differential calculus related to the pharmacokinetic individualization of high dose methotrexate treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, especially in high risk patients. We applied two-compartment fractional model on 8 selected cases with the largest number (4-19) of measured concentrations, among 43 pediatric patients received 24-h methotrexate 2-5 g/m2 infusions. The plasma concentrations were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Our mathematical procedure, designed by combining Post's and Newton's method, was coded in Mathematica 8.0 and performed on Fujicu Celsius M470-2 PC. Experimental data show that most of the measured values of methotrexate were in decreasing order. However, in certain treatments local maximums were detected. On the other hand, integer order compartmental models do not give values which fit well with the observed data. By the use of our model, we obtained better results, since it gives more accurate behavior of the transmission, as well as the local maximums which were recognized in methotrexate monitoring. It follows from our method that an additional test with a small methotrexate dose can be suggested for the fractional system parameter identification and the prediction of a possible pattern with a full dose in the case of high risk patients. A special feature of the fractional model is that it can also recognize and better fit an observed non-monotonic behavior. A new parameter determination procedure can be successfully used.

  18. Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Model for Flow and Heat Transfer in Porous Materials as High Temperature Solar Air Receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Olena; Fend, Thomas; Schwarzbözl, Peter; Schöllgen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Results of calculations on flow and heat transfer in a porous Silicon Carbide honeycomb structure applied as a solar air receiver are presented. In this application porous materials are put in concentrated solar radiation. Flux densities of up to 1000 MW/m² are reached. Simultaneously, ambient air flows through the material to be heated up to temperatures of app. 800°C. This hot air is then used to feed the steam generator of a steam turbine to generate solar electricity (solar tower technolo...

  19. Breastfeeding and the anthropometric profile of children with sickle cell anemia receiving follow-up in a newborn screening reference service

    OpenAIRE

    Zeni Drubi Nogueira; Ney Boa-Sorte; Maria Efigênia de Queiroz Leite; Márcia Miyuki Kiya; Tatiana Amorim; Silvana Fahel da Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the breastfeeding history (BF) and the anthropometric status of children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 357 children with SCD aged between 2 and 6 years, regularly followed at a Newborn Screening Reference Service (NSRS) between November 2007 and January 2009. The outcome was anthropometric status and the exposures were: BF pattern, type of hemoglobinopathy and child's age and gender. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 3.7 (1.1) years, 52.9...

  20. Mothers’ Attitudes and Self-Esteem among Deaf Children in Iranian High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Effat Hamed Sardar; Rusnani Abdul Kadir

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mothers’ attitude and self-esteem among deaf children who are currently enrolled in deaf high schools in Iran. While family system theory is typically used in trying counseling and therapy, much can be learned from examining it by studying the relationship between deaf children and their mothers. Family systems theory has been used in trying to understand problems of communication between children and their families (Widerman, 1995). In general, at...

  1. High "intelligence," low "IQ"? Speed of processing and measured IQ in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuffgen, K.; Happe, F.; Anderson, M.,; Frith, U.

    2000-01-01

    The uneven profile of performance on standard assessments of intelligence and the high incidence of savant skills have prompted interest in the nature of intelligence in autism. The present paper reports the first group study of speed of processing in children with autism (IQ 1 SD below average) using an inspection time task. The children with autism showed inspection times as fast as an age-matched group of young normally developing children (IQ 1 SD above average). They were also significan...

  2. Regression of Some High-risk Features of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD in Patients Receiving Intensive Statin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Vavvas

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: High-dose statins may result in resolution of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs and improvement in VA, without atrophy or neovascularization in a high-risk subgroup of AMD patients. Confirmation from larger studies is warranted.

  3. HIGH AND LOW DOSE IVIG THERAPY IN GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME CHILDREN: A COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KARIMZADEH MD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Acute inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (Guillain-Barre-Syndrome is by far the most common cause of immune-medicated peripheral nervous system disease in children; with the near disappearance of poliomyelitis, GBS is responsible for the great majority of cases of acute flaccid paralysis. So far, in several controlled studies, corticosteroids, plasmapheresis and IVIG have been utilized in pediatric patients, afflicted with GBS. Regarding IVIG therapy, two methods have been used; the high dose (1 gr/kg/day for 2 days, and the low dose (400mg/kg/day for 5 days. Review of literature shows that a faster rate of recovery can be accomplished in patients who receive total dose of IVIG in 2 days as compared to the dose being given over 5 days.Materials & Methods:In this study we have compared these two types of treatment in an investigation, conducted in the Mofid Children Hospital on pediatric patients who had sudden onset of acute flaccid  paralysis, and were diagnosed as having GBS. Based on histories, physical examination and electrodiagnosis, subjects were divided in two groups, the high dose IVIG treatment, 1gr/kg/day for 2 days (experimental group, and the low dose IVIG treatment, 400 mg/kg/day for 5 days (control group. Statistical analyses were then carried out using the appropriate software.Results:Result of this study showed a faster rate of recovery for patients in the high dose IVIG group; in this group duration of weakness of limbs was shorter and returning of DTR was faster than in controls. In fact, in this type of treatment, the relationship between high dose IVIG therapy and drug side effects was not significant.Conclusion:Base upon the finding in the present study, we conclude that the high dose IVIG therapy is superior to low dose, in view of faster duration of recovery and shorter hospital stay. Also we may infer that shorter hospital stay could be a factor in reducing of more nasocomial infection. In

  4. Resilience in highly stressed urban children: concepts and findings.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, E. L.; Wyman, P. A.; Work, W. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Rochester Child Resilience Project is a coordinated set of studies of the correlates and antecedents of outcomes relating to resilience among profoundly stressed urban children. The studies have been conducted over the course of the past decade. Based on child test data, parent, teacher, and self ratings of child adjustment, and in-depth individual interviews with parents and children, a cohesive picture has developed of child and family milieu variables that consistently differentiate ch...

  5. A Comparison of the Cognitive Development of 3-6 Year-Old Children Who Receive Family-Supported Preschool Education, Institutional Education and No Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Rengin; Kuday, Fatma Servet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of Family Supported Preschool Education programs on the development of preschool children. By measuring the effects of family-supported preschool education on cognitive development, this study helps support alternative methods of making preschool education more widespread. The study uses the experimental…

  6. Effectiveness of high-dose methotrexate in T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia and advanced-stage lymphoblastic lymphoma: a randomized study by the Children's Oncology Group (POG 9404)

    OpenAIRE

    Asselin, Barbara L; Devidas, Meenakshi; Wang, Chenguang; Pullen, Jeanette; Borowitz, Michael J.; Hutchison, Robert; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Camitta, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) phase 3 trial 9404 was designed to determine the effectiveness of high-dose methotrexate (HDM) when added to multi-agent chemotherapy based on the Dana-Farber backbone. Children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or advanced lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-NHL) were randomized at diagnosis to receive/not receive HDM (5 g/m2 as a 24-hour infusion) at weeks 4, 7, 10, and 13. Between 1996 and 2000, 436 patients were enrolled in the methotrexate randomiz...

  7. A comparison of intramuscular ketamine with high dose intramuscular midazolam with and without intranasal flumazenil in children before suturing

    OpenAIRE

    McGlone, R; Fleet, T; Durham, S; Hollis, S.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—(a) To compare the use of high dose intramuscular midazolam with and without intranasal flumazenil in children after suturing. (b) To compare the use of high dose intramuscular midazolam with low dose intramuscular ketamine in children before suturing.

  8. Highly efficient Bayesian joint inversion for receiver based data and its application to lithospheric structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongryong; Dettmer, Jan; Rhie, Junkee; Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    With the deployment of extensive seismic arrays, systematic and efficient parameter and uncertainty estimation is of increasing importance and can provide reliable, regional models for crustal and upper-mantle structure. We present an efficient Bayesian method for the joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion and receiver-function data that combines trans-dimensional (trans-D) model selection in an optimisation phase with subsequent rigorous parameter uncertainty estimation. Parameter and uncertainty estimation depend strongly on the chosen parametrization such that meaningful regional comparison requires quantitative model selection that can be carried out efficiently at several sites. While significant progress has been made for model selection (e.g. trans-D inference) at individual sites, the lack of efficiency can prohibit application to large data volumes or cause questionable results due to lack of convergence. Studies that address large numbers of data sets have mostly ignored model selection in favour of more efficient/simple estimation techniques (i.e. focusing on uncertainty estimation but employing ad-hoc model choices). Our approach consists of a two-phase inversion that combines trans-D optimisation to select the most probable parametrization with subsequent Bayesian sampling for uncertainty estimation given that parametrization. The trans-D optimisation is implemented here by replacing the likelihood function with the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The BIC provides constraints on model complexity that facilitate the search for an optimal parametrization. Parallel tempering (PT) is applied as an optimisation algorithm. After optimisation, the optimal model choice is identified by the minimum BIC value from all PT chains. Uncertainty estimation is then carried out in fixed dimension. Data errors are estimated as part of the inference problem by a combination of empirical and hierarchical estimation. Data covariance matrices are estimated from

  9. Investigation on Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the survey in 1975 and 1979 of Down's syndrome in the children living in high background radiation area, we made a follow-up investigation in 1985 and 1986. All the obtained data are analysed. 25258 children in high background radiation area were examined and 22 children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity rate being 0.87%. 21837 children in control area were examined and four children with Down's syndrome were identified, the morbidity being 0.18%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. It was noted that the occurrence of Down's syndrome was related to the maternal age but there was no evidence suggesting a close relationship between high background radiation and the development of Down's syndrome

  10. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  11. Prevalence of dermatologic diseases in school children of a high altitude tribunal area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma N

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 201 school children,belonging to a high altitude tribal area were examined for various dermatologic lesions including nevi. All the children were found to have one or more type of diseases/lesions. Pediculosis ea tis was the comtnonest disease (74.1%, followed by pityriasis simplex (33.3%, warts (20.4%, scabies (12.9%, pyoderma (8.5% and papular urticaria (7.5%, Nevi were observed in 73.1% children. An acral erythfma associated with cold hands and feet was seen in 7.5% children.

  12. A High-Speed Four-Transmitter Four-Receiver MIMO OFDM Testbed: Experimental Results and Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkenhorst Brett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available By adopting multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM technologies, indoor wireless systems could reach data rates up to several hundreds of Mbits/s and achieve spectral efficiencies of several tens of bits/Hz/s, which are unattainable for conventional single-input single-output systems. The enhancements of data rate and spectral efficiency come from the fact that MIMO and OFDM schemes are indeed parallel transmission technologies in the space and frequency domains, respectively. To validate the functionality and feasibility of MIMO and OFDM technologies, we set up a four-transmitter four-receiver OFDM testbed in a typical indoor environment, which achieves a peak data rate of 525 Mbits/s and a spectral efficiency of 19.2 bits/Hz/s. The performances including MIMO channel characteristics, bit-error rate against signal-to-noise ratio curves, the impairments of carrier frequency offset and channel estimation inaccuracy, and an asymmetric MIMO scheme are reported and analyzed in this paper.

  13. Chemical interactions between as-received and pre-oxidized Zircaloy-4 and stainless steel at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical reaction behavior between Zircaloy-4 and 1.4919 (AISI 316) stainless steel, which are used in absorber assemblies of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), has been studied in the temperature range 1000 - 1400 C. Zircaloy was used in the as-received, pre-oxidized and oxygen-containing condition. The maximum temperature was limited by the fast and complete liquefaction of the reaction couple as a result of eutectic chemical interactions. Liquefaction of the components occurs below their melting point. The effect of oxygen dissolved in Zircaloy plays an important role in the interaction; oxide layers on the Zircaloy surface delay the chemical interactions with stainless steel but cannot prevent them. Oxygen dissolved in Zircaloy reduces the reaction rates and shift the liquefaction temperature to slightly higher levels. The interaction experiments at the examined temperatures with or without pre-oxidized Zircaloy can be described by parabolic rate laws. The Arrhenius equations for the various conditions of interactions are given. (orig.)

  14. Community participatory physical activity intervention targets children at high risk for obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This community participatory research evaluated the feasibility of a summer soccer and nutrition education program to increase physical activity (PA) in rural Mississippi Delta children at high risk of obesity and previously not exposed to soccer. Children aged 4-12 were recruited through school and...

  15. High Detection Rates of Enteropathogens in Asymptomatic Children Attending Day Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, Remko; Scholts, Rianne; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Duizer, Erwin; Vennema, Harry; de Boer, Richard; Kortbeek, Titia; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Smit, Henriette; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastroenteritis morbidity is high among children under the age of four, especially amongst those who attend day care. Objective: To determine the prevalence of a range of enteropathogens in the intestinal flora of children attending day care and to relate their occurrence with characteri

  16. Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias among Children from Low-Status Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Dunham, Yarrow; Merrill, Anna; Hoosain, Leah; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas members of high-status racial groups show ingroup preference when attitudes are measured implicitly, members of low-status racial groups--both adults and children--typically show no bias, potentially reflecting awareness of the ingroup's low status. We hypothesized that when status differences are especially pronounced, children from…

  17. Linguistic Processing in Hebrew-Speaking Children from Low and High SES Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Socio-Economic Status (SES) on Hebrew-speaking children's developing ability to pluralize nouns and mark adjectives in agreement with them. Participants were 180 gradeschool children from mid-high SES and 180 peers from low SES, in six consecutive grade levels. The task consisted of 32…

  18. Direct Social Support for Young High Risk Children: Relations with Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2007-01-01

    This study is unique in addressing developmental correlates of direct social support for young children in a high risk sample, in contrast to previous studies addressing social support for caregivers. Participants were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of at-risk children. Social support was rated from maternal interviews throughout…

  19. Verbal Memory Deficits in Relation to Organization Strategy in High- and Low-Functioning Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…

  20. A Pilot Study Examining Activity Participation, Sensory Responsiveness, and Competence in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Lawrence, Tami; Lane, Shelly J.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study explored activity patterns in children with and without ASD and examined the role of sensory responsiveness in determining children's level of competence in activity performance. Twenty-six children with high functioning ASD and twenty-six typically-developing children 6-12 years old were assessed using the Sensory Profile and the…

  1. Evaluation of Parental Satisfaction of Children's Spaces Within High Rise Apartment Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharghi Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the design process of open spaces within residential apartments, little attention is paid to children and their attitude to the environment is often ignored. Children, especially those who live in high-rise apartments, were found to have less connection with nature. Children supposedly need to engage in physical activities within outdoor areas, but urban planners, with the approval of managers or parents, must adequately design the open space for children. This paper initially reviews different research in this area. It consequently attempts to evaluate parental satisfaction regarding children's connectivity to open spaces as a dependent variable, and their preferences and perception of safety as independent variables. The research method is based on a questionnaire survey addressed to 261 parents and adults, in two localities in Tehran, Iran. The result of this research shows that parental attitude to open space has an effect on children's outdoor activities. Moreover, parents with young children express lower satisfaction to open spaces than those adults without young children. Families with children need open spaces in residential high-rise apartments for their siblings’ physical activities, and the designers should consider such an important need.

  2. Communication received from the Governor of Norway to the Agency concerning the International Symposium of Minimisation of Highly Enriched Uranium in the Civilian Nuclear Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a communication from the Governor of Norway, attaching the Chair's Summary of the discussions held during the International Symposium of Minimisation of Highly Enriched Uranium in the Civilian Nuclear Sector which was held in Oslo from 17 to 20 June 2006 as well as the summary from the technical workshop of the Symposium. The communication and, as requested therein, the attached two summaries, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  3. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rameez Asif

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effec...

  4. Highly-linear sampling receivers in silicon and BiCMOS processes for multi-GS/s optically and electrically sampled systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gathman, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, high-linearity sampling circuits are presented for wideband (multi-GS/s) electrical and optical sampling, millimeter-wave circuits are discussed for wideband communication, and injection-locking is presented for nonlinear sampling and spectrum analysis. A 2GS/s sampling receiver with 4.5 measured effective-number-of-bits is presented for spectrally efficient optical communication in a 45nm SOI CMOS process. Next, jitter limitations for broadband sampling circuits are dis...

  5. High-Temperature Thermal Storage System for Solar Tower Power Plants with Open-Volumetric Air Receiver Simulation and Energy Balancing of a Discretized Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kronhardt, Valentina; Alexopoulos, Spiros; Reißel, Martin; Sattler, Johannes; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Hänel, Matthias; Doerbeck, Till

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of a high-temperature storage system for an existing solar tower power plant with open volumetric receiver technology, which uses air as heat transfer medium (HTF). The storage system model has been developed in the simulation environment Matlab/Simulink®. The storage type under investigation is a packed bed thermal energy storage system which has the characteristics of a regenerator. Thermal energy can be stored and discharged as required via the HTF air. ...

  6. Evaluation of multiple ancillary therapies used in combination with an antimicrobial in newly received high-risk calves treated for bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B K; Step, D L; Maxwell, C L; Wagner, J J; Richards, C J; Krehbiel, C R

    2015-07-01

    Ancillary therapy (ANC) is commonly provided in conjunction with an antimicrobial when treating calves for suspected bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in an attempt to improve the response to a suspected BRD challenge. The first experiment evaluated the effects of 3 ANC in combination with an antimicrobial in high-risk calves treated for BRD during a 56-d receiving period. Newly received crossbred steers (n = 516; initial BW = 217 ± 20 kg) were monitored by trained personnel for clinical signs of BRD. Calves that met antimicrobial treatment criteria (n = 320) were then randomly assigned to experimental ANC treatment (80 steers/experimental ANC treatment): intravenous flunixin meglumine injection (NSAID), intranasal viral vaccination (VACC), intramuscular vitamin C injection (VITC), or no ANC (NOAC). Animal served as the experimental unit for all variables except DMI and G:F (pen served as the experimental unit for DMI and G:F). Within calves treated 3 times for BRD, those receiving NOAC had lower (P risk calves receiving antimicrobial treatment for suspected BRD. PMID:26440032

  7. Education-Related Parameters in High Myopia: Adults versus School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available Since high myopia in the younger generation may differ etiologically from high myopia in older generations, we examined whether education-related parameters differ between high myopia in today´s school children and high pathological myopia in today´s elderly generation.The investigation included the adult populations of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (BES (3468 adults;mean age:64.6±9.8years;range:50-93years and Central India Eye and Medical Study (CIEMS (4711 adults;age:49.±13.2years;range:30-100years, and the children and teenager populations of the Shandong Children Eye Study (SCES (6026 children;age:9.7±3.3years;range:4-18years;cycloplegic refractometry, Gobi Desert Children Eye Study (1565;age:11.9±3.5years;range:6-21 years;cycloplegic refractometry, Beijing Pediatric Eye Study (681 children;age:7.7±1.6years;range:5-13 years;non-cycloplegic refractometry,calculation of axial length to corneal curvature radius ratio, Beijing Children Eye Study (15066 children;age:13.2±3.4years;range:7-18years;non-cycloplegic refractometry, Beijing High School Teenager Eye Study (4677 children;age:16.9±0.7years;range:16-18years;non-cycloplegic refractometry.In the BES and CIEMS, educational level did not differ significantly between, or was significantly lower in the highly myopic group (myopic refractive error ≥6 diopters than in the non-highly myopic group. In all non-adult study populations, higher prevalence of high myopia was significantly associated with higher degree of education related parameters such as attendance of high-level schools, and more time spent for indoors near work versus time spent outdoors.Comparing associations of old or genetic high myopia in adults with new or acquired high myopia in school children revealed that education-related parameters did not show a clear association with old or genetic high myopia, while in contrast, new high myopia showed strong associations with education. It confirms previous studies

  8. Spinal cord injuries in older children: is there a role for high-dose methylprednisolone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Bhawana; Suresh, Srinivasan

    2011-12-01

    We present a retrospective case series of 15 children (aged 8-16 years) with blunt traumatic spinal cord injury who were treated with methylprednisolone as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of all patients, 12 (80%) were male. Causes were sports injuries (n = 9), motor vehicle crashes (n = 2), and falls (n = 4). Most injuries were nonskeletal (n = 14), and all patients had incomplete injury of the spinal cord. The most common location of tenderness was cervical (n = 7). Of the 15 patients, methylprednisolone was initiated within 3 hours in 13 patients and between 3 and 8 hours in 2 patients. All patients received the medication for 23 hours as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of the 15 patients, 13 recovered completely by 24 hours and were discharged with a diagnosis of spinal cord concussion. One patient had compression fracture of T5 and T3-T5 spinal contusion but no long-term neurological deficit. One patient was discharged with diagnosis of C1-C3 spinal cord contusion (by magnetic resonance imaging) and had partial recovery at 2 years after injury. All patients with a diagnosis of cord concussion had normal plain films of the spine and computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. None of the patients had any associated major traumatic injuries to other organ systems. The high-dose steroid therapy did not result in any serious bacterial infections. PMID:22158284

  9. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Calixto FRAIZ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there was no significant difference between the preschool children who presented with caries and those who did not present with caries. However, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the upper incisors was strongly associated with the presence of dental caries. Other factors associated with the presence of caries were: period of formal education of the father or of both parents equal or inferior to 8 years, high sugar consumption and bottle-feeding during sleep. In the studied population, the dietary pattern is still the main cause of carious lesions. In addition, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the labial surface of the upper incisors must be considered as an important clinical sign, often associated with inadequate patterns of diet and oral hygiene.Esta pesquisa estudou os fatores associados com o desenvolvimento de cárie dentária em pré-escolares que recebem acompanhamento e intervenção odontológica. O estudo abrangeu 200 crianças, de 24 a 48 meses de idade, que participavam do programa da Bebê-Clínica (Universidade Estadual de Londrina havia pelo menos 12 meses. A comparação entre as crianças com cárie e sem cárie não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes com relação aos hábitos de higiene bucal. No entanto, a presença de placa visível nos incisivos superiores esteve fortemente associada com a presença de cárie dentária. Outros fatores relacionados à presença de cárie foram a educação formal

  10. Association between diarrhea and quality of life in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramarin, A; Parise, N; Campostrini, S; Yin, DD; Postma, MJ; Lyu, R; Grisetti, R; Capetti, A; Cattelan, AM; Di Toro, MT; Mastroianni, A; Pignattari, E; Mondardini, [No Value; Calleri, G; Raise, E; Starace, F

    2004-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common symptom that many HIV patients experience either as a consequence of HIV infection or of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A multicenter, prospective observational study was conducted in 11 AIDS clinics in Italy to determine the effect of diarrhea on health-related q

  11. Motavizumab for prophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus in high-risk children: a noninferiority trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Simões, Eric A F; Dagan, Ron;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Palivizumab reduces respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization in children at high risk by approximately 50% compared with placebo. We compared the efficacy and safety of motavizumab, an investigational monoclonal antibody with enhanced anti-RSV activity in preclinical studies...

  12. Identifying risk factors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo He

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome typically occurs within days after patients undergo highly active anti-retroviral therapy and is a big hurdle for effective treatment of AIDS patients. In this study, we monitored immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurrence in 238 AIDS patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Among them, immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurred in 47 cases (19.7%. Immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome patients had significantly higher rate of opportunistic infection (p < 0.001 and persistently lower CD4+ cell count (p < 0.001 compared to the non-immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome patients. In contrast, no significant differences in HIV RNA loads were observed between the immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome group and non-immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome group. These data suggest that a history of opportunistic infection and CD4+ cell counts at baseline may function as risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurrence in AIDS patients as well as potential prognostic markers. These findings will improve the management of AIDS with highly active anti-retroviral therapy.

  13. Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed using GPS receivers over high-latitude and equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Intan Izafina; Abdullah, Mardina; Hasbi, Alina Marie; Husin, Asnawi; Yatim, Baharuddin

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the first results of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) observation during two moderate magnetic storm events on 28 May 2011 (SYM-H∼ -94 nT and Dst∼-80 nT) and 6 August 2011 (SYM-H∼-126 nT and Dst∼-113 nT) over the high-latitude region in Russia, Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Greenland and equatorial region in the Peninsular Malaysia using vertical total electron content (VTEC) from the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations measurement. The propagation of the LSTID signatures in the GPS TEC measurements over Peninsular Malaysia was also investigated using VTEC map. The LSTIDs were found to propagate both equatorward and poleward directions during these two events. The results showed that the LSTIDs propagated faster at high-latitude region with an average phase velocity of 1074.91 m/s than Peninsular Malaysia with an average phase velocity of 604.84 m/s. The LSTIDs at the high-latitude region have average periods of 150 min whereas the ones observed over Peninsular Malaysia have average periods of 115 min. The occurrences of these LSTIDs were also found to be the subsequent effects of substorm activities in the auroral region. To our knowledge, this is the first result of observation of LSTIDs over Peninsular Malaysia during the 24th solar cycle.

  14. Investigation and analysis of etiology of down's syndrome in children of high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find out what caused the differences in incidences of Down's syndrome between the children in high background radiation area and those in control area, investigation and analysis were carried ou in 5 aspects based on the original data and the information from the previous survey. These are: the incidences of congenital malformations in normal areas, the age distribution of children examined, the maternal age, the dates of birth of afflicted children, and the radiation exposure of mothers. The results suggested that the higher incidence of Down's syndrome in high background area might be related to the materal age. Further studies are needed to arrive at a conclusion

  15. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  16. Mucositis Prevention for Patients Receiving High Dose Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation : Preventive Strategies - There is Always More to do

    OpenAIRE

    Svanberg, Anncarin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate oral cryotherapy (OC) as prophy-laxis against oral mucositis (OM) in patients given high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation (SCT). A new mouth rinse device was tested for possible additive effect to OC. For study I-III, 78 patients were randomised to OC or standard oral care (SOC). Papers I and II showed that OC patients had significantly less severe mucositis, pain, opioid use, lower C-reactive protein and less parenteral nutrition treat...

  17. Immunogenicity and tolerability of inactivated flu vaccine in high risk and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Aguero, María Luisa; Soriano-Fallas, Alejandra; Umaña-Sauma, María de los Angeles; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Arnoux, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted this open study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated influenza vaccine, Imovax Gripe in 154 children between 6 and 36 months of age at high risk of influenza-related complications, and in a reference group of 64 healthy children. The study was conducted over two flu seasons, in which the vaccine contained the same A strains but different B strains. The results for the A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 strains from the two flu seasons were pooled, but those for the B strains were not. Anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibody titers were determined before, and one month after each vaccination, and safety was evaluated based on diary card reporting any adverse event observed, either included or not in the list of "solicited events". Within each group of vaccines, the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and ratio of post- to prevaccination geometric mean titers (GMTR) for the A/H3N2 and the A/H1N1 strains fulfilled all requirements of the criteria of the European Union Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP). The immune responses in high-risk and in healthy children were similar, and consistent with those observed in previous studies conducted in healthy children. The vaccine was equally well tolerated by all study groups. Reactogenicity was low and similar in both high-risk and healthy children. Overall from 9.5% to 15.4% of at-risk children and 12% of healthy children reported a solicited local reaction; 23.0 to 28.8% of high-risk and 25.3% of healthy children reported a solicited systemic reaction. The study results provide support for vaccination of children at high-risk of influenza related complications. PMID:17891930

  18. HIGH AND LOW DOSE IVIG THERAPY IN GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME CHILDREN: A COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KARIMZADEH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Acute inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (GuillainBarre-Syndrome is by far the most common cause of immune-medicatedperipheral nervous system disease in children; with the near disappearanceof poliomyelitis, GBS is responsible for the great majority of cases ofacute flaccid paralysis. So far, in several controlled studies, corticosteroids,plasmapheresis and IVIG have been utilized in pediatric patients, afflictedwith GBS. Regarding IVIG therapy, two methods have been used; thehigh dose (1 gr/kg/day for 2 days, and the low dose (400mg/kg/day for5 days. Review of literature shows that a faster rate of recovery can beaccomplished in patients who receive total dose of IVIG in 2 days ascompared to the dose being given over 5 days.Materials & Methods: In this study we have compared these two types of treatment in aninvestigation, conducted in the Mofid Children Hospital on pediatricpatients who had sudden onset of acute flaccid paralysis, and werediagnosed as having GBS. Based on histories, physical examination andelectrodiagnosis, subjects were divided in two groups, the high doseIVIG treatment, 1gr/kg/day for 2 days (experimental group, and the lowdose IVIG treatment, 400 mg/kg/day for 5 days (control group. Statisticalanalyses were then carried out using the appropriate software.Results: Result of this study showed a faster rate of recovery for patients in thehigh dose IVIG group; in this group duration of weakness of limbs wasshorter and returning of DTR was faster than in controls. In fact, in thistype of treatment, the relationship between high dose IVIG therapy anddrug side effects was not significant.Conclusion: Base upon the finding in the present study, we conclude that the highdose IVIG therapy is superior to low dose, in view of faster duration ofrecovery and shorter hospital stay.Also we may infer that shorter hospital stay could be a factor in reducingof more nasocomial infection.In conclusion, we suggest using

  19. Advanced solar thermal receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Leibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Development of advanced receiver technology for solar thermal receivers designed for electric power generation or for industrial applications, such as fuels and chemical production or industrial process heat, is described. The development of this technology is focused on receivers that operate from 1000 F to 3000 F and above. Development strategy is mapped in terms of application requirements, and the related system and technical requirements. Receiver performance requirements and current development efforts are covered for five classes of receiver applications: high temperature, advanced Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine cycle engines, and fuels and chemicals.

  20. Continuous glucose monitors prove highly accurate in critically ill children

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, Brian C.; Preissig, Catherine M; Maher, Kevin O.; Rigby, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients and strict glycemic control has become standard care for adults. Recent studies have questioned the optimal targets for such management and reported increased rates of iatrogenic hypoglycemia in both critically ill children and adults. The ability to provide accurate, real-time continuous glucose monitoring would improve the efficacy and safety of this practice in critically ill patients...

  1. Unimpaired Perception of Social and Physical Causality, but Impaired Perception of Animacy in High Functioning Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Sara; Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    We investigated perception of social and physical causality and animacy in simple motion events, for high-functioning children with autism (CA = 13, VMA = 9.6). Children matched 14 different animations to pictures showing physical, social or non-causality. In contrast to previous work, children with autism performed at a high level similar to…

  2. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  3. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: → The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. → The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. → As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. → Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. → These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  4. Efficacy of a high-dose in addition to daily low-dose vitamin A in children suffering from severe acute malnutrition with other illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samima Sattar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efficacy of high-dose vitamin A (VA in children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM has recently been questioned. This study compared the efficacy of a single high-dose (200,000 IU in addition to daily low-dose (5000 IU VA in the management of children suffering from SAM with diarrhea and/or acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial in icddr,b, Bangladesh during 2005-07, children aged 6-59 months with weight-for-height <-3 Z-score and/or bipedal edema (SAM received either a high-dose VA or placebo on admission day. Both the groups received 5,000 IU/day VA in a multivitamins drop for 15 days and other standard treatment which is similar to WHO guidelines. RESULTS: A total 260 children (130 in each group were enrolled. All had diarrhea, 54% had concomitant ALRI, 50% had edema, 48.5% were girl with a mean±SD age of 16±10 months. None had clinical signs of VA deficiency. Mean±SD baseline serum retinol was 13.15±9.28 µg/dl, retinol binding protein was 1.27±0.95 mg/dl, and pre-albumin was 7.97±3.96 mg/dl. Median (inter quartile range of C-reactive protein was 7.8 (2.1, 22.2 mg/L. Children of the two groups did not differ in any baseline characteristic. Over the 15 days treatment period resolution of diarrhea, ALRI, edema, anthropometric changes, and biochemical indicators of VA were similar between the groups. The high-dose VA supplementation in children with SAM did not show any adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy of daily low-dose VA compared to an additional single high-dose was not observed to be better in the management of children suffering from SAM with other acute illnesses. A single high-dose VA may be given especially where the children with SAM may leave the hospital/treatment center early. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00388921.

  5. Analysis and design of a high-linearity receiver RF front-end with an improved 25%-duty-cycle LO generator for WCDMA/GSM applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡嵩; 李伟男; 黄煜梅; 洪志良

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated receiver RF front-end that meets WCDMA/GSM system requirements is presented.It supports SAW-less operation for WCDMA.To improve the linearity in terms of both IP3 and IP2,the RF front-end is comprised of multiple-gated LNAs with capacitive desensitization,current-mode passive mixers with the proposed IP2 calibration circuit and reconfigurable Tow-Thomas-like biquad TIAs.A new power-saving multi-mode divider with low phase noise is proposed to provide the 4-phase 25%-duty-cycle LO.In addition,a constant-gm biasing with an on-chip resistor is adopted to make the conversion gain invulnerable to the process and temperature variations of the transimpedance.This RF front-end is integrated in a receiver with an on-chip frequency synthesizer in 0.13 μm CMOS.The measurement results show that owing to this high-linearity RF front-end,the receiver achieves -6 dBm IIP3 and better than +60 dBm IIP2 for all modes and bands.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of high-dose bosentan in patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma receiving first-line dacarbazine chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballmer Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endothelin system is implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma. We evaluated the effects of bosentan - a dual endothelin receptor antagonist - in patients receiving first-line dacarbazine therapy for stage IV metastatic cutaneous melanoma in a phase 2, proof-of-concept study. Results Eligible patients had metastatic cutaneous melanoma naïve to chemotherapy or immunotherapy, no central nervous system involvement, and serum lactate dehydrogenase 2 every three weeks. Eighty patients were randomized (double-blind and 38 in each group received study treatment. Median time to tumor progression (primary endpoint was not significantly different between the two groups (placebo, 2.8 months; bosentan, 1.6 months; bosentan/placebo hazard ratio, 1.144; 95% CI, 0.717-1.827; p = 0.5683. Incidences of most adverse events and clinically relevant increases in hepatic transaminases were similar between treatment groups although hemoglobin decrease to >8 and ≤ 10 g/dL and ≤ 8 g/dL was more common in the bosentan group. Conclusions In patients receiving dacarbazine as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma, the addition of high-dose bosentan had no effect on time to tumor progression or other efficacy parameters. There were no unexpected safety findings. Trial registration This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov under the unique identifier NCT01009177.

  7. Analysis and design of a high-linearity receiver RF front-end with an improved 25%-duty-cycle LO generator for WCDMA/GSM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully integrated receiver RF front-end that meets WCDMA/GSM system requirements is presented. It supports SAW-less operation for WCDMA. To improve the linearity in terms of both IP3 and IP2, the RF front-end is comprised of multiple-gated LNAs with capacitive desensitization, current-mode passive mixers with the proposed IP2 calibration circuit and reconfigurable Tow-Thomas-like biquad TIAs. A new power-saving multi-mode divider with low phase noise is proposed to provide the 4-phase 25%-duty-cycle LO. In addition, a constant-gm biasing with a non-chip resistor is adopted to make the conversion gain invulnerable to the process and temperature variations of the transimpedance. This RF front-end is integrated in a receiver with an on-chip frequency synthesizer in 0.13 μm CMOS. The measurement results show that owing to this high-linearity RF front-end, the receiver achieves −6 dBm IIP3 and better than +60 dBm IIP2 for all modes and bands. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. A prospective, open-label, non-comparative study of palivizumab prophylaxis in children at high risk of serious respiratory syncytial virus disease in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turti Tatyana V

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs in children globally. Predisposing conditions for the development of serious RSV disease include preterm infants and those with cardiopulmonary illness, including congenital heart disease (CHD and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. No vaccine is currently approved for the prevention of RSV infection. It is recommended that children at high risk be prophylactically administered palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody that has been shown in a number of clinical studies to reduce hospitalization rates due to serious RSV infection. The objective of the current study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of palivizumab in preventing serious RSV disease in high-risk children in the Russian Federation. Children at high risk of serious RSV disease (ie, born at ≤35 wk gestational age and ≤6 mo of age, and/or aged ≤24 mo with BPD or hemodynamically significant CHD were enrolled. Subjects were to receive 3 to 5 monthly injections of palivizumab 15 mg/kg (depending on the month of the initial injection over the RSV season. The primary endpoint was RSV-related hospitalizations. Adverse events (AEs were reported through 100 days following the final injection. Results One hundred subjects received ≥1 injection of palivizumab; 94 completed their dosing schedule. There were no RSV hospitalizations or deaths. Six of 7 subjects hospitalized for respiratory/cardiac conditions had an RSV test, which was negative in all cases. Three non-serious AEs (acute intermittent rhinitis and rhinitis, 1 subject; atopic dermatitis, 1 subject were considered possibly related to palivizumab. All other AEs were mild or moderate and considered not related/probably not related to palivizumab. Conclusion Palivizumab was generally well tolerated and effectively prevented serious RSV infection in a mixed population of high-risk children in the Russian

  9. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of APF530 (extended-release granisetron) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy: results of two Phase II trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite advances with new therapies, a significant proportion of patients (>30%) suffer delayed-onset chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) despite use of antiemetics. APF530 is a sustained-release subcutaneous (SC) formulation of granisetron for preventing CINV. APF530 pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy were studied in two open-label, single-dose Phase II trials (C2005-01 and C2007-01, respectively) in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In C2005-01, 45 patients received APF530 250, 500, or 750 mg SC (granisetron 5, 10, or 15 mg, respectively). In C2007-01, 35 patients were randomized to APF530 250 or 500 mg SC. Injections were given 30 to 60 minutes before single-day moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Plasma granisetron was measured from predose to 168 hours after study drug administration. Safety and efficacy were also evaluated. APF530 pharmacokinetics were dose proportional, with slow absorption and elimination of granisetron after a single SC dose. Median time to maximum plasma concentration and half-life were similar for APF530 250 and 500 mg in both trials, with no differences between the groups receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Exposure to granisetron was maintained at a therapeutic level over the delayed-onset phase, at least 168 hours. Adverse events in both trials were as expected for granisetron; injection site reactions (eg, erythema and induration) were predominantly mild and seen in ≤20% of patients. Complete responses (no emesis, with no rescue medication) were obtained in the acute, delayed, and overall phases in ≥80% and ≥75% of patients in both trials with the 250 and 500 mg doses, respectively. After a single injection of APF530, there were dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and sustained concentrations of granisetron over 168 hours. The 250 and 500 mg doses were well tolerated and maintained therapeutic granisetron

  10. High-resolution MRI using orbit surface coils for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in 143 children with retinoblastoma. Part 1: MRI vs. histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable detection of metastatic risk factors is important for children with retinoblastoma to choose the right therapeutic regimen. First studies using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with orbit surface coils were promising. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the ability of high-resolution MRI to detect metastatic and especially advanced metastatic risk factors in a large group of children with retinoblastoma. One hundred forty-three consecutive children with retinoblastoma (148 enucleated eyes, 64 girls, 79 boys, mean age 19.7 ± 15.3) who received pretherapeutical high-resolution MRI with orbit surface coils on 1.5 T MR scanner systems between 2007 and 2012 and subsequent primary enucleation within 14 days were included in this retrospective study. Image analysis was performed by two neuroradiologists experienced in ocular imaging in consensus. Histopathology served as gold standard. Sensitivity/specificity for the detection of metastatic risk factors using high-resolution MRI with orbit surface coils were 60 %/88.7 % for postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, 65.5 %/95.6 % for choroidal invasion, 100 %/99.3 % for scleral invasion, and 100 %/100 % for peribulbar fat invasion, respectively. The results increased for the detection of advanced metastatic risk factors, 81.8 %/89.1 % for deep postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, 70.6 %/97.6 % for massive choroidal invasion. High-resolution MRI is clinically valuable for the detection of metastatic, especially of advanced metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  11. High-resolution MRI using orbit surface coils for the evaluation of metastatic risk factors in 143 children with retinoblastoma. Part 1: MRI vs. histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirin, Selma; Schlamann, Marc; Schweiger, Bernd; Goericke, Sophia L. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Metz, Klaus A. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Essen (Germany); Bornfeld, Norbert; Holdt, Markus [University Hospital Essen, Department of Ophthalmology, Essen (Germany); Temming, Petra; Schuendeln, Michael M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Essen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    A reliable detection of metastatic risk factors is important for children with retinoblastoma to choose the right therapeutic regimen. First studies using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with orbit surface coils were promising. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the ability of high-resolution MRI to detect metastatic and especially advanced metastatic risk factors in a large group of children with retinoblastoma. One hundred forty-three consecutive children with retinoblastoma (148 enucleated eyes, 64 girls, 79 boys, mean age 19.7 ± 15.3) who received pretherapeutical high-resolution MRI with orbit surface coils on 1.5 T MR scanner systems between 2007 and 2012 and subsequent primary enucleation within 14 days were included in this retrospective study. Image analysis was performed by two neuroradiologists experienced in ocular imaging in consensus. Histopathology served as gold standard. Sensitivity/specificity for the detection of metastatic risk factors using high-resolution MRI with orbit surface coils were 60 %/88.7 % for postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, 65.5 %/95.6 % for choroidal invasion, 100 %/99.3 % for scleral invasion, and 100 %/100 % for peribulbar fat invasion, respectively. The results increased for the detection of advanced metastatic risk factors, 81.8 %/89.1 % for deep postlaminar optic nerve infiltration, 70.6 %/97.6 % for massive choroidal invasion. High-resolution MRI is clinically valuable for the detection of metastatic, especially of advanced metastatic risk factors in children with retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  12. The better of two evils? Evidence that children exhibiting continuous conduct problems high or low on callous-unemotional traits score on opposite directions on physiological and behavioral measures of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Panayiotou, Georgia; Lazarou, Chrysostomos; Michael, Raphaelia; Georgiou, Giorgos

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines whether heterogeneous groups of children identified based on their longitudinal scores on conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits differ on physiological and behavioral measures of fear. Specifically, it aims to test the hypothesis that children with high/stable CP differentiated on CU traits score on opposite directions on a fear-fearless continuum. Seventy-three participants (M age = 11.21; 45.2% female) were selected from a sample of 1,200 children. Children and their parents completed a battery of questionnaires assessing fearfulness, sensitivity to punishment, and behavioral inhibition. Children also participated in an experiment assessing their startle reactivity to fearful mental imagery, a well-established index of defensive motivation. The pattern of results verifies the hypothesis that fearlessness, assessed with physiological and behavioral measures, is a core characteristic of children high on both CP and CU traits (i.e., receiving the DSM-5 specifier of limited prosocial emotions). To the contrary, children with high/stable CP and low CU traits demonstrated high responsiveness to fear, high behavioral inhibition, and high sensitivity to punishment. The study is in accord with the principle of equifinality, in that different developmental mechanisms (i.e., extremes of high and low fear) may have the same behavioral outcome manifested as phenotypic antisocial behavior. PMID:25916948

  13. High physical activity in young children suggests positive effects by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, E; Ludvigsson, J; Huus, K; Faresjö, M

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity in children is associated with several positive health outcomes such as decreased cardiovascular risk factors, improved lung function, enhanced motor skill development, healthier body composition, and also improved defense against inflammatory diseases. We examined how high physical activity vs a sedentary lifestyle in young children influences the immune response with focus on autoimmunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, collected from 55 5-year-old children with either high physical activity (n = 14), average physical activity (n = 27), or low physical activity (n = 14), from the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort, were stimulated with antigens (tetanus toxoid and beta-lactoglobulin) and autoantigens (GAD65 , insulin, HSP60, and IA-2). Immune markers (cytokines and chemokines), C-peptide and proinsulin were analyzed. Children with high physical activity showed decreased immune activity toward the autoantigens GAD65 (IL-5, P < 0.05), HSP60 and IA-2 (IL-10, P < 0.05) and also low spontaneous pro-inflammatory immune activity (IL-6, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CCL2 (P < 0.05)) compared with children with an average or low physical activity. High physical activity in young children seems to have positive effects on the immune system by altering autoantigen-induced immune activity. PMID:25892449

  14. International mobility trends of highly skilled workers: an analysis of the transnational migration of highly skilled immigrants for both receiving and sending countries and their role on innovation in a knowledge-based economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Victor Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy, innovation has become a key driver of economic growth. The return migration of highly skilled workers to traditional sending countries such as Taiwan, China, and India has increased the international mobility of highly skilled workers in the Science and Technology sector. As a result, this will change transnational migration patterns of highly skilled workers in the future and will affect recruitment strategies of traditional receiving countries such as Canada. T...

  15. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sam O. Wajuihian; Rekha Hansraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive p...

  16. Children with High Functioning Autism show increased prefrontal and temporal cortex activity during error monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Melissa C.; Spinelli, Simona; Joel, Suresh; Pekar, James J.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence exists for deficits in error monitoring in autism. These deficits may be particularly important because they may contribute to excessive perseveration and repetitive behavior in autism. We examined the neural correlates of error monitoring using fMRI in 8–12-year-old children with high-functioning autism (HFA, n=11) and typically developing children (TD, n=15) during performance of a Go/No-Go task by comparing the neural correlates of commission errors versus correct response inhibit...

  17. Social Anxiety in High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-01-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 plus or minus 1.7 years)…

  18. Equitable rationing of highly specialised health care services for children: a perspective from South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1999-01-01

    The principles of equality and equity, respectively in the Bill of Rights and the white paper on health, provide the moral and legal foundations for future health care for children in South Africa. However, given extreme health care need and scarce resources, the government faces formidable obstacles if it hopes to achieve a just allocation of public health care resources, especially among children in need of highly specialised health care. In this regard, there is a dearth of moral analysis ...

  19. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30 and naltrexone (n = 30 maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05 there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.

  20. Pre-Treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level Is An Independent Risk Factor for Development of Nephrotoxicity in Patients Receiving High-Dose Vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Juan; Mao, En-Qiang; Jing, Feng; Jiang, Hui-Ting; Yang, Wan-Hua; Chen, Er-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    High-dose vancomycin treatment increases the likelihood of vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the pre-treatment serum CRP level as a risk factor of the development of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving high total daily doses (>2.5 g) of vancomycin. Data extracted from medical records for 174 patients who received total daily doses of >2.5 g of intravenous vancomycin for a minimum of 48 h and had their serum CRP level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate tested within 24 h before vancomycin treatment were subject to final analyses. Univariate analyses showed that patients who developed nephrotoxicity during vancomycin treatment had significantly higher median vancomycin serum concentration, duration of vancomycin treatment, and the serum CRP level within 24 h before vancomycin treatment than the non-nephrotoxicity group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustment for potential confounders, median vancomycin serum concentration, duration of treatment, serum CRP level within 24 h before vancomycin treatment, and nephrotoxic medication were found significantly associated with the development of nephrotoxicity. This was confirmed by multivariate hazard ratio analysis after adjustment for potential confounders. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence supporting the fact that the serum CRP level within 24 h before vancomycin treatment is an independent risk factor for the development of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving total daily doses of >2.5 g of vancomycin. Therefore, the serum CRP level within 24 h before vancomycin treatment could be a potential biomarker or prognostic factor for the development of vancomycin nephrotoxicity. PMID:26919511

  1. Adaptive antennas and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Melvin M

    2005-01-01

    In our modern age of remote sensing, wireless communication, and the nearly endless list of other antenna-based applications, complex problems require increasingly sophisticated solutions. Conventional antenna systems are no longer suited to high-noise or low-signal applications such as intrusion detection. Detailing highly effective approaches to non-Gaussian weak signal detection, Adaptive Antennas and Receivers provides an authoritative introduction to state-of-the-art research on the modeling, testing, and application of these technologies.Edited by innovative researcher and eminent expert

  2. Developing Children's Awareness of the Human-Animal Bond: An Assessment of the Experiences and Benefits that Children Receive in the United Animal Nation's Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the United Animal Nations (UAN) launched the Humane Education Ambassador Readers (HEAR), an innovation that focused on mitigation of animal suffering through education. In the HEAR program, adult volunteers read carefully selected story books to children in grades 3-6 in schools or other educational settings, and hold discussions with the…

  3. A partitioned central solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  4. What parents of children who have received emergency care think about deferring consent in randomised trials of emergency treatments: postal survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrol Gamble

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate parents' views about deferred consent to inform management of trial disclosure after a child's death. METHODS: A postal questionnaire survey was sent to members of the Meningitis Research Foundation UK charity, whose child had suffered from bacterial meningitis or meningococcal septicaemia within the previous 5 years. Main outcome measures were acceptability of deferred consent; timing of requesting consent; and the management of disclosure of the trial after a child's death. RESULTS: 220 families were sent questionnaires of whom 63 (29% were bereaved. 68 families responded (31%, of whom 19 (28% were bereaved. The majority (67% was willing for their child to be involved in the trial without the trial being explained to them beforehand; 70% wanted to be informed about the trial as soon as their child's condition had stabilised. In the event of a child's death before the trial could be discussed the majority of bereaved parents (66% 12/18 anticipated wanting to be told about the trial at some time. This compared with 37% (18/49 of non-bereaved families (p = 0.06. Parents' free text responses indicated that the word 'trial' held strongly negative connotations. A few parents regarded gaps in the evidence base about emergency treatments as indicating staff lacked expertise to care for a critically ill child. Bereaved parents' free text responses indicated the importance of individualised management of disclosure about a trial following a child's death. DISCUSSION: Deferred consent is acceptable to the majority of respondents. Parents whose children had recovered differed in their views compared to bereaved parents. Most bereaved parents would want to be informed about the trial in the aftermath of a child's death, although a minority strongly opposed such disclosure. Distinction should be drawn between the views of bereaved and non-bereaved parents when considering the acceptability of different consent processes.

  5. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  6. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Sharp, Susan E.; Gelfand, Michael J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Turpin, Brian K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  7. A Cost of Illness Study of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Anxiety Disorders as Compared to Clinically Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensel, Francisca J.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The study's aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs for the ASD + AD-group amounted €17,380 per…

  8. Change and Stability in Children's Social Network and Self-Perceptions during Transition from Elementary to Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantin, Stephane; Boivin, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the changes in children's social network and specific self-perceptions during the transition from elementary school to junior high school (JHS). The participants were 200 preadolescent children (104 girls, 96 boys). Children's self-perceptions (global self-worth, perceived academic competence, and perceived social acceptance)…

  9. The Impact of Children with High-Functioning Autism on Parental Stress, Sibling Adjustment, and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Patricia A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2009-01-01

    The article discuses a study conducted to investigate the impact of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) on parental stress, sibling adjustment, and family functioning; the study involves a sample of parents of 15 children with HFA and parents of 15 matched control children who completed questionnaires measuring the dependent variables. The…

  10. The Importance of Self-Regulation for the School and Peer Engagement of Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Bryce, Crystal I.; Swanson, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined individual differences in self-regulation, emotional and behavioral school engagement, and prosocial peer engagement in a sample of 40 children that included children with high functioning autism (HFA; n = 20) and their typical peers (n = 20). Children were 54.57 months on average at recruitment. Measures of self-regulation…

  11. Low Vitamin D Status and Inadequate Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children in a Highly Educated Pacific Northwest Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…

  12. Brief Report: Compliance and Noncompliance to Parental Control Strategies in Children with High-Functioning Autism and Their Typical Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Crystal I.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined children's compliance and noncompliance behaviors in response to parental control strategies in 20 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 20 matched typically-developing children. Observational coding was used to measure child compliance (committed, situational), noncompliance (passive, defiance, self-assertion,…

  13. Musical therapy for children receiving venous transfusion in outpatient department%浅析音乐治疗在儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗患儿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建华; 张婧雯; 张倩丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过分析患儿在北京新世纪儿童医院儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗时接受音乐治疗前后行为及言语紧张度数据,积累音乐治疗在儿科静脉穿刺输液治疗中的应用经验.方法 北京新世纪儿童医院门诊接受静脉穿刺输液治疗同时接受音乐治疗的患儿23名,采取行为评价量表和家长问卷评价患儿接受音乐治疗前后的行为和语言指标.结果 在儿内科门诊静脉穿刺输液治疗时接受音乐治疗可以使患儿语言恐惧表达率和紧张性肢体动作出现率降低,差异有统计学意义.结论 音乐治疗可以减轻静脉穿刺输液治疗对儿童的不良情绪刺激.%Objective To share the experience of musical therapy for children who receive venous transfusion in outpatient department. Methods Behavior scales and parents questionnaire were developed to obtain data before and after musical therapy for children receiving venous transfusion. Results Musical therapy could significantly reduce fearful language expression and tonic limb action. Conclusion Musical therapy was effective in reducing anxiety and distress.

  14. Images of Women in High Fantasy for Children and Adults: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura

    This paper presents a content analysis of 45 high fantasy novels randomly selected from the outstanding contemporary fantasy list in "Fantasy Literature for Children and Young Adults" (Ruth Nadelman Lynn), which divides high fantasy into three subgenres--travel to other worlds, alternate world/history, and myth. A comparison is made between male…

  15. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  16. High Fantasy Literature as a Genre for Gifted Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Margaret E.

    The paper considers the use of high fantasy (literature using preternatural settings, strong characters, teratological situations, and non-rational phenomena to show an alternative approach to reality) with gifted children and youth. Characteristics of high fantasy are considered, including the wonder it evokes, the archetypical elements it relies…

  17. Short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude in children compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriemler, S; Radtke, T; Bürgi, F; Lambrecht, J; Zehnder, M; Brunner-La Rocca, H P

    2016-02-01

    As short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude (HA) exposure has not yet been studied in children, we assessed acute mountain sickness (AMS), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at rest and maximal exercise capacity (CPET) at low altitude (LA) and HA in pre-pubertal children and their fathers. Twenty father-child pairs (11 ± 1 years and 44 ± 4 years) were tested at LA (450 m) and HA (3450 m) at days 1, 2, and 3 after fast ascent (HA1/2/3). HVR was measured at rest and CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. AMS severity was mild to moderate with no differences between generations. HVR was higher in children than adults at LA and increased at HA similarly in both groups. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) relative to body weight was similar in children and adults at LA and decreased significantly by 20% in both groups at HA; maximal heart rate did not change at HA in children while it decreased by 16% in adults (P altitude seems to be at least partly hereditary. Even though children and their fathers lose similar fractions of aerobic capacity going to high altitude, the mechanisms might be different. PMID:25648726

  18. Detecting children's lies: comparing true accounts about highly stressful injuries with unprepared, prepared, and coached lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kelly L; Dodd, Elyse; Raynor, Graham; Peterson, Carole

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, 514 university students judged whether children were telling the truth about highly emotional events. Eight children (half female, half 8-9 and the remainder 12-14 years old) had been injured seriously enough to require emergency room treatment and were interviewed a few days later. Each was yoked to three other children matched in age and gender who fabricated accounts under one of three conditions: lies that were unprepared, prepared (24 hours to prepare), and coached by parents. Participants were at chance when judging true accounts as well as unprepared and prepared lies. However, 74% of the coached lies were judged as true. Participants' confidence in their judgments, age, experience with children, and relevant coursework/training did not improve judgments. PMID:22566366

  19. Insomnia in school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedje Hans

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS and high-functioning autism (HFA are pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in individuals of normal intelligence. Childhood AS/HFA is considered to be often associated with disturbed sleep, in particular with difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep (insomnia. However, studies about the topic are still scarce. The present study investigated childhood AS/HFA regarding a wide range of parent reported sleep-wake behaviour, with a particular focus on insomnia. Methods Thirty-two 8–12 yr old children with AS/HFA were compared with 32 age and gender matched typically developing children regarding sleep and associated behavioural characteristics. Several aspects of sleep-wake behaviour including insomnia were surveyed using a structured paediatric sleep questionnaire in which parents reported their children's sleep patterns for the previous six months. Recent sleep patterns were monitored by use of a one-week sleep diary and actigraphy. Behavioural characteristics were surveyed by use of information gleaned from parent and teacher-ratings in the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, and in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Parent-reported difficulties initiating sleep and daytime sleepiness were more common in children with AS/HFA than in controls, and 10/32 children with AS/HFA (31.2% but none of the controls fulfilled our definition of paediatric insomnia. The parent-reported insomnia corresponded to the findings obtained by actigraphy. Children with insomnia had also more parent-reported autistic and emotional symptoms, and more teacher-reported emotional and hyperactivity symptoms than those children without insomnia. Conclusion Parental reports indicate that in childhood AS/HFA insomnia is a common and distressing symptom which is frequently associated with coexistent behaviour problems. Identification and treatment of sleep problems need to be a routine

  20. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation

  1. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, Vikram; Kavathiya, Krunal; Doshi, Kartik; Gurjar, Murari; Damodaran, Solai E; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Methods Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Results Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Conclusion Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation. PMID:24940080

  2. A STUDY ON GROWTH STATUS OF HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahes h waran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE : To assess the growth status of High school children in Rural Primary health centre area of South India. METH ODS: C hildren from various High schools aged between 13 to 16 years belonging to a PHC area were surveyed in a School Health Program. Height and weight was measured following standard procedures. General nutritional status was assed clinically. SPSS Versio n 16 was used to analyze the data. R ESULTS: 630 students were examined. The overall prevalence of stunting was 44.6%. It was significantly higher in boys (47.7 than girls (41.6. Around 71% of the students were underweight, Boys (77.3% were significantly underweight as compared to girls (64.6. 21% of the children showed signs of malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The nutritional status of high school children in Rural Field Practice area is poor compared to many other studies

  3. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt-II and VMI-V in Samples of Typical Children and Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2010-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…

  4. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  5. Mothers’ Attitudes and Self-Esteem among Deaf Children in Iranian High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Hamed Sardar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between mothers’ attitude and self-esteem among deaf children who are currently enrolled in deaf high schools in Iran. While family system theory is typically used in trying counseling and therapy, much can be learned from examining it by studying the relationship between deaf children and their mothers. Family systems theory has been used in trying to understand problems of communication between children and their families (Widerman, 1995. In general, attention with some significant findings has been focused on environmental factors such as parenting, communication at home, and type of schooling as potential contributors to self-esteem (Crocker, 2008. However, the role of other variables such as family’s attitude has not been systematically explored. This implies that the picture is far from complete. It is also not clear what kind of factors effect on deaf children’s self-esteem. Henceforth, the findings of this study may be helpful in the development of curriculum goals for increasing self-esteem in deaf children. Counselors and social workers can do much to promote positive family relationships as well as acceptance of disabilities in deaf children. The sample consisted of 200 deaf children (100 boys and 100 girls and 200 normal-hearing mothers. The study was conducted at deaf high schools in Iran. Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, Parental Attitudes towards Deafness and interviews Scale were used. The results showed that a relationship existed between mothers’ attitude and deaf children’s self-esteem. Additionally, according to the Pearson correlation test, there is a relationship between the mothers’ attitudes and self-esteem in deaf children. Children whose mothers ably communicated had higher self-esteem scores than their counterparts whose mothers could not ably communicate. The findings of this study may be helpful in the development of curriculum goals for increase of self-esteem in deaf

  6. A Pilot Study of Intensified PEG-Asparaginase in High-risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Children's Oncology Group Study AALL08P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Kairalla, John; Salzer, Wanda L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Loh, Mignon Lc; Carroll, Andrew J; Heerema, Nyla A; Wood, Brent L; Borowitz, Michael J; Burke, Michael J; Asselin, Barbara L; Devidas, Meenakshi; Winick, Naomi J; Carroll, William L; Hunger, Stephen P; Dreyer, ZoAnn E

    2016-08-01

    AALL08P1 was designed to determine whether biweekly intensified pegaspargase (I-PEG) was feasible and safe in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed high-risk B-precursor lymphoblastic leukemia when given with Children's Oncology Group hemiaugmented BFM therapy. High-risk average (HR-Avg) patients received standard pegaspargase dosing (6 doses), whereas high-risk high (HR-High) patients received I-PEG biweekly from the start of Consolidation until day 1 of Maintenance. Feasibility and safety were defined in advance as ≥65% of patients tolerating at least 8 doses of I-PEG and 90% requiring ≤49 weeks from day 1 of Consolidation to the initiation of Maintenance. Targeted toxicities included allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, pancreatitis, thrombosis, bleeding, central nervous system events, and sepsis. AALL08P1 enrolled 104 patients; 54 were classified as HR-Avg and 30 as HR-High after completion of induction therapy. Only 53% (16/30) of the HR-High patients received ≥8 total doses of I-PEG and 50% (15/30) took ≤49 weeks from start of Consolidation to the initiation of Maintenance. I-PEG did not significantly increase grade 2 to 5 targeted toxicities. I-PEG was not feasible or safe as defined in AALL08P1. Complete assessment of this regimen was limited due to removal of patients from I-PEG regimen and early closure of the study. PMID:27299599

  7. Nonlinear waveform analysis for water-layer response and its application to high-frequency receiver function analysis using OBS array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuhara, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2016-07-01

    Determination of a response of the seawater column to teleseismic plane wave is important to suppress adverse effects of water reverberations in calculating receiver functions (RFs) using ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) records. We present a novel nonlinear-waveform analysis method using the simulated annealing algorithm to determine such a water-layer response recorded by an OBS array. We then demonstrate its usefulness for the RF estimation through its application to synthetic and observed data. Synthetic experiments suggest that the water-layer response constrained in this way has a potential to improve RFs of OBS records drastically even in the high-frequency range (to 4 Hz). By applying it to data observed by the OBS array around the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, we identified a low-velocity zone at the top of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. This zone may represent the incoming fluid-rich sediment layer that has been reported by active source seismic survey.

  8. Communication Received from Germany Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 20 September 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of highly enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2011

  9. Communication Received from Germany Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 14 October 2010 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of its annual figures for holdings of civil high enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2009

  10. Communication Received from Germany Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of Highly Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 3 July 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of its annual figures for holdings of civil highly enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2006

  11. Communication Received from Germany Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 29 April 2011 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of its annual figures for holdings of civil high enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2010

  12. Communication Received from Germany Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 July 2013 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of highly enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2012

  13. Communication Received from Germany Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a letter dated 16 July 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008. 2. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of its annual figures for holdings of civil high enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2008

  14. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Luh Tang

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFIs is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6% patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs. Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106. Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100-2.141, p value = 0.012. Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided.

  15. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Yao, Ming; Wu, Un-In; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Ting; Li, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Shang-Ju; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6%) patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR) or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs). Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106). Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100–2.141), p value = 0.012). Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided. PMID:26061179

  16. Auditory profile and high resolution CT scan in autism spectrum disorders children with auditory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Elsaeid M; Zaghloul, Hesham S

    2013-08-01

    Autism is the third most common developmental disorder, following mental retardationand cerebral palsy. ASD children have been described more often as beingpreoccupied with or agitated by noise. The aim of this study was to evaluate theprevalence and clinical significance of semicircular canal dehiscence detected on CTimages in ASD children with intolerance to loud sounds in an attempt to find ananatomical correlate with hyperacusis.14 ASD children with auditory hypersensitivity and 15 ASD children without auditoryhypersensitivity as control group age and gender matched were submitted to historytaking, otological examination, tympanometry and acoustic reflex thresholdmeasurement. ABR was done to validate normal peripheral hearing and integrity ofauditory brain stem pathway. High resolution CT scan petrous and temporal boneimaging was performed to all participated children. All participants had normal hearingsensitivity in ABR testing. Absolute ABR peak waves of I and III showed no statisticallysignificant difference between the two groups, while absolute wave V peak andinterpeak latencies I-V and III-V were shorter in duration in study group whencompared to the control group. CT scans revealed SSCD in 4 out of 14 of the studygroup (29%), the dehiscence was bilateral in one patient and unilateral in threepatients. None of control group showed SSCD. In conclusion, we have reportedevidence that apparent hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli (short conduction time in ABR) despite the normal physiological measures in ASD children with auditoryhypersensitivity can provide a clinical clue of a possible SSCD. PMID:23580033

  17. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Varela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases.

  18. Eye-tracking measurements of language processing: developmental differences in children at high risk for ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chita-Tegmark, Meia; Arunachalam, Sudha; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-10-01

    To explore how being at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), based on having an older sibling diagnosed with ASD, affects word comprehension and language processing speed, 18-, 24- and 36-month-old children, at high and low risk for ASD were tested in a cross- sectional study, on an eye gaze measure of receptive language that measured how accurately and rapidly the children looked at named target images. There were no significant differences between the high risk ASD group and the low risk control group of 18- and 24-month-olds. However, 36-month-olds in the high risk for ASD group performed significantly worse on the accuracy measure, but not on the speed measure. We propose that the language processing efficiency of the high risk group is not compromised, but other vocabulary acquisition factors might have lead to the high risk 36-month-olds to comprehend significantly fewer nouns on our measure. PMID:26109246

  19. School-Based Counseling of Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Rivelis, Erin; Diaz, Vielka

    2009-01-01

    Abused children experience high rates of behavior, emotional, and learning problems but infrequently receive treatment. Most services provided to abused children and their families are not based on any clear evidence that they work. A number of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating a range of…

  20. Assessment of radioactivity and estimation of effective dose received by villagers residing at natural high background areas of coastal regions of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received by villagers residing at seven villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Tamil Nadu were studied; five houses in each village were selected. The NHBRA villages were Chinnavilai, Periavilai, Kottilpadu, Puthoor Colachel, Kodimunai and Midalam. The houses were of similar construction pattern (brick wall-tiled roof, cement flooring). Measurements of radon (222Rn), thoron (220Rn) and their progeny, produced by the decay of naturally occurring radioisotopes uranium and thorium in dwellings are the largest contributor to the average internal effective dose received by human beings. Internal doses due to radon/thoron and their progeny were estimated using, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), LR-115, as the detector. External doses were estimated by gamma measurement using scintillometer and Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD). TLDs were exposed for one year, on a quarterly basis, inside the house at a height of 3 meters and about 1 meter away from the walls. The SSNTD cups were exposed adjacent to the TLDS, and the exposure was for a period of three months each. The SSNTDs were developed by standard procedures (10% NaOH, etching for 90 min at 60 deg C) and counted in a spark counter. Earlier the SSNTDs were calibrated using U and Th sources and calibration factors were obtained. Inhalation dose due to 232Th and Th (B) in mWL were estimated by collecting air samples from each house, for one hour each, during the replacement time of TLD and SSNTD Cups. For inhalation dose estimation the occupancy factor was assumed to be 0.8. The soil samples were also collected from each sampling point. (author)

  1. Thyroid function after treatment of brain tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy-Stuart, A L; Shalet, S M; Gattamaneni, H R

    1991-11-01

    In 134 children who had been treated for a brain tumor not involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid function was assessed up to 24 years after treatment with cranial or craniospinal irradiation. In addition, 78 children received up to 2 years of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Of 85 children who received craniospinal irradiation, 30 (35%) had abnormalities of thyroid function, and 10 (20%) of 49 who received cranial irradiation had such abnormalities. Frank hypothyroidism developed in three children and thyrotoxicosis in one. Thirty-six children had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level in the presence of a normal thyroxine level; in 16 of them the thyroid-stimulating hormone level subsequently returned to normal. Twenty-eight children who were treated between 1960 and 1970 were excluded from the analysis. Of 34 children who received cranial irradiation, five had thyroid dysfunction and 24 of 72 who received craniospinal irradiation had such dysfunction (p = 0.013). Thyroid dysfunction was present in 4 of 35 children who received no chemotherapy and in 25 of 71 who received chemotherapy (p = 0.014). Direct irradiation plus chemotherapy was more damaging than irradiation alone. These data confirm the high incidence of thyroid dysfunction when the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. However, in a high proportion, the thyroid abnormalities are minor and revert to normal with time; life-long replacement therapy with thyroxine may be unnecessary. PMID:1941379

  2. Effect of low and high glycaemic index drink on sleep pattern in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of high and low glycaemic index drinks on children's sleep pattern. Methods: Eight children underwent 3 nights of full polysomnography study, one familiarization and two test nights consecutively. On the test nights, 1 hour before bedtime, the children had a milk drink of either low or high GI in a random order. The glycaemic loads (GL) were 7.4 and 52.8 for low and high GI drink respectively. Results: The mean of total arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was greater than that of low GI drink. (12.9 +- 4.6 vs. 9.9 +- 2.2, P=0.03). NREM arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was also higher than that of low GI drink. (12.7+- 4.8 vs. 9.6 +- 2.3, P=0.05). Other sleep parameters did not show any significant difference in low GI and high GI diets. Conclusion: NREM and total arousal indices were higher in those who consumed high GI drinks compared with low GI, one hour before sleep. It seems that the high quantity consumption of carbohydrates close to the bedtime is accompanied by frequent arousals and may affect the sleep quality. (author)

  3. Self-Management for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2008-01-01

    Supporting children with autism spectrum disorders in the general education classroom presents a unique challenge to the teachers and schools that serve them. This article addresses the utility of self-management as a proactive strategy for increasing the task engagement and compliant behavior of high-functioning students with autism. The author…

  4. White Matter Integrity and Pictorial Reasoning in High-Functioning Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Cherif P.; Belliveau, John W.; Mody, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the neurobiological role of white matter in visuospatial versus linguistic processing abilities in autism using diffusion tensor imaging. We examined differences in white matter integrity between high-functioning children with autism (HFA) and typically developing controls (CTRL), in relation to the groups' response…

  5. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  6. High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Novel Test of Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2006-01-01

    High functioning children with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome (HF-ASD) often experience difficulties organising goal-directed actions in their day-to-day lives, requiring support to schedule daily activities. This study aimed to capture these everyday difficulties experimentally using multitasking, a methodology that taps into the…

  7. Virtual-Reality-Based Social Interaction Training for Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami

    2013-01-01

    Employing the multiple-baseline across-subjects design, the authors examined the implementation and potential effect of a virtual-reality-based social interaction program on the interaction and communication performance of children with high functioning autism. The data were collected via behavior observation and analysis, questionnaires, and…

  8. The Modality Shift Experiment in Adults and Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    This study used the modality shift experiment, a relatively simple reaction time measure to visual and auditory stimuli, to examine attentional shifting within and across modalities in 33 children and 42 adults with high-functioning autism as compared to matched numbers of age- and ability-matched typical controls. An exaggerated "modality shift…

  9. Sensory Responsiveness as a Predictor of Social Severity in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia L.; Harper, Jacquelyn D.; Kueker, Rachel Holmes; Lang, Andrea Runzi; Abbacchi, Anna M.; Todorov, Alexandre; LaVesser, Patricia D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between sensory responsiveness and social severity in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD; N = 36) and age-matched controls (N = 26) between 6 and 10 years old. Significant relationships were found between social responsiveness scale scores and each of the six sensory profile sensory…

  10. Recognition of Facial Emotions among Maltreated Children with High Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgdon, Hilary B.; McClure, Erin B.; Charney, Dennis S.; Ernst, Monique; Kaufman, Joan; Pine, Daniel S.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine processing of facial emotions in a sample of maltreated children showing high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maltreatment during childhood has been associated independently with both atypical processing of emotion and the development of PTSD. However, research has provided little…

  11. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin C for Invasive Anal Carcinoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcomes of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Patients and Methods: Between 1997 and 2008, 21 HIV-positive patients who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy were treated with CRT (50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction plus a 5.4-10.8-Gy external boost; 5-fluorouracil, 1,000 mg/m2, Days 1-4 and 29-32; and mitomycin C, 10 mg/m2, Days 1 and 29). A retrospective analysis was performed with respect to the tumor response, local control, cancer-specific and overall survival, and toxicity. The immunologic parameters, including pre- and post-treatment CD4 count, viral load, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-specific morbidity was recorded during follow-up (median, 53 months; range, 10-99). Results: CRT could be completed in all 21 patients with a reduction in the chemotherapy dose and/or interruption of radiotherapy in 5 and 5 cases, respectively. Acute Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 8 (38%) of the 21 patients. A complete response was achieved in 17 patients (81%), and tumor persistence or early progression was noted in 4 (19%). Six patients (29%) died, 5 of cancer progression and 1 of treatment-related toxicity. The 5-year local control, cancer-specific, and overall survival rate was 59%, 75%, and 67%, respectively. The median CD4 count significantly decreased from 347.5 cells/μL before CRT to 125 cells/μL 3-7 weeks after CRT completion (p <.001). In 6 (32%) of 19 patients, an increase of the HIV viral load was noted. Both parameters returned to the pretreatment values with additional follow-up. Conclusion: Our data have confirmed that in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-related anal cancer can be treated with standard CRT without dose reductions. Close surveillance of the immunologic parameters is necessary.

  12. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vikram Gota,1 Krunal Kavathiya,1 Kartik Doshi,1 Murari Gurjar,1 Solai E Damodaran,1 Vanita Noronha,2 Amit Joshi,2 Kumar Prabhash2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India Background: Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Methods: Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Results: Sixteen of 46 patients (35% had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively. Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively. Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Conclusion: Higher exposure to

  13. Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations

  14. Treatment results of the Tokai-POSG 8610HR pilot protocol for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, Teruaki; Inoue, Noriko [Hamamatsu Medical Univ., Shizuoka (Japan); Horibe, Keizo [and others

    1997-10-01

    We reported the treatment results of Tokai-POSG 8610HR pilot protocol for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). From Oct. 1986 to Jan. 1991, 43 eligible children were enrolled, who had one or more following high-risk factors: age{>=}10 years old, initial white blood cell count (WBC) of 50,000/{mu}l or more, and extramedullary leukemia. All patients received induction therapy consisting of vincristine, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and daunorubicin, followed by central nervous system prophylaxis by 24 Gy cranial irradiation, consolidation therapy and cyclic maintenance by multidrugs for 3 years after diagnosis. Complete remission was achieved in 39 patients. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 72.6{+-}7.1%. The only factor of an adverse association with EFS was a initial WBC of 10,000/{mu}l or more (p=0.002) in the 24 patients who were 10 years old or over. The factors related to a negative survival were male gender (p=0.031) and an initial WBC of 10,000/{mu}l or more (p=0.0012) in 43 patients. The major toxicities of the therapy were pancreatitis and allergic reaction due to{sub L}-ASP administration, and growth hormone deficiency due to cranial irradiation. Tokai 8610HR pilot protocol was a promising regimen, but further intensive chemotherapy was needed for improvement or the prognosis of the older patients with high initial WBC greater than 10,000/{mu}l. (author)

  15. Treatment results of the Tokai-POSG 8610HR pilot protocol for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported the treatment results of Tokai-POSG 8610HR pilot protocol for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). From Oct. 1986 to Jan. 1991, 43 eligible children were enrolled, who had one or more following high-risk factors: age≥10 years old, initial white blood cell count (WBC) of 50,000/μl or more, and extramedullary leukemia. All patients received induction therapy consisting of vincristine, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and daunorubicin, followed by central nervous system prophylaxis by 24 Gy cranial irradiation, consolidation therapy and cyclic maintenance by multidrugs for 3 years after diagnosis. Complete remission was achieved in 39 patients. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 72.6±7.1%. The only factor of an adverse association with EFS was a initial WBC of 10,000/μl or more (p=0.002) in the 24 patients who were 10 years old or over. The factors related to a negative survival were male gender (p=0.031) and an initial WBC of 10,000/μl or more (p=0.0012) in 43 patients. The major toxicities of the therapy were pancreatitis and allergic reaction due toL-ASP administration, and growth hormone deficiency due to cranial irradiation. Tokai 8610HR pilot protocol was a promising regimen, but further intensive chemotherapy was needed for improvement or the prognosis of the older patients with high initial WBC greater than 10,000/μl. (author)

  16. Similar Health Benefits of Endurance and High-Intensity Interval Training in Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Corte de Araujo, Ana Carolina; Roschel, Hamilton; Picanço, Andreia Rossi; do Prado, Danilo Marcelo Leite; Villares, Sandra Mara Ferreira; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT]) on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. Methods Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR). The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a ...

  17. High-optical-power handling InGaAs photodiodes and balanced receivers for high-spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) analog photonic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhay M.; Wang, Xinde; Mohr, Dan; Becker, Donald; Patil, Ravikiran

    2004-08-01

    We have developed 20 mA or higher photocurrent handling InGaAs photodiodes with 20 GHz bandwidth, and 10 mA or higher photocurrent handling InGaAs photodiodes with >40 GHz bandwidth. These photodiodes have been thoroughly tested for reliability including Bellcore GR 468 standard and are built to ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System. These Dual-depletion InGaAs/InP photodiodes are surface illuminated and yet handle such large photocurrent due to advanced band-gap engineering. They have broad wavelength coverage from 800 nm to 1700 nm, and thus can be used at several wavelengths such as 850 nm, 1064 nm, 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1620 nm. Furthermore, they exhibit very low Polarization Dependence Loss of 0.05dB typical to 0.1dB maximum. Using above high current handling photodiodes, we have developed classical Push-Pull pair balanced photoreceivers for the 2 to 18 GHz EW system. These balanced photoreceivers boost the Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) by almost 3 dB by eliminating the laser RIN noise. Future research calls for designing an Avalanche Photodiode Balanced Pair to boost the SFDR even further by additional 3 dB. These devices are a key enabling technology in meeting the SFDR requirements for several DoD systems.

  18. Differences in physical growth of Aymara and Quechua children living at high altitude in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meer, K; Bergman, R; Kusner, J S; Voorhoeve, H W

    1993-01-01

    Physical growth of Amerindian children living in two Aymara and three Quechua peasant communities in the Andean highlands of southern Peru (altitude 3,810-3,840 m) was studied, taking into account differences in the microclimate, agronomic situation, and sociodemographic variables. Anthropometric measurements were taken in 395 children aged under 14 years of age in a sample of 151 families in these communities, who were surveyed for sociodemographic variables as well. Data on the land system were available for 77 families. In comparison with reference populations from the United States (NCHS) and The Netherlands, stature, weight, head circumference, and midupper arm circumference (but not weight for stature) in the sample children were reduced. Growth retardation increased after the age of 1 year. Stature and weight in the present sample were very similar compared with previously published data on growth of rural Aymara children living near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Head circumference, midupper arm circumference, and weight for stature were significantly larger in Aymara children compared with Quechua children. Land was significantly more fragmented in Aymara compared with Quechua families, but amount of land owned was not different. Perinatal and infant mortality was elevated in Aymara vs. Quechua communities. Most families in Aymara communities used protected drinking water. One Quechua community had a severe microclimate, grim economic outlook, and weak social cohesion. Children in this community showed significant reductions in weight and midupper arm circumference compared with their peers in the other communities. We conclude that (presumably nutritionally mediated) intervillage and Aymara-Quechua differences in childhood physical growth existed in this rural high-altitude population in Peru and were associated with microclimate and the village economy, sociodemographic factors, and differences in the land system. PMID:8470756

  19. Assessment of Growth and Oxidized High-Density Lipoprotien Level in Children on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheir Bahgat Fayed*, Manal Abd EL-Salam*, Iman Mouhamed El-Bagoury**,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of growth failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD is multi-factorial with linear impairment being a final common pathway of various factors including malnutrition, increased catabolism, loss of nutrients and antioxidants, and aggressive dietary restrictions during dialysis .Anemia, metabolic acidosis and persistent micro inflammations are also causative factors.Objectives: To assess growth in children with CKD on regular hemodialysis and measure oxidized high density lipoprotein (OX-HDL, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and to discuss their roles as a risk factors of malnutrition among studied cases.Patients and Methods: The study included 25 children with end stage renal disease (ESRD on regular hemodialysis more than 6 months. Their ages ranged from 5-15 years with a mean of 10.76 years, also 25 of apparently healthy, age and sex matched were included. The study sample was selected from pediatric dialysis unit and outpatients clinic, of AL-Zahraa University hospital .Anthropometric measurements were assessed with determination of OX-HDL and hsCRP serum levels in both cases and the controls.Results: Anthropometry showed significant decrease in weight, height, body mass index, mid arm circumference and triceps skin fold thickness in patients when compared to the controls. 100% of patients had high level of OX-HDL and hsCRP, and positive correlation between OX-HDL and Z-score for Wt and Ht were detected.Conclusion: Malnutrition, and growth delay are common in children with chronic kidney disease on regular hemodialysis. High rate of inflammation in dialysis children as there were high level of hsCRP and OX HDL. HDL, in regular hemodialysis children loses its protective function as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and becomes pro-inflammatory factor

  20. Screening Rastafarian children for nutritional rickets.

    OpenAIRE

    James, J A; Clark, C; Ward, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    We examined 42 Rastafarian children under 5 years of age who were registered with a single inner city general practice to determine the prevalence of nutritional rickets. Twenty children were receiving a strict vegan(I-tal) diet and were considered to be at high risk of developing rickets and were referred for biochemical and radiological investigation. Seven of 20 children investigated had rickets, giving an overall prevalence of 7/42. Treatment with oral cholecalciferol was successful in al...

  1. Caries-preventive effect of topical amine fluoride in children with high and low salivary levels of mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, E; Gagliani, M; Felloni, A; García-Godoy, F; Strohmenger, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the salivary mutans streptococci (SMS) level and the effectiveness of a preventive intervention based on a biannual application of an amine fluoride solution (AmF). A total of 284 schoolchildren aged 6 years were recruited from eleven classes of a primary school in Milan and randomly assigned to an experimental (A) and a control group (B). SMS counts were obtained at baseline and caries incidence data (diseased, missing, filled teeth, DMFT) were recorded every 6 months for 5 years. The participants of the experimental group received application of an AmF 1% F(-) solution twice a year on the enamel surfaces of the first permanent molars for 5 years. Control group subjects received application of a placebo solution twice a year on the enamel surfaces of the first molars for the same period. The mean DMFT in the experimental and control groups were 0.56 and 0.22, respectively, at the beginning and 1.14 and 2.06 after 5 years. SMS data allowed children to be classified into low- (0-10(5) CFU/ml of saliva) and high- (>10(5) CFU/ml of saliva) SMS subjects. Survival analysis, performed on the first molar data split by SMS group, showed a significantly higher caries reduction in low-SMS experimental group subjects compared to low-SMS control group subjects after 5 years. No significant differences were found between the two high-SMS experimental and control groups. These findings indicate that the preventive effects of the treatment were significantly lower in subjects who had high SMS. It is concluded that the effectiveness of a simple and economical topical fluoride intervention applicable at a community level is significantly influenced by the SMS level of the subjects involved. Simple AmF preventive interventions, applied on low-SMS subjects, can give significant results in terms of caries reduction. PMID:10529526

  2. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  3. Young children have a specific, highly robust bias to trust testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Vikram K; Croft, A Carrington; Setia, Alison R; Cole, Caitlin A

    2010-10-01

    Why are young children so willing to believe what they are told? In two studies, we investigated whether it is because of a general, undifferentiated trust in other people or a more specific bias to trust testimony. In Study 1, 3-year-olds either heard an experimenter claim that a sticker was in one location when it was actually in another or saw her place an arrow on the empty location. All children searched in the wrong location initially, but those who heard the deceptive testimony continued to be misled, whereas those who saw her mark the incorrect location with an arrow quickly learned to search in the opposite location. In Study 2, children who could both see and hear a deceptive speaker were more likely to be misled than those who could only hear her. Three-year-olds have a specific, highly robust bias to trust what people--particularly visible speakers--say. PMID:20855905

  4. What Teachers Perceive--Children Receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Reports a study designed to ascertain the relationship between teacher perceived attractiveness and classroom interactions and suggests that "main effects" such as facial attractiveness of youngsters acts to determine individual potential for interactions with others. (MH)

  5. Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was

  6. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  7. Communication received from France concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale, dated 2 September 2003, from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of France, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. The Government of France has also made available a statement of its annual figures for holdings of civil high-enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2002. In light of the request expressed by the Government of France in its Note Verbale of 28 November 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the Note Verbale of 2 September 2003 are attached for the information of all Member States

  8. Communication received from France concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 27 September 2005 from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of France, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. The Government of France has also made available a statement of its annual figures for holdings of civil high-enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2004. In light of the request expressed by the Government of France in its Note Verbale of 28 November 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the Note Verbale of 27 September 2005 are attached for the information of all Member States

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopy of the nano-dimensional powders of composites Fe-C and its compact received under high temperatures and pressure up to 5.0 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano dimensional encapsulated by carbon powders of Fe were obtained by mechan o-chemical reaction method. Using the apparatus of synthesis under high pressures (p ∼5.0 GPa) and temperatures from these powders containing diamond carbon modification and iron carbide Fe3C magnetic composites were received. Moessbauer study showed that initial material at T1 contains α-Fe and the carbide Fe3C. The analysis of obtained Moessbauer spectra 57Fe in Fe-C matrix let to see at T1, T5 the presence of a small quantity of the intermediate carbides which one can see at T2, T3, T4. The Moessbauer spectrum at T5 contains the pronounced Zeeman hyperfine 57Fe splitting in carbide Fe3C and the singlet with the isomeric shift δ1.3 mm/s. At the T1, T2, T3, T4 temperatures the Moessbauer study is more informative than X-ray analysis. The well correlation between the Moessbauer study, X-ray diffractions and temperature specific magnetization dependences study is observed

  10. Communication received from Germany concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium. Statements on the management of plutonium and of high enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a letter dated 18 April 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2004. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has also made available a statement of the estimated amounts of high enriched uranium (HEU) as of 31 December 2004. In light of the request expressed by the Federal Republic of Germany in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures of the letter of 18 April 2005 are attached for the information of all Member States

  11. Social Cognition in Children at Familial High Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha eKothari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED has been associated with differences in social cognition. To date research investigating social cognition and ED has mainly employed patient and recovered samples. It is therefore unclear whether differences in social cognition are present prior to onset of ED, potentially contributing to development, or whether differences observed are a consequence of the disorder. We aimed to further explore whether individuals at high-risk for ED present social cognition characteristics previously found in ED groups. MethodsOur sample was drawn from a population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Data on maternal ED behaviors over the lifetime were collected through in-depth clinical interviews (n = 1,128 conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID, and were used to categorize mothers according to ED behaviors over the lifetime: Restricting & Excessive Exercising (n = 58, Purging (n = 70, Binge-eating (n = 72, Bingeing and Purging (n = 66, no ED (n = 862. High-risk status of children was determined using these maternal lifetime behavioral phenotypes. Children at high-risk (maternal ED exposure were compared to children at low-risk (born to mothers with no ED on three measures of social cognition: the Social Communication Disorders Checklist (n = 922, the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy (n = 722, and the Emotional Triangles Task (n = 750.ResultsChildren at high-risk for ED showed poorer performance on measures of social cognition compared to children at low-risk. Maternal lifetime binge-eating, and maternal lifetime bingeing and purging were associated with poorer social communication in children (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 5.7, p = 0.05; and OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 6.5, p = 0.03 respectively. Maternal bingeing and purging was also found to be associated with differential facial emotion processing and poorer recognition of fear fr

  12. High density lipoproteins as indicators of endothelial dysfunction in children with diadetes type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova S.M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction

  13. The antiretroviral efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy and plasma nevirapine concentrations in HIV-TB co-infected Indian patients receiving rifampicin based antituberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Sanjeev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifampicin reduces the plasma concentrations of nevirapine in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infected patients, who are administered these drugs concomitantly. We conducted a prospective interventional study to assess the efficacy of nevirapine-containing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART when co-administered with rifampicin-containing antituberculosis treatment (ATT and also measured plasma nevirapine concentrations in patients receiving such a nevirapine-containing HAART regimen. Methods 63 cases included antiretroviral treatment naïve HIV-TB co-infected patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3 started on rifampicin-containing ATT followed by nevirapine-containing HAART. In control group we included 51 HIV patients without tuberculosis and on nevirapine-containing HAART. They were assessed for clinical and immunological response at the end of 24 and 48 weeks. Plasma nevirapine concentrations were measured at days 14, 28, 42 and 180 of starting HAART. Results 97 out of 114 (85.1% patients were alive at the end of 48 weeks. The CD4 cell count showed a mean increase of 108 vs.113 cells/mm3 (p=0.83 at 24 weeks of HAART in cases and controls respectively. Overall, 58.73% patients in cases had viral loads of less than 400 copies/ml at the end of 48 weeks. The mean (± SD Nevirapine concentrations of cases and control at 14, 28, 42 and 180 days were 2.19 ± 1.49 vs. 3.27 ± 4.95 (p = 0.10, 2.78 ± 1.60 vs. 3.67 ± 3.59 (p = 0.08, 3.06 ± 3.32 vs. 4.04 ± 2.55 (p = 0.10 respectively and 3.04 μg/ml (in cases. Conclusions Good immunological and clinical response can be obtained in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving rifampicin and nevirapine concomitantly despite somewhat lower nevirapine trough concentrations. This suggests that rifampicin-containing ATT may be co administered in resource limited setting with nevirapine-containing HAART regimen without substantial reduction in

  14. Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2012-10-01

    Adoption is known to promote cognitive and emotional development in children from foster care, but policy debates remain regarding whether children adopted by gay and lesbian parents can achieve these positive outcomes. This study compared the cognitive development and behavior problems at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 high-risk children adopted from foster care in heterosexual and gay or lesbian households. On average, children in both household types showed significant gains in cognitive development and maintained similar levels of behavior problems over time, despite gay and lesbian parents raising children with higher levels of biological and environmental risks prior to adoptive placement. Results demonstrated that high-risk children show similar patterns of development over time in heterosexual and gay and lesbian adoptive households. PMID:23039344

  15. Heterogeneity in Perceptual Category Learning by High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mercado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that high functioning children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD sometimes have problems learning categories, but often appear to perform normally in categorization tasks. The deficits that individuals with ASD show when learning categories have been attributed to executive dysfunction, general deficits in implicit learning, atypical cognitive strategies, or abnormal perceptual biases and abilities. Several of these psychological explanations for category learning deficits have been associated with neural abnormalities such as cortical underconnectivity. The present study evaluated how well existing neurally-based theories account for atypical perceptual category learning shown by high functioning children with ASD across multiple category learning tasks involving novel, abstract shapes. Consistent with earlier results, children’s performances revealed two distinct patterns of learning and generalization associated with ASD: one was indistinguishable from performance in typically developing children; the other revealed dramatic impairments. These two patterns were evident regardless of training regimen or stimulus set. Surprisingly, some children with ASD showed both patterns. Simulations of perceptual category learning could account for the two observed patterns in terms of differences in neural plasticity. However, no current psychological or neural theory adequately explains why a child with ASD might show such large fluctuations in category learning ability across training conditions or stimulus sets.

  16. Transforming growth factor alpha expression as a potential survival prognosticator in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma receiving high-dose radiation and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) stimulates the growth and proliferation of cells, and its overexpression has been correlated with patient survival in a variety of tumors, including squamous carcinoma of the esophagus. This study was performed to investigate the influence of TGFA in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) receiving high-dose radiation and chemotherapy (HDRCT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-one patients with localized esophageal adenocarcinoma were enrolled in a Phase II study involving high dose radiation and concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/mitomycin-C with or without esophagectomy. Twenty-seven pretreatment (tumor not available in 4) and 11 posttreatment (insufficient tumor in 20) specimens were immunostained using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. Results: Fifteen of 27 (56%) pretreatment and 4 out of 11 (36%) postchemoradiation specimens had intense TGFA staining. Eight patients with intense and seven with little or no staining on pretreatment biopsy underwent esophagectomy. Median survival for the eight patients was 28 months, and for the seven patients 19 months (p = 0.4). Transforming growth factor alpha staining of posttreatment specimens that contained residual tumor also did not correlate with overall (p = 0.36) or disease-free (p = 0.17) survival. Among the 10 patients with both pre and posttreatment TGFA specimens, decreasing or negative TGFA expression was associated with a better median disease-free survival (32 vs. 13 months, p = 0.04) than persistently positive or increasing TGFA expression. Conclusion: There is frequent overexpression of TGFA in EA. Although pretreatment TGFA expression was not associated with survival, patients with tumors that persistently expressed or that increased TGFA expression had a worse prognosis. Posttreatment TGFA expression may serve as a prognostic marker in patients with EA treated with HDRCT

  17. Reversible bronchial dilatation in children: comparison of serial high-resolution computer tomography scans of the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, E.A. E-mail: erol.gaillard@lwh-tr.nwest.nhs.uk; Carty, H.; Heaf, D.; Smyth, R.L

    2003-09-01

    Introduction: bronchiectasis is generally considered irreversible in the adult population, largely based on studies employing bronchography in cases with a significant clinical history. It is assumed, that the same is true for children. Few studies have examined the natural history of bronchiectasis in children and diagnostic criteria on high-resolution computer tomography of the lungs are derived from studies on adults. Frequently, bronchiectasis is reported in children in cases where localised bronchial dilatation is present, incorrectly labelling these children with an irreversible life-long condition. Objective: to evaluate changes in appearance of bronchial dilatation, unrelated to cystic fibrosis in children, as assessed by sequential high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the lungs. Methods: the scans of 22 children with a radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis, seen at Alder Hey Children's Hospital between 1994 and 2000, who had at least two CT scans of the lungs were reviewed by a single radiologist, who was blinded to the original report. Results: following a median scan interval of 21 months (range 2-43), bronchial dilatation resolved completely in six children and there was improvement in appearances in a further eight, with medical treatment alone. Discussion: a radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis should be considered with caution in children as diagnostic criteria derived from studies in adults have not been validated in children and the condition is generally considered irreversible.

  18. Evaluation of a Brief Intervention to Improve the Nursing Care of Young Children in a High HIV and AIDS Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Zuma, Thembelihle H.; Celia Hsiao; Rochat, Tamsen J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in South Africa is putting great strain on health services, including the inpatient care of young children. Caregivers and young children (107 pairs) and 17 nurses participated in an intervention to improve the care of young children in hospital in a high HIV and AIDS setting. The intervention addressed caregiver expectations about admission and treatment, responsive feeding, coping with infant pain and distress, assistance with medical procedures, and preparation for dischar...

  19. Dissociation in performance of children with ADHD and high-functioning autism on a task of sustained attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Louise; Gill, Michael; JOHNSON, KATHERINE ANNE; Robertson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    (242) PMID: 17433378 ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism are two neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prominent executive dysfunction, which may be underpinned by disruption within fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal circuits. We probed executive function in these disorders using a sustained attention task with a validated brain-behaviour basis. Twenty-three children with ADHD, 21 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 18 control children were...

  20. Chromosomal aberrations in children exposed to diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among children who have received high x-ray doses congenital dislocation of the hip joint is the predominating diagnosis. In a series of 9 children who had received high x-ray doses (8 with luxation of the hip joint and one with achondroplasia) a significant increase of chromosomal aberrations was found. The increase concerned mainly chromosome type aberrations. The shorter the time since the last x-ray investigation the higher was the frequency of chromosome type aberrations. (author)

  1. Percepción y expectativas de cuidadoras de niños con gran discapacidad: Sobre la atención sanitaria recibida Perception and expectations of mothers with seriously disable children on received sanitary attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Cruz-Escobosa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: (1 Conocer la percepción que tienen las cuidadoras principales de niños con Gran Discapacidad respecto a la atención recibida dentro del Sistema Sanitario Público de Andalucía. (2 Identificar propuestas de mejora para la atención integral tanto de los niños, como de sus cuidadoras. Metodología: estudio cualitativo mediante Grupo Focal con madres/padres de niños y niñas diagnosticados de patologías crónicas que generan gran dependencia con edades comprendidas entre 4 y 12 años. Resultados: las repercusiones de la enfermedad de sus hijos en sus familias y en ellas supusieron un impacto total. Expresan una falta de apoyo familiar efectivo y de tiempo para su autocuidado. Perciben un trato y una atención mejorable por parte de algunos de los profesionales de Atención Especializada. En el Centro de Salud ven muy positivo el trato de los profesionales, la accesibilidad, las facilidades que encuentran ante cualquier problema que les surge y ahora el plan de atención a cuidadoras de grandes discapacitados. Conclusiones: es necesario tener en cuenta la visión de las madres en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de sus hijos. Asumirla por los profesionales como una información valiosa va a producir una mejora en la calidad prestada. Valoran que se les informe con claridad y no técnicamente. Cualquier intervención del sistema socio-sanitario debe abarcar al paciente, a la cuidadora y a la familia, aumentar las prestaciones ofrecidas, especialmente el tratamiento rehabilitador y facilitar recursos para minimizar la sobrecarga económica y emocional.Objectives: (1 To know the perception which they have the main nursemaids of children with seriously disabilities about the attention received within the Public System Sanitary of Andalusia, identifying strong and weak points. (2 To as much identify proposals of improvement for the integral attention of the children, as of its nursemaids. Methodology: qualitative study by means of Focal

  2. Optical communication receiver design

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Copublished with IEE. This Tutorial Text provides an overview of design principles for receivers used in optical communication systems, intended for practicing engineers. The author reviews technologies used to construct optical links and illustrates the flow of system performance specifications into receiver requirements. Photodetector fundamentals, associated statistics, characteristics and performance issues are presented, together with a tutorial on noise analysis and the specific techniques needed to model optical receivers.

  3. (1) H MRS in the human spinal cord at 7 T using a dielectric waveguide transmitter, RF shimming and a high density receive array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, A; Koning, W; Fuchs, A; Raaijmakers, A; Bluemink, J J; van den Berg, C A T; Boer, V O; Klomp, D W J

    2016-09-01

    Multimodal MRI is the state of the art method for clinical diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the spinal cord, with MRS being an emerging modality that has the potential to detect relevant changes of the spinal cord tissue at an earlier stage and to enhance specificity. Methodological challenges related to the small dimensions and deep location of the human spinal cord inside the human body, field fluctuations due to respiratory motion, susceptibility differences to adjacent tissue such as vertebras and pulsatile flow of the cerebrospinal fluid hinder the clinical application of (1) H MRS to the human spinal cord. Complementary to previous studies that partly addressed these problems, this work aims at enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of (1) H MRS in the human spinal cord. To this end a flexible tight fit high density receiver array and ultra-high field strength (7 T) were combined. A dielectric waveguide and dipole antenna transmission coil allowed for dual channel RF shimming, focusing the RF field in the spinal cord, and an inner-volume saturated semi-LASER sequence was used for robust localization in the presence of B1 (+) inhomogeneity. Herein we report the first 7 T spinal cord (1) H MR spectra, which were obtained in seven independent measurements of 128 averages each in three healthy volunteers. The spectra exhibit high quality (full width at half maximum 0.09 ppm, SNR 7.6) and absence of artifacts and allow for reliable quantification of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) (NAA/Cr (creatine) 1.31 ± 0.20; Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) 5), total choline containing compounds (Cho) (Cho/Cr 0.32 ± 0.07; CRLB 7), Cr (CRLB 5) and myo-inositol (mI) (mI/Cr 1.08 ± 0.22; CRLB 6) in 7.5 min in the human cervical spinal cord. Thus metabolic information from the spinal cord can be obtained in clinically feasible scan times at 7 T, and its benefit for clinical decision making in spinal cord disorders will be investigated in the future using the

  4. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  5. Prediction of high risk for death in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in first-line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Satsuki; Kato, Harumi; Higuchi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Saito, Toko; Taji, Hirofumi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    Risk stratification of patients with relapsed and refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) remains challenging. Recently, much attention has been paid to the impact of early progression of disease within 2 years of diagnosis (early POD) on subsequent survival. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical features and prognostic factors of patients with FL who experienced early POD. Data were available for 94 patients diagnosed with FL (clinical stage II-IV) who had received immunochemotherapy. Early POD was seen in 20 % of these patients. The Cox proportional hazards model showed worse overall survival (OS) in the patients with early POD compared with those without early POD (5-year OS rates 48 % vs. 96 %, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, early POD (P = 0.003) and poor performance status (P = 0.006) remained a significant factor for subsequent OS. In Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI)- and Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index-2 (FLIPI2)-adjusted Cox regression analysis, early POD was associated with markedly reduced OS with a hazard ratio of 11.2 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.13-40.3, P < 0.001] and 13.5 (95 % CI 3.22-56.3, P < 0.003), respectively. Among patients who had early POD, high levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) both at the time of initial diagnosis and first progression could be associated with worse survival (2-year OS rates 33 vs. 92 %, P < 0.0001). Evaluation of LDH levels at the time of initial diagnosis and first progression may be important to define patients who were associated with worse prognosis. Risk stratification of patients with early POD could lead to improved clinical outcomes for FL patients. Further research is needed to investigate its value for decision making. PMID:27220639

  6. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-06-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to ‑11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC).

  7. Advanced and flexible multi-carrier receiver architecture for high-count multi-core fiber based space division multiplexed applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM), incorporating multi-core fibers (MCFs), has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the data capacity in an impending capacity crunch. To achieve high spectral-density through multi-carrier encoding while simultaneously maintaining transmission reach, benefits from inter-core crosstalk (XT) and non-linear compensation must be utilized. In this report, we propose a proof-of-concept unified receiver architecture that jointly compensates optical Kerr effects, intra- and inter-core XT in MCFs. The architecture is analysed in multi-channel 512 Gbit/s dual-carrier DP-16QAM system over 800 km 19-core MCF to validate the digital compensation of inter-core XT. Through this architecture: (a) we efficiently compensates the inter-core XT improving Q-factor by 4.82 dB and (b) achieve a momentous gain in transmission reach, increasing the maximum achievable distance from 480 km to 1208 km, via analytical analysis. Simulation results confirm that inter-core XT distortions are more relentless for cores fabricated around the central axis of cladding. Predominantly, XT induced Q-penalty can be suppressed to be less than 1 dB up-to -11.56 dB of inter-core XT over 800 km MCF, offering flexibility to fabricate dense core structures with same cladding diameter. Moreover, this report outlines the relationship between core pitch and forward-error correction (FEC). PMID:27270381

  8. High-Dose Amoxicillin with Clavulanate for the Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study uses the acute otitis media clinical practice guideline proposed in 2004 as a reference to evaluate whether antibiotics doses that are in line with the recommendations lead to better prognosis. The study also attempts to clarify possible factors that influence the outcome. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods. A total of 400 children with acute otitis media were enrolled. The dosage of amoxicillin was considered to be appropriate when in accord with clinical practice guidelines, that is, 80–90 mg/kg/day. The outcome was defined according to the description of tympanic membrane on medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between antibiotic dosage and prognosis after adjusting for baseline factors. Results. The majority of prescriptions were under dosage (89.1% but it was not noticeably associated with outcome (P= 0.41. The correlation between under dosage and poor prognosis was significant in children below 20 kg with bilateral acute otitis media (odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.02–2.59, P=0.04. Conclusion. Treating acute otitis media in children, high-dose amoxicillin with clavulanate as recommended in the clinical practice guideline was superior to conventional doses only in children under 20 kg with bilateral diseases.

  9. Differences in High School and College Students' Basic Knowledge and Perceived Education of Internet Safety: Do High School Students Really Benefit from the Children's Internet Protection Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA; 2000) requires an Internet filtering and public awareness strategy to protect children under 17 from harmful visual Internet depictions. This study compared high school students who went online with the CIPA restriction and college students who went online without the restriction in order to…

  10. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk)

    OpenAIRE

    Ami Angela

    2005-01-01

    Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is bet...

  11. High voltage electrical burn injuries in teenage children: case studies with similarities (an indian perspective)

    OpenAIRE

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K.; Babu, M.; Mathivanan,; B. Ramachandran; Balasubramanian, S.; Raghuram, K

    2013-01-01

    From 1992 to 2012, a total of 911 paediatric burns were admitted and treated at Kanchi Kamakoti Childs Trust Hospital Intensive Burn Care Unit, of these 28 children had suffered electrical injuries and burns. 7 teenagers suffered high voltage electrical burn injuries: 2 were involved in train accidents which caused fatal electrical injuries, and 5 had electrical burn injuries caused by similar types of accidents, requiring Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) care, repeated surgeries and ext...

  12. Maintaining high vitamin A supplementation coverage in children: lessons from Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Victor M; Baker, Shawn K; Crespin, Xavier; Hamani, Harouna; MamadoulTaïbou, Aissa

    2005-03-01

    In 1997, the reduction of child mortality became a policy priority for the Government of Niger because Niger's child mortality rate was the highest in the world. The Ministry of Public Health, Helen Keller International (HKI), and UNICEF spearheaded a coalition-building process linking vitamin A deficiency (VAD) control to national child survival goals. An evidence-based advocacy strategy was developed around the child survival benefits of adequate and sustained VAD control with one unambiguous message: "VAD control can avert over 25,000 child deaths per year." As a result, in 1997 Niger became one of the first countries in Africa to effectively integrate vitamin A supplementation into National Immunization Days (NIDs) for polio eradication. The challenge was then to provide children with a second annual dose of vitamin A. This led in 1999 to the first ever National Micronutrient Days (NMDs) in Africa. NMDs are mobilization campaigns in which caregivers are actively encouraged to take their children for the delivery of vitamin A supplements. Since 1999, the combination of NIDs and NMDs has ensured that over 80% of children 6 to 59 months of age receive two vitamin A doses annually. The success of NIDs/NMDs has relied on five pillars: leadership and ownership by the Ministry of Public Health; district-level planning and implementation; effective training and flexible delivery mechanisms; effective social information, communication, and mobilization; and responsiveness and flexibility of Ministry of Public Health and development partners. This successful approach has been widely disseminated, notably through the West African Nutrition Focal Points Network. PMID:15810796

  13. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  14. Phase II Trial of Erlotinib during and after Radiotherapy in Children with Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim eQaddoumi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epidermal growth factor receptor is overexpressed in most pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG. Since erlotinib had shown activity in adults with HGG, we conducted a phase II trial of erlotinib and local radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed HGG. Methods. Following maximum surgical resection, patients between 3 and 21 years with nonmetastatic HGG received local radiotherapy at 59.4 Gy (54 Gy for spinal tumors and those with ≥70% brain involvement. Erlotinib started on day 1 of radiotherapy (120 mg/m2 per day and continued for 2 years unless there was tumor progression or intolerable toxicities. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS was estimated for patients with intracranial anaplastic astrocytoma (AA and glioblastoma.Results. Median age at diagnosis for 41 patients with intracranial tumors (21 with glioblastoma and 20 with AA was 10.9 years (range, 3.3 to 19 years. The 2-year PFS for patients with AA and glioblastoma was 15% ± 7% and 19% ± 8%, respectively. Only five patients remained alive without tumor progression. Twenty-six patients had at least one grade 3 or 4 toxicity irrespective of association with erlotinib; only four required dose modifications. The main toxicities were gastrointestinal (n=11, dermatologic (n=5, and metabolic (n=4. One patient with gliomatosis cerebri who required prolonged corticosteroids died of septic shock associated with pancreatitis. Conclusions. Although therapy with erlotinib was mostly well tolerated, it did not change the poor outcome of our patients. Our results showed that erlotinib is not a promising medication in the treatment of children with intracranial AA and glioblastoma.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of "Mind Reading" and In Vivo Rehearsal for High-Functioning Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Marcus L.; Smith, Rachael A.; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; McDonald, Christin A.; Lee, Gloria K.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a computer software (i.e., "Mind Reading") and in vivo rehearsal treatment on the emotion decoding and encoding skills, autism symptoms, and social skills of 43 children, ages 7-12 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Children in treatment (n = 22)…

  16. THE OCCURRENCE OF HIGH-LEVELS OF ACUTE BEHAVIORAL DISTRESS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS UNDERGOING ROUTINE VENIPUNCTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUMPHREY, GB; BOON, CMJ; VANDENHEUVELL, GFECV; VANDEWIEL, HBM

    1992-01-01

    While there is no question that children dislike needles, there are very little data available on the occurrence of high levels of distress experienced by children undergoing routine venipunctures. To provide some insight into this problem, trained observers evaluated distress in 223 different child

  17. Effectiveness of the Friends for Life Program in Portuguese Schools: Study with a Sample of Highly Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.

    2014-01-01

    The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…

  18. Intervening to Improve Communication between Parents, Teachers, and Primary Care Providers of Children with ADHD or at High Risk for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, Mark L.; Bickman, Leonard; Lambert, E. Warren; Simmons, Tonya; Doffing, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines interventions designed to improve communication between individuals who take care of children with ADHD. A teacher rating of 6,171 elementary school children identifies 1,573 children with ADHD or with high risk for ADHD. Parent interviews and information from teachers are collected on 243 children who are randomized into…

  19. Associations among Symptoms of Autism, Symptoms of Depression and Executive Functions in Children with High-Functioning Autism: A 2 Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per Normann; Skogli, Erik Winther; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the course of and association among changes in autism symptoms, depression symptoms and executive functions (EF) in children with high-functioning autism (HFA). Thirty-four children with HFA and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16) were assessed at baseline and after 2 years. Children with HFA had impaired scores on…

  20. Effect of High Water Fluoride Concentration on the Intellectual Development of Children in Makoo/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shadfar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolonged excessive intake of fluoride during child’s growth and development stages has been associated with mental and physical problems.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of excessive fluoride intake on the intelligence quotient (IQ of children living in five rural areas in Makoo/Iran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 293 children aged 6-11 years were selected from five villages in Makoo with normal fluoride (0.8±0.3 ppm, medium fluoride (3.1±0.9 ppm and high fluoride (5.2±1.1 ppm in their water supplies. The IQ of each child was measured by the Raven’s test. Educational and residential information and the medical history of each child was recorded by a questionnaire completed by the parents. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test with a significance level of 0.05.Results: The mean IQ scores decreased from 97.77±18.91 for the normal fluoride group to 89.03±12.99 for the medium fluoride group and to 88.58±16.01 for the high fluoride group (P=0.001.Conclusion: Children residing in areas with higher than normal water fluoride levels demonstrated more impaired development of intelligence. Thus, children’s intelligence may be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  1. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  2. High rates of viral suppression in a cohort of HIV-positive adults receiving ART in Ethiopian health centers irrespective of concomitant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Reepalu

    2014-11-01

    .49. Conclusions: High rates of VS were achieved in adults receiving ART at Ethiopian health centres managed by non-physician clinicians, with no significant difference with regard to TB co-infection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combined ART and anti-TB treatment at primary health care level in low-income countries. This study is registered with clinicaltrial.gov, NCT01433796.

  3. Solar dynamic heat receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements specified for electrical power modules on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to power a heat engine in a closed Brayton cycle using a mixture of helium-xenon gas as the working fluid. The electrical power output of the engine, 25 kW, requires a 100 kW thermal input throughout a 90 minute orbit, including when the spacecraft is eclipsed for up to 36 minutes from the sun. The heat receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat available through the phase change of a high-temperature salt mixture. A near eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride is used as the phase change material. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification. Fabrication of the receiver is complete and it was delivered to NASA for verification testing in a simulated low-Earth-orbit environment. This document reviews the receiver design and describes its fabrication history. The major elements required to operate the receiver during testing are also described.

  4. Space-time adaptive decision feedback neural receivers with data selection for high-data-rate users in DS-CDMA systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lamare, Rodrigo C; Sampaio-Neto, Raimundo

    2008-11-01

    A space-time adaptive decision feedback (DF) receiver using recurrent neural networks (RNNs) is proposed for joint equalization and interference suppression in direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) systems equipped with antenna arrays. The proposed receiver structure employs dynamically driven RNNs in the feedforward section for equalization and multiaccess interference (MAI) suppression and a finite impulse response (FIR) linear filter in the feedback section for performing interference cancellation. A data selective gradient algorithm, based upon the set-membership (SM) design framework, is proposed for the estimation of the coefficients of RNN structures and is applied to the estimation of the parameters of the proposed neural receiver structure. Simulation results show that the proposed techniques achieve significant performance gains over existing schemes. PMID:18990643

  5. Dental Caries in High-Risk School-Aged African-American Children in Alabama: A Six-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247

  6. Evidence of underdiagnosis and markers of high blood pressure risk in children aged 6 to 13 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Teixeira Bessa Fuly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in school children, as well as the reported frequency of previous measurements of BP in these children, and to identify high BP risk markers in the sample. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 794 children aged 6 to 13 years, enrolled in public elementary schools. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians, consisting of perinatal, socioeconomic data, and information on previous measurements of BP in these children. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist, hip, and arm and neck circumference, in addition to the three BP measurements. Classification of BP levels was carried out according to current international recommendations, established in 2004. RESULTS: The prevalence of high BP (hypertension or prehypertension was 7%. Only 21.7% of children had previously undergone BP measurements. The odds ratio of high BP among children with and without overweight was 2.9 (95% CI = 1.7 to 5.0, p < 0.001. None of the anthropometric measurements was superior to the Z-score of BMI as a predictor of high BP. History of hypertension during pregnancy (p < 0.001, prematurity (p = 0.006, maternal hypertension (p = 0.01, and paternal hypertension (p = 0.008 were also correlated with the presence of high BP in children. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and family history constitute the main risk markers of high BP in children. The low frequency of BP measurement in children observed in this municipality contributes to the underdiagnosis of the disease, with irreversible consequences for these individuals.

  7. Nerdy, Brainy and Normal: Children's and Parents' Constructions of Those Who Are Highly Engaged with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise; Osborne, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    There is a continuing international concern about a decline in the pursuit of post-compulsory science. One suggested cause concerns the role that young people's narrow perceptions of scientists may play in deterring them from pursuing science qualifications and careers. Research would suggest that the ages of 10-14 appear to be a critical period for the development of such views. This paper looks at the early part of this period, when general liking for science is high, although views on science careers as `not for me' also appear to be forming. Drawing on data collected from interviews conducted with 92 children and 78 parents (in which children described peers who are `really into' science and parents described those who are likely to pursue a career in science), we examine the constructions children and parents have of those who are highly engaged with science. In the interviews, participants evoked a range of constructions, some of which were closely aligned with traditional stereotypical images of science and scientists (e.g. as `geeky') while others moderated and/or challenged those images. Although very few participants held explicitly `negative' representations of science/scientists, our analysis shows how popular constructions of science as `specialist' and `clever' may feed into an understanding of science as different and not for me. It is argued that more work needs to be done to open up science as a field that is accessible `for all' and to increase students' awareness of the breadth of careers in and from science.

  8. Personalized Estimate of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Development and External Validation of a Nomogram in Cancer Patients Receiving Highly/Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhihuang; Liang, Wenhua; Yang, Yunpeng; Keefe, Dorothy; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Xue, Cong; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Chen, Likun; Chan, Alexandre; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is presented in over 30% of cancer patients receiving highly/moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC/MEC). The currently recommended antiemetic therapy is merely based on the emetogenic level of chemotherapy, regardless of patient's individual risk factors. It is, therefore, critical to develop an approach for personalized management of CINV in the era of precision medicine.A number of variables were involved in the development of CINV. In the present study, we pooled the data from 2 multi-institutional investigations of CINV due to HEC/MEC treatment in Asian countries. Demographic and clinical variables of 881 patients were prospectively collected as defined previously, and 862 of them had full documentation of variables of interest. The data of 548 patients from Chinese institutions were used to identify variables associated with CINV using multivariate logistic regression model, and then construct a personalized prediction model of nomogram; while the remaining 314 patients out of China (Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) entered the external validation set. C-index was used to measure the discrimination ability of the model.The predictors in the final model included sex, age, alcohol consumption, history of vomiting pregnancy, history of motion sickness, body surface area, emetogenicity of chemotherapy, and antiemetic regimens. The C-index was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.62-0.72) for the training set and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72) for the validation set. The C-index was higher than that of any single predictor, including the emetogenic level of chemotherapy according to current antiemetic guidelines. Calibration curves showed good agreement between prediction and actual occurrence of CINV.This easy-to-use prediction model was based on chemotherapeutic regimens as well as patient's individual risk factors. The prediction accuracy of CINV occurrence in this nomogram was well validated by an independent data set. It could

  9. The Value of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials in High Risk Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malekzadeh

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective study 100 out of 2000 brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs recording, chosen randomly from BAEPs file of takhti children's hospital in Tehran (March 1993-March 1996, are reviewed. Indications for BAEPs recording were: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia leading to blood exchange transfusion and/or very low birth weight (<1500 g, CNS infections, ataxia, history of asphyxia, head and neck anomalies, coma, psychomotor or language delay, and suspicious hearing loss. Infants with very low birth weight associated with hyperbilirubinemia had the highest frequency of abnormal BAEPs. The second group consisted of children with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. BAEPs recording is suggested to be used as a screening test in high-risk pediatric patients for early detection of hearing loss.

  10. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of HIV infection has improved since the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Some patients, however, develop a clinical and radiological deterioration following initiation of HAART due to either the unmasking of occult subclinical infection or an enhanced inflammatory response to a treated infection. This phenomenon is believed to result from the restored ability to mount an immune response and is termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) or immune reconstitution disease. IRIS is widely reported in the literature in adult patients, most commonly associated with mycobacterial infections. There is, however, a paucity of data documenting the radiological findings of IRIS in children. Radiologists need to be aware of this entity. As a diagnosis of exclusion it is essential that the radiological findings be assessed in the context of the clinical presentation. This article reviews the common clinical and radiological manifestations of IRIS in HIV-infected children. (orig.)

  11. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilborn, Tracy [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Cape Town (South Africa); Zampoli, Marco [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    The outcome of HIV infection has improved since the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Some patients, however, develop a clinical and radiological deterioration following initiation of HAART due to either the unmasking of occult subclinical infection or an enhanced inflammatory response to a treated infection. This phenomenon is believed to result from the restored ability to mount an immune response and is termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) or immune reconstitution disease. IRIS is widely reported in the literature in adult patients, most commonly associated with mycobacterial infections. There is, however, a paucity of data documenting the radiological findings of IRIS in children. Radiologists need to be aware of this entity. As a diagnosis of exclusion it is essential that the radiological findings be assessed in the context of the clinical presentation. This article reviews the common clinical and radiological manifestations of IRIS in HIV-infected children. (orig.)

  12. Children with high-functioning autism show a normal cortisol awakening response (CAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, Katharina; Fries, Eva; Kliegel, Matthias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2010-11-01

    Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFA) show difficulties in the ability to react to change. A recent study suggested that variations in the functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially in one of its markers--the cortisol awakening response (CAR)--may be related to those difficulties in adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. The current study investigated the CAR in a younger sample with diagnoses from the whole autism spectrum: A group of children with HFA (N=15) was compared to a group of typically developing children (N=25). Findings suggest that the frequency of a CAR as well as the increase in cortisol levels from awakening to 30 min later were similar between groups, indicating that variations in the CAR in HFA may not be present early in life but only develop later in adolescence or may only occur in some diagnoses from the autism spectrum. PMID:20409644

  13. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Catherine A; Usher, Lauren V; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N = 104, aged 10-16) self-reported less surgency and more negative affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N = 94, aged 10-16) on effortful control or affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA. PMID:26589536

  14. Emotional prosody perception and its association with pragmatic language in school-aged children with high-function autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-En; Tsao, Feng-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Emotional prosody perception is essential for social communication, but it is still an open issue whether children with high-function autism (HFA) exhibit any prosodic perception deficits or experience selective impairments in recognizing the prosody of positive emotions. Moreover, the associations between prosody perception, pragmatic language, and social adaptation in children with HFA have not been fully explored. This study investigated whether emotional prosody perception for words and sentences in children with HFA (n=25, 6-11 years of age) differed from age-matched, typically developing children (TD, n=25) when presented with an emotional prosody identification task. The Children's Communication Checklist and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale were used to assess pragmatic and social adaption abilities. Results show that children with HFA performed poorer than TD children in identifying happy prosody in both emotionally neutral and relevant utterances. In contrast, children with HFA did not exhibit any deficits in identifying sad and angry prosody. Results of correlation analyses revealed a positive association between happy prosody identification and pragmatic function. The findings indicate that school-aged children with HFA experience difficulties in recognizing happy prosody, and that this limitation in prosody perception is associated with their pragmatic and social adaption performances. PMID:25463248

  15. Ceramic Solar Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar receiver uses ceramic honeycomb matrix to absorb heat from Sun and transfer it to working fluid at temperatures of 1,095 degrees and 1,650 degrees C. Drives gas turbine engine or provides heat for industrial processes.

  16. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  17. Cranial CT in high-risk and premature children: Its diagnostic value for prognoses of early infantile development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT examinations were carried out in 75 high-risk and premature children: 40% of these were re-examined at a later stage in infancy. All children were also examined under the aspect of developmental neurology. The small number of cases made it impossible to make a reliable prognosis of the later development of perinatal high-risk patients, especially as the follow-up examinations were discontinued after infancy. Still, the findings have been validated by experience in the meantime. (orig.)

  18. Anatomical and hemodynamic evaluations of the heart and pulmonary arterial pressure in healthy children residing at high altitude in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ying Qi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Children living at high altitude in China have significantly higher mPAP, dilated right heart and slower regression of right ventricular hypertrophy in the first 14 years of life. Systolic and diastolic functions of both ventricles were reduced with a paradoxically higher CI. There was no significant difference in these features between the Hans and the Tibetans. These values provide references for the care of healthy children and the sick ones with cardiopulmonary diseases at high altitude.

  19. Probiotic Compared with Standard Milk for High-caries Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, G; Ruiz, B; Faleiros, S; Vistoso, A; Marró, M L; Sánchez, J; Urzúa, I; Cabello, R

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli with standard milk for the increment of caries in preschool children after 10 mo of intervention. The study was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants were children aged 2 and 3 y (n = 261) attending 16 nursery schools in a metropolitan region in Chile. Nursery schools were randomly assigned to 2 parallel groups: children in the intervention group were given 150 mL of milk supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 (10(7) CFU/mL), while children in the control group were given standard milk. Interventions took place on weekdays for 10 mo. Data were collected through a clinical examination of participants. The primary outcome measure was the increment of caries in preschool children. This was assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The dropout rate was 21%. No differences in caries prevalence were detected between the groups at baseline (P = 0.68). After 10 mo of probiotic intake, the caries prevalence was 54.4% in the probiotic group and 65.8% in the control group. The percentage of new individuals who developed cavitated lesions (ICDAS 5-6) in the control group (24.3%) was significantly higher than that in the probiotic group (9.7%). The increment of dental caries showed an odds ratio of 0.35 (P < 0.05) in favor of the probiotic group. At the cavitated lesion level, the increment of new caries lesions within the groups showed 1.13 new lesions per child in the probiotic group compared with 1.75 lesions in the control group (P < 0.05). The probiotic group showed an increment of 0.58 ± 1.17 new lesions compared with 1.08 ± 1.70 new lesions observed in the control group. The difference in caries increment was significant at the cavitated lesion level (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the regular long-term intake of probiotic-supplemented milk may reduce caries development in high-caries preschool children (Clinical

  20. Experimental demonstration of a real-time high-throughput digital DC blocker for compensating ADC imperfections in optical fast-OFDM receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Xing; Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jian

    2016-06-27

    Performance degradation induced by the DC components at the output of real-time analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) is experimentally investigated for optical fast-OFDM receiver. To compensate this degradation, register transfer level (RTL) circuits for real-time digital DC blocker with 20GS/s throughput are proposed and implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA). The performance of the proposed real-time digital DC blocker is experimentally investigated in a 15Gb/s optical fast-OFDM system with intensity modulation and direct detection over 40 km standard single-mode fibre. The results show that the fixed-point DC blocker has negligible performance penalty compared to the offline floating point one, and can overcome the error floor of the fast OFDM receiver caused by the DC components from the real-time ADC output. PMID:27410579

  1. High voltage electrical burn injuries in teenage children: case studies with similarities (an indian perspective)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathangi Ramakrishnan, K.; Babu, M.; Mathivanan; Ramachandran, B.; Balasubramanian, S.; Raghuram, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary From 1992 to 2012, a total of 911 paediatric burns were admitted and treated at Kanchi Kamakoti Childs Trust Hospital Intensive Burn Care Unit, of these 28 children had suffered electrical injuries and burns. 7 teenagers suffered high voltage electrical burn injuries: 2 were involved in train accidents which caused fatal electrical injuries, and 5 had electrical burn injuries caused by similar types of accidents, requiring Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) care, repeated surgeries and extensive rehabilitation. A common factor among these latter 5 patients was that they were injured by overhead high electrical voltage cables. Their management was labour intensive and highly costly. In this report, the type of accident, the electrical voltage that produced burns and the treatment details are elaborated. Findings included similarities in age and type of accident, and failure to implement safety procedures and apply standard norms of high voltage transmission feeder lines. PMID:24563637

  2. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P1 (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV1 (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry

  3. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran E-mail: demirkaz@dialup.ankara.edu.tr; Ariyuerek, O. Macit; Oezcelik, Ugur; Goecmen, Ayhan; Hassanabad, Hossein K.; Kiper, Nural

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P<0.0001) and clinical points (r=0.67, P<0.0001) of the Shwachman-Kulczycki system, FVC (r=0.71 P=0.004) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry.

  4. A novel receive-only liquid nitrogen (LN2)-cooled RF coil for high-resolution in vivo imaging on a 3-Tesla whole-body scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bobo; Varma, Gopal; Randell, Chris; Keevil, Stephen F.; Schaeffter, Tobias; Glover, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The design and operation of a receive-only liquid nitrogen (LN2)-cooled coil and cryostat suitable for medical imaging on a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner is presented. The coil size, optimized for murine imaging, was determined by using electromagnetic (EM) simulations. This process is therefore easier and more cost effective than building a range of coils. A nonmagnetic cryostat suitable for small-animal imaging was developed having good vacuum and cryogenic temperature perform...

  5. Single-frequency, dual-GNSS versus dual-frequency, single-GNSS: a low-cost and high-grade receivers GPS-BDS RTK analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolinski, Robert; Teunissen, Peter J. G.

    2016-06-01

    The concept of single-frequency, dual-system (SF-DS) real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning has become feasible since, for instance, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has become operational in the Asia-Pacific region. The goal of the present contribution is to investigate the single-epoch RTK performance of such a dual-system and compare it to a dual-frequency, single-system (DF-SS). As the SF-DS we investigate the L1 GPS + B1 BDS model, and for DF-SS we take L1, L2 GPS and B1, B2 BDS, respectively. Two different locations in the Asia-Pacific region are analysed with varying visibility of the BDS constellation, namely Perth in Australia and Dunedin in New Zealand. To emphasize the benefits of such a model we also look into using low-cost ublox single-frequency receivers and compare such SF-DS RTK performance to that of a DF-SS, based on much more expensive survey-grade receivers. In this contribution a formal and empirical analysis is given. It will be shown that with the SF-DS higher elevation cut-off angles than the conventional 10° or 15° can be used. The experiment with low-cost receivers for the SF-DS reveals (for the first time) that it has the potential to achieve comparable ambiguity resolution performance to that of a DF-SS (L1, L2 GPS), based on the survey-grade receivers.

  6. Incidencia de bacteriemia asociada a catéter en niños hospitalizados que reciben nutrición parenteral Blood-stream catheter related infection in inpatient children receiving parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vaquero Sosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones relacionadas con el catéter son la complicación más grave en los pacientes portadores de un catéter venoso central. Se considera que la nutrición parenteral (NP constituye un factor de riesgo de desarrollar una infección relacionada con el catéter (IRCat. Material y métodos: para conocer la tasa de infección y poder establecer estrategias de prevención de la infección nosocomial, se revisaron todas las historias de los 120 pacientes que recibieron NP a lo largo de 2008. Todas las historias de los pacientes con un episodio fiebre y hemocultivo positivo fueron consideradas. La tasa de infección se definió como número de episodios por cada 1000 días de NP. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 48 hemocultivos positivos. La tasa global de bacteriemia asociada a catéter fue de 37,8/1000 días de NP. La incidencia fue significativamente mayor en lactantes menores de 2 años de edad. Los gérmenes que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia fueron Estafilococo coagulasa negativo (56,8%, seguidos de bacilos Gram (20,8%, Staph aureus (12,5% y los hongos (12,5%. No encontramos diferencias en la tasa de infección cuando ajustamos por la enfermedad de base o la duración de la NP. Conclusiones: La tasa de infección en niños con NP en el hospital es considerablemente elevada. La NP parece constituir un factor de riesgo de desarrollar IRCat. Es necesario establecer políticas adecuadas y continuadas para conseguir disminuir la tasa de infección nosocomial.Blood-stream catheter related infection is the most severe complication in patients carrying a central venous catheter. Parenteral nutrition (PN use seems to be a risk factor for developing a catheter-related infection (CRI. Material & methods: In order to know the incidence of CRI in children to further implement policies to reduce nosocomial infection, we review all charts of children (1 month to 17 years who received parenteral nutrition while in hospital. All episodes of fever

  7. Characteristics of highly impaired children with severe chronic pain: a 5-year retrospective study on 2249 pediatric pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernikow Boris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of pain as a recurrent symptom in children is known to be high, but little is known about children with high impairment from chronic pain seeking specialized treatment. The purpose of this study was the precise description of children with high impairment from chronic pain referred to the German Paediatric Pain Centre over a 5-year period. Methods Demographic variables, pain characteristics and psychometric measures were assessed at the first evaluation. Subgroup analysis for sex, age and pain location was conducted and multivariate logistic regression applied to identify parameters associated with extremely high impairment. Results The retrospective study consisted of 2249 children assessed at the first evaluation. Tension type headache (48%, migraine (43% and functional abdominal pain (11% were the most common diagnoses with a high rate of co-occurrence; 18% had some form of musculoskeletal pain disease. Irrespective of pain location, chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors was diagnosed frequently (43%. 55% of the children suffered from more than one distinct pain diagnosis. Clinically significant depression and general anxiety scores were expressed by 24% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Girls over the age of 13 were more likely to seek tertiary treatment compared to boys. Nearly half of children suffered from daily or constant pain with a mean pain value of 6/10. Extremely high pain-related impairment, operationalized as a comprehensive measure of pain duration, frequency, intensity, pain-related school absence and disability, was associated with older age, multiple locations of pain, increased depression and prior hospital stays. 43% of the children taking analgesics had no indication for pharmacological treatment. Conclusion Children with chronic pain are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as they often have two or more different pain diagnoses, are prone to misuse of

  8. Breast feeding duration, age at starting periods and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Caleyachetty, A.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H; Wills, A K

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1–4 to ?21 months) and age of start...

  9. High frequency of enterovirus D68 in children hospitalised with respiratory illness in Norway, autumn 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Bragstad, Karoline; Jakobsen, Kirsti; Rojahn, Astrid E; Skram, Marius K; Vainio, Kirsti; Holberg-Petersen, Mona; Hungnes, Olav; Dudman, Susanne G.; Kran, Anne-Marte B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An unexpectedly high proportion of children were admitted for severe respiratory infections at the Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, during September and October, 2014. In light of the ongoing outbreak of enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) in North America a real-time RT-PCR for screening of enterovirus and enterovirus D68 was established. Design We developed a duplex real-time RT-PCR for rapid screening of enterovirus D68. The method target the 5′ non-translated region (NTR) of the...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE USE OF HIGH PROTEIN MIXTURES FOR FEDING MALNUTRISHED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B. Vaghefi

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there have been many attempts to develop and market inexpensive mixtures of high protein food for the children in developing areas of the world. Biological studies have shown that these foods are rich sources of protein and are every effective in combating protein malnutrition. However, practical marketing and distribution has not been very successful due to the local people's hesitation in accepting unfamiliar foods. Efforts to educate the local people, and especially mothers, may prove successful in promoting the acceptance of this products.1 – Department of Nutrition School of Public Health, Tehran University.

  11. Sex and Age Differences in Psychiatric Disorders among Children and Adolescents: High-Risk Students Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Hong; Bang, Young Rong; Kim, Chul Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study are to investigate the rate of the psychiatric disorders in psychiatrically high-risk children and adolescents and to examine sex and age differences in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Methods The participants included students aged 6-16 from the 27 elementary and the 45 middle schools in Busan, Korea. We screened psychopathology using the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) or the Youth Self Report (K-YSR). A total of 2,912 stud...

  12. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Angela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is better to make a specific prevention and treatment recommendations to reduce a child risk and improve overall oral health. The goal of caries-risk assessment and preventive treatment is to eliminate caries or at least to reduce the high-caries occurrence down to the level of the remaining part of the age group. Preventive treatment is divided into three parts: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. This paper describes the primary prevention in children with high caries risk by behavior modification and tooth protection. Behavior modification is about dental health education, oral hygiene, diet and sugar consumption, sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free medicines. Tooth protection is about sealant, usage of flouride and chlorhexidine.

  13. Which DSM-IV-TR criteria best differentiate high-functioning autism spectrum disorder from ADHD and anxiety disorders in older children?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Sikora, Darryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often delayed in high-functioning children with milder and more varied forms of ASD. The substantial overlap between ASD and other psychiatric disorders is thought to contribute to this delay. This study examined the endorsement of DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ASD based on semi-structured parent interviews across three groups of older children referred to an ASD clinic: 55 children diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, 27 children diagnosed w...

  14. Impact of a New Highly Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector on Receiver Performance for the CO2 Sounder Lidar for the ASCENDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing a CO2 lidar as a candidate for the NASA's planned ASCENDS mission under the support of Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). As part of this work we have demonstrated new type of lower noise HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) multi-element detector for the lidar receiver. This significantly improves the receiver sensitivity, lower the laser power, and reduce the receiver telescope size compared to InGaAs photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and APDs currently used. The HgCdTe APD arrays were designed and manufactured by DRS Technologies, Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) Division, which combines their mature HgCdTe APD detector in a hybrid package with a new custom cryogenic silicon preamplifier. The new detectors were specially designed for our airborne CO2 lidar and operate at ~ 77K inside a turn-key closed-cycle cooler. The detector has 80 μm square pixels in a 4x4 array, and >70% fill factor and was custom designed to match the optics of our airborne and eventually space-based CO2 lidar. The initial results of evaluating the detector at NASA GSFC showed the HgCdTe APD assembly has a quantum efficiency of ~90% near 1550-nm, >500 APD gain, 8-10 MHz electrical bandwidth, and an average noise equivalent power of Technology (ACT) program. DRS RSTA will use a new higher speed preamplifier and reduce the input capacitance to further reduce the noise and achieve linear mode photon counting performance.

  15. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  16. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  17. Experience with molecular adsorbent recirculating system treatment in 20 children listed for high-urgency liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexmond, Willem S; Van Dael, Carin M L; Scheenstra, René; Goorhuis, Joanne F; Sieders, Egbert; Verkade, Henkjan J; Van Rheenen, Patrick F; Kömhoff, Martin

    2015-03-01

    For more than 10 years, children at our national center for pediatric liver transplantation (LT) have been treated with Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) liver dialysis as a bridging therapy to high-urgency LT. Treatment was reserved for 20 patients with the highest degrees of hepatic encephalopathy (HE; median grade = 3.5). Death from neurological sequelae was considered imminent for these patients, and this was further reflected in significantly higher international normalized ratios and ammonia levels and worse prognostic liver indices (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease scores and liver injury units) in comparison with 32 wait-listed patients who did not receive MARS dialysis. MARS therapy was generally well tolerated, with a reduction in thrombocytes and hemorrhaging as the most common side effects. HE improvement was documented in 30% of the treated patients, but progression to grade IV encephalopathy occurred in 45% of the patients despite the treatment. Serum ammonia, bilirubin, bile acid, and creatinine levels significantly decreased during treatment. Eighty percent of MARS-treated patients survived to undergo LT, and their survival was equivalent to that of non-MARS-treated patients with severe liver failure (69%, P = 0.52). The heterogeneity between MARS-treated patients and non-MARS-treated patients in our cohort precluded a statistical evaluation of a benefit from MARS for patient survival. Our data demonstrate the safety of MARS even in the most severely ill patients awaiting LT, but strategies that promote the more rapid and widespread availability of high-quality donor organs remain of critical importance for improving patient survival in cases of severe acute liver failure. PMID:25366362

  18. Communication Received from Germany Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of Highly Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 23 June 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2005

  19. Communication Received from Germany Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of Highly Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a letter dated 20 June 2008 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Germany, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2007

  20. Communication Received from France Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 14 June 2012 from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of France, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011

  1. Communication Received from France Concerning Its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 May 2013 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012

  2. Communication Received from France Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 31 July 2013 from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of France, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012

  3. Communication Received from France Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 16 September 2011 from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of France, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010

  4. Communication Received from France Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 24 August 2010 from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of France, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009

  5. Communication Received from France Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium. Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 17 July 2007 from the Permanent Mission of France to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of France, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines'), and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006

  6. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  7. SCREENING FOR SIMPLE MYOPIA AMONG HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN IN HYDERABAD CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vundi Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Refractive error is one of the most common causes of visual impairment around the world and the second leading cause of treatable blindness. Due to the high magnitude of uncorrected refractive errors, myopia is considered as one of the important public health problems, especially in the urban population in India. It has been given high priority under the National Programme for Control of Blindness. AIM The aim of the present study is to know the prevalence of myopia and assess the degree of myopia among school going children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Cross-sectional study done for one year. METHODS AND MATERIAL Age group of children 13-15 years, a total of 1600 were included in the study. Refractive error was tested using Snellen’s chart, Pin hole test, Occluder, Retinoscope. Statistical Analysis was done using the Epi Info version 7. RESULTS The prevalence of refractive errors was more in private schools (28.6% than in government schools (23%. It was observed that myopia was the major refractive error (89.8% among total refractive errors, followed by astigmatism (6.1% and hypermetropia (4.1%. In myopic children, both eyes were involved in 71.5%, right eye alone in 16.4%. Only 60% (478 and 98.4% (788 have undergone eye checkups yearly once, 36% and 0.3% didn’t have eye checkups so far in private and government schools respectively. CONCLUSION We conclude that prevalence of refractive errors more in private schools than government schools and myopia is the major among refractive errors. In most of them both the eyes are involved. Bitot’s spots were more in government schools, suggesting the need of vitamin A supplementation.

  8. Anatomical and hemodynamic evaluations of the heart and pulmonary arterial pressure in healthy children residing at high altitude in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Ying Qi; Ru-Yan Ma; Li-Xia Jiang; Shu-Ping Li; Shu Mai; Hong Chen; Mei Ge; Mei-Ying Wang; Hai-Ning Liu; Yue-Hong Cai; Su-Ya Xu; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Altitude-hypoxia induces pulmonary arterial hypertension and altered cardiac morphology and function, which is little known in healthy children at high altitude. We compared the cardiopulmonary measurements between the healthy children at 16 m and those at 3700 m in China and between the Hans and the Tibetans at 3700 m. Methods: Echocardiography was assessed in 477 children (15 day–14 years) including 220 at 16 m and 257 at 3700 m. The dimensions and wall thickness of the left-...

  9. The effect of high fiber snacks on digestive function and diet quality in a sample of school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Brauchla, Mary; McCabe, George P; Miller, Kevin B; Kranz, Sibylle

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber (DF) intake in American children is suboptimal, increasing the risk of GI distress and contributing to poor diet quality. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of introducing two high-fiber snacks per day on gastrointestinal function as well as nutrient and food group intake in healthy children ages 7–11 years old. Methods This study was a randomized controlled prospective intervention study of children 7–11 years of age (n = 81) attending a rural Mi...

  10. Reactogenicity to a Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine in Canadian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Halperin, Scott A.; Scheifele, David

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reactogenicity and safety of a thermostable, high titre, varicella vaccine in healthy infants and children.DESIGN: Open study of 505 children monitored for 42 days after vaccination.SETTING: Three urban Canadian centres (Halifax, Ottawa and Vancouver).PARTICIPANTS: 505 healthy children one to 12 years of age were enrolled and 504 completed the study. All were susceptible to varicella by history.INTERVENTIONS: All participants received one dose of live attenuated varic...

  11. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics of such...

  12. Olympus beacon receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Jens

    1988-01-01

    A medium-size Beacon Receiving System for reception and processing of the B1 (20 GHz) and B2 (30 GHz) beacons from Olympus has been developed. Integration of B1 and B2 receiving equipment into one system using one antenna and a common computer for control and data processing provides the advantages of a compact configuration and synchronization of the two receiver chains. Range for co-polar signal attenuation meaurement is about 30 dB for both beacons, increasing to 40 dB for B2 if the receivers are synchronized to B1. The accuracy is better than 0.5 dB. Cross-polarization discriminations of the order of 10 to 30 dB may be determined with an accuracy of 1 to 2 dB. A number of radiometers for complementary measurements of atmospheric attenuation of 13 to 30 GHz has also been constructed. A small multi-frequency system for operation around 22 GHz and 31 GHz is presently under development.

  13. Umbilical cord blood transplant from unrelated HLA-mismatched donors in children with high risk leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcese, W; Guglielmi, C; Iori, A P; Screnci, M; Carmini, D; Testi, A M; Moleti, M L; Mengarelli, A; Del Giudice, I; Cimino, G; Elia, L; Rapanotti, M C; Perrone, P; Laurenti, L; Gentile, G; Boecklin, F; Romano, A; De Felice, L; Mandelli, F

    1999-03-01

    In the last 3 years, 14 children with high-risk leukemia (11 ALL, 2 AML and 1 CML) underwent cord blood transplantation from unrelated HLA-mismatched donors at a median of 99 days from the start of search. Eight patients were transplanted in second CR, one in accelerated phase, three at relapse and two patients in first CR. Conditioning regimen (fractionated TBI, etoposide, CY and anti-lymphocyte serum) and prophylaxis of GVHD (CsA and 6-methylprednisolone) were identical for all patients. Neutrophils >0.5x10(9)/l were reached at a median of 33 days from transplant, but in four cases we observed an autologous hematopoietic reconstitution (three spontaneous, one after autologous BM rescue). Acute and chronic GVHD were observed in 10/14 and 3/8 evaluable cases, respectively. Three patients died of transplant-related toxicity and three patients relapsed. The probabilities of event-free, disease-free and overall survival were 50, 53 and 64%, respectively. Cord blood transplant from HLA-mismatched unrelated donor is a valid option for the treatment of children with high-risk leukemia. With our eligibility criteria, conditioning regimen and prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease, the main obstacles to successful transplant were represented by graft failure and fatal acute GVHD. PMID:10217184

  14. Phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) in children with high-risk malignant brain tumors: the Duke experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Christopher D.; Gururangan, Sridharan; Eastwood, James; Bottom, Krystal; Watral, Melody; Beason, Rodney; McLendon, Roger E; Allan H Friedman; Tourt-Uhlig, Sandra; Miller, Langdon L.; Friedman, Henry S.

    2002-01-01

    A phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, to evaluate the activity of this agent in children with high-risk malignant brain tumors. A total of 22 children were enrolled in this study, including 13 with histologically verified recurrent malignant brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] 4, anaplastic astrocytoma 1, ependymoma 5, and medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor 3), 5 with recurrent diffuse pontine glioma, and 4 wi...

  15. Failure on all fronts: general dental practitioners’ views on promoting oral health in high caries risk children- a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Aljafari, Ahmad K; Gallagher, Jennifer Elizabeth; Hosey, Marie Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overall improvements in oral health, a large number of children in United Kingdom (UK) are affected by dental caries; and the implementation of oral health promotion in some families remains a challenge. As such, children from those families suffer high caries rates, and are frequently referred for tooth extraction under General Anaesthesia (GA), one of the commonest reasons for paediatric hospital admissions. The aim of this investigation is to explore referring primary ca...

  16. Risk Factors for Obesity and High Blood Pressure in Chinese American Children: Maternal Acculturation and Children’s Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B.; Lustig, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore risk factors associated with overweight and high blood pressure in Chinese American children. Students and their parents were recruited from Chinese language schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data were collected on 67 children and their mothers, and included children’s weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, level of physical activity, dietary intake, usual food choice, knowledge about nutrition and physical activity, and se...

  17. Clinical Factors Associated with Long-Term Complete Remission versus Poor Response to Chemotherapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents with Kaposi Sarcoma Receiving Bleomycin and Vincristine: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Kamiyango, William; Slone, Jeremy S.; Villiera, Jimmy; Kovarik, Carrie L.; Cox, Carrie M.; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Ahmed, Saeed; Schutze, Gordon E.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Mehta, Parth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in children and adolescents in Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from adult disease. We evaluated the clinical characteristics associated with long-term outcomes. We performed a retrospective observational analysis of 70 HIV-infected children and adolescents with KS less than 18 years of age diagnosed between 8/2010 and 6/2013 in Lilongwe, Malawi. Local first-line treatment included bleomycin and vincristine plus nevirapine-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Median age was 8.6 years (range 1.7–17.9); there were 35 females (50%). Most common sites of presentation were: lymph node (74%), skin (59%), subcutaneous nodules (33%), oral (27%), woody edema (24%), and visceral (16%). Eighteen (26%) presented with lymphadenopathy only. Severe CD4 suppression occurred in 28%. At time of KS diagnosis, 49% were already on HAART. Overall, 28% presented with a platelet count < 100 x 109/L and 37% with hemoglobin < 8 g/dL. The 2-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 46% and 58% respectively (median follow-up 29 months, range 15–50). Multivariable analysis of risk of death and failure to achieve EFS demonstrated that visceral disease (odds ratios [OR] 19.08 and 11.61, 95% CI 2.22–163.90 and 1.60–83.95 respectively) and presenting with more than 20 skin/oral lesions (OR 9.57 and 22.90, 95% CI 1.01–90.99 and 1.00–524.13 respectively) were independent risk factors for both. Woody edema was associated with failure to achieve EFS (OR 7.80, 95% CI 1.84–33.08) but not death. Univariable analysis revealed that lymph node involvement was favorable for EFS (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.99), while T1 TIS staging criteria, presence of cytopenias, and severe immune suppression were not associated with increased mortality. Long-term complete remission is achievable in pediatric KS, however outcomes vary according to clinical presentation. Based on clinical heterogeneity, treatment according

  18. Weighted road density and allergic disease in children at high risk of developing asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Hansell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease is inconsistent, possibly because the adverse effects may be limited to susceptible subgroups and these have not been identified. This study examined children in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS, potentially susceptible to air pollution effects because of a family history of asthma. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional associations at age eight years between road density within 75 m and 50 m of home address weighted by road type (traffic density, as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, on the following allergic and respiratory outcomes: skin prick tests (SPTs, total and specific serum IgE, pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled NO, and reported asthma and rhinitis. RESULTS: Weighted road density was positively associated with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Adjusted relative risk (RR for house dust mite (HDM positive SPT was 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48, for detectable house dust mite-specific IgE was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.01-1.41 and for allergic rhinitis was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.03-1.63 per 100 m local road or 33.3 m motorway within 50 m of home. Associations were also seen with small decrements of peak and mid-expiratory flows and increased risk of asthma, current wheeze and rhinitis in atopic children. CONCLUSION: Associations between road density and allergic disease were found in a potentially susceptible subgroup of children at high risk of developing atopy and asthma.

  19. High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Avenarius, Derk [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    In our experience, diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) is hard to interpret in children who commonly have foci of restricted diffusion in their skeletons unrelated to pathology, sometimes in an asymmetrical pattern. This raises serious concern about the accuracy of DWIBS in cancer staging in children. To describe the signal distribution at DWIBS in the normal developing lumbar spine and pelvic skeleton. Forty-two healthy children underwent an MR DWIBS sequence of the abdomen and pelvis. An axial short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence was used. Two radiologists did a primary review of the images and based on these preliminary observations, separate scoring systems for the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femoral epiphyses/femoral heads were devised. Visual evaluation of the images was then performed by the two radiologists in consensus. The scoring was repeated separately 2 months later by a third radiologist. Restricted diffusion was defined as areas of high signal compared to the background. Coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats were used to assess the vertebral bodies. For the pelvis, the extension of high signal for each bone was given a score of 0 to 4. Cohen's Kappa interobserver agreement coefficients of signal distribution and asymmetry were calculated. All children had areas of high signal, both within the lumbar vertebral bodies and within the pelvic skeleton. Three patterns of signal distribution were seen in the lumbar spine, but no specific pattern was seen in the pelvis. There was a tendency toward a reduction of relative area of high signal within each bone with age, but also a widespread interindividual variation. Restricted diffusion is a normal finding in the pelvic skeleton and lumbar spine in children with an asymmetrical distribution seen in 48% of normal children in this study. DWIBS should be used with caution for cancer staging in children as this could

  20. Receiving Pseudorandom PSK

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Thomas; Schindelhauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorandom PSK [1] enables parallel communication on the same carrier frequency and at the same time. We propose different signal processing methods to receive data modulated with pseudorandom PSK. This includes correlation with the carrier frequency which can be applied to signals in the kHz to MHz range and signal processing in the intermediate frequency where the correlation with the carrier frequency is performed analogous in the RF front end. We analyze the computation complexity for s...

  1. Examining the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorder-71 as an Assessment Tool for Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Deutschman, Amber A. C. G.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of anxiety disorders (SCARED-71) were compared between two groups of children: children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders (ASD-group; "n" = 115), and children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; "n" = 122).…

  2. Highly efficient Bayesian joint inversion for receiver-based data and its application to lithospheric structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongryong; Dettmer, Jan; Rhie, Junkee; Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2016-07-01

    With the deployment of extensive seismic arrays, systematic and efficient parameter and uncertainty estimation is of increasing importance and can provide reliable, regional models for crustal and upper-mantle structure. We present an efficient Bayesian method for the joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion and receiver-function data that combines trans-dimensional (trans-D) model selection in an optimization phase with subsequent rigorous parameter uncertainty estimation. Parameter and uncertainty estimation depend strongly on the chosen parametrization such that meaningful regional comparison requires quantitative model selection that can be carried out efficiently at several sites. While significant progress has been made for model selection (e.g. trans-D inference) at individual sites, the lack of efficiency can prohibit application to large data volumes or cause questionable results due to lack of convergence. Studies that address large numbers of data sets have mostly ignored model selection in favour of more efficient/simple estimation techniques (i.e. focusing on uncertainty estimation but employing ad-hoc model choices). Our approach consists of a two-phase inversion that combines trans-D optimization to select the most probable parametrization with subsequent Bayesian sampling for uncertainty estimation given that parametrization. The trans-D optimization is implemented here by replacing the likelihood function with the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The BIC provides constraints on model complexity that facilitate the search for an optimal parametrization. Parallel tempering (PT) is applied as an optimization algorithm. After optimization, the optimal model choice is identified by the minimum BIC value from all PT chains. Uncertainty estimation is then carried out in fixed dimension. Data errors are estimated as part of the inference problem by a combination of empirical and hierarchical estimation. Data covariance matrices are estimated from

  3. Children Moving "Home"? Everyday Experiences of Return Migration in Highly Skilled Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Madeleine E.

    2010-01-01

    Through its focus on children and return migration, this article addresses two invisibilities within migration research. It presents the experiences of children as equal movers in returning households, drawing on research with them in their domestic spaces. Exploring how children negotiate coming "home" and highlighting their experiences from…

  4. Relationship Quality and the Mentoring of Aggressive, High-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavell, Timothy A.; Elledge, L. Christian; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Faith, Melissa A.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from a randomized clinical trial to examine the degree to which relationship quality predicted outcomes for aggressive children in two different mentoring programs. Data were available for 145 aggressive children in Grades 2 and 3. Children were blocked by school and randomly assigned to PrimeTime (n = 75) or Lunch Buddy (n = 70)…

  5. Preparation and clinical evaluation of a novel lozenge containing polaprezinc, a zinc-L-carnosine, for prevention of oral mucositis in patients with hematological cancer who received high-dose chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Ryo; Suzuki, Akio; Yamada, Yuto; Ishida, Masayuki; Shakui, Toshinobu; Kitagawa, Junichi; Hayashi, Hideki; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that oral ingestion of polaprezinc, a zinc-L-carnosine, suspended in sodium alginate solution prevents oral mucositis in patients receiving radiotherapy or high-dose chemotherapy. In the present study, we developed a novel preparation of polaprezinc and evaluated clinical effect of the lozenge preparation in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The preparation contained 18.75 mg polaprezinc in a tablet and showed an excellent uniformity and stability up to 24 weeks after storage under room temperature. The incidence rate of grade ≥ 2 oral mucositis was 74 % in patients without premedication, whereas the rate was remarkably reduced in patients receiving the suspension (23 %) or lozenge (13 %) of polaprezinc (P < 0.01). The use of non-opioid analgesic drugs such as anti-inflammatory agents and local anesthetics for oral pain was also greatly reduced by polaprezinc suspension or its lozenge (16 % for suspension and 13 % for lozenge compared with 89 % with no premedication, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that polaprezinc lozenge is simple to apply and highly effective for prevention of oral mucositis associated with high-dose chemotherapy for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:27418192

  6. The clinical course of acute otitis media in high-risk Australian Aboriginal children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skull Susan A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. Methods We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of the tympanic membrane (TM and tympanometry was done every weekday if possible. We followed children for either two weeks (AOM without perforation, or three weeks (AOM with perforation, or for longer periods if the infection persisted. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at study entry and then weekly. Results We enrolled 31 children and conducted a total of 219 assessments. Most children had bulging of the TM or recent middle ear discharge at diagnosis. Persistent signs of suppurative OM (without ear pain were present in most children 7 days (23/30, 77%, and 14 days (20/26, 77% later. Episodes of AOM did not usually have a sudden onset or short duration. Six of the 14 children with fresh discharge in their ear canal had an intact or functionally intact TM. Perforation size generally remained very small (Streptococcus pneumoniae (82%, Haemophilus influenzae (71%, and Moraxella catarrhalis (95%; 63% of swabs cultured all three pathogens. Conclusion In this high-risk population, AOM was generally painless and persistent. These infections were associated with persistent bacterial colonisation of the nasopharynx and any benefits of antibiotics were modest at best. Systematic follow up with careful examination and review of treatment are required and clinical resolution cannot be assumed.

  7. Early recovery of CD4 T lymphocytes in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Dutch study group for children with HIV infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Stuart, J. W.; Slieker, W.A.; Rijkers, G T; Noest, A. J.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Suur, M.H.; De Boer, R. J.; Geelen, S.P.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Hartwig, N G; Hooijkaas, H; Roos, M T; Graeff-Meeder, B. de; de Groot, R.

    1998-01-01

    Regeneration of CD4+ T lymphocytes has been shown to be thymus-dependent in bone marrow transplant recipients and after intensive chemotherapy. The rate of CD4+ T cell regeneration is correlated positively with enlargement of the thymus, as shown on radiographs, and higher rates of CD4+ T lymphocyte regeneration were observed in children as compared with adults, consistent with thymic function diminishing with age. We hypothesized that in HIV infected patients CD4+ T cell recovery during high...

  8. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  9. High loading of polygenic risk for ADHD in children with comorbid aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna;

    2013-01-01

    subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. CONCLUSIONS Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially......OBJECTIVE Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher...... in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD...

  10. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam De-la-Iglesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD in the following aspects. (1 Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2 Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3 Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4 Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed.

  11. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564

  12. Development, characterization and evaluation of high energy biscuits for combating malnourishment among children in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to prepare supplemented biscuits which could be used as nutritive snacks for malnourished children. Biscuits were prepared by supplementing chickpea and oat in patent flour (fine flour) with different ratio (5%, 10%, 15% and 20 %). Biscuits with no supplementation were kept as control treatment. Chemical and sensory evaluation of supplemented biscuits was carried out. An increase in nutritive values have been observed with an increase in supplementation level. Proximate analysis shows that T/sub 7/ and T/sub 8/ get the highest values for protein, zinc and iron. Results of all treatments were in acceptable range regarding sensory evaluation. These results indicate that biscuits can be successfully supplemented with chickpea and oat. According to sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 20% chickpea and 15% oat were found to be the best among all treatments and could be a potential composition for preparing high energy biscuits for malnourished areas of Pakistan. (author)

  13. Solar hydrogen by high-temperature electrolysis: Flowsheeting and experimental analysis of a tube-type receiver concept for superheated steam production

    OpenAIRE

    Houaijia, Anis; Breuer, Stefan; Thomey, Dennis; Brosig, Christian; Säck, Jan-Peter; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature electrolysis (HTE) offers the potential of considerably higher efficiency than conventional alkaline electrolysis when producing hydrogen from water by solar energy. The production rate of the alkaline electrolyzer process is limited since the whole energy demand is covered by electricity. By contrast, in HTE part of the energy can be introduced as high temperature heat from concentrated solar power (CSP) leading to a significantly higher process efficiency. In the interna...

  14. What does it mean to me?: a Q-methodological exploration of the beliefs held about Asperger’s syndrome/high functioning autism when the diagnosis is received in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Seel, Emma Louise

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the ways in which Asperger’s Syndrome and High Functioning Autism are understood by those who have received a diagnosis in adulthood. The experience and understanding of diagnosis in adulthood has been little researched with only a small number of qualitative studies having been completed (Cousins, 2001; Molloy & Vasil, 2004; Punshon, 2006). These studies all highlight the importance of the beliefs held about Asperger’s Syndrome on the experience of di...

  15. Zinc and Copper status in children with high family risk of premature cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc and copper are beneficial to health, growth and development and also for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with regards to improved dietary habits as a preliminary step in CVD prevention. This study was conducted among 2-18 year old children with high family risk of premature CVD in comparison to controls. One hundred randomly selected children whose parents had premature myocardial infarction were included in this study. The controls were 100 individuals randomly selected from the case group's neighbors and matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. A four-day food record questionnaire was used to assess zinc and copper intakes and their serum levels were determined using Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The data were analyzed by SPSS/Windows V6 software, using the student's t and Mantel-Hanzel tests. Significance of differences was considered at P0.05). Zinc deficiency was more prevalent among the case in boys than their controls (58% vs. 18%, P=0.04). This difference was not significant in girls (44% vs. 40%). The daily intake and serum of level of copper were not significantly different between the case and control groups. No case of copper efficiency was found. The mean systolic blood pressure was not significantly different between the zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient subjects. Although the mean diastolic blood pressure of the former was higher than the latter, there was no statistically significant difference. About 23.7% of all studied sample had mild-to-moderate degree of failure to thrive, with significantly lower daily intake and serum zinc level than other subjects (5.41+-1.06 mg, 82.09+-12.74 ug/dL vs. 6.89+-2.14 mg, 99.25+-27.15 ug/dL, respectively, P<0.05). It is recommended that emphasis be placed on the consumption of food rich in zinc by children, especially those with high family risk of premature CVD. (author)

  16. Improved outcome of children transplanted for high-risk leukemia by using a new strategy of cyclosporine-based GVHD prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyzac, N; Cuzzubbo, D; Rénard, C; Garnier, N; Dubois, V; Domenech, C; Goutagny, M-P; Plesa, A; Grardel, N; Goutelle, S; Janoly-Duménil, A; Bertrand, Y

    2016-05-01

    There is currently a major concern regarding the optimal immunosuppression therapy to be administered after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to reduce both the toxicity of GvHD and the rate of relapse. We report the outcome of high-risk leukemia children transplanted with a new way of managing cyclosporine (CsA)-based GvHD prophylaxis. A total of 110 HSCT in 109 ALL or AML children who received CsA without mycophenolate or methotrexate in matched related as well as in matched or mismatched unrelated stem cell transplantation were included. CsA dosage regimens were individualized to obtain specific trough blood concentrations values. The incidences of grade I-II and III-IV acute GvHD were 69.1% and 1.8%, respectively, and 8.4% for chronic GvHD. GvHD was neither more frequent nor severe in unrelated than in related HSCT. GvHD occurred in 87% of patients with a mean CsA trough concentration ⩽120 ng/mL versus 43% with concentration >120 ng/mL (PGvL effect may be enhanced by this strategy of GvHD prophylaxis. PMID:26808568

  17. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  18. The High Prevalence of Anemia in Cambodian Children and Women Cannot Be Satisfactorily Explained by Nutritional Deficiencies or Hemoglobin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Sophonneary, Prak; Sinuon, Muth; Greuffeille, Valerie; Hong, Rathavuth; Berger, Jacques; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency, hemoglobin disorders and intestinal parasite infection. Methods: One-sixth of households from the CDHS-2014 were selected for a follow-up visit for the micronutrient survey. Households were visited from two weeks to two months after the CDHS-2014 visit. Data on micronutrient status were available for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). Results: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin < 15 g/L), vitamin A (retinol-binding-protein (RBP) < 0.70 mol/L) or vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/L) were not prevalent in the women (<5% for all), whereas 17.8% of the women had low concentrations of folic acid (<10 nmol/L). In the children, the prevalence of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency was <10%. Zinc deficiency, hookworm infection and hemoglobinopathy were significantly associated with anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children <2 years, but in older children and women, the prevalence of IDA was <5%. The most prevalent, preventable causes of anemia were hookworm infection and zinc and folic acid deficiency. Over 40% of the anemia was not caused by nutritional factors. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian women and children cannot be explained solely by micronutrient deficiencies and hemoglobin disorders. Micronutrient interventions to improve anemia prevalence are likely to have limited impact in the Cambodian setting. The focus of current interventions to

  19. A real-time monitoring study of the personal dose received by nuclear medicine technologists administering 18F-FDG in a high patient throughput PET centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth in PET studies has resulted in an increasing occupational radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff. This project has used, a real-time, solid-state, 2 second resolution, personal dosimeter to monitor the occupational Hp(10) equivalent dose of nuclear medicine technologist (NMT) staff managing FDG patients. A detailed manual mapping of the patient management procedure, time dependence and distance relationships to the sources of exposure and their magnitudes was undertaken. Experimental results show, that a junior NMT may spend on average 52% of the close contact time (< 2 m) with the patient when administering an FDG dose compared to 36% of that time for the senior NMT. The average daily dose from isotope administration of a junior NMT and senior NMT is 15 μSv and 11.4 μSv respectively. Post-administration, escorting the patient into the scanner room and setting-up the patient on the PET scanner bed, takes approximately 27% of the junior NMT time to perform, which results in an average daily dose of 7.8 μSv. The senior NMT takes approximately 33% of their time for the same task, with an average daily dose of 10.3 μSv. Removing the patient from the scanner room and escorting them from the department takes about 21% of the junior NMT time giving 6.2 μSv of dose and 31% or 9.7 μSv for the senior NMT. At the conclusion of this study the typical daily dose received by NMT staff, working in close contact with FDG patients is approximately 29 μSv for junior NMT (4 - 5 mSv/yr) and 31.4 μSv (5 - 7 mSv/yr) for senior NMT. Currently this centre is performing approximately 3,400 FDG injections per year plus 50 research injections of various positron emitters. This occupational dose load is spread across 3 dedicated PET NMT staff and 1.5 EFT NMT staff rotating through PET centre from the nuclear medicine department and 1 EFT registrar physician. (author)

  20. Diversity of MMSE MIMO Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham

    2011-01-01

    In most MIMO systems, the family of waterfall error curves, calculated at different spectral efficiencies, are asymptotically parallel at high SNR. In other words, most MIMO systems exhibit a single diversity value for all {\\em fixed} rates. The MIMO MMSE receiver does not follow this pattern and exhibits a varying diversity in its family of error curves. This effect cannot be captured by DMT analysis, due to the fact that all fixed rates correspond to the same multiplexing gain, thus they cannot be differentiated within DMT analysis. This work analyzes this interesting behavior of the MMSE MIMO receiver and produces the MMSE MIMO diversity at each rate. The diversity of the quasi-static flat-fading MIMO channel consisting of any arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is fully characterized, showing that full spatial diversity is possible for all antenna configurations if and only if the rate is within a certain bound which is a function of the number of antennas. For other rate brackets, the avail...

  1. Impact of long-term viral suppression in CD4+ recovery of HIV-children on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbindo-Gutierrez Dolores

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of HAART may differ between children and adults because children have a developing immune system, and the long-term immunological outcome in HIV-infected children on HAART is not well-known. A major aim of our study was to determine CD4+ evolution associated with long-term VL control during 4 years of observation on HAART. Methods We carried out a retrospective study on a cohort of 160 vertically HIV-infected children. It was carried out from 1996 to 2004 in six large Spanish pediatric referral hospitals. We compared 33 children who had long-term VL suppression (VL ≤400 copies/ml in the first 12 months of follow-up and maintained that level throughout follow-up (Responders-group, and 127 children with persistently detectable VL in spite of ART switches (Non-Responders-group. Results We observed a quick initial and significant increase in CD4+ counts from the baseline to 12 months on HAART in both groups (p Non-Responders group sustained CD4+ increases and most of these children maintained high CD4+ level counts (≥25%. The Non-Responders group reached a plateau between 26% and 27% CD4+ at the first 12 months of follow-up that remained stable during the following 3 years. However, the Responders group reached a plateau between 30% and 32% CD4+ at 24, 36 and 48 months of follow-up. We found that the Responders group had higher CD4+ count values and higher percentages of children with CD4+ ≥25% than the Non-Responders group (p Conclusion Long-term VL suppression in turn induces large beneficial effects in immunological responses. However, it is not indispensable to recover CD4+ levels.

  2. Saving a life after discharge: CPR training for parents of high-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Lynda J; Wintch, Stephanie; Nichols, Amy; Arnolde, Vickie; Schroeder, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric patients with chronic disease are at risk for cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Outcomes of CPA are improved if prompt quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is performed. This study examined the efficacy of the CPR Anytime™ Kit as a standardized method of CPR discharge training to families of high-risk children. The kit was provided to parents of 117 high-risk pediatric patients prior to hospital discharge. A telephone survey was used at 1, 3, and 6 months to assess retention of CPR knowledge and skills, parental comfort levels with CPR, and kit dissemination to family members. A second survey was used 1 year after implementation of program to assess nursing satisfaction. CPR comfort levels were reported as confident, knowledge and skills were reported as moderate on follow-up telephone surveys. A total of 82% of subjects reviewed the video at least once after discharge, and 79% of subjects shared the kit with at least two other family members or friends. A total of 72 of 74 nurses (97% ) surveyed were either "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with the program. Provision of the CPR Anytime Kit™ to families of high-risk pediatric patients prior to discharge leads to sustained levels of CPR knowledge and confidence. PMID:23281634

  3. Determinants of highly active antiretroviral therapy duration in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in Madrid, Spain, from 1996 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Palladino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the duration of sequential HAART regimens and predictors of first-line regimen discontinuation among HIV-1 vertically infected children and adolescents. DESIGN: Multicentre survey of antiretroviral-naïve patients enrolled in the HIV-Paediatric Cohor,t CoRISpeS-Madrid Cohort, Spain. METHODS: Patients with a follow-up of ≥ 1 month spent on HAART, with available baseline CD4 count and HIV-viral load (VL were included. Time spent on sequential HAART regimens was estimated and multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of time to first-line regimen discontinuation. RESULTS: 104 patients were followed for a median 8 years after starting HAART among 1996-2012; baseline %CD4 was 21.5 (12.3-34.0and viral load was 5.1 (4.6-5.6 log10 copies/mL. Patients received a mean of 1.9 regimens. Median time on first-line HAART (n = 104 was 64.5 months; second HAART (n = 56 69.8 months; and third HAART (n = 21 66.5 months. Eleven (11% patients were lost to follow-up while on first-line HAART and 54% discontinued (cumulative incidence of 16% and 38% by 1 and 3-year, respectively. The main predictor of first-line regimen discontinuation was suboptimal adherence to antiretrovirals (AHR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.44-4.70. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to therapy was the main determinant of the duration of the first-line HAART regimen in children. It is important to identify patients at high risk for non-adherence, such as very young children and adolescents, in provide special care and support to those patients.

  4. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  5. High loading of polygenic risk for ADHD in children with comorbid aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J L; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D; McGough, James J; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2013-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. METHOD Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. RESULTS Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. CONCLUSIONS Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  6. Similar health benefits of endurance and high-intensity interval training in obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Corte de Araujo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT] on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. METHODS: Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR. The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ~70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: BOTH THE ABSOLUTE (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0% and the relative VO(2 peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6% were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4% and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4% were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5% and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0% were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%, but not in the ET group (1.2%. A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%. The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. CONCLUSION: HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth.

  7. Relationship Quality and the Mentoring of Aggressive, High-Risk Children

    OpenAIRE

    Cavell, Timothy A.; Elledge, L. Christian; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Faith, Melissa A.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from a randomized clinical trial to examine the degree to which relationship quality predicted outcomes for aggressive children in two different mentoring programs. Data were available for 145 aggressive children in grades 2 and 3. Children were blocked by school and randomly assigned to PrimeTime (n = 75) or Lunch Buddy (n = 70) programs. PrimeTime combined community-based mentoring with child-focused skills training and consultation for parents and teachers, and mentors were ex...

  8. Caries prevention in high-risk preschool children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Autio-Gold, J. (Jaana)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is a common infectious disease affecting young children living in low-income families in the United States. Efficacious, safe, feasible and cost-effective caries prevention methods for these children are essential. Several studies have shown the efficacy of fluoride varnish and xylitol to improve the oral health of children. The efficiency of caries prevention programs including the use of fluoride varnish or xylitol chewing gum in early childhood has not been w...

  9. Blood stage malaria vaccine eliciting high antigen-specific antibody concentrations confers no protection to young children in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhards R Ogutu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The antigen, falciparum malaria protein 1 (FMP1, represents the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 of the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum. Formulated with AS02 (a proprietary Adjuvant System, it constitutes the FMP1/AS02 candidate malaria vaccine. We evaluated this vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in African children. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, Phase IIb, comparator-controlled trial.The trial was conducted in 13 field stations of one mile radii within Kombewa Division, Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, an area of holoendemic transmission of P. falciparum. We enrolled 400 children aged 12-47 months in general good health.Children were randomised in a 1ratio1 fashion to receive either FMP1/AS02 (50 microg or Rabipur(R rabies vaccine. Vaccinations were administered on a 0, 1, and 2 month schedule. The primary study endpoint was time to first clinical episode of P. falciparum malaria (temperature >/=37.5 degrees C with asexual parasitaemia of >/=50,000 parasites/microL of blood occurring between 14 days and six months after a third dose. Case detection was both active and passive. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated for eight months after first immunisations; vaccine efficacy (VE was measured over a six-month period following third vaccinations. RESULTS: 374 of 400 children received all three doses and completed six months of follow-up. FMP1/AS02 had a good safety profile and was well-tolerated but more reactogenic than the comparator. Geometric mean anti-MSP-1(42 antibody concentrations increased from1.3 microg/mL to 27.3 microg/mL in the FMP1/AS02 recipients, but were unchanged in controls. 97 children in the FMP1/AS02 group and 98 controls had a primary endpoint episode. Overall VE was 5.1% (95% CI: -26% to +28%; p-value = 0.7. CONCLUSIONS: FMP1/AS02 is not a promising candidate for further development as a monovalent malaria vaccine. Future MSP-1(42 vaccine development should focus

  10. Prediction of Future High Caries Increments for Children in a School Dental Service and in Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imfeld, Thomas N.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A method for predicting high dental caries increments for children, based on previous research, is presented. Three clinical findings were identified as predictors: number of sound primary molars, number of discolored pits/fissures on first permanent molars, and number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of first permanent molars with white…

  11. Heightened Test Anxiety among Young Children: Elementary School Students' Anxious Responses to High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segool, Natasha K.; Carlson, John S.; Goforth, Anisa N.; von der Embse, Nathan; Barterian, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in test anxiety on high-stakes standardized achievement testing and low-stakes testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in young students' reported test anxiety between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) achievement testing and classroom testing. Three hundred…

  12. Palonosetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with high dose methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadaraja, Sambavy; Mamoudou, Aissata Diop; Thomassen, Harald;

    2012-01-01

    High dose methotrexate (HD-MTX), used in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), is moderately emetogenic. First generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists are effective prophylactic agents but require multiple administrations. Palonosetron has a half life of 36-42 hours and...

  13. Emotional Facial and Vocal Expressions during Story Retelling by Children and Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Edelson, Lisa R.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: People with high-functioning autism (HFA) have qualitative differences in facial expression and prosody production, which are rarely systematically quantified. The authors' goals were to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze prosody and facial expression productions in children and adolescents with HFA. Method: Participants were…

  14. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  15. Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for Children with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning…

  16. Increasing Social Engagement in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Collaborative Technologies in the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Eden, Sigal; Zancanaro, Massimo; Weiss, Patrice L.; Gal, Eynat

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a school-based, collaborative technology intervention combined with cognitive behavioral therapy to teach the concepts of social collaboration and social conversation to children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders ("n" = 22) as well as to enhance their actual social engagement behaviors…

  17. Randomized Clinical Trial Replication of a Psychosocial Treatment for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; McDonald, Christin A.; Smith, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    This replication randomized clinical trial examined the efficacy of a comprehensive psychosocial intervention for children aged 7 to 12 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Participants were randomly assigned to treatment or wait-list conditions. Treatment included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social…

  18. Families OverComing under Stress (FOCUS) for Early Childhood: Building Resilience for Young Children in High Stress Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, Catherine; Paley, Blair; Doud, Tricia; Havens, Linda; Moore-Tyson, Jessica; Beardslee, William R.; Lester, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Parental distress and trauma affects the entire family, including the youngest children. Families OverComing Under Stress (FOCUS) is a targeted prevention program for high-risk families that aims to enhance family cohesion, support the parent-child relationship, and build emotional regulation, communication, and problem-solving skills across the…

  19. High agreement on family affluence between children's and parents' reports: international study of 11-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Currie, Candace; Dallago, Lorenza; Due, Pernille; Richter, Matthias; Orkényi, Agota; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    selected items from an internationally standardised questionnaire. SETTING: Survey conducted in schools in Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, and Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 972 11-year-old children and their parents responded to the questionnaires. RESULTS: The child item response rates were high...

  20. Distractibility Among Advantaged and Disadvantaged Preschool Children: Effects of Cubicles vs. High Levels of Stimulation on Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, John W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compared the task performance of children under high levels of variable auditory and visual distraction, reduced stimulation as achieved by cubicles, and normal environmental conditions where no effort was made to raise or lower the level of external stimulation. (Author/AM)