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Sample records for children normal development

  1. Expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development.

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    Athayde, Marcia de Lima; Mota, Helena Bolli; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa

    2010-01-01

    expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development. to determine whether alterations presented by children with phonological disorders occur only at the phonological level or if there are any impacts on lexical acquisition; to compare the vocabulary performance of children with phonological disorders to reference values presented by the used test. participants of the study were 36 children of both genders, 14 with phonological disorders (Study group) and 22 with typical language development (Control Group). The ABFW - Vocabulary Test (Befi-Lopes, 2000) was used for assessing the expressive vocabulary of children and later to compare the performance of both groups. the performance of children with phonological disorder in the expressive vocabulary test is similar to that of children with normal phonological development. Most of the children of both groups reached the benchmarks proposed by the test for the different semantic fields. The semantic field Places demonstrated to be the most complex for both groups. the alterations presented by children with phonological disorder area limited to the phonological level, having no impact on the lexical aspect of language.

  2. Normal development of paranasal sinuses in children: A CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Park, Eui Dong; Choi, Pil Youb; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Chung, Sung Hoon; Chung, Hae Gyeong

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the normal development of the paranasal sinuses in children with CT, authors prospectively studied with brain CT scans of 260 children without known sinus disease, ranging image from 7 days to 16 years. Maximal anteroposterior and transverse diameters(mm) and maximal cross- sectional area(mm 2 ) of both sides of the maxillary sinus were measured with the aid of computer device. As to the ethmoidal and spheroidal sinuses, we simply documented the presence of the aplastic ethmoidal sinus and calculated the age-incidence of the spheroidal sinus pneumatization, respectively.There noted three phases in the development of the maxillary sinus. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the maxillary sinus increased nearly in parallel. The former was always greater than the latter. In no cases was the edathamil sinus aplastic and almost all sinuses were pneumatized even in infants as early as 7 old days. CT identified the conchal pattern of sphenoidal sinus pneumatization infants as early as 11 days old. Sphenoidal sinus pneumatization was seen in 38% of the children under the age of 1 year, 82% of the children between the age of 1 and 2 years, and almost all children older than 2 years. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the maxillary sinus seem to reach the adult size by 8 years of age, and the conchal pattern of sphemoidal sinus pneumatization can be recognized earlier with CT than on the plain radiographs

  3. Attainment of gross motor milestones by preterm children with normal development upon school entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dokkum, Nienke H; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry. AIMS: To compare attainment rates of gross motor milestones reached

  4. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant.

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    Soleymani, Zahra; Amidfar, Meysam; Dadgar, Hooshang; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-04-01

    Working memory has an important role in language acquisition and development of cognition skills. The ability of encoding, storage and retrieval of phonological codes, as activities of working memory, acquired by audition sense. Children with cochlear implant experience a period that they are not able to perceive sounds. In order to assess the effect of hearing on working memory, we investigated working memory as a cognition skill in children with normal development and cochlear implant. Fifty students with normal hearing and 50 students with cochlear implant aged 5-7 years participated in this study. Children educated in the preschool, the first and second grades. Children with normal development were matched based on age, gender, and grade of education with cochlear implant. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. Phonological loop assessed by nonword repetition task and forward digit span. To assess central executive component backward digit span was used. The developmental trend was studied in children with normal development and cochlear implant as well. The effect of age at implantation in children with cochlear implants on components of working memory was investigated. There are significant differences between children with normal development and cochlear implant in all tasks that assess working memory (p memory between different grades showed significant differences both in children with normal development and in children with cochlear implant (p implied that children with cochlear implant may experience difficulties in working memory. Therefore, these children have problems in encoding, practicing, and repeating phonological units. The results also suggested working memory develops when the child grows up. In cochlear implant children, with decreasing age at implantation and increasing their experience in perceiving sound, working memory skills improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  5. Brain connectivity in normally developing children and adolescents.

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    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Lewis, John D; Zhao, Lu; Chouinard-Decorte, François; Evans, Alan C

    2016-07-01

    The developing human brain undergoes an astonishing sequence of events that continuously shape the structural and functional brain connectivity. Distinct regional variations in the timelines of maturational events (synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning) occurring at the synaptic level are reflected in brain measures at macroscopic resolution (cortical thickness and gray matter density). Interestingly, the observed brain changes coincide with cognitive milestones suggesting that the changing scaffold of brain circuits may subserve cognitive development. Recent advances in connectivity analysis propelled by graph theory have allowed, on one hand, the investigation of maturational changes in global organization of structural and functional brain networks; and on the other hand, the exploration of specific networks within the context of global brain networks. An emerging picture from several connectivity studies is a system-level rewiring that constantly refines the connectivity of the developing brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Persian competing word test: Development and preliminary results in normal children

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    Mohammad Ebrahim Mahdavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Assessment of central auditory processing skills needs various behavioral tests in format of a test battery. There is a few Persian speech tests for documenting central auditory processing disorders. The purpose of this study was developing a dichotic test formed of one-syllabic words suitable for evaluation of central auditory processing in Persian language children and reporting its preliminary results in a group of normal children.Materials and Methods: Persian words in competing manner test was developed utilizing most frequent monosyllabic words in children storybooks reported in the previous researches. The test was performed at MCL on forty-five normal children (39 right-handed and 6 left-handed aged 5-11 years. The children did not show any obvious problem in hearing, speech, language and learning. Free (n=28 and directed listening (n=17 tasks were investigated.Results: The results show that in directed listening task, there is significant advantage for performance of pre-cued ear relative to opposite side. Right ear advantage is evident in free recall condition. Average performance of the children in directed recall is significantly better than free recall. Average row score of the test increases with the children age.Conclusion: Persian words in competing manner test as a dichotic test, can show major characteristics of dichotic listening and effect of maturation of central auditory system on it in normal children.

  7. NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT DURING TODDLING AGE IN NORMAL-CHILDREN AND CHILDREN AT RISK OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

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    HEMPEL, MS

    Toddling age (1.5-4 years) is a period in which the quality rather than the quantity of motor functions changes. We examined 305 normal and 43 so called 'risk' children with an examination technique which concentrates on observations of motor functions (grasping, sitting, crawling, standing and

  8. Development of the Parent Form of the Preschool Children's Communication Skills Scale and Comparison of the Communication Skills of Children with Normal Development and with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Aydin, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at developing an assessment scale for identifying preschool children's communication skills, at distinguishing children with communication deficiencies and at comparing the communication skills of children with normal development (ND) and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 427 children of up to 6 years of…

  9. Psychological and emotional development, intellectual capabilities, and body image in short normal children.

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    Molinari, E; Sartori, A; Ceccarelli, A; Marchi, S

    2002-04-01

    It is well established that children with short stature frequently have problems in cognitive development, personality, self-esteem and social relations. This is partly due to the fact that many parents view them as more vulnerable than other children of normal stature and do not allow them to face the normal experiences that correspond to their actual age. The aim of the present study was to assess, through the administration of appropriate psychological tools, a series of psychological and cognitive characteristics [i.e. anxiety, depression, good adjustment, social functioning, feeling of guilt, interpersonal relationship, intelligence quotient (IQ)], as well as variables linked to development of body image, in a group of children suffering from normal growth variants [familial short stature (FSS), no. 10, 4 males/6 females; with constitutional growth delay (CGD), no. 4,4 males; height standard deviation score (HSDS) ranging between -2.4 and -1.9] and in a control group children of normal stature (HSDS between -0.1 and +0.1). Children with short stature significantly differed from normal statured controls as far as Colored Progressive Matrices (CPMs, centiles), IQ (IQ, obtained using the Goodenough test), "Good Adjustment" (Draw-a-Person index, DAP), "Feelings of Guilt" (DAP index), "Height" (as emerges from drawings of the body) are concerned. Significant relationships were found between the height of the subjects (in centiles) and cognitive skills, measured both using CPMs (r=0.408; p=0.017) and Draw-a-Man (DAM) (r=0.359; p=0.037) and between height and feelings of guilt (r=0.325; p=0.027), measured using DAP. CPM scores correlated positively with the "Good Adjustment" index of DAP (r=0.354; p=0.05) and negatively with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (r=-0.609; p=0.01), "School Anxiety" index (r=-0.427; p=0.05) and "Total Anxiety" index (r=-0.436; p=0.05) of the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire for the Age of Development, and with 2 indices of DAP, namely

  10. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome and normal vision

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    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity differences and

  11. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision

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    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity

  12. Psychosocial Adaptation of Fathers of Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Normal Development.

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    Rodrigue, James R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study compared fathers of 20 autistic, 20 Down's syndrome, and 20 developmentally normal children on measures of psychosocial adaptation. Groups differed on measures of intrapersonal and family functioning but not on social-ecological variables. There were few differences between fathers of children with autism and those of children with…

  13. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision.

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    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2013-12-01

    To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Interocular acuity differences and binocular summation ratios were compared between groups. Crowding ratios were calculated by dividing the single Landolt C decimal acuity with the crowded Landolt C decimal acuity mono- and binocularly. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of 5 predictors to the monocular and binocular crowding ratio: nystagmus amplitude, nystagmus frequency, strabismus, astigmatism, and anisometropia. Crowding ratios were higher under mono- and binocular viewing conditions for children with infantile nystagmus syndrome than for children with normal vision. Children with albinism showed higher crowding ratios in their poorer eye and under binocular viewing conditions than children with normal vision. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome showed larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision (0.1 logMAR in our clinical groups and 0.0 logMAR in children with normal vision). Binocular summation ratios did not differ between groups. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude predicted the crowding ratio in the poorer eye (p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). The crowding ratio in the better eye showed a marginally significant relation with nystagmus frequency and depth of anisometropia (p = 0.082 and p = 0.070, respectively). The binocular crowding ratio was not predicted by any of the variables. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome show larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude are significant predictors of the crowding ratio in the poorer eye.

  14. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Narrative Abilities in a Group of Italian Normally Developing Children.

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    Mozzanica, Francesco; Ambrogi, Federico; Salvadorini, Renata; Sai, Elena; Pozzoli, Raffaella; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Letizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Only limited and conflicting information is available regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and narrative abilities. Besides, the role fathers' SES plays in the development of their children's narrative abilities has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between fathers' and mothers' SES and narrative abilities of their children assessed with the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST). A total of 505 normally developing Italian children were enrolled in the study. Information regarding parents' educational level and employment was collected for each child. Narrative abilities were evaluated using the I-BST. The relationships between parents' employment, educational level, and I-BST scores were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In univariate analysis, both fathers' and mothers' education and employment were associated with most I-BST subscale scores, especially when higher educational and employment levels were contrasted with the lowest educational and employment levels. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found only between the fathers' working status and educational level and I-BST subscale scores. Parental education and employment might impact narrative abilities of children. When both fathers' and mothers' SES variables are considered together, only fathers' education and working status seemed to be associated with I-BST scores. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. An investigation into kana reading development in normal and dyslexic Japanese children using length and lexicality effects.

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    Sambai, Ami; Uno, Akira; Kurokawa, Suzuko; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Awaya, Noriko; Kozuka, Junko; Goto, Takashi; Tsutamori, Eishi; Nakagawa, Kazumi; Wydell, Taeko N

    2012-06-01

    This is the first study to report differences between Japanese children with and without dyslexia in the way string-length and lexicality effects are manifested when reading Japanese kana. These children were asked to read kana words and non-words consisting of either two or five kana characters. The results showed that the error rates of the normal Preschoolers and Primary-School children with dyslexia were higher than those of the normal Primary-School children. Further, the reading latencies of the normal Preschoolers, First-graders and dyslexics were significantly longer than those of the normal Second, Third and Fifth/Sixth graders. Moreover, reading latencies became shorter as the age of the participants increased. Both normal and dyslexic children showed significant effects of length and lexicality on reading latencies. However, the interaction between the length and lexicality was only seen in normal children from the Second-grade onwards. These results suggest that (1) normal First-graders reach a ceiling in terms of reading accuracy and that (2) as Japanese normal children become older, they become better at lexical reading processes, which leads to fluent kana reading, but that (3) the dyslexics, even at Fifth/Sixth grades, have not developed sufficient lexical reading processes. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. All rights reserved.

  16. NORMAL VALUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST IN SAUDI ARABIA SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

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    Hatem A. Emara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most critical feature of motor development is the ability to balance the body in sitting or standing. Impaired balance limits a child’s ability to recover from unexpected threats to stability. The functional reach test (FRT defines the maximal distance an individual is able to reach forward beyond arm’s length in a standing position without loss of balance, taking a step, or touching the wall. The Purpose of this study was to establish the normal values for FRT in Saudi Arabia school children with typical development and to study the correlation of anthropometric measures with FRT values. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Almadinah Almonawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 children without disabilities aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected. Functional reach was assessed by having subjects extend their arms to 90 degrees and reach as far forward as they could without taking a step. Reach distance was recorded by noting the beginning and final position of the subject's extended arm parallel to a yard stick attached to the wall. Three successive trials of FRT were performed and the mean of the three trials was calculated. Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine the association of FR to age, and anthropometric measures. Results: Normal mean values of FR ranged from 24.2cm to 33.95cm. Age, height and weight significantly correlate with FRT. Conclusion: The FRT is a feasible test to examine the balance of 6-12 year-old children. FRT may be useful for detecting balance impairment, change in balance performance over time.

  17. A new Approach to the Study of Russian Language Acquisition in Preschool Children with Normal and Abnormal Development

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    Lebedeva T.V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibilities of using a standardized method of psychological evaluation of the Russian language development in preschool children. We provide a rationale for the relevance of timely differentiation of children with language and speech difficulties in modern educational practice. We present the results of comparative analysis of language and speech development in the two groups of children 5-6 years old: normally developing (N=92 and with language and speech disorders (N=59. We describe the diagnostic potential of this research tool for clinical sample of children with speech and language disorders, reveal differences in the development of Russian language between the two groups of children. The data obtained can be used in solving the problems of differentiated correctional help to pre-school children with impaired language and speech development.

  18. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

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    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  19. Working memory span in Persian-speaking children with speech sound disorders and normal speech development.

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    Afshar, Mohamad Reza; Ghorbani, Ali; Rashedi, Vahid; Jalilevand, Nahid; Kamali, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare working memory span in Persian-speaking preschool children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and their typically speaking peers. Additionally, the study aimed to examine Non-Word Repetition (NWR), Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) in four groups of children with varying severity levels of SSD. The participants in this study comprised 35 children with SSD and 35 typically developing (TD) children -matched for age and sex-as a control group. The participants were between the age range of 48 and 72 months. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. We used two tasks (NWR and FDS) to assess phonological loop component, and one task (BDS) to assess central executive component. Percentage of correct consonants (PCC) was used to calculate the severity of SSD. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in all tasks that assess working memory (p working memory between the various severity groups indicated significant differences between different severities of both NWR and FDS tasks among the SSD children (p  0.05). The result showed that PCC scores in TD children were associated with NWR (p  0.05). The working memory skills were weaker in SSD children, in comparison to TD children. In addition, children with varying levels of severity of SSD differed in terms of NWR and FSD, but not BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing a reference of normal lung sounds in healthy Peruvian children.

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    Ellington, Laura E; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H; Tielsch, James M; Chavez, Miguel A; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James; Checkley, William

    2014-10-01

    Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81%) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47% were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments.

  1. Developing a Reference of Normal Lung Sounds in Healthy Peruvian Children

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    Ellington, Laura E.; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H.; Tielsch, James M.; Chavez, Miguel A.; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. Methods 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81 %) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Results Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47 % were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Conclusions Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments. PMID:24943262

  2. A study on the development of normal mandible in children by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yiming; Qiu Weiliu; Shen Guofang; Tang Yousheng; Tian Weijia; Wang Hui; Feng Guowei; Pu Mingfang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the developmental characters of the normal mandible in growing children. Methods: Twenty growing children undergoing skeletal scintigraphic study for isolated bone disease other than bones of the head and neck at hospital and turned out with normal results finally were studied. The 99 Tc m -MDP uptakes in the mandibular condyle, ramus, body and the fourth lumbar vertebra in these cases were quantitated and a ratio of the uptake in the three mandibular regions to that in the fourth lumbar vertebra was obtained. Results: The analysis results showed that the 99 Tc m -MDP uptake ratios of the three mandibular regions decreased in linear fashion with age increasing and leveled off after age of 20. The regression equations are: the mandibular condyle, Y-circumflex = -0.052 2X + 1.792 8; the mandibular ramus, Y-circumflex = -0.015 1X + 0.766 7; the mandibular body, Y-circumflex = -0.014 2X + 0.741 0. There was no significant difference of the 99 Tc m -MDP uptake ratio between the two sides of the mandible and between the male and female. Conclusion: The results suggest that the ideal time to undergo orthognathic surgery should be at the age of 20 or so if the circumstance of the deformity is not quite clear

  3. Normal growth and development

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  4. Semantic Differences of Definitional skills between Persian Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment and Normal Language Developing Children

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    Mehri Mohammadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Linguistic and metalinguistic knowledge are the effective factors for definitional skills. This study investigated definitional skills both content and form in children with specific language impairment. Materials and Method: The participants were 32 Children in two groups of 16 SLI and 16 normal children, matched with age, sex and educational level. The SLI group was referred from Learning Difficulties Centers and Zarei Rehabilitation Center in Tehran, as well as the control group who was selected by randomized sampling from normal primary schools. The stimuli were 14 high frequency nouns from seven different categories. The reliability was calculated by interjudge agreement and the validity was assessed by content. Data was analyzed using independent T-test. Results: There were significant differences between mean scores of content and form of the definitional skills in two groups. The mean and SD scores of the content of word definition were M= 45.87, SD=12.22 in control group and M=33.18, SD= 17.60 for SLI one, out of possible 70 points (P= 0.025. The mean and SD scores of the form of word definition were M= 48.87, SD= 9.49 in control group and M= 38.18, SD= 12.85 for SLI one, out of 70 points (P= 0.012. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that, language problems of the SLI children may not let them semantic represention in order to form and present a complete process of word definition. Although this skill in children with SLI is inadequate, all the definitions given by SLI children were consistent with the categories of content and form of word definition used in this study. Therefore, an exact planning and intervention by speech and language pathologist can be effective for this skill. Linguistic intervention especially in semantic and grammatical aspects not only improves the definition of familiar words but also it might be useful for the definition of new words, consequently lead to educational and

  5. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

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    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  6. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. Associations between the size of the amygdala in infancy and language abilities during the preschool years in normally developing children.

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    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Choe, Myong-sun; Flax, Judy; Grant, P Ellen; Benasich, April A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, structural MRI studies in children have been used to examine relations between brain volume and behavioral measures. However, most of these studies have been done in children older than 2 years of age. Obtaining volumetric measures in infants is considerably more difficult, as structures are less well defined and largely unmyelinated, making segmentation challenging. Moreover, it is still unclear whether individual anatomic variation across development, in healthy, normally developing infants, is reflected in the configuration and function of the mature brain and, as importantly, whether variation in infant brain structure might be related to later cognitive and linguistic abilities. In this longitudinal study, using T1 structural MRI, we identified links between amygdala volume in normally developing, naturally sleeping, 6-month infants and their subsequent language abilities at 2, 3 and 4 years. The images were processed and manually segmented using Cardviews to extract volumetric measures. Intra-rater reliability for repeated segmentation was 87.73% of common voxel agreement. Standardized language assessments were administered at 6 and 12 months and at 2, 3 and 4 years. Significant and consistent correlations were found between amygdala size and language abilities. Children with larger right amygdalae at 6 months had lower scores on expressive and receptive language measures at 2, 3, and 4 years. Associations between amygdala size and language outcomes have been reported in children with autism. The findings presented here extend this association to normally developing children, supporting the idea that the amygdalae might play an important but as yet unspecified role in mediating language acquisition. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanett Friis Rohde

    Full Text Available Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited.To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years.Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders.No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01 than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74, or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05. Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates.Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  9. Implicit Attitudes towards Children with Autism versus Normally Developing Children as Predictors of Professional Burnout and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amanda; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Tutors trained in applied behaviour analysis (n = 16) and mainstream school teachers (n = 16) were exposed to an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) designed to assess implicit attitudes towards individuals with autism versus normally developing individuals. Participants also completed a range of explicit measures, including measures…

  10. Assessment of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and in hemiplegic children with mild motor impairment: a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla R. P. Figueiredo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The optimization of gait performance is an important goal in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP who present a prognosis associated with locomotion. Gait analysis using videos captured by digital cameras requires validation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of a method that involves the analysis of videos captured using a digital camera for quantifying the temporal parameters of gait in toddlers with normal motor development and children with CP. METHOD: Eleven toddlers with normal motor development and eight children with spastic hemiplegia who were able to walk without assistive devices were asked to walk through a space contained in the visual field of two instruments: a digital camera and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, Qualisys Pro-Reflex. The duration of the stance and swing phases of gait and of the entire gait cycle were calculated by analyzing videos captured by a digital camera and compared to those obtained by Qualisys Pro-Reflex, which is considered a highly accurate system. RESULTS: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC demonstrated excellent agreement (ICC>0.90 between the two procedures for all measurements, except for the swing phase of the normal toddlers (ICC=0.35. The standard error of measurement was less than 0.02 seconds for all measures. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal similarities between the two instruments, suggesting that digital cameras can be valid instruments for quantifying two temporal parameters of gait. This congruence is of clinical and scientific relevance and validates the use of digital cameras as a resource for helping the assessment and documentation of the therapeutic effects of interventions targeted at the gait of children with CP.

  11. Developmental changes in visuo-spatial working memory in normally developing children: event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatchin, Ivan; Lagae, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is very important for normal development. The fronto-parietal neuronal network supporting WM has already been well-studied. Less is known about the cortical activity changes during development of WM. We evaluated the maturation of visual WM network at the electrophysiological level in a group of normally developing children. Multichannel (n=31) event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during a visuo-spatial backmatching task in 69 childrens (6-16 years old). One-backmatching (BM1) and two-backmatching (BM2) tasks were performed. Age-related changes in behavioral parameters (commission and omission errors and reaction times) and ERP parameters (peak amplitudes and latencies) were analyzed between different ages. Clear improvement in performance from young childhood toward adolescence was seen at the behavioral level: decrease of errors and fastening of reaction times. At the electrophysiological level age-related changes were seen in peak latencies and especially in amplitudes. Different peaks have different dynamics in amplitudes and latencies: early peak amplitude decreased and latency shortened with age, which was not always seen in late peaks. This reflects developmental changes in intensity and speed of WM processing. Later peaks were more clearly seen over the right hemisphere in older children, illustrating hemispheric lateralization in visuo-spatial working memory. Our results indicate that not only at the behavioral but also at the electrophysiological level clear age-related dynamics in WM processing can be seen. Furthermore, with ERP we showed that different WM components follow different developmental trajectories. Our work demonstrates that age-related dynamics in intensity and speed of information processing during WM task is reflected in developmental changes in different ERP components. It also states that fronto-parietal visual WM network can be functional even before all its nodes are fully mature. Copyright © 2012 The

  12. BMI Development of Normal Weight and Overweight Children in the PIAMA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Gehring, Ulrike; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with overweight later in life. However, results from studies exploring other critical periods for the development of overweight are inconsistent. Objective: The objective was to investigate BMI

  13. Habilidades de resolução de conflito e ocorrência de disfluências comuns em crianças em desenvolvimento normal de linguagem Conflict resolution abilities and normal disfluencies in normally developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Maria Befi-Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: (1 Investigar as habilidades de resolução de conflito (RC de crianças em idade escolar; (2 Verificar a relação entre a ocorrência de disfluências comuns (DC e o desenvolvimento das habilidades de RC. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 20 crianças em desenvolvimento normal de linguagem, com idades entre sete e dez anos. As crianças foram submetidas a uma triagem, na qual foram realizadas as provas de Fonologia, Consciência Fonológica e Leitura e Escrita; aquelas que obtiveram desempenho esperado para sua faixa etária passaram por avaliação, sendo realizadas as provas de RC e de Fluência. Na prova de RC, as respostas foram categorizadas em 28 categorias, para então, serem pontuadas. Na prova de fluência, foi verificada a ocorrência de DC. RESULTADOS: Na prova de RC, as crianças obtiveram entre 5 e 14 pontos (M=10,7, porém não se observou correlação entre a pontuação total e a idade cronológica (p=0,361. Na prova de Fluência, a ocorrência de DC variou de 4 a 24 (M=10. Observou-se que não há correlação estatística significante entre a pontuação na prova de RC e a ocorrência de DC (p=0,899. CONCLUSÕES: Na prova de RC, as crianças utilizaram principalmente estratégias unilaterais para a resolução dos conflitos e as estratégias não se tornaram mais sofisticadas com o passar da idade. Ao comparar o desempenho das crianças na prova de RC à ocorrência de DC, não foi possível estabelecer relação direta entre as duas variáveis.PURPOSE: The aims of this study were: (1 to investigate conflict resolution (CR abilities in normally developing school-aged children; (2 to verify whether there is a relationship between the occurrence of normal disfluencies (ND and the development of conflict resolution abilities. METHODS: Twenty normally developing children, whose ages ranged between seven and ten, participated in this study. The participants underwent a language screening test, covering the following

  14. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods: Data was obtained from the “Healthy...... Start” intervention study which included 271 children aged 2–6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured...

  15. Development and Validation of the Persian Version of the Acceptable Noise Level (ANL Test in Normal Children Aged 5-8 Years

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    Abdollah Moossavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of the present study was to develop and validate the Persian version of the Acceptable Noise Level (ANL test in normal, Persianspeaking children aged 5-8 years. Methods: This tool-making and non-experimental research was conducted in two stages. In the first stage the proper story was selected and recorded after evaluation of its content validity. In the second stage this test material was administered to a total 181 normal children (97 girls and 84 boys randomly chosen from the population of preschool and primary school children of Tehran (District 5, aged 5-8 years in four age groups to evaluate the reliability of test in order to develop the Persian version of the ANL test and assess its changes during the growth. Lawshe’s method and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were used to assess the content validity and reliability of the test, respectively. Mann– Whitney U test was used to examine gender differences, and Kruskal-Wallis test was to examine age differences. Results: Test-retest correlation of 0.74 indicated acceptable reliability of the test. Significant differences were found between most of different age groups for the ANL mean scores (P0.05. Conclusion: The study results indicated good validity and reliability of the Persian version of the ANL test in children. Therefore this test can be useful in designing classrooms suitable for 5-8 year-old children of both genders.

  16. Normal radiological unossified hip joint space and femoral head size development during growth in 675 children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Veronika; Jorysz, Gabriele; Arnoldi, Andreas; Utzschneider, Sandra; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Heimkes, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of hip joint space width during child growth is important to aid in the early diagnosis of hip pathology in children. We established reference values for hip joint space and femoral head size for each age. Hip joint space development during growth was retrospectively investigated medial and cranial in 1350 hip joints of children using standard anteroposterior supine plain pelvic radiographs. Maximum capital femoral epiphysis diameter and femoral radii were further more investigated. Hip joint space values show a slow decline during growth. Joint space was statistically significantly (p < 0.006) larger in boys than girls. Our hip joint space measurements on supine subjects seem slightly larger than those reported by Hughes on standing subjects. Evaluation of the femoral head diameter and the radii showed a size curve quite parallel to the known body growth charts. Radii medial and perpendicular to the physis are not statistically significantly different. We recommend to compare measurements of hip joint space at two locations to age dependent charts using the same imaging technique. During growth, a divergence in femoral head size from the expected values or loss of the spherical shape should raise the question of hip disorder. Clin. Anat. 30:267-275, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Normal Development and Measurements of the Occipital Condyle-C1 Interval in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Linscott, L L; Vadivelu, S; Zhang, B; Leach, J L

    2016-05-01

    Widening of the occipital condyle-C1 interval is the most specific and sensitive means of detecting atlanto-occipital dislocation. Recent studies attempting to define normal measurements of the condyle-C1 interval in children have varied substantially. This study was performed to test the null hypothesis that condyle-C1 interval morphology and joint measurements do not change as a function of age. Imaging review of subjects undergoing CT of the upper cervical spine for reasons unrelated to trauma or developmental abnormality was performed. Four equidistant measurements were obtained for each bilateral condyle-C1 interval on sagittal and coronal images. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups to calculate the mean, SD, and 95% CIs for the average condyle-C1 interval in both planes. The prevalence of a medial occipital condyle notch was calculated. Two hundred forty-eight joints were measured in 124 subjects with an age range of 2 days to 22 years. The condyle-C1 interval varies substantially by age. Average coronal measurements are larger and more variable than sagittal measurements. The medial occipital condyle notch is most prevalent from 1 to 12 years and is uncommon in older adolescents and young adults. The condyle-C1 interval increases during the first several years of life, is largest in the 2- to 4-year age range, and then decreases through late childhood and adolescence. A single threshold value to detect atlanto-occipital dissociation may not be sensitive and specific for all age groups. Application of this normative data to documented cases of atlanto-occipital injury is needed to determine clinical utility. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Failure of normal development of central drive to ankle dorsiflexors relates to gait deficits in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tue Hvass; Farmer, Simon F; Kliim-Due, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological markers of the central control of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP) are used to assess developmental response to therapy. Here we measure the central common drive to a leg muscle in children with CP. We recorded EMGs from the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle of 40 children...... children tended to strengthen with age, although compared to the control subjects it was slightly weaker. For CP subjects' of all ages the most affected TA muscle common drive was markedly reduced compared both to their least affected muscle and to controls. These differences between the least and most...

  19. Perfil comunicativo de crianças entre 1 e 3 anos com desenvolvimento normal de linguagem Communicative profile of children between 1 and 3-years old with normal language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtes Adiles Sandri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: traçar o perfil comunicativo (habilidades comunicativas e interacionais, compreensão verbal e aspectos do desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças entre 1 e 3 anos com desenvolvimento normal da linguagem, correlacionando com as variáveis faixa etária e gênero. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 24 crianças (12 meninos e 12 meninas, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 (G1 - crianças de 1 e 2 anos e Grupo 2 (G2 - crianças de 2 e 3 anos. O instrumento de avaliação utilizado foi o Protocolo de Observação Comportamental (PROC (Zorzi e Hage, 2004. RESULTADOS: na análise dos dados quantitativos houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparados os grupos por faixa etária (PPURPOSE: to trace the communicative profile (communicative and interactive abilities, verbal comprehension and cognitive development aspects of children with normal linguistic development between 1 and 3-year old, correlating with the variables of age groups and gender. METHODS: twenty-four children (12 boys and 12 girls took part in the study, divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1 - children between 1 and 2-year old, and Group 2 (G2 -children between 2 and 3-year old. The used protocol was Behavioral Observation Protocol ("Protocolo de Observação Comportamental - PROC" (Zorzi and Hage, 2004. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference in the quantitative data when the groups where compared by their age (P<0.05. When comparing qualitative data by their age group, children of the G2 were better (P<0.05, except in the item with regards to the oral language understanding, which resulted being equivalent between the groups (P=0.217. There was no significant statistical difference related to gender, however, we observed superiority in female gender. CONCLUSION: the used test was sensitive for identifying the differences in performance between the two age groups, with regards to the communicative profile of the studied children.

  20. Normal CT in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, T; Okuno, T; Ito, M; Konishi, Y; Yoshioka, M [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    There have been several reports as to normal CT in children. However, they included children with convulsions as normal subjects. In our experience, children with convulsions have an enlargement of the subdural space in the frontal region. Therefore, we studied CT in children without convulsions. Of the 10,000 patients examined with EMI 1000 or EMI 1010 at Kyoto Univ. Hospital from 1976 to 1979, 110 children could be classified into the following types according to their symptoms: 1) Type-1 head injury, without abnormalities in CT resulting from this injury, 2) non-migraining headaches, and 3) others without CT abnormalities who were routinely examined. Previous studies have shown that the enlargement of the subdural space in the frontal region was not abnormal under one year. However, the present study has shown that it was not dilated in children without convulsions. We stressed the usefulness of our newly calculated basal cistern index, because the SD was small and could be readily indentified (this index was under 0.29 in most cases; their SD's were 0.04 in those under one year and 0.02 over one year). The other data were not so different from those of previous studies.

  1. Normal CT in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Tatsuo; Okuno, Takehiko; Ito, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Yoshioka, Mieko

    1980-01-01

    There have been several reports as to normal CT in children. However, they included children with convulsions as normal subjects. In our experience, children with convulsions have an enlargement of the subdural space in the frontal region. Therefore, we studied CT in children without convulsions. Of the 10,000 patients examined with EMI 1000 or EMI 1010 at Kyoto Univ. Hospital from 1976 to 1979, 110 children could be classified into the following types according to their symptoms: 1) Type-1 head injury, without abnormalities in CT resulting from this injury, 2) non-migraining headaches, and 3) others with on CT abnormalities who were routinely examined. Previous studies have shown that the enlargement of the subdural space in the frontal region was not abnormal under one year. However, the present study has shown that it was not dilated in children without convulsions. We stressed the usefulness of our newly calculated basal cistern index, because the SD was small and could be readily indentified (this index was under 0.29 in most cases; their SD's were 0.04 in those under one year and 0.02 over one year). The other data were not so different from those of previous studies. (J.P.N.)

  2. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating......° intervention study which included 271 children aged 2±6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health...

  3. Estimulação ambiental e uso do andador infantil por lactentes com desenvolvimento normal Environmental stimulation and use of a children's baby walkers by infants with normal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Alves de Albuquerque

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a quantidade e qualidade de estímulos ambientais disponíveis para lactentes com desenvolvimento normal que fizeram uso do andador infantil anteriormente à aquisição da marcha independente. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com 24 lactentes distribuídos em dois grupos, sendo 12 do grupo exposto ao andador infantil (AI e 12 do grupo não-exposto (C, mantendo-se equivalência entre grupos em idade, sexo e nível sócio econômico da família. O teste Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME documentou os estímulos oferecidos pelo ambiente. Teste-t de Student para amostras independentes comparou os escores médios do teste HOME de ambos os grupos, considerando o nível de significância α=0,05. RESULTADOS: diferenças no teste HOME foram observadas, tendo o grupo AI obtido escores superiores ao grupo C (p=0,014, com efeito de magnitude fraca (d=0,24. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do voador infantil no período pré-aquisição da marcha por lactentes com desenvolvimento normal, pode estar associado a ambientes domiciliares mais estimuladores.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the quantity and quality of environmental stimuli available to infants with normal development who use a baby walkers prior to learning to walk by themselves. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 24 infants distributed into two groups of twelve: one group of children who had used a baby walkers (BW and 12 who had not (C, with the children in both groups being of equivalent ages, sex, and socio-economic background. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME test provided a documentary Record of the stimuli provided by the environment. Student's t-test for independent samples was used to compare the mean scores on the HOME test of both groups, considering the level of significance to be α=0.05. RESULTS: differences in the HOME scores, with the BW group obtaining higher scores than the control group (p=0.014, with a low magnitude

  4. Handwriting Development in Grade 2 and Grade 3 Primary School Children with Normal, At Risk, or Dysgraphic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvelde, Anneloes; Hulstijn, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    The wide variation in prevalence of dysgraphic handwriting (5-33%) is of clinical importance, because poor handwriting has been identified as one of the most common reasons for referring school-age children to occupational therapy or physiotherapy, and is included as an criterion for the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder. This study…

  5. Application of 3.0T magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the evaluation on the development of normal brain white matter in infants and young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-li XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To calculate the radios of peak area of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in brain white matter of normal infants and young children, to observe the features of metabolite spectra, and to explore the relations between their ratio with age. Methods The peak areas of metabolites, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and their ratio of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, in paraventricular white matter of 180 normal infants and young children with different ages as evaluated by multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results In paraventricular white matter, spectrum of NAA increased, and that of Cho decreased gradually, while both of them were stabilized at 2 years old. Cr was increased obviously within 3 months, and stabilized after 4 months. Significant differences were found in ratio of different metabolites in paraventricular white matter in different ages (P<0.05. The ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in paraventricular white mater were positively correlated with age (r=0.741, r=0.625, while that of Cho/Cr was negatively correlated with age (r=–0.552, P<0.05. Conclusion The ratios of different metabolites are different in brain white matter in infants of different ages. Metabolites concentrations in brain white matter are correlated to some extent with age, which may provide a diagnostic criterion for evaluation of normal brain development and abnormal brain metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.05

  6. Normal range of gastric emptying in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Collins, C.; Francis, L.; Henry, R.; O'Loughlin, E.; John Hunter Children's Hospital, Newcastle, NSW

    1999-01-01

    Full text: As part of a larger study looking at gastric emptying times in cystic fibrosis, we assessed the normal range of gastric emptying in a control group of children. Thirteen children (8 girls, 5 boys) aged 4-15 years (mean 10) were studied. Excluded were children with a history of relevant gastrointestinal medical or surgical disease, egg allergy or medication affecting gastric emptying. Imaging was performed at 08.00 h after an overnight fast. The test meal was consumed in under 15 min and comprised one 50 g egg, 80 g commercial pancake mix, 10 ml of polyunsaturated oil, 40 ml of water and 30 g of jam. The meal was labelled with 99 Tc m -macroaggregates of albumin. Water (150 ml) was also consumed with the test meal. One minute images of 128 x 128 were acquired over the anterior and posterior projections every 5 min for 30 min, then every 15 min until 90 min with a final image at 120 min. Subjects remained supine for the first 60 min, after which they were allowed to walk around. A time-activity curve was generated using the geometric mean of anterior and posterior activity. The half emptying time ranged from 55 to 107 min (mean 79, ± 2 standard deviations 43-115). Lag time (time for 5% to leave stomach) ranged from 2 to 26 min (mean 10). The percent emptied at 60 min ranged from 47 to 73% (mean 63%). There was no correlation of half emptying time with age. The normal reference range for a test meal of pancakes has been established for 13 normal children

  7. Análise dos processos fonológicos em crianças com desenvolvimento fonológico normal Phonological processes analysis in children with normal phonological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ferrante

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar o uso dos processos fonológicos em uma população de crianças com desenvolvimento fonológico normal. MÉTODOS: Fizeram parte da pesquisa 240 crianças, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre três e oito anos. Foram realizadas análises relativas aos processos fonológicos e os dados foram comparados em relação à faixa etária e sexo. RESULTADOS: A análise dos resultados permitiu concluir que aos três, quatro e cinco anos os processos de redução de encontro consonantal, lateralização e apagamento de consoante final foram os mais utilizados. A metátese foi o segundo processo mais utilizado na faixa etária de seis anos, aparecendo em terceiro lugar na faixa etária de sete anos. Em relação ao número de processos fonológicos utilizados por faixa etária, aos três anos de idade as crianças utilizaram um mínimo de dois processos e a partir da faixa etária de quatro anos o número mínimo de processos fonológicos utilizados foi zero e o número máximo diminuiu gradativamente de acordo com o aumento da faixa etária, assim como a média. Em relação à variável sexo, não foi observada nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante em nenhuma das análises realizadas nesta pesquisa. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados encontrados nesta pesquisa evidenciam a dificuldade encontrada pelas crianças na produção das líquidas e nas estruturas silábicas mais complexas.PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to verify the use of phonological processes in a group of children with normal phonological development. METHODS: The participants were 240 children of both genders, aged between three and eight years. Analyses regarding phonological processes were carried out, and the data were compared considering age and gender. RESULTS: The results allowed the conclusion that at the ages of three, four and five years the most frequently used processes were cluster reduction, lateralization, and final

  8. Normal values for cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Harkel, A.D.J.; Takken, T.; van Osch-Gevers, M.; Helbing, W.A.

    BACKGROUND: A reference set of data of normal values of newly developed cardiopulmonary parameters of exercise testing in an 8-18-year-old population is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed in 175 healthy school children (8-18 years old). Continuous

  9. Describing normal development in an African setting : The utility of the Kilifi Developmental Inventory among young children at the Kenyan coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia; Holding, Penny; Abubakar, Amina; Kvalsvig, Jane; Taylor, H. Gerry; King, Christopher L.

    The Kilifi Developmental Inventory (KDI) is a tool developed in Kenya for the assessment of psychomotor development in infants and young children. We developed age-appropriate standards against which the developmental progress of individual children could be tracked. The current report is based on

  10. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  11. Visualization of the normal appendix with MR enterography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Rosenbaum, Daniel; Brill, Paula W. [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mazumdar, Madhu; Dunning, Allison [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may provide a radiation-sparing alternative to CT in diagnosing appendicitis in children in whom US is equivocal. However, comparability with CT in the detection of the appendix remains to be established. To determine the detection rate of the normal appendix in children on oral and IV contrast-enhanced MRI. MR imaging of 58 patients who had previously undergone MR enterography was retrospectively reviewed. Detection rate, body mass index, age and gender were recorded. The normal appendix was detected in 28 cases (48 %), with greatest detection rate on the axial fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequence. Children in whom the appendix was detected had significantly higher BMI compared to children in whom the appendix was not seen. Neither age nor gender demonstrated a significant association with detection rate. The detection rate of the normal appendix in children on oral and IV contrast-enhanced MRI was 48 %, which is comparable to detection rates on CT, as well as to previously reported detection rates on MR imaging with neither oral nor IV contrast agents. These findings may serve to guide the development of MRI protocols for pediatric appendicitis. (orig.)

  12. PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR, STRABISMUS AND AMBLYOPIA AMONG CHILDREN WITH NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY/INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY ATTENDING OPHTHALMOLOGY OPD AT KLES HOSPITAL, BELAGAVI- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha K. S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Global developmental delay/intellectual disability are on a rise in children in the present time. Ocular and visual anomalies are frequently associated with it of which refractive errors are the most frequent. This if goes unnoticed leads to strabismus and amblyopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error, strabismus and amblyopia among children with normal development or global developmental delay/intellectual disability attending ophthalmology OPD at KLES Hospital, Belagavi. Case records of all 200 new patients less than or equal to 12 years of age group who attended KLES, Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital between January 2015 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS The male:female ratio was 1.22:1. Out of the total evaluated 200 cases, 130 cases were with normal development and 70 with GDD/ID. Refractive errors were 85%, whereas the cases of amblyopia was 45.50% and strabismus 39.50%. Amblyopia with refractive error having GDD/ID was stastically significant as compared to amblyopia with refractive error having normal development (p=0.001. CONCLUSION Refractive error was the most common ocular disorder seen. Refractive error with amblyopia is more in children with GDD/ID as compared to normal children. Owing to the high percentage of visual anomalies, ophthalmological referral becomes essential in children with developmental anomalies.

  13. Exploring the Link between Visual Perception, Visual-Motor Integration, and Reading in Normal Developing and Impaired Children using DTVP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchi, Stéphanie; Muneaux, Mathilde; Huau, Andréa; Lévêque, Yohana; Jover, Marianne; Ducrot, Stéphanie

    2017-08-01

    Reading is known to be primarily a linguistic task. However, to successfully decode written words, children also need to develop good visual-perception skills. Furthermore, motor skills are implicated in letter recognition and reading acquisition. Three studies have been designed to determine the link between reading, visual perception, and visual-motor integration using the Developmental Test of Visual Perception version 2 (DTVP-2). Study 1 tests how visual perception and visual-motor integration in kindergarten predict reading outcomes in Grade 1, in typical developing children. Study 2 is aimed at finding out if these skills can be seen as clinical markers in dyslexic children (DD). Study 3 determines if visual-motor integration and motor-reduced visual perception can distinguish DD children according to whether they exhibit or not developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Results showed that phonological awareness and visual-motor integration predicted reading outcomes one year later. DTVP-2 demonstrated similarities and differences in visual-motor integration and motor-reduced visual perception between children with DD, DCD, and both of these deficits. DTVP-2 is a suitable tool to investigate links between visual perception, visual-motor integration and reading, and to differentiate cognitive profiles of children with developmental disabilities (i.e. DD, DCD, and comorbid children). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pattern visual evoked potentials in dyslexic versus normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Heravian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sensitivity of PVEP has high validity to detect visual deficits in children with dyslexic problem. However, no significant difference was found between dyslexia and normal children using high contrast stimuli.

  15. Predicting social functioning in children with a cochlear implant and in normal-hearing children: the role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiefferink, Carin H; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; Frijns, Johan H M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare children with a cochlear implant and normal hearing children on aspects of emotion regulation (emotion expression and coping strategies) and social functioning (social competence and externalizing behaviors) and the relation between emotion regulation and social functioning. Participants were 69 children with cochlear implants (CI children) and 67 normal hearing children (NH children) aged 1.5-5 years. Parents answered questionnaires about their children's language skills, social functioning, and emotion regulation. Children also completed simple tasks to measure their emotion regulation abilities. Cochlear implant children had fewer adequate emotion regulation strategies and were less socially competent than normal hearing children. The parents of cochlear implant children did not report fewer externalizing behaviors than those of normal hearing children. While social competence in normal hearing children was strongly related to emotion regulation, cochlear implant children regulated their emotions in ways that were unrelated with social competence. On the other hand, emotion regulation explained externalizing behaviors better in cochlear implant children than in normal hearing children. While better language skills were related to higher social competence in both groups, they were related to fewer externalizing behaviors only in cochlear implant children. Our results indicate that cochlear implant children have less adequate emotion-regulation strategies and less social competence than normal hearing children. Since they received their implants relatively recently, they might eventually catch up with their hearing peers. Longitudinal studies should further explore the development of emotion regulation and social functioning in cochlear implant children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reading and visual search: a developmental study in normal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Seassau

    Full Text Available Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behaviour during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and during visual search tasks in a large population of normal young readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using an infrared video-oculography system in sixty-nine children (aged 6 to 15 and in a group of 10 adults (aged 24 to 39. The main findings are (i in both tasks the number of progressive saccades (to the right and regressive saccades (to the left decreases with age; (ii the amplitude of progressive saccades increases with age in the reading task only; (iii in both tasks, the duration of fixations as well as the total duration of the task decreases with age; (iv in both tasks, the amplitude of disconjugacy recorded during and after the saccades decreases with age; (v children are significantly more accurate in reading than in visual search after 10 years of age. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children's reading. The new finding is that younger children show poorer coordination than adults, both while reading and while performing a visual search task. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age and children reach a similar level to adults after the age of 10. This finding is most likely related to the fact that learning mechanisms responsible for saccade yoking develop during childhood until adolescence.

  17. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  18. Pneumatisation of the maxillary sinus in normal and symptomatic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odita, J.C.; Akamaguna, A.I.; Ugbodaga, C.I.; Ogisi, F.O.; Amu, O.D.

    1986-01-01

    The pattern of pneumatisation and normal width of the maxillary sinus in 191 Nigerian infants and children whose age range was 6 months to 14 years was determined. Fifty-four percent of children with no respiratory tract or sinus infection had opaque maxillary sinus. A figure of 44.5% was obtained amongst children with suspected bronchopneumonia. Only 41.5% of suspected cases of sinusitis, acute and chronic middle ear disease had opaque sinus. The highest rate of sinus opacity was seen in children under 2 years who were asymptomatic. The mean maximal width of normally aerated sinus was 8.74 mm for children under 2 years, 16.5 mm for 3-6 years, 21.5 mm for 7-11 years and 25 mm for children 12 years and above. We conclude that maxillary sinus opacity in our experience is an unreliable index for the diagnosis of sinusitis in children. (orig.)

  19. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in child......Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used...

  20. Physical Development: What's Normal? What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Physical Development: What’s Normal? What’s Not? Page Content Article ... growth . The timing and speed of a child's physical development can vary a lot, because it is ...

  1. Comparison of Social Interaction between Cochlear-Implanted Children with Normal Intelligence Undergoing Auditory Verbal Therapy and Normal-Hearing Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Yadegari, Fariba; Hashemi, Seyed Basir; Kirchem, Petra; Kasbi, Fatemeh

    2018-04-01

    A cochlear implant is a device that helps hearing-impaired children by transmitting sound signals to the brain and helping them improve their speech, language, and social interaction. Although various studies have investigated the different aspects of speech perception and language acquisition in cochlear-implanted children, little is known about their social skills, particularly Persian-speaking cochlear-implanted children. Considering the growing number of cochlear implants being performed in Iran and the increasing importance of developing near-normal social skills as one of the ultimate goals of cochlear implantation, this study was performed to compare the social interaction between Iranian cochlear-implanted children who have undergone rehabilitation (auditory verbal therapy) after surgery and normal-hearing children. This descriptive-analytical study compared the social interaction level of 30 children with normal hearing and 30 with cochlear implants who were conveniently selected. The Raven test was administered to the both groups to ensure normal intelligence quotient. The social interaction status of both groups was evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. After controlling age as a covariate variable, no significant difference was observed between the social interaction scores of both the groups (p > 0.05). In addition, social interaction had no correlation with sex in either group. Cochlear implantation followed by auditory verbal rehabilitation helps children with sensorineural hearing loss to have normal social interactions, regardless of their sex.

  2. Tendências da aquisição lexical em crianças em desenvolvimento normal e crianças com Alterações Específicas no Desenvolvimento da Linguagem Trends on lexical acquisition in children within normal development and children with developmental language disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Perina Gândara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever as semelhanças e diferenças encontradas ao longo da aquisição lexical por crianças em desenvolvimento normal e crianças com Alterações Específicas no Desenvolvimento da Linguagem (AEDL, por meio de um amplo levantamento bibliográfico em bases de dados (SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Web of Science, Dedalus, que abrangeu as últimas décadas de estudos na área. Os estudos selecionados, de natureza observacional ou experimental, mostraram grande variedade de achados relacionados ao desenvolvimento do vocabulário, abrangendo as tendências e variações e também outras habilidades envolvidas no processo de aquisição lexical. De maneira geral, os resultados sugerem que as alterações lexicais que constituem um dos marcos inicialmente observados em crianças com AEDL são justificadas por dificuldades observadas em habilidades e/ou características influenciadas ou diretamente relacionadas aos mecanismos envolvidos no processamento da informação, que comprometem a qualidade e a recuperação das representações fonológicas e semânticas correspondentes a um novo item lexical. Entretanto, vários estudos sugerem que situações ostensivas e de grande suporte contextual que enfoquem poucas novas palavras favorecem a aquisição lexical de crianças com AEDL.The aim of the present study was to describe the similarities and differences found throughout lexical acquisition between normally developing children and children with developmental language disorder through an extensive literature review. The search was carried out in the databases SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Web of Science and Dedalus, and covered the last decades of studies in the area. The selected studies, of observational or experimental nature, showed great variability of findings related to vocabulary development, describing tendencies and variations, and also other abilities enrolled in the lexical acquisition process. Generally, the

  3. Antitissue Transglutaminase Normalization Postdiagnosis in Children With Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Daniela Migliarese; Rajani, Seema; Yaskina, Maryna; Huynh, Hien Q; Turner, Justine M

    2017-08-01

    Limited pediatric data exist examining the trend and predictors of antitissue transglutaminase (atTG) normalization over time in children with celiac disease (CD). We aimed to evaluate time to normalization of atTG in children after CD diagnosis, and to assess for independent predictors affecting this duration. A retrospective chart review was completed in pediatric patients with CD diagnosed from 2007 to 2014 at the Stollery Children's Hospital Celiac Clinic (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada). The clinical predictors assessed for impact on time to atTG normalization were initial atTG, Marsh score at diagnosis, gluten-free diet compliance (GFDC), age at diagnosis, sex, ethnicity, medical comorbidities, and family history of CD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was completed to assess time to atTG normalization, and Cox regression to assess for independent predictors of this time. A total of 487 patients met inclusion criteria. Approximately 80.5% of patients normalized atTG levels. Median normalization time was 407 days for all patients (95% confidence interval [CI: 361-453]), and 364 days for gluten-free diet compliant patients (95% CI [335-393]). Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients took significantly longer to normalize at 1204 days (95% CI [199-2209], P normalization time. GFDC was a significant predictor of earlier normalization (OR = 13.91 [7.86-24.62], P normalization. Patients with T1DM are less likely to normalize atTG levels, with longer normalization time. Additional research and education for higher-risk populations are needed.

  4. The Phonemic Awareness Skills of Cochlear Implant Children and Children with Normal Hearing in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dashtelei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Phonemic awareness skills have a significant impact on children speech and language. The purpose of this study was investigating the phonemic awareness skills of children with cochlear implant and normal hearing peers in primary school. Methods: phonemic awareness subscales of phonological awareness test were administered to 30 children with cochlear implantation at the first to sixth grades of primary school and 30 children with normal hearing who were matched in age with cochlear implant group. All of children were between 6 to 11 years old. Children with cochlear implant had at least 1 to 2 years of implant experience and they were over 5 years when they receive implantation. Children with cochlear implant were selected from Special education centers in Tehran and children with normal hearing were recruited from primary schools in Tehran. The phonemic awareness skills were assessed in both groups. Results: The results showed that the Mean scores of phonemic awareness skills in cochlear implant children were significantly lower than children with normal hearing (P<.0001. Discussion: children with cochlear implant, despite Cochlear implantation prosthesis, had lower performance in phonemic awareness when compared with normal hearing children. Therefore, due to importance of phonemic awareness skills in learning of literacy skills, and defects of these skills in children with cochlear implant, these skills should be assessed carefully in children with cochlear implant and rehabilitative interventions should be considered.

  5. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scania Riendravi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Family have an important role as a basic of emotional and social development. Friendships also influence the psychosocial development of the children. Psychosocial development of children will be improved with changes in their knowledge and understanding of the needs and regulations. Understand the psychosocial development of the children will help the parents and teachers educate their childrens / students and optimize the process of development in a proper way. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Uroflowmetry in neurologically normal children with voiding disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Nielsen, K.K.; Kristensen, E S

    1985-01-01

    of neurological deficits underwent a complete diagnostic program including intravenous urography, voiding cystography and cystoscopy as well as spontaneous uroflowmetry, cystometry-emg and pressure-flow-emg study. The incidence of dyssynergia was 22%. However, neither the flow curve pattern nor single flow...... variables were able to identify children with dyssynergia. Consequently uroflowmetry seems inefficient in the screening for dyssynergia in neurological normal children with voiding disorders in the absence of anatomical bladder outlet obstruction....

  7. Normal Hg uptake values in children under 4 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    At birth the child's kidney is anatomically and functionally immature and the Hg uptake rate is only a quarter that of an adult. At 12 months this value is already 3/4 that of the adult and the final normal mature values are reached between 3 and 4 years. A curve of normal values for children below 4 years old is proposed, though being based on a small number of measurements only it must be taken as provisional [fr

  8. Normal motor milestone development for use to promote child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdin A. Husaini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Motor behavior is an essential aspect of child development, and usually assessed in terms of age of achievement of motor milestone. The early detection of infants experiencing subtle delays in motor maturation can allow early intervention in developmental problems. Intervention can be more effective if delays are identified early. In order to facilitate the identification of early delays, the Center of Nutrition and Foods Research and Development in Bogor has designed a simple tool to monitor the child (aged 3 to 18 months motor development. Objective To develop an observable of normal gross motor maturation for use to detect deviance or motor delay. Methods A total of 2100 healthy children, aged 3-18 months, from high socio-economic group, in urban and suburban areas, were studied. Body length, weight and motor development were measured on all children. Gross motor development was measured 17 pre selected milestones: lie, sit, crawl, creep, stand Mth assistance, walk with assistance, stand alone, walk alone, and run. Results There were no differences between males and females in the comparison of attainment motor maturation therefore a sex combined curve was developed. Conclusion The curve of normal motor milestone development can be used as a tool to evaluate motor development over time, and/or as a child development card for use in primary health care.

  9. CT assessment of normal splenic size in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prassopoulos, P.; Cavouras, D.

    1994-01-01

    The size of the normal spleen was estimated by CT in 153 children, examined with indication unrelated to splenic disease. In each patient the width, thickness, length and volume of the spleen were calculated. Measurements were also normalized to the transverse diameter of the body of the first lumbar vertebra. The spleen underwent significant growth during the first 4 years of life and reached maximum size at the age of 13. There were no differences in splenic volume between boys and girls. Splenic thickness correlated best with normal splenic volume. The strongest correlation was also found between splenic thickness and volume in a group of 45 children with clinically evident splenomegaly. Splenic thickness, an easy-to-use measurement, may be employed in everyday practice to represent splenic volume on CT. (orig.)

  10. Structural and functional perspectives on classification and seriation in psychotic and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, L; Cowan, P A

    1984-02-01

    This study describes a strategy for examining cognitive functioning in psychotic and normal children without the usual confounding effects of marked differences in cognitive structure that occur when children of the same age are compared. Participants were 14 psychotic children, 12 males and 2 females, mean age 9-2, matched with normal children at preoperational and concrete operational stage levels on a set of Piagetian classification tasks. The mean age of the normal children was 6-4, replicating the usually found developmental delay in psychotic samples. Participants were then compared on both structural level and functional abilities on a set of tasks involving seriation of sticks; the higher-level children were also administered a seriation drawing task. Analysis of children's processes of seriating and seriation drawings indicated that over and above the structural retardation, psychotic children at all levels showed functional deficits, especially in the use of anticipatory imagery. The implications for general developmental theory are that progress in structural development is not sufficient for imaginal development, and that structural development of logical concepts is relatively independent of the development of imagery. It was suggested that "thought disorder" may not be a disordered structure of thinking or a retardation in psychotic populations but rather a mismatch between higher-level logical structures and lower-level functions.

  11. [Clinical correlation of hypnagogic hypersynchrony during sleep in normal children and those with learning disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos G de Alba, G; Fraire-Martínez, M I; Valenzuela-Romero, R

    One of the electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that can be mistaken for paroxysmal clinical activity, when not taken into account and especially in children, is hypnagogic hypersynchrony (HH). This consists in generalised, paroxysmal, synchronic, symmetrical, slow, high voltage waves lasting 2 8 seconds, which appear in drowsiness and in stage I. It was observed that this pattern often appeared in children with learning disability (LD). AIMS. To correlate clinical data with the presence of HH during sleep in normal children and those with LD. We assessed 180 children between the ages of 6 12 years with normal neurological development, 130 of which suffered LD and 50 who did not have LD. EEG was performed with sleep deprivation, following the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology guidelines. The presence or absence of HH, together with its characteristics, was assessed. Of the children with LD, 35.38% displayed HH and of the children without LD, only 4% displayed HH. Since the characteristics of HH in the children with LD were different to previous descriptions, we put forward criteria with which to evaluate those differences. HH appeared more often in children with LD than in normal children. Qualitative, quantitative (p< 0.05) and morphological changes were found in the paroxysmal activity of HH during the stages of sleep in children with LD.

  12. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Vlaskamp, Björn N. S.; Boonstra, F. Nienke

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n = 11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n = 11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n = 26).

  13. Can the Children's Communication Checklist differentiate between children with autism, children with ADHD, and normal controls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Verte, S.; Osterlaan, J.; Roeyers, H; Hartman, C.A.; Mulder, Erik J.; Berckelaer-Onnes, I.A.; Sergeant, J.A.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, IA

    2004-01-01

    Background:  The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC; Bishop, 1998) is a questionnaire that was developed to measure pragmatic language use and may be completed by parents and teachers. Two studies are reported, which were designed to investigate: (1) whether children with Attention Deficit

  14. Understanding Emotions from Standardized Facial Expressions in Autism and Normal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Fulvia

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the recognition of standardized facial expressions of emotion (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise) at a perceptual level (experiment 1) and at a semantic level (experiments 2 and 3) in children with autism (N= 20) and normally developing children (N= 20). Results revealed that children with autism were as…

  15. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  16. Mesenteric lymph nodes in children: what is normal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmazyn, Boaz; Werner, Elizabeth A.; Rejaie, Babak; Applegate, Kimberly E.

    2005-01-01

    Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) are frequently seen in children with abdominal pain and, in the absence of other disorders, have been attributed to primary mesenteric lymphadenitis. To evaluate the prevalence of enlarged MLN (short axis ≥5 mm) as detected by abdominal CT in children with a low likelihood for mesenteric lymphadenopathy. During a 14-month period, we identified all non-contrast abdominal CT examinations performed at a tertiary care pediatric hospital for evaluation of suspected or known renal stones. Two radiologists reviewed the examinations and recognized all enlarged MLN, measured the short-axis diameter, and noted the quadrant location. Sixty-one children were identified who met entry criteria; mean age was 10.7 years (range 1.1-17.3 years). Enlarged MLN were found in 33 (54%) of the 61 children; the largest enlarged MLN was most frequently in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) (29 of 33, 88%). Seventeen of the 61 children (28%) had three or more enlarged MLN; all were in the RLQ. The largest short-axis diameter measured was 10 mm. Summary: MLN with a short-axis diameter of >5-10 mm are commonly found on abdominal CT examination of children with a low likelihood for mesenteric lymphadenopathy and should be considered a non-specific finding. A short-axis diameter of 8 mm might better define the upper limit of normal mesenteric lymph node size in children. (orig.)

  17. CT numbers of liver and spleen in normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kim

    2002-01-01

    To determine the mean liver CT numbers, and differences between liver and spleen, and liver and back muscle CT numbers in normal children, and to correlate the findings with sex and age. One hundred and five normal children aged 2-14 years underwent pre-contrast CT scanning. Mean CT numbers of the liver, spleen, and back muscles were calculated, as well as the differences in CT numbers between the liver and spleen (liver-spleen CT numbers), and between the liver-back muscle CT numbers were 70.22±6.51 HU, 53.28±3.57 HU, 17.13±6.57 HU, and 11.88±5.94 HU, respectively. Mean liver CT numbers and the difference between liver and back muscle CT numbers were not different by age. By sex, all the CT numbers did not vary according to age. The sex of a subject did not affect the CT number. The children's mean liver CT number was 70.22±6.51 HU and the difference between liver and spleen CT numbers was 17.13±6.57 HU. Younger children had higher liver CT and liver-spleen CT numbers than older children. No CT numbers varied according to sex

  18. Comparing the drawings of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal children.

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    Mahnaz Haghighi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common behavioral problem during childhood and in school-aged children. Various projection drawings have been designed for assessing children's personality and psychological disorders including the tests of draw a person (DAP and draw a family (DAF. We aimed to compare the differences between typically developing children and children with ADHD using these tests.In this case-control study, all the 9-10 year-old boy students studying at the third and fourth grades were enrolled from schools in the 2nd educational district of Shiraz, south of Iran. Eighty students were then selected and enrolled into the ADHD group and the control group. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition- text Revised (DSM-IV-TR, and the Child Symptoms Inventory were used to diagnose the children with ADHD. We evaluated and analyzed impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness, emotional problems and incompatibility indices in the DAP and DAF tests in each group.A significant difference was found in the indices of incompatibility and emotional problems, impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness and DAF between typically developing children and those with ADHD. The mean (±SD total scores of the above mentioned indices in the ADHD group were 19.79(±2.94, 12.31(±1.84, 5.26(±2.29 and 5.89(±2.13, respectively (P<0.001. The corresponding figures for these indices in the normal group were 12.11(±4.74, 5.63(±2, 10.36± (2.33 and 2.88(±2.13, respectively (P<0.001.Significant differences were obtained between the control group and children with ADHD using these two drawing tests. The rate of impulsivity and emotional problems indices in drawings of children with ADHD was markedly more common than those of the typically developing children. This suggests the need for further assessment to screen ADHD.

  19. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael; Møller, Per; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-01

    Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight with a mean age of 11.6 years (range 6-18 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 2.71 (range 1.29-4.60). The 37 normal weight children had a mean age of 13.0 years (range 6-19 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 0.16 (range -1.71 to 1.24). All children completed a half-hour long meal test consisting of alternation between consumption of foods and answering of questionnaires. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight children displayed lower self-reported intake paces (χ 2 (2) = 6.3, p = 0.04), higher changes in liking for mozzarella (F(1,63) = 9.55, p = 0.003) and pretzels (F(1,87) = 5.27, p = 0.024), and declines in wanting for something fat, of which the normal weight children displayed an increase (F(1,83) = 4,10, p = 0.046). No differences were found for sensory-specific satiety, wanting for the main food yoghurt, hunger, or satiety. In conclusion, overweight children did not differ from normal weight children in terms of sensory-specific satiety, hunger, or satiety. However, overweight children had lower intake paces and appeared to differ from normal weight children regarding foods with a fatty taste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

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    Bindu Meethale Veettil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychiatric settings in Kerala, India, and also from parents having normal children. Random sampling was used for selecting the sample. All the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder in the age group of 6 to 12 reported in the psychiatric settings on a random day is selected as sample. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Depression in parents affect their skills in caregiving, support to their children, nurturance and it will affect proper development of children physically and mentally. Similarly, conduct disorder in children will affect their parents mental and social functioning and their life functioning and the parents maybe suffering from depression. Mothers of children with conduct disorders are reported to have exhibit more depressed and they show very poor parenting skills and negative interactions with their children compared to normal mothers. Parents having children with conduct disorder did have higher intensity of depression compared to parents having normal children. CONCLUSION The study hopes to make contributions in identifying the intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder and it’s serious and least recognised impact on their parents. The study will also help to find out the areas in which parents need intervention and to decide which type of therapy will be more helpful to the family as a whole. Identifying and understanding the relevant and feasible components of therapy can then facilitate

  1. Speech Respiratory Measures in Spastic Cerebral Palsied and Normal Children

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    Hashem Shemshadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research is designed to determine speech respiratory measures in spastic cerebral palsied children versus normal ones, to be used as an applicable tool in speech therapy plans.  Materials & Methods: Via a comparative cross-sectional study (case–control, and through a directive goal oriented sampling in case and convenience approach for controls twenty spastic cerebral palsied and twenty control ones with age (5-12 years old and sex (F=20, M=20 were matched and identified. All possible inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered by thorough past medical, clinical and para clinical such as chest X-ray and Complete Blood Counts reviews to rule out any possible pulmonary and/or systemic disorders. Their speech respiratory indices were determined by Respirometer (ST 1-dysphonia, made and normalized by Glasgow University. Obtained data were analyzed by independent T test. Results: There were significant differences between cases and control groups for "mean tidal volume", "phonatory volume" and "vital capacity" at a=0/05 values and these values in patients were less (34% than normal children (P<0/001. Conclusion: Measures obtained are highly crucial for speech therapist in any speech therapy primary rehabilitative plans for spactic cerebral palsied children.

  2. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Sub; Kim, Jong Chul; Kang, Yong Soo; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Wol

    1997-01-01

    To measure the mean size of the various portions of the corpus callosum in normal Korean children, using MR imaging. Our subjects were 166 children (male : female=100 : 66) aged under 15 whose findings on MR imaging and neurologic examination were normal. Using midsagittal T1-weighted imaging, we measured the length of the brain and corpus callosum, the height of the latter, and the thickness of its genu body, transitional zone and splenium. The measurements were statistically analysed according to age and sex. Brain length and the size of the various portions of the corpus callosum tended to increase relatively rapidly during the first three years of life, but the rate of growth tended to decrease according to age. The mean lenght of the brain and corpus callosum and the mean thickness of the splenium of the corpus callosum did not differ according to sex. The mean thickness of the genu, body and transitional zone of the corpus callosum was greater in males than in females. The ratio of the length of the corpus callosum to the anteroposterior diameter of the brain was significantly greater in females than in males (alpha=0.05). Using MR imaging, we measured the mean sizes of the various portions of the corpus callosum in normal children;these values may provide a useful basis for determing changes occurring in its structure

  3. Results of radionuclide ventriculography in normal children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Krejcir, M.; Ruth, C.

    1989-01-01

    In order to assess the range of normal values in radionuclide ventriculography, 53 normal children and adolescents were selected in retrospect. All were exdamined by radionuclide angiocardiography on account of clinical and echocardiographical suspicion of congenital heart disease with a left-to-right shunt; a significant shunt was, however, excluded. In all patients, after equilibration of the radiopharmaceutical the ventricular function was examined by radionuclide ventriculography. The usual volume, time and rate characteristics were evaluated. The normal range was defined as the mean ±2 standard deviations which is 47 to 72% for the ejection fraction of the left ventricle and 31 to 56% for the ejection fraction of the right ventricle. (author). 2 tabs., 18 refs

  4. Linguistically deprived children: meta-analysis of published research underlines the importance of early syntactic language use for normal brain development

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    Andrey Vyshedskiy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed all published reports of individuals not exposed to syntactic language until puberty: two feral children, who grew up without hearing any language, and eight deaf linguistic isolates, who grew up communicating to their families using homesign or kitchensign, a system of gestures which allows them to communicate simple commands but lacks much in the way of syntax. A common observation in these individuals is the lifelong difficulty understanding syntax and spatial prepositions, even after many years of rehabilitation. This debilitating condition stands in stark contrast to linguistic isolates’ performance on memory as well as semantic tests: they could easily remember hundreds of newly learned words and identify previously seen objects by name. The lack of syntactic language comprehension in linguistic isolates may stem from inability to understand words and/or grammar or inability to mentally synthesize known objects into novel configurations. We have previously shown that purposeful construction of novel mental images is the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC ability to dynamically control posterior cortex neurons (Vyshedskiy et al. 2017. Here we have ranked all tests performed on linguistic isolates by their reliance on the LPFC control of the posterior cortex: a the amount of posterior cortex territory that needs to be recruited by the LPFC and b the number of disparate objects that have to be combined together by the LPFC in order to answer the test question. According to our analysis, linguistic isolates performed well in all tests that did not involve the LPFC control of the posterior cortex, showed decreasing scores in tests that involved greater recruitment of the posterior cortex by the LPFC, and failed in tests that involved greatest recruitment of posterior cortex necessary for mental synthesis of multiple objects. This pattern is consistent with inadequate frontoposterior connections in linguistic isolates

  5. Broader Autism Phenotype in Iranian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders vs. Normal Children

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children.Method: Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD (n=124, Asperger Syndrome (AS or High Functioning Autism (HFA (n=48 and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS (n=32 by psychiatrists based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4thedition (DSM-IV-TR criteria. In the control group, 210 (108 fathers and 102 mothers parents of typically developing children. Parents of typically developing children were selected from four primary schools. Based on family reports, their children did not have any psychiatric problems. Total AQ score and each of the 5 subscales were analyzed using two-way ANOVAs with sex and group as factors.Results: The mean age of ASD fathers was 40.6 years (SD=5.96; range 31-54, and of ASD mothers was 34.7 years (SD=4.55; range 28-45. The mean age of control fathers was 37 years (SD=4.6; range 29-45 and of control mothers was 34.11 years (SD=4.86; range 28-45. Group differences were found in age (p‹0/001. On total AQ, a main effect for group and sex was found. ASD parents scored higher than controls (F(1,410=77.876, P‹0/001 and males scored higher than females (F(1,410=23.324, P‹0/001. Also, Group by Sex interaction was significant (F(1,410=4.986, P‹0/05. Results of MANOVA analysis displayed significant differences between ASD's subgroups on total AQ and subscales scores (F (15, 1121 = 13.924, p<0.0005; Wilk's Lambda= 0.624, partial =0.145. Pairwise comparisons between ASD's subgroups and Normal group showed that mean scores for the

  6. Prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children in Ardabil, North Western Iran

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    Shahrooz Nemati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal children were selected by cluster sampling from elementary, guidance and high schools of Ardabil city and 423 couples parenting disabled children were selected non-randomly among which 130 had deaf children. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of consanguineous marriage and chi-square test to compare prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of normal and deaf children.Results: Descriptive analyses showed that 80 out of 130 (61.54% parents who had deaf children have had consanguineous marriage. Furthermore data analysis demonstrated that prevalence of consanguineous marriage was significantly higher among parents of deaf children (p<0.001.Conclusion: Consanguineous marriage plays a major role in expression of recessive genes and could lead to development of various handicaps including deafness. Increasing couples' awareness about consequences of consanguineous marriage and conducting genetic counseling are indispensable.

  7. [Psychomotor development and its disorders: between normal and pathological development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Agustina; Bibiana Orden, Alicia

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses some aspects of psychomotor development and its disorders, with special emphasis on psychomotor retardation. Diagnostic classifications of psychomotor problems, such as DSM-IV and CIE-10, are referred to and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The concept of normality as a synonym for the statistical mean in the context of psychomotor disorders is also analyzed in order to consider its dynamic and variability, thereby avoiding the normality/pathology opposition, while some issues, such as the social and cultural aspects, are highlighted, making it possible to rethink the universality and relativity of psychomotor development.

  8. Substance Abuse Disorders in the Parents of ADHD Children, and Parents of Normal Children

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    Ahmad Alipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children, the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL, Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  9. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed

  10. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  11. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Physical fitness in children with probable developmental coordination disorder and normal body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Yukiko Hiraga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p182   Changes in body mass index (BMI due to various factors, such as a low level of physical activity, are often associated with poor physical fitness in children with prob-able developmental coordination disorder (pDCD. This study examined whether children with pDCD would show poorer performance in terms of physical fitness when compared with their typically developing (TD peers. Thirty two children with pDCD and normal BMI and other 32 children with TD and normal BMI, matched by gender, age and BMI, performed the sit and reach, standing long jump, curl-up, modified pull-up and 9-min run tests. The children in the pDCD group showed lower explosive power, muscle strength and endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness than children in the TD group. Overall, children with pDCD had lower levels of physical fitness, even with normal BMI.

  13. VISUAL ABILITY IN AMBLYOPIC CHILDREN COMPARED TO CHILDREN WITH NORMAL VISUAL ACUITY

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    Zorica Tončić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vision rehabilitation in adults with low vision, even in children, is achieved with special devices, called low vision aids, LVA. The aim of the study is to determine the degree of visual function in amblyopic children and daily activities that are best related to those of normally sighted peers with normal visual acuity. The subjects were divided into two groups, matched 1:1 by age and gender: the first group consisted of 19 amblyopic children, and the second one consisted of 19 children with normal visual acuity. The questionnaire used to assess visual ability was Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC, a reliable instrument for measuring visual ability in children with low vision. The study was conducted in the only rehabilitation center for amblyopic children in this region, so this is also a pioneer study. The overall result of CVAQC in amblyopic children was 1.287 log vs.-2.956, representing statistically significantly poorer visual ability in comparison to peers without vision deficit (p˂0.005. Amblyopic children function best in entertainment activities, especially in listening music (-2.31 log; as for sport, these children report swimming to be their favourite activity (-0.99 log. In the field of education they show best results in language acquisition (-0.79 log and the worst in mathematics (3.13 log. The greatest problem is reading small print texts books (2.61 log. Low vision children have poorer result of visual function in comparison to their peers with normal visual acuity. A precise deficit assessment in the most important spheres of life can be determined by using the questionnaires, so the rehabilitation can be rightly chosen.

  14. A Comparison of Linguistic Skills between Persian Cochlear Implant and Normal Hearing Children

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    Mohammad Rahimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A large number of congenitally deaf children are born annually. If not treated, this will have destructive effects on their language and speech development, educational achievements and future occupation. In this study it has been tried to determine the level of language skills in children with Cochlear Implants (CI in comparison with Normal Hearing (NH age-mates. Methods: Test of Language Development was administered to 30 pre-lingual, severe-to-profound CI children between the ages of 5 to 8. The obtained scores were compared to a Persian database from scores of normally hearing children with the same age range. Results: Results indicated that in spite of great advancements in different areas of language after hearing gain, CI children still lag behind their hearing age-mates in almost all aspects of language skills. Discussion: Based on the results, it is suggested that children with average or above average cognitive skills who use CI have the potential to produce and understand language comparable to their normally hearing peers.

  15. Comparison of sensory-specific satiety between normal weight and overweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischel, Helene Egebjerg; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2016-01-01

    .024), and declines in wanting for something fat, of which the normal weight children displayed an increase (F(1,83) = 4,10, p = 0.046). No differences were found for sensory-specific satiety, wanting for the main food yoghurt, hunger, or satiety. In conclusion, overweight children did not differ from normal weight......Sensory properties of some foods may be of importance to energy consumption and thus the development and maintenance of childhood obesity. This study compares selected food related qualities in overweight and normal weight children. Ninety-two participants were included; 55 were overweight...... with a mean age of 11.6 years (range 6-18 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 2.71 (range 1.29-4.60). The 37 normal weight children had a mean age of 13.0 years (range 6-19 years) and a mean BMI z-score of 0.16 (range -1.71 to 1.24). All children completed a half-hour long meal test consisting of alternation...

  16. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  17. Comparação do desempenho funcional de crianças portadoras de síndrome de Down e crianças com desenvolvimento normal aos 2 e 5 anos de idade Comparison of functional performance among children with Down syndrome and children with age-appropriate development at 2 and 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Cotta Mancini

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho funcional de crianças portadoras de síndrome de Down (SD com crianças normais (DN, aos 2 e 5 anos de idade. MÉTODO: Quarenta crianças foram alocadas em quatro grupos (n=10: 1 crianças com SD de 2 anos; 2 crianças com SD de 5 anos; 3 crianças normais de 2 anos; 4 crianças normais de 5 anos. Todas foram avaliadas pelo teste funcional PEDI, que quantifica o desempenho infantil (habilidades e independência em três áreas: auto-cuidado, mobilidade e função social. Testes de análises de variância fatorial foram utilizados para comparar médias dos grupos e testar fatores de interação idade x patologia. Contrastes pré-planejados foram usados para identificar as comparações bivariadas significativas. RESULTADOS: Os fatores idade e patologia foram significativos nas três áreas de desempenho de habilidades e de independência. O fator de interação idade x patologia mostrou-se significativo nas habilidades de auto-cuidado e mobilidade, e na independência em mobilidade e função social. Comparações bivariadas indicaram que aos dois anos, o desempenho de crianças normais é superior nas três áreas de habilidades funcionais e de independência. Entretanto, aos 5 anos, diferenças significativas entre os grupos foram observadas nas habilidades de auto-cuidado e de função social e na independência em auto-cuidado e em função social. CONCLUSÃO: Resultados informam áreas de desempenho onde o atraso apresentado por crianças com SD manifesta-se funcionalmente, aos dois e cinco anos de idade. Dados indicam que as diferenças observadas entre os dois grupos são influenciadas pela idade, não permanecendo constante ao longo do desenvolvimento.OBJECTIVE: To compare the functional performance of Down's syndrome (DS children with normally developing children (ND, at 2 and 5 years of age. METHOD: Forty children were allocated into four groups (n=10: 1 children with DS with 2 years of age; 2 children

  18. Normal Threshold Size of Stimuli in Children Using a Game-Based Visual Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Ali, Zaria; Subramani, Siddharth; Biswas, Susmito; Fenerty, Cecilia; Henson, David B; Aslam, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and explore the ability of novel game-based perimetry to establish normal visual field thresholds in children. One hundred and eighteen children (aged 8.0 ± 2.8 years old) with no history of visual field loss or significant medical history were recruited. Each child had one eye tested using a game-based visual field test 'Caspar's Castle' at four retinal locations 12.7° (N = 118) from fixation. Thresholds were established repeatedly using up/down staircase algorithms with stimuli of varying diameter (luminance 20 cd/m 2 , duration 200 ms, background luminance 10 cd/m 2 ). Relationships between threshold and age were determined along with measures of intra- and intersubject variability. The Game-based visual field test was able to establish threshold estimates in the full range of children tested. Threshold size reduced with increasing age in children. Intrasubject variability and intersubject variability were inversely related to age in children. Normal visual field thresholds were established for specific locations in children using a novel game-based visual field test. These could be used as a foundation for developing a game-based perimetry screening test for children.

  19. Lexical tone recognition in noise in normal-hearing children and prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yitao; Xu, Li

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Mandarin tone recognition in background noise in children with cochlear implants (CIs), and to examine the potential factors contributing to their performance. Tone recognition was tested using a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm in various signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions (i.e. quiet, +12, +6, 0, and -6 dB). Linear correlation analysis was performed to examine possible relationships between the tone-recognition performance of the CI children and the demographic factors. Sixty-six prelingually deafened children with CIs and 52 normal-hearing (NH) children as controls participated in the study. Children with CIs showed an overall poorer tone-recognition performance and were more susceptible to noise than their NH peers. Tone confusions between Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 were most prominent in both CI and NH children except for in the poorest SNR conditions. Age at implantation was significantly correlated with tone-recognition performance of the CI children in noise. There is a marked deficit in tone recognition in prelingually deafened children with CIs, particularly in noise listening conditions. While factors that contribute to the large individual differences are still elusive, early implantation could be beneficial to tone development in pediatric CI users.

  20. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  1. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F A; Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple impairments and visual acuity poorer than 20/400 or better than 20/50. Three search conditions were presented: a row with homogeneous distractors, a matrix with homogeneous distractors, and a matrix with heterogeneous distractors. Element spacing was manipulated in 5 steps from 2 to 32 minutes of arc. Symbols were sized 2 times the threshold acuity to guarantee visibility for the VI groups. During simple row and matrix search with homogeneous distractors children in the VI+nys group were less accurate than children with NV at smaller spacings. Group differences were even more pronounced during matrix search with heterogeneous distractors. Search times were longer in children with VI compared to children with NV. The more extended impairments during serial search reveal greater dependence on oculomotor control during serial compared to parallel search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulating the effect of muscle weakness and contracture on neuromuscular control of normal gait in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron S; Carty, Christopher P; Modenese, Luca; Barber, Lee A; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2018-03-01

    Altered neural control of movement and musculoskeletal deficiencies are common in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), with muscle weakness and contracture commonly experienced. Both neural and musculoskeletal deficiencies are likely to contribute to abnormal gait, such as equinus gait (toe-walking), in children with SCP. However, it is not known whether the musculoskeletal deficiencies prevent normal gait or if neural control could be altered to achieve normal gait. This study examined the effect of simulated muscle weakness and contracture of the major plantarflexor/dorsiflexor muscles on the neuromuscular requirements for achieving normal walking gait in children. Initial muscle-driven simulations of walking with normal musculoskeletal properties by typically developing children were undertaken. Additional simulations with altered musculoskeletal properties were then undertaken; with muscle weakness and contracture simulated by reducing the maximum isometric force and tendon slack length, respectively, of selected muscles. Muscle activations and forces required across all simulations were then compared via waveform analysis. Maintenance of normal gait appeared robust to muscle weakness in isolation, with increased activation of weakened muscles the major compensatory strategy. With muscle contracture, reduced activation of the plantarflexors was required across the mid-portion of stance suggesting a greater contribution from passive forces. Increased activation and force during swing was also required from the tibialis anterior to counteract the increased passive forces from the simulated dorsiflexor muscle contracture. Improvements in plantarflexor and dorsiflexor motor function and muscle strength, concomitant with reductions in plantarflexor muscle stiffness may target the deficits associated with SCP that limit normal gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Child Abuse between Normal Children and Children with Learning Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Keshavarz-Valiyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare child abuse between normal children and children with learning disorder, aged 7-12 in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This analytical and cross sectional study is a research in causative-comparative method. 120 normal children of primary school from districts 3.7 and 15 of Tehran education and 120 children with learning disorder from three center of primary school students with learning disorder (1.2 and 3 were selected by multistage cluster sampaling method and evaluated by Reliable Child Abuse Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient Friedman rank test and Paired T and independent T tests. Results: In children view, there were signifivant differences in mean scores of affective abuse (p<0.001 and total score of child abuse (p=0.002 between two groups. Likewise in parent's view. there were significant differences in mean scores of affective abuse (p<0.001, physical abuse (p<0.011 and total score of child abuse (p<0.001 between two groups. Also, there were significant differences between the ideas of children and their parents about physical abuse (p<0.002, sexual abuse (p<0.001 and ignorance (p<0.001 Conclusion: The tindings reveal that there is a difference between normal chidren and children with learning disorder in the extent of child abuse regarding it's type and in comparison with previous researches, affective abuse is more than other abuse types. So. it is necessary for mental health professionals to provide programs for training parents in future.

  4. The study comparing parenting style of children with ADHD and normal children

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi; Assareh,Marzeyeh; Heidaripoor, Amirahossein; Rad,Raheleh Eslami; Pishjoo, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based...

  5. Impact of foot progression angle on the distribution of plantar pressure in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Pan, Hui-Fen; Chang, Wei-Ning; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Renn, Jenn-Huei

    2014-02-01

    Plantar pressure distribution during walking is affected by several gait factors, most especially the foot progression angle which has been studied in children with neuromuscular diseases. However, this relationship in normal children has only been reported in limited studies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the correlation between foot progression angle and plantar pressure distribution in normal children, as well as the impacts of age and sex on this correlation. This study retrospectively reviewed dynamic pedobarographic data that were included in the gait laboratory database of our institution. In total, 77 normally developed children aged 5-16 years who were treated between 2004 and 2009 were included. Each child's footprint was divided into 5 segments: lateral forefoot, medial forefoot, lateral midfoot, medial midfoot, and heel. The percentages of impulse exerted at the medial foot, forefoot, midfoot, and heel were calculated. The average foot progression angle was 5.03° toe-out. Most of the total impulse was exerted on the forefoot (52.0%). Toe-out gait was positively correlated with high medial (r = 0.274; P plantar pressure as part of the treatment of various foot pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-esteem and social well-being of children with cochlear implant compared to normal-hearing children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Gudman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to make a quantitative comparison of parameters of self-esteem and social well-being between children with cochlear implants and normal-hearing children. Material and methods: Data were obtained from 164 children with cochlear implant (CI) and 2169 normal......-hearing children (NH). Parental questionnaires, used in a national survey assessing the self-esteem and well-being of normal-hearing children, were applied to the cochlear implanted group, in order to allow direct comparisons. Results: The children in the CI group rated significantly higher on questions about well...... overall self-esteem or number of friends. The two groups of children scored similarly on being confident, independent, social, not worried and happy. Conclusion: Children with cochlear implant score equal to or better than their normal-hearing peers on matters of self-esteem and social well-being. (C...

  7. Overweight and obese children have lower cortisol levels than normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjölhede, E Allansson; Gustafsson, P E; Gustafsson, P A; Nelson, N

    2014-03-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is vital to survival, and a disturbed circadian rhythm can be deleterious to health. However, little is known about cortisol levels in healthy children. The aim of this study was to examine cortisol levels in relation to body mass index (BMI), age and sex. Salivary samples were collected in early morning, late morning and evening, on four consecutive days, from 342 children aged 6-12 years using Salivette(®) tubes. Samples were analysed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). School nurses measured the children's height and weight, and these measurements were used to calculate their BMI. The children displayed a circadian rhythm in cortisol secretion, with morning zeniths and evening nadirs. Average cortisol levels in early morning, late morning and evening were significantly lower in overweight and obese children than in their normal weight counterparts. Cortisol levels did not vary significantly with age or sex. Our findings may suggest cortisol suppression in overweight and obese children. We found no evidence that sex or age influences cortisol levels. These findings highlight the need for further research on the relationship between stress and obesity in children. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Imaging the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix in children: normal anatomy and variations of normality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan J.A.; Reeves, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The midline structures of the supra-tentorial brain are important landmarks for judging if the brain has formed correctly. In this article, we consider the normal appearances of the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix as shown on MR imaging in normal and near-normal states. (orig.)

  9. Narrative competence among hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children: analytical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dezani Soares

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Oral narrative is a means of language development assessment. However, standardized data for deaf patients are scarce. The aim here was to compare the use of narrative competence between hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one moderately to profoundly bilaterally hearing-impaired children (cases and 21 normal-hearing children without language abnormalities (controls, matched according to sex, age, schooling level and school type, were studied. A board showing pictures in a temporally logical sequence was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative, and the child's performance relating to narrative structure and cohesion was measured. The frequencies of variables, their associations (Mann-Whitney test and their 95% confidence intervals was analyzed. RESULTS: The deaf subjects showed poorer performance regarding narrative structure, use of connectives, cohesion measurements and general punctuation (P < 0.05. There were no differences in the number of propositions elaborated or in referent specification between the two groups. The deaf children produced a higher proportion of orientation-related propositions (P = 0.001 and lower proportions of propositions relating to complicating actions (P = 0.015 and character reactions (P = 0.005. CONCLUSION: Hearing-impaired children have abnormalities in different aspects of language, involving form, content and use, in relation to their normal-hearing peers. Narrative competence was also associated with the children's ages and the school type.

  10. A Persian version of the sustained auditory attention capacity test and its results in normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Soltanparast

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sustained attention refers to the ability to maintain attention in target stimuli over a sustained period of time. This study was conducted to develop a Persian version of the sustained auditory attention capacity test and to study its results in normal children.Methods: To develop the Persian version of the sustained auditory attention capacity test, like the original version, speech stimuli were used. The speech stimuli consisted of one hundred monosyllabic words consisting of a 20 times random of and repetition of the words of a 21-word list of monosyllabic words, which were randomly grouped together. The test was carried out at comfortable hearing level using binaural, and diotic presentation modes on 46 normal children of 7 to 11 years of age of both gender.Results: There was a significant difference between age, and an average of impulsiveness error score (p=0.004 and total score of sustained auditory attention capacity test (p=0.005. No significant difference was revealed between age, and an average of inattention error score and attention reduction span index. Gender did not have a significant impact on various indicators of the test.Conclusion: The results of this test on a group of normal hearing children confirmed its ability to measure sustained auditory attention capacity through speech stimuli.

  11. Written Narratives of Normal and Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doris J.; Grant, James O.

    1989-01-01

    Writing samples of 295 primary school children improved in productivity, syntax, and level of abstraction from grade one through three. The writing of learning-disabled children who were matched with average reading ability primary-school children indicated no significant differences in productivity, but problems in syntax (especially morphology),…

  12. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing Visualization Support System for Teaching/Learning Database Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Akinwale, AdioTaofeek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In tertiary institution, some students find it hard to learn database design theory, in particular, database normalization. The purpose of this paper is to develop a visualization tool to give students an interactive hands-on experience in database normalization process. Design/methodology/approach: The model-view-controller architecture…

  14. Genetic approach identifies distinct asthma pathways in overweight vs normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsch Kovacic, M; Martin, L J; Biagini Myers, J M; He, H; Lindsey, M; Mersha, T B; Khurana Hershey, G K

    2015-08-01

    The pathogenesis of asthma in the context of excess body weight may be distinct from asthma that develops in normal weight children. The study's objective was to explore the biology of asthma in the context of obesity and normal weight status using genetic methodologies. Associations between asthma and SNPs in 49 genes were assessed, as well as, interactions between SNPs and overweight status in child participants of the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository. Asthma was significantly associated with weight (OR = 1.38; P = 0.037). The number of genes and the magnitude of their associations with asthma were notably greater when considering overweight children alone vs normal weight and overweight children together. When considering weight, distinct sets of asthma-associated genes were observed, many times with opposing effects. We demonstrated that the underlying heterogeneity of asthma is likely due in part to distinct pathogenetic pathways that depend on preceding/comorbid overweight and/or allergy. It is therefore important to consider both obesity and asthma when conducting studies of asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Self-Esteem of Gifted, Normal, and Mild Mentally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1990-01-01

    Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) Form B to elementary school students (N=450) identified as gifted, normal, and mild mentally handicapped (MiMH). Results indicated that both the gifted and normal children had significantly higher self-esteem than did the MiMH children, but there were no differences between gifted and normal…

  16. Conductive Hearing Loss in Autistic, Learning-Disabled, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…

  17. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  18. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52, ADHD (n = 21, or ANX + ADHD (n = 35. All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger.

  19. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  20. Standard-Chinese Lexical Neighborhood Test in normal-hearing young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Sha; Zhang, Ning; Yang, Yilin; Kong, Ying; Zhang, Luo

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the Standard-Chinese version of Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) and to examine the lexical and age effects on spoken-word recognition in normal-hearing children. Six lists of monosyllabic and six lists of disyllabic words (20 words/list) were selected from the database of daily speech materials for normal-hearing (NH) children of ages 3-5 years. The lists were further divided into "easy" and "hard" halves according to the word frequency and neighborhood density in the database based on the theory of Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM). Ninety-six NH children (age ranged between 4.0 and 7.0 years) were divided into three different age groups of 1-year intervals. Speech-perception tests were conducted using the Standard-Chinese monosyllabic and disyllabic LNT. The inter-list performance was found to be equivalent and inter-rater reliability was high with 92.5-95% consistency. Results of word-recognition scores showed that the lexical effects were all significant. Children scored higher with disyllabic words than with monosyllabic words. "Easy" words scored higher than "hard" words. The word-recognition performance also increased with age in each lexical category. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that neighborhood density, age, and word frequency appeared to have increasingly more contributions to Chinese word recognition. The results of the present study indicated that performances of Chinese word recognition were influenced by word frequency, age, and neighborhood density, with word frequency playing a major role. These results were consistent with those in other languages, supporting the application of NAM in the Chinese language. The development of Standard-Chinese version of LNT and the establishment of a database of children of 4-6 years old can provide a reliable means for spoken-word recognition test in children with hearing impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotional Reasoning and Parent-Based Reasoning in Normal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morren, Mattijn; Muris, Peter; Kindt, Merel

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen [1] demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrespective of their anxiety levels. That is, when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, children not only rely on objective danger information but also on their "own" anxiety-response. The present study further examined…

  2. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrespective of their anxiety levels. That is, when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, children not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own

  3. Comparing the drawings of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Mahnaz; Khaterizadeh, Maedeh; Chalbianloo, Gholamreza; Toobaei, Sholeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral problem during childhood and in school-aged children. Various projection drawings have been designed for assessing children's personality and psychological disorders including the tests of draw a person (DAP) and draw a family (DAF). We aimed to compare the differences between typically developing children and children with ADHD using these tests. In this case-control study, all the 9-10 year-old boy students studying at the third and fourth grades were enrolled from schools in the 2nd educational district of Shiraz, south of Iran. Eighty students were then selected and enrolled into the ADHD group and the control group. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition- text Revised (DSM-IV-TR), and the Child Symptoms Inventory were used to diagnose the children with ADHD. We evaluated and analyzed impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness, emotional problems and incompatibility indices in the DAP and DAF tests in each group. A significant difference was found in the indices of incompatibility and emotional problems, impulsiveness, non-impulsiveness and DAF between typically developing children and those with ADHD. The mean (±SD) total scores of the above mentioned indices in the ADHD group were 19.79(±2.94), 12.31(±1.84), 5.26(±2.29) and 5.89(±2.13), respectively (Pchildren with ADHD using these two drawing tests. The rate of impulsivity and emotional problems indices in drawings of children with ADHD was markedly more common than those of the typically developing children. This suggests the need for further assessment to screen ADHD.

  4. Nasalance Scores of Children with Repaired Cleft Palate Who Exhibit Normal Velopharyngeal Closure during Aerodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if children with repaired cleft palate and normal velopharyngeal (VP) closure as determined by aerodynamic testing exhibit greater acoustic nasalance than control children without cleft palate. Method: Pressure-flow procedures were used to identify 2 groups of children based on VP closure during the production of /p/ in the…

  5. Event-Related EEG Oscillations to Semantically Unrelated Words in Normal and Learning Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Thalia; Harmony, Thalia; Mendoza, Omar; Lopez-Alanis, Paula; Marroquin, Jose Luis; Otero, Gloria; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the most frequent problems for elementary school-aged children. In this paper, event-related EEG oscillations to semantically related and unrelated pairs of words were studied in a group of 18 children with LD not otherwise specified (LD-NOS) and in 16 children with normal academic achievement. We propose that…

  6. [Specific disturbances of psychomotor development in children with thymomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'eva, O N; Kuz'menko, L G; Kozlovskaia, G V; Kliushnik, T P

    2008-01-01

    Ninety children, aged from 2 month to 3 years, with thymomegaly and 25 aged-matched controls were studied. Most children with thymomegaly had disturbances of psychomotor development. Depending on their types, the cohort of children was stratified into 4 subgroups: 1st - 36 patients (40%) with schizotypal signs; 2nd - 30 hyperactive children (33%); 3rd - 19 children with hyperthymia signs (21%); 4th - 5 normal children (6%). The deviations of locomotion and psychiatric development were correlated with the extent of thymus enlargement and activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  7. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  8. Radiographic appearance of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and small children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic anatomy of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and children up to 4 years of age was investigated, partly on specimens, obtained at autopsy, with methods corresponding to clinical procedures, and partly on patients. A rather flat mandibular fossa and immature mandibular head were found at birth, whereas a well-developed articular tubercle and an adult-like radiographic appearance of the joint were found at about one year of age. No evident changes of the radiographic anatomy seemed to occur from one to 4 years of age. A striking similarity was observed between the dystrophic temporomandibular joint in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and micrognathia and the normal radiographic appearance in the first months of life, indicating an early involvement of this joint in patients developing micrognathia. (Auth.)

  9. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2002-01-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5±3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis

  10. Comparison of normal adult and children brain SPECT imaging using statistical parametric mapping(SPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seok Nam; Joh, Chul Woo; Lee, Dong Soo [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study compared rCBF pattern in normal adult and normal children using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The purpose of this study was to determine distribution pattern not seen visual analysis in both groups. Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT was performed in 12 normal adults (M:F=11:1, average age 35 year old) and 6 normal control children (M:F=4:2, 10.5{+-}3.1y) who visited psychiatry clinic to evaluate ADHD. Their brain SPECT revealed normal rCBF pattern in visual analysis and they were diagnosed clinically normal. Using SPM method, we compared normal adult group's SPECT images with those of 6 normal children subjects and measured the extent of the area with significant hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion (p<0.001, extent threshold=16). The areas of both angnlar gyrus, both postcentral gyrus, both superior frontal gyrus, and both superior parietal lobe showed significant hyperperfusion in normal adult group compared with normal children group. The areas of left amygdala gyrus, brain stem, both cerebellum, left globus pallidus, both hippocampal formations, both parahippocampal gyrus, both thalamus, both uncus, both lateral and medial occipitotemporal gyrus revealed significantly hyperperfusion in the children. These results demonstrated that SPM can say more precise anatomical area difference not seen visual analysis.

  11. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children.

    OpenAIRE

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrepective of their anxiety levels. That is when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, childen not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own anciety-response. The present study further examined emotional reasoning in childeren aged 7-13 years (N=508). In addition, it was investigated whether children also show parent-based reasoning, which can be defined...

  12. Serum erythropoietin level in anemic and non-anemic nephrotic children with normal kidney functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, A.M.E.; Moawad, A.T.; Gad, A.A.; Ahmed, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is associated with a significant alteration in protein metabolism. While lowering the concentration of certain proteins, the disease often raises the level of certain other proteins. The current study aimed to investigate the serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels in children with NS either anemic or non-anemic and to compare them to children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy controls with normal hemoglobin level (NHB). Sixteen nephrotic children with anemia (NS-A) and 15 nephrotic children with normal hemoglobin level (NS-NHB) were examined and compared with 10 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 10 healthy controls (NHB). Circulating serum EPO levels, blood indices and iron status were measured in nephrotic patients with anemia (NS-A) and compared to those nephrotic patients with normal HE (NS-NHB). Most NS-A children were steroid resistant. The NS-A children showed greater EPO levels than those without anemia (21.01 ±4.02 mlU/ml versus 9.18 ± 0.79 mlU/ml; P < 0.001) but their response to treatment of anemia was inappropriately low when compared to IDA (EPO 96.9 ±4.9 mlU/ml) despite similar HB concentration. A significant positive correlation was observed between serum EPO and serum albumin in NS-A (r = 0.84, P < 0.001) and in NS-NHB group (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between serum EPO and HB in the nephrotic groups indicating a blunted EPO response to anemia in NS-A (r 0.63, P < 0.05) and in NS-NHB group (r = 0.80, P < 0.001). In conclusion, anemia is a common feature of NS and is present even before the worsening of kidney function. Depletion of the iron stores due to loss of iron and transferrin in urine due to massive proteinurea may contribute to the development of anemia, but it was found that iron replacement was ineffective alone

  13. The comparison of balance performance among children with cochlear implantation, post-aural aid and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Ahmad pour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study was carried out to compare balance performance between children with cochlear implants and post-aural aid and normal children. Methods: The present study was done on 67 severe to profound hearing impaired children. Of these, 21 children with an average age of 7 years and 4 months (±1.7 wore cochlear implant, 46 children with an average age of 7 years and 7 months (±1.7 wore post-aural aid and 60 children with an average 8 years and one month (±11 months were considered as a control group. All of the children were tested with the 9-stage balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency2 (BOT2. Results: The mean total BOT2 score of hearing impaired children was significantly lower than the normal group (P≤0.001. The mean total BOT2 score among children with cochlear implant, post-aural aids and normal group showed that cochlear implant group significantly performed weaker than the other two groups (P≤0.001. Conclusion: Hearing impaired children particularly children with cochlear implant are exposed to the risk of balance deficit. Hearing impaired children specially those who wear cochlear implants must be screened for vestibular hypofunction.

  14. Sonographic evaluation of normal thymus in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, L.; Marconi, V.; Remy, J.; Avni, F.

    1987-05-01

    Sonography has been used to evaluate 50 'asymptomatic' infants (aged from birth up to two years) with typical appearing thymus on chest X-ray. The ultrasonic features of the normal gland are described. Moreover, the contribution of ultrasound is illustrated by five cases of partially ectopic thymus and by one case of prominent gland in a teenager. Ultrasound may help in differentiating normal gland from mediastinal masses by defining echogenicity, location and extension.

  15. Research Paper: Comparison of Participation of Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 4 to 6 years in Occupations With Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rostam Zadeh

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion The results showed that the children with CP have a lower level of participation in occupations compared to their normally-developing counterparts. One of the reasons for the low participation level of children with CP could be the lack of goal-oriented and occupation-oriented interventions. Thus, this finding will help the healthcare providers to create and develop appropriate  therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions so as to meet the needs of these children and promote their participation level and wellbeing.

  16. Reliability of scoring arousals in normal children and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tat Kong; Galster, Patricia; Lau, Tai Shing; Lutz, Janita M; Marcus, Carole L

    2004-09-15

    Scoring of arousals in children is based on an extension of adult criteria, as defined by the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA). By this, a minimum duration of 3 seconds is required. A few recent studies utilized modified criteria for the study of children, with durations as short as 1 second. However, the validity and reliability of scoring these shorter arousals have never been verified. Based on studies in adults, we hypothesized that interscorer agreement for scoring arousals shorter than 3 seconds was poor. Retrospective review of polysomnograms by 2 experienced sleep practitioners who independently scored arousals according to the ASDA 3-second criteria and modified duration criteria of 1 and 2 seconds. Academic hospital. 20 polysomnographic studies from children aged 3 to 8 years with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and 16 polysomnographic studies from normal children. None. The intraclass correlation coefficient for scoring ASDA arousals was 0.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.95), indicating excellent interscorer agreement. The intraclass correlation coefficient for scoring modified 1-second and 2-second arousals were 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.61) and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.65) respectively, indicating poor to fair interscorer agreement. Furthermore, modified 1-second and 2-second arousals accounted for less than 15% of all arousals scored. We conclude that there is much poorer interscorer agreement for scoring arousals shorter than 3 seconds, when compared to the standard ASDA criteria. We propose that scoring of arousals in children should follow the standard ASDA criteria.

  17. Language and cognitive development in deaf children: deaf children with deaf and deaf children with hearing parents

    OpenAIRE

    Ajda Pfifer

    2011-01-01

    The article reviews the current studies regarding language and cognitive development in children who are deaf. Deaf communicate orally and with sign language. 90 % of deaf children are born into hearing families and hearing parents in most cases do not know the sign language. Besides, hearing parents usually want for their child to become "normally" speaking. Most of the deaf children born into hearing families have very poor early communication. It is now well established that deaf children ...

  18. Cognitive development in Yucheng children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T J; Guo, Y L; Yu, M L; Ko, H C; Hsu, C C

    1994-01-01

    We have been following up the biological and mental development of children exposed prenatally to polychlorinated biphenyls and their contaminants (Yucheng children). When we started this 12-year follow-up study in August 1985, 118 Yucheng children we assigned a non-exposed child matched by sex, age, locality of residence, mother's age, socio-economic status of the family. This article reports the cognitive aspect of the development of Yucheng children as compared to their matched controls. A consistent tendency which indicates that Yucheng children score lower in each kind of measurement tool at each age level has been observed. This seems to imply that congenitally exposure to PCBs and their contaminants has long-term adverse effects on the cognitive development of human being.

  19. Sexual self-esteem in mothers of normal and mentally-retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolizadeh, Jahanshir; Amiri, Mostafa; Nejad, Fahimeh Rastgoo

    2017-06-01

    Sexual self-esteem is negatively influenced by the stressful experiences in lifetime. This study compared the sexual self-esteem and its components in mothers with normal and mentally-retarded children in Qaen city, in 2014. A total of 120 mothers were selected and assigned into two groups of 60 samples based on convenient sampling method and randomized multiple stage sampling. Both groups completed sexual self-esteem questionnaire. The data were analyzed employing t-test through SPSS software version15. The results showed that the rate of sexual self-esteem in mothers of mentally-retarded children decreased significantly compared with that of mothers with normal children (pself-esteem including skill and experience, attractiveness, control, moral judgment, and adaptiveness in mothers of mentally-retarded children were significantly less than those of mothers with normal children (p self-esteem, especially the sexual one, be taught to mothers of mentally-retarded children by specialists.

  20. Children's developing metaethical judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Ivan; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may approach things more relativistically if different cultures are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children (N=136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it is okay to do X). We assessed children's metaethical judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party (objectivism) or both parties (relativism) could be right. We found that 9-year-olds, but not younger children, were more likely to judge that both parties could be right when a normative ingroup judge disagreed with an antinormative extraterrestrial judge (with different preferences and background) than when the antinormative judge was another ingroup individual. This effect was not found in a comparison case where parties disagreed about the possibility of different physical laws. These findings suggest that although young children often exhibit moral objectivism, by early school age they begin to temper their objectivism with culturally relative metaethical judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Children's grammatical categories of verb and noun: a comparative look at children with specific language impairment (SLI) and normal language (NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipp, Amy; Windfuhr, Kirsten L; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the development of grammatical categories (noun and verb) in young language learners. Twenty-eight children with specific language impairment (SLI) with a mean language age of 35 months and 28 children with normal language (NL) with a mean language age of 34 months were exposed to four novel verbs and four novel nouns during 10 experimental child-directed play sessions. The lexical items were modelled with four experimentally controlled argument structures. Both groups of children showed little productivity with syntactic marking of arguments in the novel verb conditions. Thus, both groups of children mostly followed the surface structure of the model presented to them, regardless of the argument they were trying to express. Therefore, there was little evidence of verb-general processes. In contrast, both groups used nouns in semantic roles that had not been modelled for them. Importantly, however, children with SLI still appeared to be more input dependent than NL children. This suggests that children with NL were working with a robust noun schema, whereas children with SLI were not. Taken together, the findings suggest that neither group of children had a grammatical category of verb, but demonstrated a general knowledge of the grammatical category of noun. These findings are discussed in relation to current theories of normal and impaired language development.

  2. Hand function with touch screen technology in children with normal hand formation, congenital differences, and neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, David H; Bohn, Deborah K; Agel, Julie; Lindstrom, Katy A; Cronquist, Sara M; Van Heest, Ann E

    2015-05-01

    To measure and compare hand function for children with normal hand development, congenital hand differences (CHD), and neuromuscular disease (NMD) using a function test with touch screen technology designed as an iPhone application. We measured touch screen hand function in 201 children including 113 with normal hand formation, 43 with CHD, and 45 with NMD. The touch screen test was developed on the iOS platform using an Apple iPhone 4. We measured 4 tasks: touching dots on a 3 × 4 grid, dragging shapes, use of the touch screen camera, and typing a line of text. The test takes 60 to 120 seconds and includes a pretest to familiarize the subject with the format. Each task is timed independently and the overall time is recorded. Children with normal hand development took less time to complete all 4 subtests with increasing age. When comparing children with normal hand development with those with CHD or NMD, in children aged less than 5 years we saw minimal differences; those aged 5 to 6 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; those aged 7 to 8 years with NMD took significantly longer total time; those aged 9 to 11 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; and those aged 12 years and older with NMD took significantly longer total time. Touch screen technology has becoming increasingly relevant to hand function in modern society. This study provides standardized age norms and shows that our test discriminates between normal hand development and that in children with CHD or NMD. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrepective of their anxiety levels. That is when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, childen not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own anciety-response.

  4. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  5. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M.; Schoeneman, Samantha E.; Zhang, Huiyuan; Kwon, Soyang; Josefson, Jami L.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  6. DISTURBANCE OF NORMAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dimitrijević

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the basic motor skills in the first year of life (postural head control, lateral transfers into a lying position, sitting, standing, walking, crawling, grasping... goes on quite spontaneously. A child learns all the motor actions by itself and that is why it is not necessary to “teach” a child to seat, grasp, stand, walk... Teaching a child the basic motor skills stands for a rough, unnecessary and undesirable involvement into spontaneous motor development, and, due to this, the normal adoption of motor skills is slowed down. For the normal motor development, children do not need helping devices (baby buggy, baby jump.... Helping devices suppress in children their natural urge to walk, complicate its development and may have harmful effects like equinus feet, deformed feet and spine and so on.

  7. Comparison in stress of caring mothers of children with developmental, external and internal disorders and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zamani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available However, having a baby brings positive emotions such as happiness, sense of maturity and proud, parenting's issue could cause high level of stress and child's characteristics was a detrimental factor which can effect on parent's stress, so the aim of this research was comparison of stress of caring in mothers of children with developmental, external, and internal disorders and normal children. The study population included all mothers of children with developmental, emotional, and disruptive behavior disorders, and mothers with normal children in Hamadan (a city in Iran. 240 mothers (4 groups include 60 mothers were chosen based on simple random sampling. Family inventory of life events and changes Mc Cubbin, Patterson & Wilson was used for assessing participants. The results showed that maternal stress in mothers with children who have diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were significantly more than of mothers of children with developmental disorders, emotional and mothers of normal children. The present study showed that disruptive behavior disorders in children have a greater impact on their mothers. So, we suggest approved psychological interventions for helping mothers of children with psychological problems, particularly children with external disorders.

  8. Primacy Performance of Normal and Retarded Children: Stimulus Familiarity or Spatial Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Lee

    1978-01-01

    Explores the effect of stimulus familiarity on the spatial primacy performance of normal and retarded children. Assumes that serial recall tasks reflect spatial memory rather than verbal rehearsal. (BD)

  9. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman ML

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma

  10. Normal hepatic and splenic size in children: Scintigraphic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markisz, J.A.; New York Hospital - Cornell Medical Center, NY; Treves, S.T.; Davis, T.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made on sulfur colloid scintigrams of normal pediatric livers and spleens by analyzing 131 scans from 116 patients referred for liver or spleen trauma. Studies were used only if scans were normal, there was no history of malignancy or hepatic or splenic disease either prior to of after the study. Linear correlation was made with age, weight and both age and weight. All measured parameters correlated better with weight than with age, with vertical liver dimension exhibiting the best correlation (r=0.848). Multivariate analysis demonstrated uniformly better correlation of all measurements with both age and weight. Spleen and liver volumes were calculated assuming simple geometry, and showed excellent correlations. Graphical presentation of data will be useful in the clinical determination of hepatomegaly or splenomegaly in routine scintigraphy. (orig.)

  11. Normal hepatic and splenic size in children: Scintigraphic determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markisz, J.A.; Treves, S.T.; Davis, T.

    1987-05-01

    Measurements were made on sulfur colloid scintigrams of normal pediatric livers and spleens by analyzing 131 scans from 116 patients referred for liver or spleen trauma. Studies were used only if scans were normal, there was no history of malignancy or hepatic or splenic disease either prior to of after the study. Linear correlation was made with age, weight and both age and weight. All measured parameters correlated better with weight than with age, with vertical liver dimension exhibiting the best correlation (r=0.848). Multivariate analysis demonstrated uniformly better correlation of all measurements with both age and weight. Spleen and liver volumes were calculated assuming simple geometry, and showed excellent correlations. Graphical presentation of data will be useful in the clinical determination of hepatomegaly or splenomegaly in routine scintigraphy.

  12. Prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children in Ardabil, North Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrooz Nemati; Gholam Ali Afrooz; Ali Asgari; Bagher Ghobari Bonab

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal ch...

  13. Preliminary findings on associations between moral emotions and social behavior in young children with normal hearing and with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien

    2015-11-01

    Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Dental Development: Normal Variations and Disturbances of the Developing Dentition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dhamo (Brunilda)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractDental development is defined as a progressive and continuous process determined by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and controlled by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors over time. In this thesis we built three main objectives. The _first objective_ was to assess

  15. Olfactory granule cell development in normal and hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, P C; Schwark, H D; Greenough, W T

    1982-10-01

    Dendritic development was examined in olfactory bulbs of both normal 7-, 14-, 21- and 60-day-old rats and littermates treated on postnatal days 1-4 with 1 microgram/g body weight of L-thyroxine sodium. Tissue was processed via the Golgi-Cox technique and subjected to quantitative analyses of mitral and internal layer granule cell development. These populations of granule cells were selected because their pattern of late proliferation suggested potentially greater susceptibility to postnatal hormonal alterations. Although neonatal hyperthyroidism induces widespread acceleration of maturation, including precocious chemosensitivity, granule cell development was unaffected relative to littermate controls. Both normal and hyperthyroid groups exhibited an inverted U-shaped pattern of cellular development, with rapid dendritic dendritic growth and expansion occurring during the earliest ages tested, but with loss of processes and dendritic field size occurring after day 21.

  16. Normal values for bone mineral content measured by dual photon absorptiometry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, F.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.; Ythier, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of dual photon absorptiometry measurements in 43 normal children are analyzed. Results were correlated with age, body weight, and stature. Reference stature-specific values for bone mineral content in children are proposed. Furthermore, the results show that mineralization continues beyond the end of statural growth [fr

  17. Behavior of conduct disordered children in interaction with each other and with normal peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATTHYS, W; VANLOO, P; PACHEN, [No Value; de Vries, Han; VANHOOFF, JARAM; VANENGELAND, H

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the behavior of children with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) in interaction with each other and with normal control (NC) children in a semi-standardized setting over a period of 25 minutes. This short time turned out to be sufficient to demonstrate

  18. Investigation of normal organ development with fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the presentation of normal organ development on fetal MRI forms the basis for recognition of pathological states. During the second and third trimesters, maturational processes include changes in size, shape and signal intensities of organs. Visualization of these developmental processes requires tailored MR protocols. Further prerequisites for recognition of normal maturational states are unequivocal intrauterine orientation with respect to left and right body halves, fetal proportions, and knowledge about the MR presentation of extrafetal/intrauterine organs. Emphasis is laid on the demonstration of normal MR appearance of organs that are frequently involved in malformation syndromes. In addition, examples of time-dependent contrast enhancement of intrauterine structures are given. (orig.)

  19. Investigation of normal organ development with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The understanding of the presentation of normal organ development on fetal MRI forms the basis for recognition of pathological states. During the second and third trimesters, maturational processes include changes in size, shape and signal intensities of organs. Visualization of these developmental processes requires tailored MR protocols. Further prerequisites for recognition of normal maturational states are unequivocal intrauterine orientation with respect to left and right body halves, fetal proportions, and knowledge about the MR presentation of extrafetal/intrauterine organs. Emphasis is laid on the demonstration of normal MR appearance of organs that are frequently involved in malformation syndromes. In addition, examples of time-dependent contrast enhancement of intrauterine structures are given. (orig.)

  20. Growth and development of children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Jou-Kou

    2004-08-01

    Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) commonly experience delayed growth. Because growth and development are closely related, both should be considered when a child's progress is examined. This paper reports a study to evaluate and compare the growth and development of preschool children with CHD to those of normal preschool children. The heights and weights of 42 preschool children with CHD and 116 normal preschool children were compared with standard growth curves. Differences in development of personal and social skills, fine motor skills and adaptability, language, and gross motor skills were evaluated. Developmental skills were assessed using the Denver Developmental Screening Test II. A significant difference was found in both body height (P motor sections (P development. Learning about the growth and developmental differences between children with CHD and normal children may help parents of the former to detect problems associated with delayed growth and development earlier. These children and their families should have the opportunity to participate in a long-term, follow-up programme that provides information and encourages developmental progress. The results could serve as a reference for those in both clinical and community workers who provide nursing care to children with CHD.

  1. "For me it's just normal" - Strategies of children and young people from rainbow families against de-normalization. The case of Slovenia and Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Streib Brzič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some findings from an international study called “School is out – Experiences of children from rainbow families in school” which explored how children and young people from rainbow families anticipate, experience and deal with schools as heteronormative spaces. In the research, the term de-normalisation was developed to describe the processes by which children with LGBT-identified parents are perceived and constructed as not normal, as classified beyond the ‘hetero-normative normality’, which is expressed through ‘othering’ by others, for example in interaction. To avoid, prevent or reduce the impacts of de-normalisation processes, the interviewed children and youth have developed different strategies which we present in two frames: one involving disclosure and concealment and the other involving verbalisations and justifications. Based on these insights and findings, the article also outlines ideas on the resilience factors against de-normalisation and emphasises the importance of children and youth not standing alone against it.

  2. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprian, Gregor; Balassy, Csilla; Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided

  3. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, Gregor [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: gregor.kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at; Balassy, Csilla [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided.

  4. Developing preschool children social aptitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Brás

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The kindergarten teachers must be aware of the importance of the acquisition of social skills for children, with a view to appropriate adaptation and overcoming the various challenges that will have those throughout existence. This article is the presentation of a research work within the pre-school educational context, in the field of ʻSocial and Personal Educationʼ which may lead to improved social skills within the group of children. In order to accomplish this, after the teaching training with the pre-school class which focussed on the acquisition of social competence, an assessment of the modified social skills within the class was carried out. These activities were included in the preschool lesson planning during the ʻSupervised Teaching Practiceʼ. They were developed based on childrenʼs daily life situations, focussing mainly on using games in the learning contexts. The aim of these games was to motivate and involve the children in order to enhance their balanced social development. The results obtained suggest that the introduction of this type of learning activities may be an asset in Pre-school Education because they develop both childrenʼs social skills and social competence. Moreover, this type of learning activities may also lead to changes in childrenʼs social interaction with both adults and their peers which may favour pro social behaviour.

  5. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  6. Comparison of optic disc topography in non-glaucomatous eyes of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Ufuk; Cankaya, Bülent; Simsek, Tulay; Batman, Aygen

    2010-01-01

    To compare the optic disc topography parameters of children with juvenile diabetes mellitus and normal children using the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT III) (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The topographic optic disc parameters (cup volume, cup area, rim volume, rim area, disc area, mean cup-to-disc ratio, and mean cup depth) of 28 non-glaucomatous eyes of 28 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 28 eyes of 28 age-matched healthy children were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between cup volume (P = .782), cup area (P = .878), rim volume (P = .853), disc area (P = .452), mean cup-to-disc ratio (P = .852), and mean cup depth (P = .711) of eyes of cases with diabetes mellitus and normal subjects. This result suggests that non-glaucomatous eyes of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects have similar topographic optic disc characteristics. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Normal values for inspiratory muscle function in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellies, Uwe; Stehling, Florian; Dohna-Schwake, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of inspiratory muscle function (IMF) is limited in children with neuromuscular disorders, because respiratory muscle tests are poorly standardized and valid normative data are unavailable. We investigated maximum inspiratory pressure after exhalation to residual volume (MIP), mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) and time of inspiration during quiet breathing and derived inspiratory muscle load (P0.1/MIP), and tension time index (TTI) in 301 healthy schoolchildren 6–16 years old. Gender-specific and age-dependent percentile curves for MIP were drawn with the median, 5%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 95% percentile. P0.1 was equal in boys and girls (0.23  ±  0.11 kPa), while MIP was significantly higher in boys (6.8  ±  2.2 versus 5.8  ±  2.4 kPa). Consequently, P0.1/MIP (4.8% ± 3.2% versus 4.0% ± 3.1%) and TTI (0.2  ±  0.14 versus 0.16  ±  0.14) were significantly higher in girls. MIP was 2.90 + 0.36 × age (kPa) and 3.19 + 0.24 × age (kPa) in boys and girls, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals for boys and girls, respectively, were MIP, 6.3–7.3 kPA and 5.4–6.2 kPa; P0.1/MIP, 3.5%–4.5% and 4.3%–5.3%; TTI, 0.14–0.18 and 0.18–0.22; and P0.1, 0.20–0.24 kPa for both. IMF in children has a wide interindividual variability; however percentile curves facilitate a longitudinal assessment of individual patients. Furthermore, narrow confidence intervals allow for comparisons of study populations, making IMF an appropriate endpoint for clinical trials. (paper)

  8. Diffevential Diagnosis of Frimary Stuttering and Normal Nonfluency in Children Referring to Saba Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early Diagnosis and intervention of primary stuttering is the key for prevention of chronic developmental stuttering. Normal nonfluency of children under 5 years old is an important differential diagnosis of primary stuttering. The goals of this research are finding accuracy of diagnoses on children referred to Saba speech therapy Clinic labeled as normal nonfluency and introducing move precise methods of differential diagnosis.  Materials & Methods: The research method is case series study in which through simple sampling procedure stuttering children referring to SabA Clinic during 1382 & 83 were studied. 10. Research tools and data collection consist of: questionnair, spontaneous speech sample recording and determining VOT using laryngograph processor. It should be noted that because normative date of stutteres VOT the lack of the normal subjects VOT are analysed and comared with stutterers. Results: Based on numerical criteria, our findings indicate that only one of stutterers was normal nonfluent and the others were stutteres. VOT data of stutteres also were compared to that of normal matched children. The results revealed that all of stutterers had significantly (P<0.05 longer VOT than normal subjects . Conclusion: This study provides a good numeric and clinical index for speech language pathologists for diagnosis of primary stuttering and normal nonfluency. Morover,. using VOT would help accurate diagnosis.

  9. Body fat assessed from body density and estimated from skinfold thickness in normal children and children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J L; Leong, M S; Checkland, E G; Zuberbuhler, P C; Conger, P R; Quinney, H A

    1988-12-01

    Body density and skinfold thickness at four sites were measured in 140 normal boys, 168 normal girls, and 6 boys and 7 girls with cystic fibrosis, all aged 8-14 y. Prediction equations for the normal boys and girls for the estimation of body-fat content from skinfold measurements were derived from linear regression of body density vs the log of the sum of the skinfold thickness. The relationship between body density and the log of the sum of the skinfold measurements differed from normal for the boys and girls with cystic fibrosis because of their high body density even though their large residual volume was corrected for. However the sum of skinfold measurements in the children with cystic fibrosis did not differ from normal. Thus body fat percent of these children with cystic fibrosis was underestimated when calculated from body density and invalid when calculated from skinfold thickness.

  10. Comparison of reading comprehension and working memory in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse, visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.

  11. Comparison of Oral Stereognosis in 6 and 7 Old Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shiani

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research determined oral stereognosis (form recognition and spent time to recognize in normal children in north and south of Tehran city to use it in assessment and therapy of oral senses and speech in children with articulation disorders. Materials & Methods: This research was done in 200 children who were 6 & 7 years old and normal in Tehran city. 20 items with different shapes were used and children were wanted to recognize the shapes which were put in their mouth and they should choice one of three shapes located in front of them. Responses and the spent time were calculated. Results: The mean scores of form recognition in children of 6 years old is 17/34 and in children of 7 years old is 17/59. There was no significant difference between them in their scores (P=0.31. In addition, the time of formation diagnosis in 6 years old children is 2/67s (seconds and in 7 years old children is 2/82s, there was no significant difference between them (P=0.11.The northern city children responded slower than the other group (P=0.000. The only statistically significant score between two sexes was the time of formation recognition which was shorter in girls relative to the boys (P=0.043. Conclusion: Based on this study, a significant correlation could not be found in ability of oral stereognosis in 6 and 7 years old children. But in south of city children can recognize faster than children in northern city. Based on importance of this sense in speech, we suggest normalization of it in different ages.

  12. IBUPROFEN AS A MEDICATION FOR A CORRECTION OF SYMPTOMS OF NORMAL VACCINAL PROCESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Chebotareva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic approach to treatment of symptoms of normal vaccinal process in children after standard vaccination, based on the results of application of anti9inflammatory medications — ibuprofen (nurofen for children and paracetamol is presented in this article. Clinical activity of ibuprofen was established on the basis of clinica catamnestic observation of 856 vaccinated children aged from 3 months to 3 years. recommendations for application of these medications as a treatment for a correction of vaccinal reactions are given.Key words: children, ibuprofen, paracetamol, vaccination.

  13. Development of an imaging VUV monochromator in normal incidence region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koog, Joong-San

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a development of the two-dimensional imaging monochromator system. A commercial normal incidence monochromator working on off-Rowland circle mounting is used for this purpose. The imaging is achieved with utilizing the pinhole camera effect created by an entrance slit of limited height. The astigmatism in the normal incidence mounting is small compared with a grazing incidence mount, but has a finite value. The point is that for near normal incidence, the vertical focusing with a concave grating is produced at outside across the exit slit. Therefore, by putting a 2-D detector at the position away from the exit slit ({approx}30 cm), a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point on the detector and where it originated in the source is accomplished. This paper consists of (1) the principle and development of the imaging monochromator using the off-Rowland mounting, including the 2-D detector system, (2) a computer simulation by ray tracing for investigations of the imaging properties of imaging system, and aberration from the spherical concave grating on the exit slit, (3) the plasma light source (TPD-S) for the test experiments, (4) Performances of the imaging monochromator system on the spatial resolution and sensitivity, and (5) the use of this system for diagnostic studies on the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. (J.P.N.)

  14. Development of an imaging VUV monochromator in normal incidence region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koog, Joong-San.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a development of the two-dimensional imaging monochromator system. A commercial normal incidence monochromator working on off-Rowland circle mounting is used for this purpose. The imaging is achieved with utilizing the pinhole camera effect created by an entrance slit of limited height. The astigmatism in the normal incidence mounting is small compared with a grazing incidence mount, but has a finite value. The point is that for near normal incidence, the vertical focusing with a concave grating is produced at outside across the exit slit. Therefore, by putting a 2-D detector at the position away from the exit slit (∼30 cm), a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point on the detector and where it originated in the source is accomplished. This paper consists of 1) the principle and development of the imaging monochromator using the off-Rowland mounting, including the 2-D detector system, 2) a computer simulation by ray tracing for investigations of the imaging properties of imaging system, and aberration from the spherical concave grating on the exit slit, 3) the plasma light source (TPD-S) for the test experiments, 4) Performances of the imaging monochromator system on the spatial resolution and sensitivity, and 5) the use of this system for diagnostic studies on the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. (J.P.N.)

  15. The triglycerides and glucose index is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in normal-weight children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Hernández-Ronquillo, Gabriela; Gómez-Díaz, Rita; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    BackgroundGiven the usefulness of the product of triglycerides and glucose (TyG) to recognize individuals at high risk for developing cardiovascular events, the aim of this study was to determine whether the TyG index is associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy normal-weight children and adolescents.MethodsApparently healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, aged 6-15 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. The children were allocated into groups with and without cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular risk factors were considered as the occurrence of at least one of the following: elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or hyperglycemia.ResultsA total of 2,117 children and adolescents were enrolled in the study; of them, 1,078 (50.9%) participants exhibited cardiovascular risk. The adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that elevated TyG index was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio (OR)=96.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 48.44-192.04), low HDL-C (OR=2.07, 95% CI: 1.46-2.92), and hyperglycemia (OR=3.11, 95% CI: 2.05-4.72), but not with elevated blood pressure (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 0.89-2.16).ConclusionThe elevated TyG index is associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in healthy normal-weight children and adolescents.

  16. Análise do desenvolvimento das habilidades diadococinéticas orais em crianças normais e com transtorno fonológico Development of oral diadochokinetic abilities in normal and phonologically disordered children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner

    2008-06-01

    Consonants Revised. METHODS: Thirty five children with ages between 4:5 and 10:7 years, 15 with diagnosis of phonological disorder and 20 without language deficits (Control Group, participated in the study. The following protocols were carried out by all subjects: diadochokinetic test, anamnesis, phonology and vocabulary tests of the ABFW - Teste de Linguagem Infantil, spontaneous speech and oral sensorimotor structures' assessment. Based in the phonology test and the spontaneous speech assessment, the severity index Percentage of Consonants Correct - Revised was calculated. In the diadochokinetic test, the repetition speed was obtained dividing the number of sequences that the child produced by the time taken to do it. RESULTS: Statistical analysis identified significant differences in the speed of sequences repetition per second and in the production of correct and incorrect repetitions in the diadochokinetic test. There was a correlation between the diadochokinetic test sequences and the index Percentage of Consonants Correct -Revised only in the Control Group. CONCLUSIONS: The phonologically disordered children had lower repetition speed and produced more incorrect repetitions in the diadochokinetic test. Only the Control Group showed correlation between the diadochokinetic test and the index Percentage of Consonants Correct - Revised, suggesting an inter-relationship between maturation of speech motor processing and phonological development. The importance of the diadochokinetic test for evaluation and differential diagnoses of phonological disorders is suggested.

  17. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...

  18. Blood pressure directly correlates with blood viscosity in diabetes type 1 children but not in normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Jáquez, Manuel Guajardo; Huemoeller, Antonio H Bracho; Intaglietta, Marcos; Cabrales, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and blood viscosity in diabetic type 1 children and healthy controls to investigate whether MAP is independent of blood viscosity in healthy children, and vice versa. Children with diabetes type 1 treated by insulin injection were studied. Controls were healthy children of both sexes. MAP was calculated from systolic and diastolic pressure measurements. Blood viscosity was determined indirectly by measuring blood hemoglobin (Hb) content. The relationship between Hb, hematocrit (Hct) and blood viscosity was determined in a subgroup of controls and diabetics selected at random. 21 (10.6+/-2.5 years) type 1 diabetic children treated with insulin and 25 healthy controls age 9.6+/-1.7 years were studied. Hb was 13.8+/-0.8 g/dl in normal children vs. 14.3+/-0.9 g/dl in the diabetic group (p<0.05). MAP was 71.4+/-8.2 in the normal vs. 82.9+/-7.2 mmHg in the diabetic group (p<0.001). Glucose was 89.3+/-10.6 vs. 202.4+/-87.4 mg/dl respectively. Diabetics had a positive MAP/Hb correlation (p=0.007), while normals showed a non significant (p=0.2) negative correlation. The blood viscosity/Hb relationship was studied in a subgroup of 8 healthy controls and 8 diabetic type 1 children. There was no significant difference in Hb and Hct between groups. Diabetics showed a trend of increasing blood viscosity (+7%, p=0.15). Normal children compensate for the increase in vascular resistance due to increased blood viscosity (increased Hb and Hct) while diabetic children do not, probably due to endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.

  20. [Evaluation of growth and development of institutionalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Mendonça, Larissa Bento de Araújo; Custódio, Ires Lopes; Matias, Erica Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the growth and development of institutionalized children from 0-6 years old. It had a descriptive, transversal and quantitative approach, and was held in a shelter from the Bureau of Labor and Social Development of the Government of the State of Ceará, in the months of March and April 2011. The sample comprised 44 children. It the sample prevailed male children (59.1%), aged 24 to 72 months (56.8%) and with time of sheltering more than one year (72.7%). It was found that the children were in the normal range of nutrition; however, 65.9% of children did not achieve at least one of the development milestones proposed by the Ministry of Health. The study suggests a reflection on how children living in shelters are being assisted by the health team, making it necessary follow up their growth and development, in order to intervene on the alterations.

  1. Optimizing US examination to detect the normal and abnormal appendix in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletti, Adriana B.; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2006-01-01

    US detection of a normal appendix can safely rule out appendicitis. However, there is a wide range of accuracy in detection of a normal appendix. To optimize US examination to detect the normal and the abnormal appendix according to the potential positions of the appendix. This prospective study included 107 children who underwent gray-scale US scanning. Noncompressive and compressive graded sonography was performed to detect normal and abnormal appendices according to their potential positions. The maximum transverse diameter of the appendices was measured. Of the 107 children examined, 56 had a histologic diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Sonography had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98% for the diagnosis of appendicitis. A normal appendix was visualized in 44 (86.2%) of the 51 patients without acute appendicitis, and of these 44, 43 were true-negative and 1 was false-positive. Normal and abnormal appendices, respectively, were positioned as follows: 54.4% and 39.3% were mid-pelvic; 27.2% and 28.6% were retrocecal; 11.4% and 17.8% were deep pelvic; and 6.8% and 14.3% were abdominal. US scanning according to the potential positions of the appendix was useful in the detection of normal appendices in children suspected of having appendicitis. (orig.)

  2. Normal frontal lobe gray matter-white matter CT volume ratio in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Engelhart, J.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We attempted to establish a computed tomographic value representing the normal volume ratio of gray matter to white matter (G/W) in children in order to have a baseline for studying various developmental disorders such as white matter hypoplasia. The records of 150 children 16 years of age or younger who had normal cranial computed tomography were reviewed. From these a group of 119 were excluded for various reasons. The remaining 3 were presumed to have normal brains. Using the region of interest function for tracing gray and white matter boundaries, superior and ventral to the foramen of Munro area, measurements were determined for consecutive adjacent frontal slices. Volumes were then calculated for both gray and white matter. A volume ratio of 2.010 (sigma=0.349), G/W, was then derived from each of 31 children. The clinical value of this ratio will be determined by future investigation. (orig.)

  3. Working memory and referential communication – multimodal aspects of interaction between children with sensorineural hearing impairment and normal hearing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the language development of children with sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI has repeatedly been shown to differ from that of peers with normal hearing (NH, few studies have used an experimental approach to investigate the consequences on everyday communicative interaction. This mini review gives an overview of a range of studies on children with SNHI and NH exploring intra- and inter-individual cognitive and linguistic systems during communication.Over the last decade, our research group has studied the conversational strategies of Swedish speaking children and adolescents with SNHI and NH using referential communication, an experimental analogue to problem-solving in the classroom. We have established verbal and nonverbal control and validation mechanisms, related to working memory capacity (WMC and phonological short term memory (PSTM. We present main findings and future directions relevant for the field of cognitive hearing science and for the clinical and school-based management of children and adolescents with SNHI.

  4. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. An important diagnosis in children with syncope and normal heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Leite

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Syncope in children is primarily related to vagal hyperreactivity, but ventricular tachycardia (VT way rarely be seen. Catecholaminergic polymorphic VT is a rare entity that can occur in children without heart disease and with a normal QT interval, which may cause syncope and sudden cardiac death. In this report, we describe the clinical features, treatment, and clinical follow-up of three children with syncope associated with physical effort or emotion and cathecolaminergic polymorphic VT. Symptoms were controlled with beta-blockers, but one patient died suddenly in the fourth year of follow-up. Despite the rare occurrence, catecholaminergic polymorphic VT is an important cause of syncope and sudden death in children with no identified heart disease and normal QT interval.

  5. Normal appearance and size of the diaphragmatic crura in children: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brengle, M.; Cohen, M.D.; Katz, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. The objectives of the study were to document the normal CT appearance and size of the crura of the diaphragm in children. Materials and methods. The CT scans of 80 children (0-15 years) were reviewed. The children were divided into eight age groups. The maximal transverse diameters of the right and left crura were measured. They were normalized by comparison with the transverse and anterior-posterior diameters of the 12th thoracic vertebra (T12) and the transverse abdominal diameter at T12. The crura were also evaluated as to whether their contour was smooth or nodular. Results. The diaphragmatic crura of smaller children appear large, relative to body size and the diameters of the T12 vertebral body, compared with those in older children. Crural width does not increase significantly with age. Additionally, the crura were found to have a greater tendency to be nodular in appearance in children under the age of 5 years than in older children. Conclusion. Diaphragmatic crura are more nodular and larger relative to body size in younger children. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Is phonology bypassed in normal or dyslexic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, B F; Lefly, D L; Van Orden, G C; Bookman, M O; Smith, S D

    1987-01-01

    A pervasive assumption in most accounts of normal reading and spelling development is that phonological coding is important early in development but is subsequently superseded by faster, orthographic coding which bypasses phonology. We call this assumption, which derives from dual process theory, the developmental bypass hypothesis. The present study tests four specific predictions of the developmental bypass hypothesis by comparing dyslexics and nondyslexics from the same families in a cross-sectional design. The four predictions are: 1) That phonological coding skill develops early in normal readers and soon reaches asymptote, whereas orthographic coding skill has a protracted course of development; 2) that the correlation of adult reading or spelling performance with phonological coding skill is considerably less than the correlation with orthographic coding skill; 3) that dyslexics who are mainly deficient in phonological coding skill should be able to bypass this deficit and eventually close the gap in reading and spelling performance; and 4) that the greatest differences between dyslexics and developmental controls on measures of phonological coding skill should be observed early rather than late in development.None of the four predictions of the developmental bypass hypothesis were upheld. Phonological coding skill continued to develop in nondyslexics until adulthood. It accounted for a substantial (32-53 percent) portion of the variance in reading and spelling performance in adult nondyslexics, whereas orthographic coding skill did not account for a statistically reliable portion of this variance. The dyslexics differed little across age in phonological coding skill, but made linear progress in orthographic coding skill, surpassing spelling-age (SA) controls by adulthood. Nonetheless, they didnot close the gap in reading and spelling performance. Finally, dyslexics were significantly worse than SA (and Reading Age [RA]) controls in phonological coding skill

  7. Kinematic differentiation of prosodic categories in normal and disordered language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Lisa

    2004-10-01

    Prosody is complex and hierarchically organized but is realized as rhythmic movement sequences. Thus, observations of the development of rhythmic aspects of movement can provide insight into links between motor and language processes, specifically whether prosodic distinctions (e.g., feet and prosodic words) are instantiated in rhythmic movement output. This experiment examined 4-7-year-old children's (both normally developing and specifically language impaired) and adults' productions of prosodic sequences that were controlled for phonetic content but differed in morphosyntactic structure (i.e., content vs. function words). Primary analyses included kinematic measures of rhythmic structure (i.e., amplitude and duration of movements in weak vs. strong syllables) across content and function contexts. Findings showed that at the level of articulatory movement, adults produced distinct rhythmic categories across content and function word contexts, whereas children did not. Children with specific language impairment differed from normally developing peers only in their ability to produce well-organized and stable rhythmic movements, not in the differentiation of prosodic categories.

  8. Detecting brain growth patterns in normal children using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Levitt, Jennifer G; Caplan, Rochelle; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-01-01

    Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric studies have shown age-related increases in the volume of total white matter and decreases in the volume of total gray matter of normal children. Recent adaptations of image analysis strategies enable the detection of human brain growth with improved spatial resolution. In this article, we further explore the spatio-temporal complexity of adolescent brain maturation with tensor-based morphometry. By utilizing a novel non-linear elastic intensity-based registration algorithm on the serial structural MRI scans of 13 healthy children, individual Jacobian growth maps are generated and then registered to a common anatomical space. Statistical analyses reveal significant tissue growth in cerebral white matter, contrasted with gray matter loss in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. In addition, a linear regression with age and gender suggests a slowing down of the growth rate in regions with the greatest white matter growth. We demonstrate that a tensor-based Jacobian map is a sensitive and reliable method to detect regional tissue changes during development. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Children's eating behavior: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Darlise Rodrigues dos Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR, Enjoyment of Food (EF, Desire to Drink (DD, Emotional Overeating (EOE, Emotional Undereating (EUE, Satiety Responsiveness (SR, Food Fussiness (FF and Slowness in Eating (SE. Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163, 26% were overweight (n=86, 15% were obese (n=50 and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32. Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001 and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found.

  10. Imitation of snack food intake among normal-weight and overweight children.

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    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Hermans, Roel C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether social modeling of palatable food intake might partially be explained by the direct imitation of a peer reaching for snack food and further, assessed the role of the children's own weight status on their likelihood of imitation during the social interaction. Real-time observations during a 10-min play situation in which 68 participants (27.9% overweight) interacted with normal-weight confederates (instructed peers) were conducted. Children's imitated and non-imitated responses to the confederate's food picking movements were compared using a paired sample t-test. In addition, the pattern of likelihood of imitation was tested using multilevel proportional hazard models in a survival analysis framework. Children were more likely to eat after observing a peer reaching for snack food than without such a cue [t (67) = 5.69, P imitation responses during a social interaction based on their weight status (HR = 2.6, P = 0.03, 95% CI = 1.09-6.20). Overweight children were almost twice as likely to imitate, whereas normal-weight children had a smaller chance to imitate at the end of the interaction. Further, the mean difference in the likelihood of imitation suggest that overweight children might be less likely to imitate in the beginning of the interaction than normal-weight children. The findings provide preliminary evidence that children's imitation food picking movements may partly contribute to social modeling effects on palatable food intake. That is, a peer reaching for food is likely to trigger children's snack intake. However, the influence of others on food intake is a complex process that might be explained by different theoretical perspectives.

  11. The normal development of Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida

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    Henrich Thorsten

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii is an emerging model organism for the study of molecular developmental processes, evolution, neurobiology and marine biology. Annelids belong to the Lophotrochozoa, the so far understudied third major branch of bilaterian animals besides deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. P. dumerilii has proven highly relevant to explore ancient bilaterian conditions via comparison to the deuterostomes, because it has accumulated less evolutionary change than conventional ecdysozoan models. Previous staging was mainly referring to hours post fertilization but did not allow matching stages between studies performed at (even slightly different temperatures. To overcome this, and to provide a first comprehensive description of P. dumerilii normal development, a temperature-independent staging system is needed. Results Platynereis dumerilii normal development is subdivided into 16 stages, starting with the zygote and ending with the death of the mature worms after delivering their gametes. The stages described can be easily identified by conventional light microscopy or even by dissecting scope. Developmental landmarks such as the beginning of phototaxis, the visibility of the stomodeal opening and of the chaetae, the first occurrence of the ciliary bands, the formation of the parapodia, the extension of antennae and cirri, the onset of feeding and other characteristics are used to define different developmental stages. The morphology of all larval stages as well as of juveniles and adults is documented by light microscopy. We also provide an overview of important steps in the development of the nervous system and of the musculature, using fluorescent labeling techniques and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Timing of each developmental stage refers to hours post fertilization at 18 ± 0.1°C. For comparison, we determined the pace of development of larvae raised at 14°C, 16°C, 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and

  12. Auditory, visual, and auditory-visual perceptions of emotions by young children with hearing loss versus children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify happiness, anger, sadness, and fear expressed by an actress when uttering the same neutral nonsense sentence. Their auditory, visual, and auditory-visual perceptions of the emotional content were assessed. The accuracy of emotion perception among children with HL was lower than that of the NH children in all 3 conditions: auditory, visual, and auditory-visual. Perception through the combined auditory-visual mode significantly surpassed the auditory or visual modes alone in both groups, indicating that children with HL utilized the auditory information for emotion perception. No significant differences in perception emerged according to degree of HL. In addition, children with profound HL and cochlear implants did not perform differently from children with less severe HL who used hearing aids. The relatively high accuracy of emotion perception by children with HL may be explained by their intensive rehabilitation, which emphasizes suprasegmental and paralinguistic aspects of verbal communication.

  13. Quality of life in children with cancer and their normal siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda; Bidasari Lubis; Hakimi; Olga Rasiyanti Siregar

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer treatment in children influences the quality of life of patients and their families. The Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) inventory is a questionnaire to assess quality of life of the healthy and ill children. Objective To compare quality of life in children with cancer and their normal siblings, and to compare quality of life in those with hematologic malignancies to those with solid tumors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 5-to-18-year-olds at ...

  14. Compartive Assessment of Functional Cerebral Lateralization of Mentally Retarded Children having Mental Age of 5 to 6 Old with Normal Ones

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    Seyyed Behnamedin Jame'ei

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Study of the children psychomotor development, is and interdisciplinary interest among medical and rehabilitation specialist. The psychomotor development is mostly dependent on normal ontogenetically evolution of the brain, thus it is reasonable that any defects in this complicated process would be able to cause irreversible cognitive, sensory and motor dysfunction. In addition to mental deficiency in Mental Retarded (MR children, some other notable defects in motor abilities including gross and fine movement and equilibrium also exist in these children. Hemispheric dominancy or lateralization is an important stage in normal brain development which thought to be affected in MR children, and thus affects the outcome of rehabilitation treatment for these children. The present research work is designed to study functional cerebral lateralization between mentally retarded children having mental age of 5 to 6 years old and normal ones of the same age. Materials & Methods: By using the Neurological Developmental Questionnaire of Delacatom the functional lateralization parameters including footedness, handedness, and eye and ear preference were considered in this study. Results: Statistical analysis of the results showed significant differences in above mentioned parameters among MR and normal children of the same age. Conclusion: On the bases of these results, we believe that different pattern of lateralization in MR children could affect the rehabilitation management and should be noted in therapeutic plan.

  15. Quality of life in children with cancer and their normal siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Hilda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer treatment in children influences the quality of life of patients and their families. The Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL inventory is a questionnaire to assess quality of life of the healthy and ill children. Objective To compare quality of life in children with cancer and their normal siblings, and to compare quality of life in those with hematologic malignancies to those with solid tumors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 5-to-18- year-olds at the Hematology-Oncology Division at Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera, from May to July 2012. The case group (subjects with cancer filled the PedsQL 3.0 and 4.0 questionnaires, while the control group (normal siblings filled only the PedsQL 4.0 questionnaire. Independent T-test was used to compare the quality of life between children with cancer and their normal siblings. Results There were 46 children in each group. The PedsQL 4.0 results in children with cancer and their normal siblings, and PedsQL 3.0 between hematology malignant and solid cancer were as follows: physical function 36.9 vs. 80.7, respectively (95%CI of differences -52.639 to -34.990; P= 0.0001, emotional function 40.4 vs. 69.3, respectively (95%CI of differences -35.912 to -21.914; P=0.0001, social function 71.5 vs. 93.9, respectively (95%CI of differences - 29.238 to -15.587; P=0.0001, school function 20.7 vs. 74.2, respectively (95%CI of differences - 62.124 to -44.832; P=0.0001, and total score 42.1 vs. 79.3, respectively (95%CI of differences - 43.066 to -31.344; P=0.0001. School function was the most affected parameter in children with cancer compared to their normal siblings. Conclusion There is a significant difference in quality of life between children with cancer and their normal siblings, for all four parameters examined by the PedsQL inventory. However, there are no significant differences in quality of life between children with hematologic malignancy and those with

  16. The Dens: Normal Development, Developmental Variants and Anomalies, and Traumatic Injuries

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    William T O′Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate interpretation of cervical spine imagining can be challenging, especially in children and the elderly. The biomechanics of the developing pediatric spine and age-related degenerative changes predispose these patient populations to injuries centered at the craniocervical junction. In addition, congenital anomalies are common in this region, especially those associated with the axis/dens, due to its complexity in terms of development compared to other vertebral levels. The most common congenital variations of the dens include the os odontoideum and a persistent ossiculum terminale. At times, it is necessary to distinguish normal development, developmental variants, and developmental anomalies from traumatic injuries in the setting of acute traumatic injury. Key imaging features are useful to differentiate between traumatic fractures and normal or variant anatomy acutely; however, the radiologist must first have a basic understanding of the spectrum of normal developmental anatomy and its anatomic variations in order to make an accurate assessment. This review article attempts to provide the basic framework required for accurate interpretation of cervical spine imaging with a focus on the dens, specifically covering the normal development and ossification of the dens, common congenital variants and their various imaging appearances, fracture classifications, imaging appearances, and treatment options.

  17. The normal radiological anteroposterior alignment of the lower limb in children

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    Popkov, Dmitry; Popkov, Arnold [Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center for Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Kurgan (Russian Federation); Lascombes, Pierre [University of Geneva, Division of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Geneva (Switzerland); Berte, Nicolas; Hetzel, Laurent; Baptista, Bruno Ribeiro; Journeau, Pierre [Children' s Hospital of Nancy, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Nancy (France)

    2014-07-05

    The development of reconstructive surgery of the lower limbs aimed at multilevel correction demands a precise knowledge of the physiological variations in general radiological parameters of the lower limbs in children of various age groups. It is crucial in systemic skeletal diseases, when deformities affect limbs and the surgeon does not have an intact limb as a reference. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the normal radiological values of lower limb parameters used in the surgical correction of deformities in children of various age groups. Teleradiographs of the lower limbs taken in children with unilateral congenital or posttraumatic deformity were retrospectively reviewed. Weight-bearing full-length anteroposterior radiographs of the entire lower extremities were taken in a standing position. The study involved 215 extremities of 208 children (93 girls and 115 boys); the ages ranged from 2 years 1 month to 15 years 11 months old. Key variables included the anatomic medial proximal femoral angle (aMPFA), anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), anatomic medial proximal tibial angle (aMPTA), anatomic lateral distal tibial angle (aLDTA), mechanical axis deviation (MAD), the angle formed by the femoral anatomical axis and the mechanical axis of the lower limb. The means and dynamics of variations, standard deviations (SD) and 95 % confidence intervals of each parameter were calculated for each age and gender group. Simple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the patient's age and the magnitude of aMPFA, aLDFA, aMPTA and aLDTA. Simple regression analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between patient age and the magnitude of aMPFA: the correlation coefficient was -0.77. A statistically significant inverse correlation between the MAD and the angle between the anatomic femoral axis and mechanical limb axis was found: the correlation coefficient was -0.53. In general, the received values were

  18. Sleep habits, food intake, and physical activity levels in normal and overweight and obese Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Sadeghilar, Aidin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sleep habits (including bedtime, wake up time, sleep duration, and sleep disorder score) and physical characteristics, physical activity level, and food pattern in overweight and obese versus normal weight children. Case control study. 164 Malaysian boys and girls aged 6-€“12 years. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Subjects divided into normal weight (n = 82) and overweight/obese (n = 82) group based on World Health Organization 2007 BMI-for-age criteria and were matched one by one based on ethnicity, gender, and age plus minus one year. Questionnaires related to sleep habits, physical activity, and food frequency were proxy-reported by parents. Sleep disorder score was measured by Children Sleep Habit Questionnaire. Sleep disorder score and carbohydrate intake (%) to total energy intake were significantly higher in overweight/obese group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). After adjusting for age and gender, sleep disorder score was correlated with BMI (r = 0.275, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.253, p < 0.001), and WC (r = 0.293, p < 0.001). Based on adjusted odd ratio, children with shortest sleep duration were found to have 4.5 times higher odds of being overweight/obese (odd ratio: 4.536, 95% CI: 1.912-€“8.898) compared to children with normal sleep duration. The odds of being overweight/obese in children with sleep disorder score higher than 48 were 2.17 times more than children with sleep disorder score less than 48. Children who sleep lees than normal amount, had poor sleep quality, and consumed more carbohydrates were at higher risk of overweight/obesity. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurological development of children born to liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Zamora, J; Kociszewska-Najman, B; Borek-Dzięcioł, B; Drozdowska-Szymczak, A; Czaplińska, N; Pawlik, O; Cyganek, A; Pietrzak, B; Wielgoś, M

    2014-10-01

    Immunosuppressive treatment used in pregnant liver recipients may have a negative impact on fetal development and successively a child. The aim of the study was to make a neurological assessment of infants and children born to liver transplant recipients (LTRs) born between December 4, 2001, and February 11, 2013, in the 1(st) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw. The study involved 88 children, of whom 44 children were born to LTR mothers, and 44 children born to women who were not organ recipients and delivered at a similar gestational age. The gestational age of neonates ranged from 33 to 41 weeks, and the birth weight ranged from 1420 g to 4100 g. The neurological examination was performed in children from 7 weeks to 10 years of age. The neurological development was assessed by a specialist in pediatric neurology. The results of the examination were divided according to the following criteria: 1) normal development, 2) slight disorders, 3) moderate disorders, and 4) severe disorders. The Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Normal development was found in 35 of 44 (79.54%) children in the LTR group and 39 of 44 (88.63%) children in the control group (P = .3827). Slight disorders were observed in 6 of 44 (13.63%) children in LTR group and 5 of 44 (11.36%) children in the control group. Moderate disorders were found only in 3 of 44 (6.81%) children in the LTR group. No severe disorders were observed in both groups. Neurological development of children born to the liver recipients who were exposed to chronic immunosuppressive treatment in their fetal lives is the same as that of children whose mothers have not undergone organ transplantation.

  20. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  1. Hemispheric Language Dominance of Language-Disordered, Articulation-Disordered, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, John M.; Helms, Suzanne B.

    1979-01-01

    The hemispheric dominance for language of three groups of six- to nine- year-olds (ten language-disordered, ten articulation-disordered, and ten normal children) was compared, and two dichotic listening tests (digits and animal names) were administered. (Author/CL)

  2. Domain Specificity and Everyday Biological, Physical, and Psychological Thinking in Normal, Autistic, and Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Siegal, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Examined reasoning in normal, autistic, and deaf individuals. Found that deaf individuals who grow up in hearing homes without fluent signers show selective impairments in theory of mind similar to those of autistic individuals. Results suggest that conversational differences in the language children hear accounts for distinctive patterns of…

  3. The Interpersonal Values of Parents of Normal and Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Anne

    1986-01-01

    L. Gordon's Survey of Interpersonal Values was used to compare 136 parents of normal and learning disabled children. Fathers of LD boys scored higher on Independence and Leadership and lower on Conformity and Support. Mothers of LD boys favored authoritative attitudes; same-sexed experimental mothers valued conformity and sources of emotional and…

  4. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A.; Cooper, Jennifer N.; Minneci, Peter C.; Deans, Katherine J.; Bates, D. Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy

  5. Emotional Representation in Facial Expression and Script: A Comparison between Normal and Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Carrera, Alba

    2007-01-01

    The paper explored conceptual and lexical skills with regard to emotional correlates of facial stimuli and scripts. In two different experimental phases normal and autistic children observed six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust) and six emotional scripts (contextualized facial expressions). In…

  6. Comparison of Motor Skills in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a motor skill disorder which impacts upon a child, s ability to perform age-appropriate activity of daily living and academic performance. They have problems in gross & fine motors, their upper limb coordination are impaired, too. In this way, we decided to compare motors skills with BOTMP test in children with DCD and their normal peers. Methods: In this study 30 children with DCD (age range is 6/5-8/5 have studied and compared with their normal peers. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP was used. Results: The study showed Motor skills in DCD children are significantly poorer than their normal peers. (P<0/001 Gross motor, Fine motor skills and the upper limb coordination are significant impaired in DCD children. Discussion: In the process of evaluation Children with DCD, standard instrument, like BOTMP can be used.BOTMP detected deficiency in gross & fine motor and other area like, upper limb coordination. We need accurate in formations for better treatment. BOTMP can be used in the process of evaluation for every DCD child, after that goals of treatment will be clearer.

  7. Contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the knee in healthy children; establishing normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nusman, Charlotte M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG), Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gulik, E.C. van; Barendregt, Anouk M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG), Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reade, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2018-03-15

    To define normative standards for the knee in healthy children using contrast-enhanced MRI, focusing on normal synovial membrane thickness. Secondly, presence of joint fluid and bone marrow oedema was evaluated. For this study, children without disorders potentially resulting in (accompanying) arthritis were included. Patients underwent clinical assessments, followed by contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI features were evaluated in consensus using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system. Additionally, the presence of joint fluid was evaluated. No cartilage lesions or bone abnormalities were observed. We included 57 healthy children. The overall mean thickness of the normal synovial membrane was 0.4 mm (min-max; 0.0-1.8mm). The synovium was thickest around the cruciate ligaments and retropatellar and suprapatellar regions. The mean overall diameter of the largest pocket of joint fluid was 2.8 mm (min-max; 0.9-8.0mm). Bone marrow changes were observed in three children (all in the apex patellae). The normal synovial membrane was maximally 1.8 mm thick, indicating that the JAMRIS cut-off value of 2 mm can be considered a valid measure for evaluating synovial hypertrophy. Some joint fluid and bone marrow changes suggestive of bone marrow oedema in the apex patellae can be seen in healthy children. (orig.)

  8. Contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the knee in healthy children; establishing normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario; Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Gulik, E.C. van; Barendregt, Anouk M.; Dolman, Koert M.

    2018-01-01

    To define normative standards for the knee in healthy children using contrast-enhanced MRI, focusing on normal synovial membrane thickness. Secondly, presence of joint fluid and bone marrow oedema was evaluated. For this study, children without disorders potentially resulting in (accompanying) arthritis were included. Patients underwent clinical assessments, followed by contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI features were evaluated in consensus using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system. Additionally, the presence of joint fluid was evaluated. No cartilage lesions or bone abnormalities were observed. We included 57 healthy children. The overall mean thickness of the normal synovial membrane was 0.4 mm (min-max; 0.0-1.8mm). The synovium was thickest around the cruciate ligaments and retropatellar and suprapatellar regions. The mean overall diameter of the largest pocket of joint fluid was 2.8 mm (min-max; 0.9-8.0mm). Bone marrow changes were observed in three children (all in the apex patellae). The normal synovial membrane was maximally 1.8 mm thick, indicating that the JAMRIS cut-off value of 2 mm can be considered a valid measure for evaluating synovial hypertrophy. Some joint fluid and bone marrow changes suggestive of bone marrow oedema in the apex patellae can be seen in healthy children. (orig.)

  9. Normal Conducting Deflecting Cavity Development at the Cockcroft Institute

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    Burt, G; Dexter, A C; Woolley, B; Jones, R M; Grudiev, A; Dolgashev, V; Wheelhouse, A; Mackenzie, J; McIntosh, P A; Hill, C; Goudket, P; Buckley, S; Lingwood, C

    2013-01-01

    Two normal conducting deflecting structures are currently being developed at the Cockcroft Institute, one as a crab cavity for CERN linear collider CLIC and one for bunch slice diagnostics on low energy electron beams for Electron Beam Test Facility EBTF at Daresbury. Each has its own challenges that need overcome. For CLIC the phase and amplitude tolerances are very stringent and hence beamloading effects and wakefields must be minimised. Significant work has been undertook to understand the effect of the couplers on beamloading and the effect of the couplers on the wakefields. For EBTF the difficulty is avoiding the large beam offset caused by the cavities internal deflecting voltage at the low beam energy. Prototypes for both cavities have been manufactured and results will be presented.

  10. Normalization behaviours of rural fathers living with chronically-ill children: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Blake; Lillibridge, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    This article reports findings from a larger qualitative study conducted to gain insight into the experience of fathers living with their chronically-ill children in rural Victoria, Australia. Data were collected via unstructured interviews with four fathers. The findings presented in this article explore the phenomena of normalization for fathers within the chronic illness experience. Fathers described normalizing the experience of living with their chronically-ill child as involving a combination of various coping strategies and behaviours including: (1) accepting the child's condition, (2) changing expectations, (3) focusing energies on a day-to-day basis, (4) minimizing knowledge-seeking behaviours, and (5) engaging in external distraction activities. Findings highlight the complex and unique normalization strategies these men utilized and contribute to knowledge and understanding of the complex nature of raising a chronically-ill child in rural Australia and provide a sound basis upon which to guide an ongoing and holistic assessment of fathers with chronically-ill children.

  11. Most Children With Epilepsy Experience Postictal Phenomena, Often Preventing a Return to Normal Activities of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sarah J; D'Alfonso, Sabrina; McDonald, Roman J; Thornton, Nancy; Forkert, Nils D; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    After a seizure, individuals with epilepsy have reported diverse symptoms in the postictal period, especially motor and cognitive dysfunction. However, these phenomena have not been well characterized in children, and their impact on patient well-being is not understood. We hypothesized that in a subset of epilepsy patients, postictal symptoms would affect their ability to return to normal childhood activities. To test our hypothesis, a survey-based approach was used to characterize the type, frequency, and duration, as well as the impact of these symptoms on the ability of these children to return to their normal activities. In this prospective study, data were analyzed from 208 patients seen in the pediatric neurology outpatient clinic at the Alberta Children's Hospital. We found that 86% (179 out of 208) of respondents reported postictal symptoms, with the most common symptom category being fatigue, sleepiness, and/or tiredness (90%; 161 of 179). The greatest impact resulted from weakness or being unable to move normally, which prevented 78% of those affected (71 of 91) from returning to normal activities after a seizure. Children who had focal seizures were more likely to experience postictal fatigue, sleepiness, or tiredness (P = 0.01; Bonferroni corrected), but no other postictal symptoms were significantly associated with a specific seizure type or epilepsy syndrome. The results of this study further our understanding of the frequency, type, and duration of symptoms experienced in the postictal period and how these symptoms impact children with epilepsy. It is clear that postictal phenomena often occur after epileptic seizures and have a significant impact on the lives of children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth and development after hematopoietic cell transplant in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J E

    2008-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) following high-dose chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for children with malignant or nonmalignant hematologic disorders has resulted in an increasing number of long-term disease-free survivors. The preparative regimens include high doses of alkylating agents, such as CY with or without BU, and may include TBI. These agents impact the neuroendocrine system in growing children and their subsequent growth and development. Children receiving high-dose CY or BUCY have normal thyroid function, but those who receive TBI-containing regimens may develop thyroid function abnormalities. Growth is not impacted by chemotherapy-only preparative regimens, but TBI is likely to result in growth hormone deficiency and decreased growth rates that need to be treated with synthetic growth hormone therapy. Children who receive high-dose CY-only have normal development through puberty, whereas those who receive BUCY have a high incidence of delayed pubertal development. Following fractionated TBI preparative regimens, approximately half of the patients have normal pubertal development. These data demonstrate that the growth and development problems after HCT are dependent upon the preparative regimen received. All children should be followed for years after HCT for detection of growth and development abnormalities that are treatable with appropriate hormone therapy.

  13. Rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Vertigo and imbalance are often underestimated in the pediatric population, due to limited communication abilities, atypical symptoms, and relatively quick adaptation and compensation in children. Moreover, examination and interpretation of vestibular tests are very challenging, because of difficulties with cooperation and maintenance of alertness, and because of the sometimes nauseatic reactions. Therefore, it is of great importance for each vestibular laboratory to implement a child-friendly test protocol with age-appropriate normative data. Because of the often masked appearance of vestibular problems in young children, the vestibular organ should be routinely examined in high-risk pediatric groups, such as children with a hearing impairment. Purposes of the present study were (1) to determine age-appropriate normative data for two child-friendly vestibular laboratory techniques (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP] test) in a group of children without auditory or vestibular complaints, and (2) to examine vestibular function in a group of children presenting with bilateral hearing impairment. Forty-eight typically developing children (mean age 8 years 0 months; range: 4 years 1 month to 12 years 11 months) without any auditory or vestibular complaints as well as 39 children (mean age 7 years 8 months; range: 3 years 8 months to 12 years 10 months) with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. All children underwent three sinusoidal rotations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 Hz at 50 degrees/s) and bilateral cVEMP testing. No significant age differences were found for the rotatory test, whereas a significant increase of N1 latency and a significant threshold decrease was noticeable for the cVEMP, resulting in age-appropriate normative data. Hearing-impaired children demonstrated significantly lower gain values at the 0.01 Hz rotation and a larger percentage of absent cVEMP responses compared with normal-hearing children

  14. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...... associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development...

  15. How Children with Normal Hearing and Children with a Cochlear Implant Use Mentalizing Vocabulary and Other Evaluative Expressions in Their Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Kerttu; Ryder, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of mental state and emotion terms and other evaluative expressions in the story generation of 65 children (aged 2-8 years) with normal hearing (NH) and 11 children (aged 3-7 years) using a cochlear implant (CI). Children generated stories on the basis of sets of sequential pictures. The stories of the children with CI…

  16. Effects of Noise on Speech Recognition and Listening Effort in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dawna; Schmid, Kendra; O'Leary, Samantha; Spalding, Jody; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; High, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of stimulus type and hearing status on speech recognition and listening effort in children with normal hearing (NH) and children with mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL) or unilateral hearing loss (UHL). Method Children (5-12 years of age) with NH (Experiment 1) and children (8-12 years of age) with MBHL,…

  17. Target normal sheath acceleration analytical modeling, comparative study and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perego, C.; Batani, D.; Zani, A.; Passoni, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser interaction with solid targets appears to be an extremely promising technique to accelerate ions up to several MeV, producing beams that exhibit interesting properties for many foreseen applications. Nowadays, most of all the published experimental results can be theoretically explained in the framework of the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism proposed by Wilks et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8(2), 542 (2001)]. As an alternative to numerical simulation various analytical or semi-analytical TNSA models have been published in the latest years, each of them trying to provide predictions for some of the ion beam features, given the initial laser and target parameters. However, the problem of developing a reliable model for the TNSA process is still open, which is why the purpose of this work is to enlighten the present situation of TNSA modeling and experimental results, by means of a quantitative comparison between measurements and theoretical predictions of the maximum ion energy. Moreover, in the light of such an analysis, some indications for the future development of the model proposed by Passoni and Lontano [Phys. Plasmas 13(4), 042102 (2006)] are then presented.

  18. What Drives Embryo Development? Chromosomal Normality or Mitochondria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the arrest of euploid embryos with high mtDNA content. Design. A report of 2 cases. Setting. Private fertility clinic. Patients. 2 patients, 45 and 40 years old undergoing IVF treatment. Interventions. Mature oocytes were collected and vitrified from two ovarian stimulations. Postthaw, survived mature oocytes underwent fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number were done using next generation sequencing (NGS. The only normal embryo among the all-biopsied embryos had the highest “Mitoscore” value and was the only arrested embryo in both cases. Therefore, the embryo transfer was cancelled. Main Outcome Measures. Postthaw survival and fertilization rate, embryo euploidy, mtDNA copy number, and embryo development. Results. In both patients, after PGS only 1 embryo was euploid. Both embryos had the highest mtDNA copy number from all tested embryos and both embryos were arrested on further development. Conclusions. These cases clearly demonstrate the lack of correlation between mtDNA value (Mitoscore and chromosomal status of embryo.

  19. Proportional and functional analogical reasoning in normal and language-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Erskine, B J; Freed, D B

    1988-11-01

    Teachers often use analogies in classroom settings to clarify new concepts for their students. However, analogies may inadvertently confuse the youngster who has difficulty identifying the one-to-one comparisons underlying them. Although analogical reasoning has been studied extensively in normal children, no information was available concerning this construct in children having a specific language impairment. Thus, it was unknown to what extent they might be deficient in analogical reasoning. Therefore, in the present study, 20 children ages 6-8 years (mean age = 7:6) having normal nonverbal intelligence but deficits in language comprehension were administered tasks of verbal and perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and a problem-solving task of functional analogical reasoning. Compared to a normal-language control group matched on the basis of chronological age and sex, the language-impaired group was deficient in all three tasks of analogical reasoning. However, when the factor of nonverbal intelligence was controlled statistically, the differences between the groups on each of the tasks were removed. Additional findings were that verbal proportional analogical reasoning was significantly correlated to perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and to functional analogical reasoning. Implications for assessment and intervention with young school-age language-impaired children are discussed.

  20. Standard heart and vessel size on plain films of normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.

    1986-01-01

    Standards of heart size, i.e. heart diameters and heart volume of normal children aged 4-15 years were obtained. In all cases requiring exact heart size determination, heart volume calculation is mandatory in children as well as in adults. Statistical work to date has provided precise calculation of heart volume plain films in the upright position. Additional plain films in prone position are unnecessary because no evident orthostatic influence on heart volume in children can be found. Percentiles of normal heart volume related to body weight representing the best correlation to the individual data are given as well as percentiles related to age. Furthermore ratios of normal vessel size to the height of the 8sup(th) thoracic vertebral body, measured on the same plain film, are given. In addition the ratio of upper to lower lung vessel size is calculated. These ratios are useful criteria in estimating normal vessel size and also in cases with increased pulmonary venous pressure. (orig.) [de

  1. Pubertal development in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Teilmann, G; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2006-01-01

    differences between USA and Denmark, as well as to look for possible secular trends in pubertal development. Healthy Caucasian children from public schools in Denmark participated in the study which was carried out in 1991-1993. A total number of 826 boys and 1,100 girls (aged 6.0-19.9 years) were included......, and pubertal stages were assessed by clinical examination according to methods of Tanner. In boys testicular volume was determined using an orchidometer. We found that age at breast development 2 (B2) was 10.88 years, and mean menarcheal age was 13.42 years. Girls with body mass index (BMI) above the median...... genetic polymorphisms, nutrition, physical activity or endocrine disrupting chemicals must therefore also be considered. Therefore, we believe it is crucial to monitor the pubertal development closely in Denmark in the coming decades....

  2. Normal skeletal development and imaging pitfalls of the calcaneal apophysis: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Ignacio [Musculoskeletal Research Fellow at NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Centro de Diagnostico Dr. Enrique Rossi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenberg, Zehava [NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zember, Jonathan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Heel pain in children and secondary MR imaging (MRI) of the hindfoot have been increasing in incidence. Our purpose is to illustrate the, previously unreported, MRI stages in development of the posterior calcaneal apophysis, with attention to imaging pitfalls. This should aid in distinguishing normal growth from true disease. Consecutive ankle MRIs in children <18 years, from 2008-2014, were subdivided into 0≤5, 5≤10, 10≤15 and 15≤18 age groups and retrospectively reviewed for development of the calcaneal apophysis. 204 ankle MRI studies in 188 children were identified. 40 studies were excluded with final cohort of 164 studies in 154 patients (82 boys, 72 girls). The calcaneal apophysis was cartilaginous until age 5. Foci of decreased as well as increased signal were embedded in cartilage, prior to ossification. Early, secondary ossification centers appeared in plantar third of the apophysis in 100 % of children by age 7. Increased T2 signal in the ossifications was seen in 30 % of children. Apohyseal fusion began at 12 and was complete in 78 % of 14≤15 year olds and in 88 % of 15≤18 year olds. Curvilinear low signal in the ossification centers, paralleling, but distinguished from growth plate, and not be confused with fracture line, was common. Development of the posterior calcaneus follows a unique sequence. Apophyseal fusion occurs earlier than reported in the literature. Familiarity with this maturation pattern, in particular the apophyseal increased T2 signal and the linear low signal paralleling the growth plate, will avoid misinterpreting it for pathology. (orig.)

  3. Normal skeletal development and imaging pitfalls of the calcaneal apophysis: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Ignacio; Rosenberg, Zehava; Zember, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Heel pain in children and secondary MR imaging (MRI) of the hindfoot have been increasing in incidence. Our purpose is to illustrate the, previously unreported, MRI stages in development of the posterior calcaneal apophysis, with attention to imaging pitfalls. This should aid in distinguishing normal growth from true disease. Consecutive ankle MRIs in children <18 years, from 2008-2014, were subdivided into 0≤5, 5≤10, 10≤15 and 15≤18 age groups and retrospectively reviewed for development of the calcaneal apophysis. 204 ankle MRI studies in 188 children were identified. 40 studies were excluded with final cohort of 164 studies in 154 patients (82 boys, 72 girls). The calcaneal apophysis was cartilaginous until age 5. Foci of decreased as well as increased signal were embedded in cartilage, prior to ossification. Early, secondary ossification centers appeared in plantar third of the apophysis in 100 % of children by age 7. Increased T2 signal in the ossifications was seen in 30 % of children. Apohyseal fusion began at 12 and was complete in 78 % of 14≤15 year olds and in 88 % of 15≤18 year olds. Curvilinear low signal in the ossification centers, paralleling, but distinguished from growth plate, and not be confused with fracture line, was common. Development of the posterior calcaneus follows a unique sequence. Apophyseal fusion occurs earlier than reported in the literature. Familiarity with this maturation pattern, in particular the apophyseal increased T2 signal and the linear low signal paralleling the growth plate, will avoid misinterpreting it for pathology. (orig.)

  4. Fitting and verification of frequency modulation systems on children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Erin C; Bryant, Danielle; Sanders, Katie; Baldus, Nicole; Algier, Katherine; Lewis, Audrey; Traber, Jordan; Layden, Paige; Amin, Aneeqa

    2014-06-01

    Several recent investigations support the use of frequency modulation (FM) systems in children with normal hearing and auditory processing or listening disorders such as those diagnosed with auditory processing disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Friedreich ataxia, and dyslexia. The American Academy of Audiology (AAA) published suggested procedures, but these guidelines do not cite research evidence to support the validity of the recommended procedures for fitting and verifying nonoccluding open-ear FM systems on children with normal hearing. Documenting the validity of these fitting procedures is critical to maximize the potential FM-system benefit in the above-mentioned populations of children with normal hearing and those with auditory-listening problems. The primary goal of this investigation was to determine the validity of the AAA real-ear approach to fitting FM systems on children with normal hearing. The secondary goal of this study was to examine speech-recognition performance in noise and loudness ratings without and with FM systems in children with normal hearing sensitivity. A two-group, cross-sectional design was used in the present study. Twenty-six typically functioning children, ages 5-12 yr, with normal hearing sensitivity participated in the study. Participants used a nonoccluding open-ear FM receiver during laboratory-based testing. Participants completed three laboratory tests: (1) real-ear measures, (2) speech recognition performance in noise, and (3) loudness ratings. Four real-ear measures were conducted to (1) verify that measured output met prescribed-gain targets across the 1000-4000 Hz frequency range for speech stimuli, (2) confirm that the FM-receiver volume did not exceed predicted uncomfortable loudness levels, and (3 and 4) measure changes to the real-ear unaided response when placing the FM receiver in the child's ear. After completion of the fitting, speech recognition in noise at a -5

  5. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Nadine; Fogliarini, Celine; Viola, Angele; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Cozzone, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm 3 (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated

  6. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: nadine.girard@ap-hm.fr; Fogliarini, Celine [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viola, Angele [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Confort-Gouny, Sylviane [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Le Fur, Yann [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viout, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Levrier, Olivier [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Cozzone, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France)

    2006-02-15

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm{sup 3} (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated.

  7. Comparison of Mental Health Status in Mothers of Primary School Children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder and Mothers of Normal Children in Yazd city (2015- 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari Nodoushan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common disorders among school children throughout the world. Parents of these children are faced with more conflicts than normal children's parents. The Purpose of his study was to evaluate and compare the mental health status of mothers having children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder versus mental health of mothers having normal primary school children, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 160 mothers of primary-school children who were selected through random cluster sampling; 80 of them had children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder and the remaining half had normal children. Also, for the diagnosis of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder, the Conners test as well as test of General Mental Health (GHQ were used to measure mothers' mental health. The data were then analyzed in two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics (T-test and analysis of variance Results: Comparison of mental health and its subscales indicated that mothers of children with ADHD disorder were lower in all aspects of mental health than mothers of normal children. Conclution: According to the research results, mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactive disorder have lower levels of mental health than mothers of normal children. So, it is recommended that education and health officials provide training courses for these parents to promote their mental health status and consequently their quality of family life.

  8. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  9. Three families with mild PMM2-CDG and normal cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vals, Mari-Anne; Morava, Eva; Teeäär, Kai; Zordania, Riina; Pajusalu, Sander; Lefeber, Dirk J; Õunap, Katrin

    2017-06-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are caused by defective glycosylation of proteins and lipids. PMM2-CDG is the most common subtype among the CDG. The severity of PMM2-CDG is variable. Patients often have a recognizable phenotype with neurological and multisystem symptoms that might cause early death. We report six patients from three families who are diagnosed with a clinically mild PMM2-CDG and have normal cognitive development. All these patients had delayed gross motor skills with mild-to-moderate neurological findings. Cerebellar hypoplasia was detected in all siblings for whom brain MRI was performed. In 5/6 children the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) showed normal cognitive development with full scale IQ scores ranging from borderline to average. Four patients were diagnosed with PMM2-CDG at the age of 8 years or later as their neurological symptoms were quite mild and they had been able to participate in regular school programs. We report patients with p.Val231Met/p.Arg239Trp and p.Ile120Thr/p.Gly228Cys genotypes which may cause milder variants of PMM2-CDG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An Investigation of Spatial Hearing in Children with Normal Hearing and with Cochlear Implants and the Impact of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurelli, Sara M.

    The ability to analyze an "auditory scene"---that is, to selectively attend to a target source while simultaneously segregating and ignoring distracting information---is one of the most important and complex skills utilized by normal hearing (NH) adults. The NH adult auditory system and brain work rather well to segregate auditory sources in adverse environments. However, for some children and individuals with hearing loss, selectively attending to one source in noisy environments can be extremely challenging. In a normal auditory system, information arriving at each ear is integrated, and thus these binaural cues aid in speech understanding in noise. A growing number of individuals who are deaf now receive cochlear implants (CIs), which supply hearing through electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. In particular, bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs) are now becoming more prevalent, especially in children. However, because CI sound processing lacks both fine structure cues and coordination between stimulation at the two ears, binaural cues may either be absent or inconsistent. For children with NH and with BiCIs, this difficulty in segregating sources is of particular concern because their learning and development commonly occurs within the context of complex auditory environments. This dissertation intends to explore and understand the ability of children with NH and with BiCIs to function in everyday noisy environments. The goals of this work are to (1) Investigate source segregation abilities in children with NH and with BiCIs; (2) Examine the effect of target-interferer similarity and the benefits of source segregation for children with NH and with BiCIs; (3) Investigate measures of executive function that may predict performance in complex and realistic auditory tasks of source segregation for listeners with NH; and (4) Examine source segregation abilities in NH listeners, from school-age to adults.

  11. Comparison of Static Balance among Blind, Deaf and Normal Children in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Vali-Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sensory systems including proprioceptive, vestibular and visual network play an important role in motor control. Loss of information from each sensory channel can cause body sway on static positions. Materials & Methods: Seventeen blind children (9 girls, 8 boys and 30 deaf children (14 girls, 16 boys participated as the sample groups in Ardabil city. Sixteen normal children (30 girls and 30 boys also selected as the control group. One leg standing and tandem stance tests (reliability=0.87-0.99 in two condition (eyes open and closed was used for static balance evaluation. One-Way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test was used to compare groups, and independent t-test was used for comparing sexes in each group by using SPSS (16 version software. Results: results showed there is no significant difference between blind, deaf and normal girls in any of the balance tasks (p>0.05. While the balance function of deaf and normal boys was better than blind boys in all balance tasks except for tandem stance with eyes closed (p=0.507. Blind girls were better than blind boys in all balance tasks (p=0.05, p=0.02, p=0.02. Deaf boys were better than girls with deafness in one leg stance and tandem stance (eyes open tasks (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.04 but there was no significant different between deaf boys and girls in any other tasks (p=0.63, p=0.29, p=0.89. Normal boys have better performance than girls and only in tandem stance (eyes closed (p=0.21 and one leg stance (left foot eyes open (p=0.99 there was no significant difference between normal boys and girls. Conclusion: findings showed that static balance in deaf and normal children were better than the blinds. Since persons with blindness are not able to compensate the visual loss for postural stability, they show decreased postural stability in static conditions. Inclusive identifying effective factors on balance and its weakness and problems in appropriate time, attention to this factors in training

  12. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bourelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon school on regular school days using the Balance Master ® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05. By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05. In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders, be better performed late in the afternoon.

  13. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  14. Looking Behavior and Audiovisual Speech Understanding in Children With Normal Hearing and Children With Mild Bilateral or Unilateral Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dawna E; Smith, Nicholas A; Spalding, Jody L; Valente, Daniel L

    Visual information from talkers facilitates speech intelligibility for listeners when audibility is challenged by environmental noise and hearing loss. Less is known about how listeners actively process and attend to visual information from different talkers in complex multi-talker environments. This study tracked looking behavior in children with normal hearing (NH), mild bilateral hearing loss (MBHL), and unilateral hearing loss (UHL) in a complex multi-talker environment to examine the extent to which children look at talkers and whether looking patterns relate to performance on a speech-understanding task. It was hypothesized that performance would decrease as perceptual complexity increased and that children with hearing loss would perform more poorly than their peers with NH. Children with MBHL or UHL were expected to demonstrate greater attention to individual talkers during multi-talker exchanges, indicating that they were more likely to attempt to use visual information from talkers to assist in speech understanding in adverse acoustics. It also was of interest to examine whether MBHL, versus UHL, would differentially affect performance and looking behavior. Eighteen children with NH, eight children with MBHL, and 10 children with UHL participated (8-12 years). They followed audiovisual instructions for placing objects on a mat under three conditions: a single talker providing instructions via a video monitor, four possible talkers alternately providing instructions on separate monitors in front of the listener, and the same four talkers providing both target and nontarget information. Multi-talker background noise was presented at a 5 dB signal-to-noise ratio during testing. An eye tracker monitored looking behavior while children performed the experimental task. Behavioral task performance was higher for children with NH than for either group of children with hearing loss. There were no differences in performance between children with UHL and children

  15. Renal function maturation in children: is normalization to surface area valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, M.D.; Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Gamma camera DTPA renograms were analysed to measure renal function by the rate at which the kidneys took up tracer from the blood. This was expressed either directly as the fractional uptake rate (FUR), which is not related to body size, or it was converted to a camera-based GFR by the formula GFR blood volume x FUR, and this GFR was normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m2. Most of the patients studied had one completely normal kidney, and one kidney with reflux but normal function and no large scars. The completely normal kidneys contributed, on average, 50% of the total renal function. The results were considered in age bands, to display the effect of age on renal function. The camera-GFR measurements showed the conventional results of poor renal function in early childhood, with a slow rise to near-adult values by the age of 2 years, and somewhat low values throughout childhood. The uptake values showed a different pattern, with renal function rising to adult equivalent values by the age of 4 months, and with children having better renal function than adults throughout most of their childhood. The standard deviations expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were smaller for the FUR technique than the GFR (Wilcoxon rank test, P < 0.01). These results resemble recent published measurements of absolute DMSA uptake, which are also unrelated to body size and show early renal maturation. The results also suggest that the reason children have lower serum creatinine levels than adults is that they have better renal function. If this were confirmed, it would raise doubts about the usefulness of normalizing renal function to body surface area in children

  16. Physical activity and self-efficacy in normal and over-fat children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suton, Darijan; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Feltz, Deborah L; Yee, Kimbo E; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J

    2013-09-01

    To examine the independent and combined association of self-efficacy and fatness with physical activity in 5(th) grade children. Participants were 281 students (10.4 ± 0.7 years). Physical activity was assessed using a self-report question. Self-efficacy to be physically active was assessed using a 5-point scale. Body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and t-tests were used. There were no differences in reported days of physical activity between boys and girls, and normal-fat and over-fat children. However, children with high self-efficacy participated in significantly more physical activity compared to their low self-efficacy counterparts (3.4 ± 2.0 days vs. 5.4 ± 1.8 days, respectively, p < .001). Only physical activity self-efficacy was related to physical activity, fatness was not.

  17. Beyond stuttering: Speech disfluencies in normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Suaire, Pauline; Moyse, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250-550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular. The results shed light on the importance of normative data specific to each language.

  18. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenarius, Derk F.M. [University of Tromsoe, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department for Radiology and Intervention, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    A large proportion of healthy children have wrist changes on MRI, namely carpal depressions, findings that have been described as pathological in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We performed follow-up imaging in a cohort of healthy children to evaluate carpal surface depressions over time, focusing on the presence of overlying cartilage as a potential discriminator between normal variants and true erosions. 74 of the initial cohort of 89 healthy children (83%) had a re-scan of their wrists using the same protocol, including coronal T1 and fat-saturated T2 sequences. A cartilage-selective sequence was added for this study. We registered number and location of bony depressions and presence of overlying cartilage. The total number of carpal depressions increased by age group and over time; their location was unchanged in 370 of 487 (76%) carpal sites and 91 of 117 (78%) metacarpal sites. In total, 426 of the 1,087 (39.2%) bony depressions were covered by cartilage, with a decreasing percentage by age (P = 0.001). Normal appearances during growth, such as bony depressions, should not be mistaken for pathology. There must be additional findings to support a diagnosis of disease. A cartilage sequence may add to the diagnostic image analysis. (orig.)

  19. Private speech of learning disabled and normally achieving children in classroom academic and laboratory contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, L E; Landau, S

    1993-04-01

    Learning disabled (LD) children are often targets for cognitive-behavioral interventions designed to train them in effective use of a self-directed speech. The purpose of this study was to determine if, indeed, these children display immature private speech in the naturalistic classroom setting. Comparisons were made of the private speech, motor accompaniment to task, and attention of LD and normally achieving classmates during academic seatwork. Setting effects were examined by comparing classroom data with observations during academic seatwork and puzzle solving in the laboratory. Finally, a subgroup of LD children symptomatic of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was compared with pure LD and normally achieving controls to determine if the presumed immature private speech is a function of a learning disability or externalizing behavior problems. Results indicated that LD children used more task-relevant private speech than controls, an effect that was especially pronounced for the LD/ADHD subgroup. Use of private speech was setting- and task-specific. Implications for intervention and future research methodology are discussed.

  20. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p < 0.001 than normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p < 0.05. In addition, normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor

  1. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Children's Developing Understanding of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The issue of children's conceptions of technology and technology education is seen as important by technology educators. While there is a solid body of literature that documents groups of children's understandings of technology and technology education, this is primarily focused on snapshot studies of children aged 11 and above. There is little…

  3. Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J; Koes, B W; Paulis, W D; van Middelkoop, M

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content than normal-weight children. Similar results were found for whole body bone mineral density. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association was stronger in girls. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher bone mineral density compared with normal-weight children. Because there was only one study included with a longitudinal design, the long-term impact of childhood overweight and obesity on bone health at adulthood is not clear. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Validity and Reliability of Published Comprehensive Theory of Mind Tests for Normal Preschool Children: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Theory of mind (ToM or mindreading is an aspect of social cognition that evaluates mental states and beliefs of oneself and others. Validity and reliability are very important criteria when evaluating standard tests; and without them, these tests are not usable. The aim of this study was to systematically review the validity and reliability of published English comprehensive ToM tests developed for normal preschool children.Method: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed interface, Web of Science, Science direct, PsycINFO, and also evidence base Medicine (The Cochrane Library databases from 1990 to June 2015. Search strategy was Latin transcription of ‘Theory of Mind’ AND test AND children. Also, we manually studied the reference lists of all final searched articles and carried out a search of their references. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Valid and reliable diagnostic ToM tests published from 1990 to June 2015 for normal preschool children; and exclusion criteria were as follows: the studies that only used ToM tests and single tasks (false belief tasks for ToM assessment and/or had no description about structure, validity or reliability of their tests. Methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP.Result: In primary searching, we found 1237 articles in total databases. After removing duplicates and applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 11 tests for this systematic review. Conclusion: There were a few valid, reliable and comprehensive ToM tests for normal preschool children. However, we had limitations concerning the included articles. The defined ToM tests were different in populations, tasks, mode of presentations, scoring, mode of responses, times and other variables. Also, they had various validities and reliabilities. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers and clinicians select the ToM tests according to their psychometric

  5. Phonological processes in the speech of school-age children with hearing loss: Comparisons with children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Areej Nimer; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine; Fairgray, Liz; Bowen, Caroline

    2018-04-27

    In this descriptive study, phonological processes were examined in the speech of children aged 5;0-7;6 (years; months) with mild to profound hearing loss using hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to their peers. A second aim was to compare phonological processes of HA and CI users. Children with hearing loss (CWHL, N = 25) were compared to children with normal hearing (CWNH, N = 30) with similar age, gender, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Speech samples obtained from a list of 88 words, derived from three standardized speech tests, were analyzed using the CASALA (Computer Aided Speech and Language Analysis) program to evaluate participants' phonological systems, based on lax (a process appeared at least twice in the speech of at least two children) and strict (a process appeared at least five times in the speech of at least two children) counting criteria. Developmental phonological processes were eliminated in the speech of younger and older CWNH while eleven developmental phonological processes persisted in the speech of both age groups of CWHL. CWHL showed a similar trend of age of elimination to CWNH, but at a slower rate. Children with HAs and CIs produced similar phonological processes. Final consonant deletion, weak syllable deletion, backing, and glottal replacement were present in the speech of HA users, affecting their overall speech intelligibility. Developmental and non-developmental phonological processes persist in the speech of children with mild to profound hearing loss compared to their peers with typical hearing. The findings indicate that it is important for clinicians to consider phonological assessment in pre-school CWHL and the use of evidence-based speech therapy in order to reduce non-developmental and non-age-appropriate developmental processes, thereby enhancing their speech intelligibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Revisiting normal {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance values in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, A.; Tondeur, M. [Department of Radioisotopes, CHU St Pierre, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ Ghent, Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-12-15

    Normal {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance values as a function of age were published a number of years ago. These values were based on data from children with a normal left to right ratio and a normal appearance on DMSA scintigraphy, despite the presence of an acute renal infection. At that time, the authors were unaware that hyperfiltration is a common phenomenon in patients with acute renal infection and that their normal values could have been significantly overestimated. The present work therefore aimed to re-appraise these normal values. In a first step, in order to verify the previous results, the same type of population was selected, namely patients with present or past urinary tract infection but normal images and a normal left to right ratio on DMSA scintigraphy. In a second step, the selection was based on patients who had had no recent urinary tract infection. In both series, a single blood sample method was used for the evaluation of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA clearance. In the first group of patients, the results obtained were almost identical to those previously published. In the second group of patients, the results were significantly lower: after 2 years of age, the mean GFR value was 104 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} (10th and 90th percentiles 81 and 135 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively), compared with 117 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} in the first group. The data of the second group are probably more representative of the true normal GFR values and can be applied to the entire paediatric population. (orig.)

  7. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, O.J., E-mail: oja20@owenarthurs.co.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Mehta, U. [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Set, P.A.K., E-mail: p.set@addenbrookes.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Box 219, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. Methods: We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Results: Mean SMA angle was 45.6 {+-} 19.6 Degree-Sign (range 10.6-112.9 Degree-Sign ), mean LRV distance was 8.6 {+-} 3.9 mm (range 2.0-28.6 mm) and mean DD was 11.3 {+-} 4.8 mm (range 3.6-35.3 mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R = 0.30; p < 0.001), LRV distance (R = 0.37, p < 0.001) and DD (R = 0.32; p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a wide range of SMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle <25 Degree-Sign would diagnose 9.3% of asymptomatic children with nutcracker syndrome, and using a DD definition of <8 mm would diagnose 20% with SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle.

  8. Nutcracker and SMA syndromes: What is the normal SMA angle in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, O.J.; Mehta, U.; Set, P.A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The nutcracker and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndromes are rare conditions where the left renal vein or duodenum may be compressed by an unusually acute angle between the SMA and aorta, although the normal angle in children is unknown. We measured the SMA angle to define the normal range in children. Methods: We retrospectively measured SMA angles, left renal vein (LRV) distance, and duodenal distance (DD) in 205 consecutive pediatric abdominal CT. Total and visceral intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus were also assessed. Results: Mean SMA angle was 45.6 ± 19.6° (range 10.6–112.9°), mean LRV distance was 8.6 ± 3.9 mm (range 2.0–28.6 mm) and mean DD was 11.3 ± 4.8 mm (range 3.6–35.3 mm). There was a significant but weak correlation between %visceral fat volume (%VF) and SMA angle (R = 0.30; p < 0.001), LRV distance (R = 0.37, p < 0.001) and DD (R = 0.32; p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a wide range of SMA angle, LRV and DD in normal children, which correlated weakly with visceral fat volume. Using a definition of SMA angle <25° would diagnose 9.3% of asymptomatic children with nutcracker syndrome, and using a DD definition of <8 mm would diagnose 20% with SMA compression. Our findings suggest exercising caution when attributing these rare syndromes to an absolute SMA angle.

  9. Caffeine effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, G A; Carroll, M E; Crosby, R D; Perwien, A R; Go, F S; Benowitz, N L

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the acute effects of caffeine on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal prepubertal children. Twenty-one children were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Subjects were studied during four sessions, 1 week apart, under the following conditions: baseline, placebo, 2.5 mg/kg caffeine, and 5.0 mg/kg caffeine. Subjects were randomized to order of placebo and the two dosages of caffeine. Dependent measures included tests of attention, manual dexterity, short-term memory, and processing speed. Anxiety rating scales were also administered. Saliva samples were analyzed for caffeine levels. Caffeine improved performance on two of four measures of the Test of Variables of Attention and on a test of manual dexterity in the dominant hand. There was a trend toward increased current level of self-reported anxiety after caffeine on a visual analogue measure of anxiety. Children reported feeling significantly less "sluggish" after caffeine ingestion than after placebo ingestion. In a small sample size, there was indication that caffeine enhanced performance on a test of attention and on a motor task. Children also reported feeling less "sluggish" but somewhat more anxious. Because caffeine is so widely available and frequently consumed by children, these results are important and need replication.

  10. [Normal plasma insulin and HOMA values among Chilean children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja, Salesa; Arnaiz, Pilar; Domínguez, Angélica; Villarroel, Luis; Cassis, Berta; Castillo, Oscar; Salomó, Gianina; Farías, Marcelo; Goycoolea, Manuela; Quiroga, Teresa; Mardones, Francisco

    2011-11-01

    Plasma insulin and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) index, used to determine insulin resistance, do not have local standard values for children and adolescents in Chile. To establish the normal reference intervals for insulin and HOMA in children and adolescents aged 10-15 years, according to sex and puberal maturation. A cross-sectional study of 2,153 children and adolescents from Puente Alto County was performed, during 2009 and 2010. Anthropometry and self-report of puberal maturation were assessed. Fasting glucose (hexoquinase) and insulin blood levels (chemiluminiscence), were determined and HOMA index was calculated. Percentile distributions of these variables were calculated. The reference group included only subjects with normal body mass index and fasting blood glucose (n = 1,192). Girls had higher insulin and HOMA values than boys (12.5 ± 6.0 and 9.1 ± 4.9 μϋ/mL (p HOMA mean values than subjects with Tanner III and IV (9.0 ± 4.3 and 12.5 ± 6.2μϋ/ml (p HOMA distributions according to sex and maturation, was selected as the upper cut-off point to identify individuals with insulin resistance. HOMA cutoff point for Tanner I and II boys was 3.2, for Tanner I and II girls was 4.1, for Tanner III and IV boys was 4.2 and for Tanner III and IV girls was 5.0.

  11. One-day bowel preparation in children with colostomy using normal saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Ameh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colonic and colorectal surgery frequently requires bowel preparation. This is an evaluation of the use of normal saline for one-day bowel preparation in children with colostomy. Patients and Methods:A prospective study of 55 children with colostomy who had one-day bowel preparation for colonic and colorectal surgical procedures in a 3-year period. The information, along with clinical data was recorded on a structured proforma. Data were analysed using SPSS version 11.0. Results:There were 33 boys and 22 girls. The median age was 4 years (range, one month - 13 years. The primary diagnosis were as follows: Anorectal malformation, 24 (44%; Hirschsprung`s disease, 24 (44%; Faecal incontinence- post-abdominoperineal pull-through, 2 (4%; Penetrating rectal injury, 1 (2%; others, 4(8%. Intraoperative bowel luminal fluid cleanliness was assessed as clear in 36 (62% and contaminated in 21 (38%. Overall, postoperatively, superficial surgical site infection occurred in 6 (10.9% patients (2 had clean intraoperative colonic fluid, 5.9%. Conclusion:One-day bowel preparation using normal saline is effective and safe in children with colostomy.

  12. Renal damage detected by DMSA, despite normal renal ultrasound, in children with febrile UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, N C; Keays, M; Adams, C; Mizener, K; Pritzker, K; Smith, W; Traylor, J; Villanueva, C; Snodgrass, W T

    2015-06-01

    2011 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines recommended renal-bladder ultrasound (RBUS) as the only evaluation after febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) in infants aged 2-24 months. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and false negative rate of RBUS to identify DMSA-detected renal damage in this age group as well as in older children. Consecutive patients referred to pediatric urology with a history of FUTI underwent DMSA ≥ 3 months after FUTI. Abnormal RBUS was defined as: Society of Fetal Urology hydronephrosis grades I-IV; hydroureter ≥ 7 mm; renal scar defined as focal parenchymal thinning; and/or size discrepancy ≥ 1 cm between kidneys. Abnormal DMSA was presence of any focal uptake defects and/or split renal function 24 months. RBUS had poor sensitivity (34%) and low positive predictive value (47%) to identify patients with renal damage. 99/149 (66%) children with renal damage on DMSA had normal RBUS. After FUTI, 66% of children with reduced renal function and/or renal cortical defects found by DMSA scintigraphy had a normal RBUS. Since abnormal DMSA may correlate with increased risk for VUR, recurrent FUTI and renal damage, our data suggest RBUS alone will fail to detect a significant proportion of patients at risk. The data suggest that imaging after FUTI should include acute RBUS and delayed DMSA, reserving VCUG for patients with abnormal DMSA and/or recurrent FUTI. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal patterns of 18F-FDG appendiceal uptake in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavey, Hamilton E. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine Molecular Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Alazraki, Adina L.; Simoneaux, Stephen F. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Prior to interpreting PET/CT, it is crucial to understand the normal biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). It is also important to realize that the normal biodistribution can vary between adults and children. Although many studies have defined normal patterns of pediatric FDG uptake in structures like the thymus, brown fat and bone marrow, patterns of normal pediatric bowel activity, specifically uptake within the appendix, have not been well described. Active lymphoid tissue has increased FDG uptake when compared with inactive tissue. Since children have more active lymphoid tissue than adults, and because the appendix contains aggregated lymphoid tissue, we postulated that appendiceal uptake may be increased in pediatric patients. To define the normal level of appendiceal FDG activity in children by evaluating a series of consecutive FDG PET/CT scans performed for other indications. After obtaining IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed 128 consecutive whole-body pediatric FDG PET/CT examinations obtained for a variety of clinical indications. CT scans on which the appendix could not be visualized were excluded from analysis. CT scans on which the appendix could be visualized were evaluated for underlying appendiceal pathology. Studies with appendiceal or periappendiceal pathology by CT criteria were excluded. A region of interest (ROI) was placed over a portion of each appendix and appendiceal maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated. If an adjacent loop of bowel activity interfered with accurate measurements of the appendix SUVmax, the scan was excluded from the analysis. A chart review was performed on patients with elevated appendiceal SUVmax values to ensure that the patients did not have clinical symptomatology suggestive of acute appendicitis. When the appendix or a portion of the appendix could be visualized and accurately measured, the SUVmax was determined. SUVmax of the appendix was compared to the SUVmax of normal liver and

  14. Focusing on dissociated motor development in Brazilian children

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, Maria Avanise Yumi; Funayama, Carolina A.R.; Daneluzzi, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Dissociated motor development (DMD) is considered when the baby starts independent walking late, with normality of the other fields of development. There is evidence that babies with DMD present an atypical crawling pattern and hypotonia. To investigate the frequency and characteristics of DMD, neurological examination was performed monthly in 177 healthy full-term babies from 6 months age, in urban and rural zone samples in Brazil. Among 20 children with atypical crawling, none presented hyp...

  15. Neurological development of children born to mothers after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Zamora, Joanna; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Drozdowska-Szymczak, Agnieszka; Czaplinska, Natalia; Pietrzak, Bronisława; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena

    2017-12-03

    Pregnancies after kidney transplantation are at high risk of complications such as preterm birth and foetal growth restriction. Until now, the impact of these factors on neurological development of children born to transplant mothers has not been established. A comparison of neurological examinations performed in 36 children of kidney transplant women (study group) and 36 children born to healthy mothers (control group). The children from both groups were born at a similar gestational age and in the similar time period from 12/1996 to 09/2012. Neurological examinations were performed from 07/2010 to 11/2013. Each examination was adjusted to the patient's age and performed after the neonatal period. Three years later children were re-consulted, if they presented neurological deviations or were less than 12 months old at the time of the first examination. Normal neurological development was found in 86% of children in both groups (p = .999). Mild neurological deviations were observed in four (11%) children born to kidney transplant mothers and in five (14%) children born to healthy mothers (p = .999). Moderate deviations were diagnosed in one premature child born to transplant mother, whose pregnancy was complicated with a severe preeclampsia and foetal growth restriction. In the study population, no severe neurological disorders were found. Almost all (8/10) children with neurological deviations were born prematurely in good general conditions. The neurological deviations observed in the first year of life were mild and transient. In children over 1 year of age, deviations were more pronounced and continued to maintain. The neurological development of children of kidney transplant women is similar to that of the general population and possible deviations seem to be the result of intrauterine hypotrophy and prematurity. Therefore, in clinical practice, it is necessary to plan post-transplant pregnancies especially in women at high risk of these complications.

  16. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  17. Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Normal-weight and Overweight Preadolescent Children in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoja Kumar; Bhatia, Vidyut; Sibal, Anupam; Gupta, Abha; Gopalan, Sarath; Sardana, Raman; Sahni, Reeti; Roy, Ankur; Arora, Narendra K

    2017-12-15

    To document the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic parameters among normal-weight and overweight schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Thirteen private schools in urban Faridabad, Haryana. 961 school children aged 5-10 years. Ultrasound testing was done, and 215 with fatty liver on ultrasound underwent further clinical, biochemical and virological testing. Prevalence of fatty liver on ultrasound, and NAFLD and its association with biochemical abnormalities and demographic risk factors. On ultrasound, 215 (22.4%) children had fatty liver; 18.9% in normal-weight and 45.6% in overweight category. Presence and severity of fatty liver disease increased with body mass index (BMI) and age. Among the children with NAFLD, elevated SGOT and SGPT was observed in 21.5% and 10.4% children, respectively. Liver enzyme derangement was significantly higher in overweight children (27% vs 19.4% in normal-weight) and severity of fatty liver (28% vs 20% in mild fatty liver cases). Eleven (8.1%) children with NAFLD had metabolic syndrome. Higher BMI (OR 35.9), severe fatty liver disease (OR 1.7) and female sex (OR 1.9) had strong association with metabolic syndrome. 22.4% of normal-weight and overweight children aged 5-10 years had fatty liver. A high proportion (18.9%) of normal-weight children with fatty liver on ultrasound indicates the silent burden in the population.

  18. New horizons for aerobic fitness normalization in children: Breaking the paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani dos Santos Cunha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n6p709 Traditional methods to normalize aerobic fitness (VO2max have been considered inadequate for not properly adjusting the effects of body size in children, adolescents and adults. Allometric scaling (Y=aXb has emerged as an efficient method to compare individuals of different body dimensions. Studies aimed to compare VO2max in individuals with different body sizes should use methodology that properly accounts for the body size effect, thereby avoiding misinterpretation and reaching the potentially wrong conclusion. The use of allometric scaling for studies aimed to compare aerobic fitness in children and adolescents who dramatically vary in body size is strongly recommended.

  19. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    . RESULTS: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01), lower insulin sensitivity index (P triglyceride (P ... toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1) compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. CONCLUSION: This pilot study on healthy normal...... and adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting...

  20. Normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in children on multi-detector row chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Pim A. de; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. [University Medical Center Utrecht and Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To study normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes on multi-detector chest computed tomography (CT). A cohort of 120 children aged 1-17 years underwent emergency CT, including the chest, after high-energy trauma. Axial 5-mm reconstructions were evaluated for lymph nodes at hilar and various mediastinal levels and the short-axis diameters were measured. At least one lymph node was found in 115 (96%) children, with subcarinal (69%), lower paratracheal (64%) and hilar (60%) nodes being most common. Up to 10 years of age most lymph nodes were smaller than or equal to 7 mm. In older children lymph nodes measuring up to 10-mm-short-axis diameter were found. Lymph nodes were rare along the mammary vessels, at lower oesophageal and at prevascular and posterior mediastinal levels in children. Mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are more common than previously thought, probably because of increased detection by modern multi-detector CT. Lymph node location and age have to be taken into account when evaluating lymph nodes in the paediatric chest. (orig.)

  1. Normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes in children on multi-detector row chest computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Pim A. de; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    To study normal mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes on multi-detector chest computed tomography (CT). A cohort of 120 children aged 1-17 years underwent emergency CT, including the chest, after high-energy trauma. Axial 5-mm reconstructions were evaluated for lymph nodes at hilar and various mediastinal levels and the short-axis diameters were measured. At least one lymph node was found in 115 (96%) children, with subcarinal (69%), lower paratracheal (64%) and hilar (60%) nodes being most common. Up to 10 years of age most lymph nodes were smaller than or equal to 7 mm. In older children lymph nodes measuring up to 10-mm-short-axis diameter were found. Lymph nodes were rare along the mammary vessels, at lower oesophageal and at prevascular and posterior mediastinal levels in children. Mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes are more common than previously thought, probably because of increased detection by modern multi-detector CT. Lymph node location and age have to be taken into account when evaluating lymph nodes in the paediatric chest. (orig.)

  2. Chewing cycles in 4- and 5-year-old normal children: an index of eating efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L; Niman, C W; Gisel, E G

    1984-03-01

    Eating movements in the preschool child undergo change between the ages of 2 and 5 years. There is a lack of objective clinical data from normal children against which eating movements of feeding-impaired children can be compared. In this study, chewing movements were measured to complement tongue movements described in an earlier study. The movements were monitored in 40 children: 20 were four years old and 20 were five years old. Each group had ten boys and ten girls. Chewing movements were measured by time (sec), number of cycles, and a time/cycle ratio. A chewing cycle was defined as an upward and downward movement of the chin. Total time from the moment food was placed in the mouth until the final swallow occurred was divided by the number of cycles counted for the same period. Age and sex did not affect time, cycles, or the time/cycle ratio. However, the measures were strongly affected by the type of food eaten. These findings suggest that the texture of food strongly influences both the number of chewing cycles performed and the time used for chewing. The occupational therapist administering eating evaluations to children should carefully choose the foods offered for initial evaluations and use the same food consistently during re-evaluations.

  3. Computed tomography of the cisterna magna and mega cisterna magna in normal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Takao; Nakada, Yoshitaka; Maki, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    We studied the cisterna magna (CM) on the computed tomography of children under 15 years of age. The scanners were GE-8800RTX and Hitachi CTH, and scanning was carried out parallel to the orbitomeatal line. Those with artifacts were excluded. 5 slices were needed to cover all the posterior fossa in children, but 4 slices were enough in infants, especially those under 6 months of age. 698 cases were included in the former group, and 69, in the latter. The authors estimated the size of the CM on the basis of the position of its tip. 7.1% of the children and 4% of the infants, especially under 6 months of age, had a CM of the full extent (from the foramen magnum to the 5th slice in children and to the 4th one in infants). If we may define a mega cisterna magna (MCM) as a CM more than 2 SD bigger than the mean, then the MCM are included in the groups described above. The MCM had no relationship with age or underlying disorders. The size of the 4th ventricle was, however, rather bigger in the MCM group than the normal CM group, suggesting that the pathogenesis of MCM might be a physiological hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Therefore, no therapy was indicated for this abnormality. (author)

  4. Computed tomography measurements of the normal and the pathologic cochlea in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, Natacha; Abbeele, Thierry van den; Sebag, Guy; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Radiological investigation is frequently undertaken to assess the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). To establish the CT measurements of the normal cochlea in children and to determine radiological criteria correlated with SNHL. A retrospective study of temporal bone CT performed in 159 children, age range from 3 days to 16 years between February 1999 and July 2004. A control group (n = 88) comprised children without SNHL; the SNHL group comprised 71 children. The width of the second turn of the cochlea (CW), the cochlear height (CH), and the width of the bony canal for the cochlear nerve (WCN) were measured on a reference plane containing the modiolus, the posterior semicircular canal, the footplate, and the stapes arch. Width of the canal measurements ≤1.7 mm or ≥2.5 mm supported the diagnosis of SNHL with a specificity of 97% and 91%, respectively. Cochlear width was found to be significantly smaller in the SNHL group (5.61 ± 0.51 mm) than in the control group (5.75 ± 0.31 mm, P < 0.02), a size <5.4 mm being highly suggestive of SNHL with a specificity of 90%. No significant variations of all measurements were found with age. Appropriate measurements of WCN and CW are highly correlated with SNHL. (orig.)

  5. Comparative effectiveness of videotape and handout mode of instructions for teaching exercises: skill retention in normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Garima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teaching of motor skills is fundamental to physical therapy practice. In order to optimize the benefits of these teaching and training efforts, various forms of patient education material are developed and handed out to patients. One very important fact has been overlooked. While comparative effectiveness of various modes of instruction has been studied in adults, attention has not been paid to the fact that learning capabilities of children are different from that of adults. The intent of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of video and handout mode of instructions specifically on children. Methods A total of 115 normal elementary-age children aged 10 to 12 years of age were studied. The children were randomized into two groups: A the video group, and B the handout group. The video group viewed the video for physical therapy exercises while the handout group was provided with paper handouts especially designed according to the readability of their age group. Results Statistical analysis using the student's't' test showed that subjects of both the video and handout groups exhibited equal overall performance accuracy. There was no significant difference between the groups both in acquisition and retention accuracy tests. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that if the readability and instructional principles applicable to different target age groups are strictly adhered to, then both video as well as handout modes of instructions result in similar feedback and memory recall in ten to twelve year-old children. Principles of readability related to the patient age are of utmost importance when designing the patient education material. These findings suggest that the less expensive handouts can be an effective instructional aid for teaching exercises to children with various neuromuscular, rheumatic, and orthopedics conditions and the most costly videotape techniques are not necessarily better.

  6. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalie Carlsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome. Results: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01, lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01, higher leptin (P = 0.03, triglyceride (P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04, lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02 and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1 compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. Conclusion: This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

  7. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  8. Helping Children Develop Resiliency: Providing Supportive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Katharine C.; Malley, Catherine Robertson

    2005-01-01

    Helping children develop resiliency begins with positive, meaningful connections between teachers and students. This article defines the importance of encouraging children to develop characteristics related to resiliency including confidence in their ability to bounce back from setbacks, overcome challenges and frustrations. Furthermore, critical…

  9. Research in Review. Malnutrition and Children's Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Baxter, Delia H.

    1981-01-01

    Indicates how various degrees of malnutrition affect children's development. Reviews research conducted in several developing countries and the United States, and describes the nutritional status of children in the United States. Implications for nutrition programs, research and policy formation are pointed out. (Author/RH)

  10. Cognitive Process of Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddington, Eulalee N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  11. Normal and abnormal neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Zhi; Takahashi, Sentaro; Cui, Chun; Zhang, Rui; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2002-08-01

    Neuronal migration is the critical cellular process which initiates histogenesis of cerebral cortex. Migration involves a series of complex cell interactions and transformation. After completing their final mitosis, neurons migrate from the ventricular zone into the cortical plate, and then establish neuronal lamina and settle onto the outermost layer, forming an "inside-out" gradient of maturation. This process is guided by radial glial fibers, requires proper receptors, ligands, other unknown extracellular factors, and local signaling to stop neuronal migration. This process is also highly sensitive to various physical, chemical and biological agents as well as to genetic mutations. Any disturbance of the normal process may result in neuronal migration disorder. Such neuronal migration disorder is believed as major cause of both gross brain malformation and more special cerebral structural and functional abnormalities in experimental animals and in humans. An increasing number of instructive studies on experimental models and several genetic model systems of neuronal migration disorder have established the foundation of cortex formation and provided deeper insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying normal and abnormal neuronal migration.

  12. Left and right reaction time differences to the sound intensity in normal and AD/HD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Golnaz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Rostami, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Right hemisphere, which is attributed to the sound intensity discrimination, has abnormality in people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). However, it is not studied whether the defect in the right hemisphere has influenced on the intensity sensation of AD/HD subjects or not. In this study, the sensitivity of normal and AD/HD children to the sound intensity was investigated. Nineteen normal and fourteen AD/HD children participated in the study and performed a simple auditory reaction time task. Using the regression analysis, the sensitivity of right and left ears to various sound intensity levels was examined. The statistical results showed that the sensitivity of AD/HD subjects to the intensity was lower than the normal group (p Left and right pathways of the auditory system had the same pattern of response in AD/HD subjects (p > 0.05). However, in control group the left pathway was more sensitive to the sound intensity level than the right one (p = 0.0156). It can be probable that the deficit of the right hemisphere has influenced on the auditory sensitivity of AD/HD children. The possible existent deficits of other auditory system components such as middle ear, inner ear, or involved brain stem nucleuses may also lead to the observed results. The development of new biomarkers based on the sensitivity of the brain hemispheres to the sound intensity has been suggested to estimate the risk of AD/HD. Designing new technique to correct the auditory feedback has been also proposed in behavioral treatment sessions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characteristic sonographic appearance of normal appendix in children: inner hypoechoic band without folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Noh Hyuck; Song, Soon Young; Lee, En Ja; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sup; Oh, Hwa En [College of Medicine, Kwandong Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Geun Seok [College of Medicine, Dongkook Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    To identify the characteristic ultrasonographic findings of the normal appendix in children in order to detect it more easily and so to exclude acute appendicitis from a diagnosis with more confidence. Among 64 patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain, 44 patients, excluding 15 patients diagnosed as acute appendicitis and 5 patients with non-visualization of the appendix due to severe ileus and obesity, were evaluated for the point of incidence, the thickness and the presence of folding of the inner hypoechoic band of the normal appendix. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 15 years with a mean age of 6.5 years. Two patients were operated on and we correlated the preoperative ultrasonographic findings with the histologic findings. In all the cases of the 44 patients with normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band was discovered, which was seen as a linear structure without folding along the whole length of appendix. This measured as 0.75 mm (0.3-1.5 mm) for the mean thickness. The inner hypoechoic band corresponded to the mucosal layer that had abundant lymphoid tissue on the histologic examination. For the pediatric normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band without folding is present, and this corresponds to the mucosal layer with abundant lymphoid tissue.

  14. Characteristic sonographic appearance of normal appendix in children: inner hypoechoic band without folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Noh Hyuck; Song, Soon Young; Lee, En Ja; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sup; Oh, Hwa En; Yang, Geun Seok

    2004-01-01

    To identify the characteristic ultrasonographic findings of the normal appendix in children in order to detect it more easily and so to exclude acute appendicitis from a diagnosis with more confidence. Among 64 patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain, 44 patients, excluding 15 patients diagnosed as acute appendicitis and 5 patients with non-visualization of the appendix due to severe ileus and obesity, were evaluated for the point of incidence, the thickness and the presence of folding of the inner hypoechoic band of the normal appendix. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 15 years with a mean age of 6.5 years. Two patients were operated on and we correlated the preoperative ultrasonographic findings with the histologic findings. In all the cases of the 44 patients with normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band was discovered, which was seen as a linear structure without folding along the whole length of appendix. This measured as 0.75 mm (0.3-1.5 mm) for the mean thickness. The inner hypoechoic band corresponded to the mucosal layer that had abundant lymphoid tissue on the histologic examination. For the pediatric normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band without folding is present, and this corresponds to the mucosal layer with abundant lymphoid tissue

  15. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Medical College, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 {approx} 15 ys, mean age: 8 {+-} 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 {approx} 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 {+-} 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe.

  16. Anterior joint capsule of the normal hip and in children with transient synovitis: US study with anatomic and histologic correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.F. Robben (Simon); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); A.F.M. Diepstraten (Ad); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); C.A. Entius; M. Meradji

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To study the anatomic components of the anterior joint capsule of the normal hip and in children with transient synovitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six cadaveric specimens were imaged with ultrasonography (US) with special attention to the anterior

  17. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il; Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2003-01-01

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 ∼ 15 ys, mean age: 8 ± 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 ∼ 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 ± 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe

  18. Serum LH and FSH Responses to Synthetic LH-RH in Normal Infants, Children and Patients With Turner's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Seizo; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) on LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release were studied in 26 normal children and six patients (from 1-to 14-years-old) with Turner's syndrome. (Author)

  19. Input and language development in bilingually developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2013-11-01

    Language skills in young bilingual children are highly varied as a result of the variability in their language experiences, making it difficult for speech-language pathologists to differentiate language disorder from language difference in bilingual children. Understanding the sources of variability in bilingual contexts and the resulting variability in children's skills will help improve language assessment practices by speech-language pathologists. In this article, we review literature on bilingual first language development for children under 5 years of age. We describe the rate of development in single and total language growth, we describe effects of quantity of input and quality of input on growth, and we describe effects of family composition on language input and language growth in bilingual children. We provide recommendations for language assessment of young bilingual children and consider implications for optimizing children's dual language development. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Children develop a veil of fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco; Olson, Kristina R; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2014-02-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore whether children's developing concern with behaving fairly toward others may in part reflect a developing concern with appearing fair to others. In Experiments 1 and 2, most 6- to 8-year-old children behaved fairly toward others when an experimenter was aware of their choices; fewer children opted to behave fairly, however, when they could be unfair to others yet appear fair to the experimenter. In Experiment 3, we explored the development of this concern with appearing fair by using a wider age range (6- to 11-year-olds) and a different method. In this experiment, children chose how to assign a good or bad prize to themselves and another participant by either unilaterally deciding who would get each prize or using a fair procedure--flipping a coin in private. Older children were much more likely to flip the coin than younger children, yet were just as likely as younger children to assign themselves the good prize by reporting winning the coin flip more than chance would dictate. Overall, the results of these experiments suggest that as children grow older they become increasingly concerned with appearing fair to others, which may explain some of their increased tendency to behave fairly.

  1. Normal variation in early parental sensitivity predicts child structural brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Thijssen, Sandra; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Early caregiving can have an impact on brain structure and function in children. The influence of extreme caregiving experiences has been demonstrated, but studies on the influence of normal variation in parenting quality are scarce. Moreover, no studies to date have included the role of both maternal and paternal sensitivity in child brain maturation. This study examined the prospective relation between mothers' and fathers' sensitive caregiving in early childhood and brain structure later in childhood. Participants were enrolled in a population-based prenatal cohort. For 191 families, maternal and paternal sensitivity was repeatedly observed when the child was between 1 year and 4 years of age. Head circumference was assessed at 6 weeks, and brain structure was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements at 8 years of age. Higher levels of parental sensitivity in early childhood were associated with larger total brain volume (adjusted β = 0.15, p = .01) and gray matter volume (adjusted β = 0.16, p = .01) at 8 years, controlling for infant head size. Higher levels of maternal sensitivity in early childhood were associated with a larger gray matter volume (adjusted β = 0.13, p = .04) at 8 years, independent of infant head circumference. Associations with maternal versus paternal sensitivity were not significantly different. Normal variation in caregiving quality is related to markers of more optimal brain development in children. The results illustrate the important role of both mothers and fathers in child brain development. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth monitoring in children with low and normal birth weight up to two years: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Danaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted aimed to compare the growth indices in 2 years old children with a history of low birth weight with normal birth weight children.Methods: Current retrospective cohort study on all two-year children with low birth weight and three times the normal weight children covered by health centers of Kahnooj, was conducted in 2015. Cares at birth, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months of age were studied and, child growth indices (weight, height, head circumference, along with some demographic variables were studied. Information were entered SPSS version 20 and the analysis was performed.Results: There were significant differences in children's growth of both groups in all periods of care. Despite the same slope, growth pattern in children showed a significant difference. Young mother, girl sex of baby and preterm birth are predictor factors of low birth weight.Conclusion: Trends and growth patterns of weight, height and head circumference in underweight children have significant difference with normal children and, despite the same slope, these children can not compensate for the backwardness of its growth to the age of two. So you need to plot separate growth curves for these children and, possible preventive measures should be taken to prevent bearing underweight baby.

  3. Disinhibited social engagement in postinstitutionalized children: differentiating normal from atypical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Jamie M; Hostinar, Camelia E; Mliner, Shanna B; Gunnar, Megan R

    2014-05-01

    The most commonly reported socially aberrant behavior in postinstitutionalized (PI) children is disinhibited social engagement (DSE; also known as indiscriminate friendliness). There is no gold standard for measurement of this phenomenon nor agreement on how to differentiate it from normative behavior. We adopted a developmental psychopathology approach (Cicchetti, 1984) to study this phenomenon by comparing it to normative social development and by studying its patterns over time in 50 newly adopted PI children (16-36 months at adoption) compared with 41 children adopted early from foster care overseas and 47 nonadopted (NA) controls. Using coded behavioral observations of the child's interaction with an unfamiliar adult, atypical behaviors were differentiated from normative behaviors. Principal components analysis identified two dimensions of social disinhibition. The nonphysical social dimension (e.g., initiations, proximity) showed wide variation in NA children and is therefore considered a typical form of sociability. Displays of physical contact and intimacy were rare in NA children, suggesting that they represent an atypical pattern of behavior. Both adopted groups demonstrated more physical DSE behavior than NA children. There were no group differences on the nonphysical factor, and it increased over time in all groups. Implications for understanding the etiology of DSE and future directions are discussed.

  4. [The development of musicality in children after cochlear implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Liu, Bo; Dong, Ruijuan; Xu, Tianqiu; Chen, Jing; Chen, Xuejing; Zhong, Yan; Meng, Chao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Xueqing

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of musicality in children after cochlear implantation, and provide a clinical database for the evaluation of their musicality. Twenty-six children with cochlear implants (CI group) participated in this research. They received cochlear implants at the age of 11 to 68 months with a mean of 35.6 months. Seventy-six infants as a control group aged from 1 to 24 months with a mean of 6.1 months participated in this study, whose hearing were considered normal by passing the case history collection, high-risk registers for hearing loss and hearing screening using DPOAE. The music and young children with CIs: Musicality Rating Scale was used to evaluate their musicality. The evaluation was performed before cochlear implantation and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 months after cochlear implantation for children with cochlear implants. The evaluation was also performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 months for children with normal hearing. The mean scores of musicality showed significant improvements with time of CI use for CI group (Pmusicality also showed significant improvements with time for control group (P0.05). Significant difference was noted between the two groups at 24 months (Pmusicality of children with cochlear implants improved significantly with time after cochlear implantation. The most rapid growth was found in the first year after cochlear implantation.

  5. The missing link in language development of deaf and hard of hearing children: pragmatic language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberis, Dianne; Beams, Dinah; Dalpes, Molly; Abrisch, Amanda; Baca, Rosalinda; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2012-11-01

    This article will provide information about the Pragmatics Checklist, which consists of 45 items and is scored as: (1) not present, (2) present but preverbal, (3) present with one to three words, and (4) present with complex language. Information for both children who are deaf or hard of hearing and those with normal hearing are presented. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are significantly older when demonstrating skill with complex language than their normal hearing peers. In general, even at the age of 7 years, there are several items that are not mastered by 75% of the deaf or hard of hearing children. Additionally, the article will provide some suggestions of strategies that can be considered as a means to facilitate the development of these pragmatic language skills for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. The effects of limited bandwidth and noise on verbal processing time and word recall in normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2013-09-01

    Understanding speech in acoustically degraded environments can place significant cognitive demands on school-age children who are developing the cognitive and linguistic skills needed to support this process. Previous studies suggest the speech understanding, word learning, and academic performance can be negatively impacted by background noise, but the effect of limited audibility on cognitive processes in children has not been directly studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of limited audibility on speech understanding and working memory tasks in school-age children with normal hearing. Seventeen children with normal hearing between 6 and 12 years of age participated in the present study. Repetition of nonword consonant-vowel-consonant stimuli was measured under conditions with combinations of two different signal to noise ratios (SNRs; 3 and 9 dB) and two low-pass filter settings (3.2 and 5.6 kHz). Verbal processing time was calculated based on the time from the onset of the stimulus to the onset of the child's response. Monosyllabic word repetition and recall were also measured in conditions with a full bandwidth and 5.6 kHz low-pass cutoff. Nonword repetition scores decreased as audibility decreased. Verbal processing time increased as audibility decreased, consistent with predictions based on increased listening effort. Although monosyllabic word repetition did not vary between the full bandwidth and 5.6 kHz low-pass filter condition, recall was significantly poorer in the condition with limited bandwidth (low pass at 5.6 kHz). Age and expressive language scores predicted performance on word recall tasks, but did not predict nonword repetition accuracy or verbal processing time. Decreased audibility was associated with reduced accuracy for nonword repetition and increased verbal processing time in children with normal hearing. Deficits in free recall were observed even under conditions where word repetition was not affected

  7. Transcription factors: normal and malignant development of blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravid, Katya; Licht, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    ... and the Development of the Erythroid Lineage James J. Bieker 71 II TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND THE MYELOID LINEAGE 85 6 RUNX1(AML1) and CBFB: Genes Required for the Development of All Definitive Hematopoietic Lineages 87 Nancy A. Speck and Elaine Dzierzak 7 PU.1 and the Development of the Myeloid Lineage Daniel G. Tenen 103 vvi CONTENTS 8 CCAAT/Enhancer-...

  8. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplowitz PaulB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10 mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  9. Cognitive levels of performance account for hemispheric lateralisation effects in dyslexic and normally reading children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Meffert, Elisabeth; Eickhoff, Simon B; Schreiber, Helen; Kukolja, Juraj; Shah, Nadim Jon; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-12-01

    Recent theories of developmental dyslexia explain reading deficits in terms of deficient phonological awareness, attention, visual and auditory processing, or automaticity. Since dyslexia has a neurobiological basis, the question arises how the reader's proficiency in these cognitive variables affects the brain regions involved in visual word recognition. This question was addressed in two fMRI experiments with 19 normally reading children (Experiment 1) and 19 children with dyslexia (Experiment 2). First, reading-specific brain activation was assessed by contrasting the BOLD signal for reading aloud words vs. overtly naming pictures of real objects. Next, ANCOVAs with brain activation during reading the individuals' scores for all five cognitive variables assessed outside the scanner as covariates were performed. Whereas the normal readers' brain activation during reading showed co-variation effects predominantly in the right hemisphere, the reverse pattern was observed for the dyslexics. In particular, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex, and precuneus showed contralateral effects for controls as compared to dyslexics. In line with earlier findings in the literature, these data hint at a global change in hemispheric asymmetry during cognitive processing in dyslexic readers, which, in turn, might affect reading proficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF DENTAL ARCH OF CHILDREN IN NORMAL OCCLUSION: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu-Hussein DDS, MScD, MSc, DPD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM. This paper is an attempt to compare and analyze the various mathematical models for defining the dental arch curvature of children in normal occlusion based upon a review of available literature. Background. While various studies have touched upon ways to cure or prevent dental diseases and upon surgical ways for teeth reconstitution to correct teeth anomalies during childhood, a substantial literature also exists, attempting to mathematically define the dental arch of children in normal occlusion. This paper reviews these dental studies and compares them analytically. Method. The paper compares the different mathematical approaches, highlights the basic assumptions behind each model, underscores the relevancy and applicability of the same, and also lists applicable mathematical formulae. Results. Each model has been found applicable to specific research conditions, as a universal mathematical model for describing the human dental arch still eludes satisfactory definition. The models necessarily need to include the features of the dental arch, such as shape, spacing between teeth and symmetry or asymmetry, but they also need substantial improvement. Conclusions. While the paper shows that the existing models are inadequate in properly defining the human dental arch, it also acknowledges that future research based on modern imaging techniques and computeraided simulation could well succeed in deriving an allinclusive definition for the human dental curve till now eluding the experts.

  11. Dietary intake and physical activity of normal weight and overweight 6 to 14 year old Swiss children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Kaspar, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Principles and questions under study: The prevalence of overweight is increasing in Swiss children, and they are at increased risk for hypertension and insulin resistance. Better understanding of how food intakes and activity patterns differ between overweight and normal weight children is needed to

  12. Abnormal ventricular development in preterm neonates with visually normal MRIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Wang, Yalin; Lao, Yi; Ceschin, Rafael; Mi, Liang; Nelson, Marvin D.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Leporé, Natasha

    2015-12-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for a wide range of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders. Some of these may stem from early brain abnormalities at the neonatal age. Hence, a precise characterization of neonatal neuroanatomy may help inform treatment strategies. In particular, the ventricles are often enlarged in neurocognitive disorders, due to atrophy of surrounding tissues. Here we present a new pipeline for the detection of morphological and relative pose differences in the ventricles of premature neonates compared to controls. To this end, we use a new hyperbolic Ricci flow based mapping of the ventricular surfaces of each subjects to the Poincaré disk. Resulting surfaces are then registered to a template, and a between group comparison is performed using multivariate tensor-based morphometry. We also statistically compare the relative pose of the ventricles within the brain between the two groups, by performing a Procrustes alignment between each subject's ventricles and an average shape. For both types of analyses, differences were found in the left ventricles between the two groups.

  13. Lexical and age effects on word recognition in noise in normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cuncun; Liu, Sha; Liu, Haihong; Kong, Ying; Liu, Xin; Li, Shujing

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of the present study were (1) to examine the lexical and age effects on word recognition of normal-hearing (NH) children in noise, and (2) to compare the word-recognition performance in noise to that in quiet listening conditions. Participants were 213 NH children (age ranged between 3 and 6 years old). Eighty-nine and 124 of the participants were tested in noise and quiet listening conditions, respectively. The Standard-Chinese Lexical Neighborhood Test, which contains lists of words in four lexical categories (i.e., dissyllablic easy (DE), dissyllablic hard (DH), monosyllable easy (ME), and monosyllable hard (MH)) was used to evaluate the Mandarin Chinese word recognition in speech spectrum-shaped noise (SSN) with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 0dB. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine the lexical effects with syllable length and difficulty level as the main factors on word recognition in the quiet and noise listening conditions. The effects of age on word-recognition performance were examined using a regression model. The word-recognition performance in noise was significantly poorer than that in quiet and the individual variations in performance in noise were much greater than those in quiet. Word recognition scores showed that the lexical effects were significant in the SSN. Children scored higher with dissyllabic words than with monosyllabic words; "easy" words scored higher than "hard" words in the noise condition. The scores of the NH children in the SSN (SNR=0dB) for the DE, DH, ME, and MH words were 85.4, 65.9, 71.7, and 46.2% correct, respectively. The word-recognition performance also increased with age in each lexical category for the NH children tested in noise. Both age and lexical characteristics of words had significant influences on the performance of Mandarin-Chinese word recognition in noise. The lexical effects were more obvious under noise listening conditions than in quiet. The word

  14. DESCRIPTION OF BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSES (AIR AND BONE CONDUCTION IN CHILDREN WITH NORMAL HEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pashkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hearing level in small children with conductive hearing loss associated with congenital craniofacial abnormalities, particularly with agenesis of external ear and external auditory meatus is a pressing issue. Conventional methods of assessing hearing in the first years of life, i. e. registration of brainstem auditory evoked responses to acoustic stimuli in the event of air conduction, does not give an indication of the auditory analyzer’s condition due to potential conductive hearing loss in these patients. This study was aimed at assessing potential of diagnosing the auditory analyzer’s function with registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs to acoustic stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator. The study involved 17 children aged 3–10 years with normal hearing. We compared parameters of registering brainstem auditory evoked responses (peak V depending on the type of stimulus transmission (air/bone in children with normal hearing. The data on thresholds of the BAERs registered to acoustic stimuli in the event of air and bone conduction obtained in this study are comparable; hearing thresholds in the event of acoustic stimulation by means of a bone vibrator correlates with the results of the BAERs registered to the stimuli transmitted by means of air conduction earphones (r = 0.9. High correlation of thresholds of BAERs to the stimuli transmitted by means of a bone vibrator with thresholds of BAERs registered when air conduction earphones were used helps to assess auditory analyzer’s condition in patients with any form of conductive hearing loss.  

  15. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B.; Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J.; Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7±2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7±2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ''open'' from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  16. MRI of the normal appendix in children: data toward a new reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, David W. [Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Providence, RI (United States); Schooler, Gary R. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Stamoulis, Catherine; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might prove useful in the diagnostic evaluation of pediatric appendicitis in the effort to avoid exposing children to the ionizing radiation of CT, yet there is a paucity of literature describing the normal range of appearances of the pediatric appendix on MRI. To investigate MRI characteristics of the normal appendix to aid in establishing a reference standard in the pediatric population. We conducted a retrospective study of children and young adults (≤18 years of age) who underwent lumbar spine or pelvis MRI between Jan. 1, 2013, and Dec. 31, 2013, for indications unrelated to appendicitis. Two board-certified radiologists independently reviewed all patients' MRI examinations for appendix visualization, diameter, intraluminal content signal, and presence of periappendiceal inflammation or free fluid. We used the Cohen kappa statistic and Spearman correlation coefficient to assess reader agreement on qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. Three hundred forty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Both readers visualized the appendix in 192/346 (55.5%) patients (kappa = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Estimated median appendix diameter was 5 mm for reader 1 and 6 mm for reader 2 ([25th, 75th] quartiles = [5, 6] mm; range, 2-11 mm; r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). Appendix intraluminal signal characteristics were variable. Periappendiceal inflammation was present in 0/192 (0%) and free fluid in 6/192 (3.1%) MRI examinations (kappa = 1.0). The normal appendix was seen on MRI in approximately half of pediatric patients, with a mean diameter of ∝5-6 mm, variable intraluminal signal characteristics, no adjacent inflammatory changes, and rare surrounding free fluid. (orig.)

  17. Speech Perception in Noise in Normally Hearing Children: Does Binaural Frequency Modulated Fitting Provide More Benefit than Monaural Frequency Modulated Fitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah; Umat, Cila; Razak, Ummu Athiyah Abdul

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the benefit of monaural versus binaural ear-level frequency modulated (FM) fitting on speech perception in noise in children with normal hearing. Reception threshold for sentences (RTS) was measured in no-FM, monaural FM, and binaural FM conditions in 22 normally developing children with bilateral normal hearing, aged 8 to 9 years old. Data were gathered using the Pediatric Malay Hearing in Noise Test (P-MyHINT) with speech presented from front and multi-talker babble presented from 90°, 180°, 270° azimuths in a sound treated booth. The results revealed that the use of either monaural or binaural ear level FM receivers provided significantly better mean RTSs than the no-FM condition (Pbinaural FM did not produce a significantly greater benefit in mean RTS than monaural fitting. The benefit of binaural over monaural FM varies across individuals; while binaural fitting provided better RTSs in about 50% of study subjects, there were those in whom binaural fitting resulted in either deterioration or no additional improvement compared to monaural FM fitting. The present study suggests that the use of monaural ear-level FM receivers in children with normal hearing might provide similar benefit as binaural use. Individual subjects' variations of binaural FM benefit over monaural FM suggests that the decision to employ monaural or binaural fitting should be individualized. It should be noted however, that the current study recruits typically developing normal hearing children. Future studies involving normal hearing children with high risk of having difficulty listening in noise is indicated to see if similar findings are obtained.

  18. Normal feline behaviour: … and why problem behaviours develop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John

    2018-05-01

    Practical relevance: Cats are descended from a solitary, territorial ancestor, and while domestication has reduced their inherited tendency to be antagonistic towards all animals larger than their typical prey, they still place more reliance on the security of their territory than on psychological attachments to people or other cats, the exact opposite to dogs. Many feline problem behaviours stem from perceived threats to this security, often due to conflicts with other cats. Others are more developmental in origin, often caused by inadequate exposure to crucial stimuli, especially people, during the socialisation period. Strongly aversive events experienced at any age can also contribute. A third category comprises normal behaviour that owners deem unacceptable, such as scratching of furniture. Evidence base: This review identifies three areas in which basic research is inadequate to support widely employed concepts and practices in feline behavioural medicine. First, classification of cats' problem behaviours relies heavily on approaches derived from studies of their behavioural ecology and, to some extent, extrapolation from canine studies. Few studies have focused on cats in the home, the environment in which most behavioural disorders are expressed. Secondly, cats' chemical senses (olfactory and vomeronasal) are far more sensitive than our own, making it difficult for owners or clinicians to fully comprehend the sensory information upon which they base their behaviour. Thirdly, although the concept of psychological distress is widely invoked as an intervening variable in behavioural disorders, there are still no reliable measures of distress for pet cats in the home. Global importance: Psychological distress of some kind is the primary cause of many of the behavioural problems presented to clinicians, but surveys indicate that many more cats display the same clinical signs without their owners ever seeking help. The welfare of this 'invisible' group could be

  19. Estimation of normal chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid clearance in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, A.; Pintelon, H.; Ham, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    In order to estimate the normal range of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance in children, we selected a series of 256 patients with past or present urinary tract infection who showed, at the time of the clearance determination, normal technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and normal left to right DMSA relative uptake. The clearance was calculated by means of either the simplified second exponential method or the 120-min single blood sample; Chantler's correction was used in order to correct for having neglected the first exponential. There was a progressive increase in clearance from the first weeks of life (mean value around 1 month: 55 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ), with a plateau at around 18 months. Between 2 and 17 years of age, the clearance values remained constant, with a mean value of 114 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (SD: 24 ml/min); this is similar to the level described for inulin clearance. No significant differences were observed between boys and girls, or between clearance values calculated with one or with two blood samples. Taking into account the hour of intravenous injection of the tracer, we did not observe any influence of the lunchtime meal on the distribution of the 51 Cr-EDTA clearance values. (orig.)

  20. Differences in response to conventional vitamin D therapy among obese and normal weight children and adolescents in Qazvin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saffari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D (Vit D deficiency is one of the major nutritional deficiencies in children. Obesity has inverse association with vitamin D levels. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in response to conventional treatment for Vit D deficiency and insufficiency in obese and normal weight children and adolescents.Methods: This nested case control study was conducted in 69 obese children and 133 normal weight matched control suffering from Vit D insufficiency or deficiency. Vit D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH D

  1. Cognitive Development of Children with Craniosynostosis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-01-01

    Investigators from University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Harvard U, MA; St Louis, MO; Atlanta, GA; Northwestern U, and Shriner’s Hospital, Chicago, compared the development of school-aged children with single-suture craniosynostosis (sagittal, metopic, unicoronal, lambdoid) and unaffected children.

  2. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  3. Children between Sustainable Development and Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Lilla; Balázs, Szilvia

    2009-01-01

    Our paper deals with the relationship between sustainability, media advertisements and their effect on children. This topic is highly actual today, as the children of today, who grow up in front of the TV will be the consumers of tomorrow. The perpetual growth of consuming and gathering material goods is not serving the sustainable development.…

  4. Dynamic Alu Methylation during Normal Development, Aging, and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation primarily occurs on CpG dinucleotides and plays an important role in transcriptional regulations during tissue development and cell differentiation. Over 25% of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome reside within Alu elements, the most abundant human repeats. The methylation of Alu elements is an important mechanism to suppress Alu transcription and subsequent retrotransposition. Decades of studies revealed that Alu methylation is highly dynamic during early development and aging. Recently, many environmental factors were shown to have a great impact on Alu methylation. In addition, aberrant Alu methylation has been documented to be an early event in many tumors and Alu methylation levels have been associated with tumor aggressiveness. The assessment of the Alu methylation has become an important approach for early diagnosis and/or prognosis of cancer. This review focuses on the dynamic Alu methylation during development, aging, and tumor genesis. The cause and consequence of Alu methylation changes will be discussed.

  5. Nocturnal Urinary Excretion of FSH and LH in Children and Adolescents With Normal and Early Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander S; Aksglaede, Lise

    2017-01-01

    aimed to evaluate urinary and serum gonadotropin levels according to age, sex, and pubertal stage in healthy children and to assess the clinical use of FMV urinary gonadotropins in children with disordered puberty. Design: Cross-sectional part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study and longitudinal study...... of patients. Setting: Population-based and outpatient clinic. Patients or Other Participants: Eight hundred forty-three healthy children from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study and 25 girls evaluated for central precocious puberty (CPP). Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging, including serum and urinary...... gonadotropin levels. Results: Urinary gonadotropins increased with advancing age and pubertal development and were detectable in FMV urine before physical signs of puberty. FMV urinary LH correlated strongly with basal (r = 0.871, P

  6. Nocturnal Urinary Excretion of FSH and LH in Children and Adolescents With Normal and Early Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander S; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar; Petersen, Jorgen Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2017-10-01

    Clinical use of single serum gonadotropin measurements in children is limited by the pulsatile secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, first morning voided (FMV) urine may integrate the fluctuating gonadotropin serum levels. We aimed to evaluate urinary and serum gonadotropin levels according to age, sex, and pubertal stage in healthy children and to assess the clinical use of FMV urinary gonadotropins in children with disordered puberty. Cross-sectional part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study and longitudinal study of patients. Population-based and outpatient clinic. Eight hundred forty-three healthy children from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study and 25 girls evaluated for central precocious puberty (CPP). Clinical pubertal staging, including serum and urinary gonadotropin levels. Urinary gonadotropins increased with advancing age and pubertal development and were detectable in FMV urine before physical signs of puberty. FMV urinary LH correlated strongly with basal (r = 0.871, P 5 IU/L). Urinary concentrations of LH decreased after 3 months of GnRH treatment to levels below +2 SDs. Urinary gonadotropin levels increased before the onset of puberty and were elevated in girls with CPP. We suggest urinary LH as an alternative noninvasive method to improve diagnosing and therapeutic management of children with disordered puberty. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. Normal and Abnormal Embryonic Development in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Baken (Leonie)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Research of the past years indicates that the periconception period, the period including gametogenesis and embryogenesis, determines growth and development of the embryo and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Prenatal care starts to focus more on the first-trimester of

  8. The comparison of stress and marital satisfaction status of parents of hearing-impaired and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Gharashi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is the source of many problems in human-kind lives and threatens people's life constantly. Having hearing-impaired child, not only causes stress in parents, but also affects their marital satisfaction. The purpose of this study was comparing the stress and marital satisfaction status between the normal and hearing-impaired children's parents.Methods: This was a causal-comparative study. Eighty parents of normal children and 80 parents of hearing-impaired children were chosen from rehabilitation centers and kindergartens in city of Tabriz, Iran by available and clustering sampling method. All parents were asked to complete the Friedrich's source of stress and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaires.Results: Parents of hearing-impaired children endure more stress than the normal hearing ones (p<0.001. The marital satisfaction of hearing-impaired children's parents was lower than the parents of normal hearing children, too (p<0.001.Conclusion: Having a hearing-impaired child causes stress and threatens the levels of marital satisfaction. This requires much more attention and a distinct planning for parents of handicap children to reduce their stress.

  9. Cochlear implant: Speech and language development in deaf and hard of hearing children following implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Almost 200 cochlear implantations were done in the four centers (two in Belgrade, per one in Novi Sad and Niš in Serbia from 2002 to 2009. Less than 10% of implantees were postlingually deaf adults. The vast majority, i.e. 90% were pre- and perilingually profoundly deaf children. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of improved auditory perception due to cochlear implantation on comprehension of abstract words in children as compared with hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids and normal hearing children. Methods. Thirty children were enrolled in this study: 20 hearing impaired and 10 normal hearing. The vocabulary test was used. Results. The overall results for the whole test (100 words showed a significant difference in favor of the normal hearing as compared with hearing impaired children. The normal hearing children successfully described or defined 77.93% of a total of 100 words. Success rate for the cochlear implanted children was 26.87% and for the hearing impaired children with conventional hearing aids 20.32%. Conclusion. Testing for abstract words showed a statistically significant difference between the cochlear implanted and the hearing impaired children with hearing aids (Mann- Whitney U-test, p = 0.019 implying considerable advantage of cochlear implants over hearing aids regarding successful speech development in prelingually deaf children.

  10. Oral health status of normal children and those affiliated with cardiac diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, G; Usha, Mohan Das; Ambika, G; Jairanganath

    2011-01-01

    If a child's general health is compromised, care for his/her oral and dental health becomes an absolute necessity. Children with heart diseases require special dental care because of the risk of developing infective endocarditis. Was to evaluate the oral health status, parental oral health care knowledge of the pediatric cardiac patients and non cardiac group and infective endocarditis awareness among the parents of the cardiac group. Include a total of 50 children with heart diseases and 50 non-cardiac children aged 2-12 years were examined for dental caries index and simplified debris index. A structured, administered questionnaire for parents/caregivers about knowledge of infective endocarditis and oral health were used for data collection. Showed no statistically significant differences between the caries experience score for the two groups and oral health knowledge. Knowledge about Infective Endocarditis in parents of study group was very poor. Simplified Debris Index of age group 6-12 years was higher in study groups compared to the controls. Improvements should be made in educating parents and children on the importance of caries prevention and maintaining a good oral hygiene in prevention of infective endocarditis.

  11. Longitudinal body composition of children born to mothers with normal weight, overweight, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Aline; Hull, Holly R; Shankar, Kartik; Casey, Patrick H; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to mothers with normal weight, overweight, and obesity have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal prepregnancy BMI and offspring body composition trajectories during the first 6 years of life. Healthy infants (N = 325) were assessed longitudinally (at ages 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mixed-effects regression for repeated measures was used to model each continuous outcome as a function of maternal BMI and covariates (race, gestational age, birth weight, and mode of infant feeding). Maternal obesity differentially impacted body fat, but not bone mineral content or density, of girls and boys. Boys born to mothers with obesity have higher body fat from ages 2-6 years compared to boys born to normal-weight and overweight mothers (P obesity was not different across groups during the first 6 years of life (P > 0.05). This clinical observational study demonstrates a sexual dimorphism in offspring body composition until age 6 years based on maternal BMI, with a greater effect of maternal adiposity seen in boys than in girls. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Physical self-perception and motor performance in normal-weight, overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, M; Colella, D; Robazza, C; Bortoli, L; Capranica, L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical self-perception, body image and motor performance in Italian middle school students. Two hundred and sixty children were categorized into normal-weight (n=103), overweight (n=86) or obese (n=71) groups. Perceived coordination, body fat and sports competence were assessed using the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, while body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings. Individuals' perceptions of strength, speed and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Tests involving the standing long jump, 2 kg medicine-ball throw, 10 × 5 m shuttle-run and 20 and 30 m sprints were also administered. Girls, when compared with boys, and overweight and obese participants, when compared with normal-weight peers, reported lower perceived and actual physical competence, higher perceived body fat and greater body dissatisfaction. Body dissatisfaction mediated all the associations between body mass index (BMI) and the different aspects of physical self-perception in boys, but not in girls. The same pattern of results was found for physical self-perception as a mediator of the relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction. In conclusion, obesity proved to have adverse effects on both motor performance and physical self-perception. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and...

  14. Gestures in Prelinguistic Turkish Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…

  15. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  16. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre......Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children......-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (schooling), 285 children completed the intervention and had complete information on dietary intake. Results: Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P...

  17. Atlas of Bone Scintigraphy in the Developing Paediatric Skeleton: The Normal Skeleton, Variants and Pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of 99m technetium polyphosphate in 1972 by Dr. M. Subramanian, bone scintigraphy has become an integral part of the evaluation of paediatric musculoskeletal disorders. Using the current high resolution gamma cameras and 99m technetium-methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) or 99m Tc 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-DPD), the quality of images available for interpretation is high. From the very earliest days, there has been a certain confusion over normal bone physiology, as depicted by the bone scintigram in paediatric patients. This has resulted in a number of difficulties in detecting subtle abnormalities, especially near the dynamically changing scintigraphic presentation of the physes (growth zones). Examples of abnormalities that might be confused with normal bone activity are osteomyelitis, bucket handle fractures of the long bones, as well as neuroblastoma and leukaemic metastases. The aim of this publication is to provide structured information about the maturation and normal appearance of the skeleton from infancy to adulthood. As such, it reflects the current status of bone scintigraphy. It is hoped that this work will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the dynamic process of naturally occurring metabolic bone changes, which will, in turn, improve the quality of reporting of paediatric bone scans. As the majority of paediatric bone scintigrams are interpreted by non-paediatric nuclear physicians, the availability of this reference atlas should improve the care of children. This atlas is intended to address the needs of nuclear medicine physicians, both residents and specialists. It is intended to serve as an illustrative reference to those not having sufficient exposure to paediatric bone scan investigations, to enable them to maintain adequate competency in this particular application. Experts in paediatric nuclear medicine are often consulted for their opinion on bone scans obtained in their respective

  18. Diet, Environment and Children's Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senemaud, B.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the relationship between maternal malnutrition and child development. The report is divided into three sections. The first section, which describes child development, focuses on brain, mental, and psychomotor development. The second section describes the methodological difficulties of measuring effects of malnutrition on the…

  19. Language Acquisition and Assessment in Normal and Handicapped Preschool Children: A Review of the Literature. Final Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.

    The second of four documents provides a summary of the scientific literature pertaining to spontaneous language acquisition in handicapped preschool children, and reviews and evaluates procedures for assessing language acquisition in these children. Chapter l focuses on language development in nonhandicapped children after they have acquired their…

  20. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knirsch, Walter; Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias; Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  1. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  2. The relationship of theory of mind and executive functions in normal, deaf and cochlear-implanted children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nazarzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Theory of mind refers to the ability to understand the others have mental states that can be different from one's own mental states or facts. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of theory of mind and executive functions in normal hearing, deaf, and cochlear-implanted children.Methods: The study population consisted of normal, deaf and cochlear-implanted girl students in Mashhad city, Iran. Using random sampling, 30 children (10 normal, 10 deaf and 10 cochlear-implanted in age groups of 8-12 years old were selected. To measure the theoty of mind, theory of mind 38-item scale and to assess executive function, Coolidge neuropsychological and personality test was used. Research data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests.Results: There was a significant difference between the groups in the theory of mind and executive function subscales, organization, planning-decision-making, and inhibition. Between normal and deaf groups (p=0.01, as well as cochlear-implanted and deaf groups (p=0.01, there was significant difference in planning decision-making subscale. There was not any significant relationship between the theory of mind and executive functions generally or the theory of mind and executive function subscales in these three groups independently.Conclusion: Based on our findings, cochlear-implanted and deaf children have lower performance in theory of mind and executive function compared with normal hearing children.

  3. Validation of the second version of the LittlEARS® Early Speech Production Questionnaire (LEESPQ) in German-speaking children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilmann, Annerose; Friese, Barbara; Lässig, Anne; Hoffmann, Vanessa

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of neonatal hearing screening and the increasingly early age at which children can receive a cochlear implant has intensified the need for a validated questionnaire to assess the speech production of children aged 0‒18. Such a questionnaire has been created, the LittlEARS ® Early Speech Production Questionnaire (LEESPQ). This study aimed to validate a second, revised edition of the LEESPQ. Questionnaires were returned for 362 children with normal hearing. Completed questionnaires were analysed to determine if the LEESPQ is reliable, prognostically accurate, internally consistent, and if gender or multilingualism affects total scores. Total scores correlated positively with age. The LEESPQ is reliable, accurate, and consistent, and independent of gender or lingual status. A norm curve was created. This second version of the LEESPQ is a valid tool to assess the speech production development of children with normal hearing, aged 0‒18, regardless of their gender. As such, the LEESPQ may be a useful tool to monitor the development of paediatric hearing device users. The second version of the LEESPQ is a valid instrument for assessing early speech production of children aged 0‒18 months.

  4. The moderating effect of self-efficacy on normal-weight, overweight, and obese children's math achievement: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell

    2015-03-01

    Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Nicole Händel

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA, may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling.From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity.Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI: 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02, although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency.Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  6. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA), may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling. From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity. Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI): 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02), although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency. Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  7. Pubertal development in ICSI children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Roelants, M.; Painter, R.; Bonduelle, M.; Devroey, P.; de Schepper, J.

    2012-01-01

    To date, information on the pubertal development of adolescents born after ICSI is scarce, since the very first cohort is only now reaching young adulthood. In this study, pubertal development at the age of 14 was characterized in a longitudinally followed cohort of ICSI-conceived teenagers and

  8. Grating-acuity in children. Normal values of visual acuity in children up to 13 years as assessed by the acuity card procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk-Rootlieb, A J; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; van Zoggel, J; van der Graaf, Y; Willemse, J

    1992-09-01

    The acuity card procedure proved to be a useful method for assessing visual acuity in children. Normal values of visual acuity measured by this method had already been assessed in children up to four years. To enable application of the test in older children this study obtained values in a group of 396 normal children, aged three months to 13 years. The mean curve as well as the 10th centile was calculated in different age groups. A considerable variation of acuity values causing a 'dip' in the 10th centile was found in the ages 18 to 24 months. A smaller 'dip' was found in the ages 48 to 52 months. This has to be attributed to behavioural properties connected with age. The results obtained in the group of children under four years of age corresponded fairly well with other studies. In schoolchildren a fair agreement could also be found between the data obtained using the acuity card procedure and the data obtained with the Landolt-C rings. Obtaining normal values for the acuity card procedure in children covering a wide age range facilitates recognition of visual handicap in children who are difficult to assess.

  9. Children develop a veil of fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore......INFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  10. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  11. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung

    2014-01-01

    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  12. Stage-I osteochondritis dissecans versus normal variants of ossification in the knee in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebarski, Kathleen; Hernandez, Ramiro J.

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) has a better prognosis than the adult type. We postulated that the excellent prognosis of juvenile OCD could be explained, at least in part, by the erroneous diagnosis of some developmental variants of ossification as stage-I OCD. Knee MRIs of 38 children, ages 7.5-17.7 years (mean and median age 13 years), were retrospectively reviewed to look for features that might separate normal variants of ossification from stage-I OCD. These included age, gender, site, configuration of the lesion, residual cartilaginous model and presence of edema. Twenty-three patients (32 condyles) had ossification defects with intact articular cartilage suggestive of stage-I lesions. No stage-II lesions were seen in the posterior femoral condyles. Accessory ossification centers were seen in 11/16 posterior condyles and 3/16 central condyles. Spiculation of existing ossification was seen in 12/16 posterior condylar lesions and 1/16 central condyles. There was a predominance of accessory ossifications and spiculations in the patients with 10% or greater residual cartilaginous model. No edema signal greater than diaphyseal red-marrow signal was seen in the posterior condyles. Clinical follow-up ranged from 0.5 to 38 months, with clinical improvement in 22 out of 23 patients. Inclusion of normal variants in the stage-I OCD category might explain, in part, the marked difference in published outcome between the juvenile and adult forms of OCD. Ossification defects in the posterior femoral condyles with intact overlying articular cartilage, accessory ossification centers, spiculation, residual cartilaginous model, and lack of bone-marrow edema are features of developmental variants rather than OCD. (orig.)

  13. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, Elise; Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J.; Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M.; Porter, Emma; Rutherford, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  14. Creating a Development Support Bubble for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegh, Janneke; Fontijn, Willem; Aarts, Emile; Boer, Laurens; van de Wouw, Doortje

    In this paper we describe an opportunity Ambient Intelligence provides outside the domains typically associated with it. We present a concept for enhancing child development by introducing tangible computing in a way that fits the children and improves current education. We argue that the interfaces used should be simple and make sense to the children. The computer should be hidden and interaction should take place through familiar play objects to which the children already have a connection. Contrary to a straightforward application of personal computers, our solution addresses cognitive, social and fine motor skills in an integrated manner. We illustrate our vision with a concrete example of an application that supports the inevitable transition from free play throughout the classroom to focused play at the table. We also present the validation of the concept with children, parents and teachers, highlighting that they all recognize the benefits of tangible computing in this domain.

  15. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Ilan J N; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; Bates, D Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P

    2017-03-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy in children. To describe characteristics of colonic anatomy on air contrast enemas in children without constipation to provide normal values for colonic size ratios in children. We performed a retrospective chart review of children aged 0-5 years who had undergone air contrast enemas for intussusception. The primary outcome measures were the ratios of the diameters and lengths of predetermined colonic segments (lengths of rectosigmoid and descending colon; diameters of rectum, sigmoid, descending colon, transverse colon and ascending colon) in relation to the L2 vertebral body width. We included 119 children (median age 2.0 years, range 0-5 years, 68% boys). Colonic segment length ratios did not change significantly with age, although the differences for the rectosigmoid/L2 ratio were borderline significant (P = 0.05). The ratios that involved the rectal and ascending colon diameters increased significantly with age, while diameter ratios involving the other colonic segments did not. Differences by gender and race were not significant. These data can be used for reference purposes in young children undergoing contrast studies of the colon.

  16. Gap-Junctional communication between developing Drosophila muscles is essential for their normal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, M G; Baines, R A; Stebbings, L A; Davies, J A; Bacon, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that a family of proteins, known as the innexins, are structural components of invertebrate gap junctions. The shaking-B (shak-B) locus of Drosophila encodes two members of this emerging family, Shak-B(lethal) and Shak-B(neural). This study focuses on the role of Shak-B gap junctions in the development of embryonic and larval muscle. During embryogenesis, shak-B transcripts are expressed in a subset of the somatic muscles; expression is strong in ventral oblique muscles (VO4-6) but only weak in ventral longitudinals (VL3 and 4). Carboxyfluorescein injected into VO4 of wild-type early stage 16 embryos spreads, via gap junctions, to label adjacent muscles, including VL3 and 4. In shak-B2 embryos (in which the shak-B(neural) function is disrupted), dye injected into VO4 fails to spread into other muscles. In the first instar larva, when dye coupling between muscles is no longer present, another effect of the shak-B2 mutation is revealed by whole-cell voltage clamp. In a calcium-free saline, only two voltage-activated potassium currents are present in wild-type muscles; a fast IA and a slow IK current. In shak-B2 larvae, these two currents are significantly reduced in magnitude in VO4 and 5, but remain normal in VL3. Expression of shak-B(neural) in a shak-B2 background fully rescues both dye coupling in embryonic muscle and whole-cell currents in first instar VO4 and 5. Our observations show that Shak-B(neural) is one of a set of embryonic gap-junction proteins, and that it is required for the normal temporal development of potassium currents in some larval muscles.

  17. How normal is grammatical development in the right hemisphere following hemispherectomy? The root infinitive stage and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, Susan; de Bode, Stella

    2003-08-01

    We examined the morphosyntax of eight left hemispherectomized children at two different stages and compared it to MLU-matched normals. We found that the language of the hemispherectomies paralleled that of their MLU matches with respect to the specific morphosyntactic characteristics of each stage. Our findings provide strong evidence for the presence of functional categories in all early grammars and demonstrate that grammatical development, regardless of its neural substrate, is highly constrained by UG and follows a narrowly determined course. We discuss our findings within a neurobiological framework in which etiology defines the integrity of the remaining hemisphere, which in turn, determines its potential for linguistic reorganization and/or acquisition.

  18. Comparison of Social Adjustment in Blind Children and Normal in Primary School in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA ModdaresMoghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Methods:This is a descriptive, analytical study in which 270 blind and viewing students of primary schools in Mashhad participated in the academic years 2012-13. The blind students were chosen by census and viewing students through a stratified random sampling from normal schools. For data collection, a standard questionnaire that was social adjustment questionnaire was used. It was made in 1974 in America by Lambert, Wind Miller, Cole & Figueroa, which was translated in 1992 by Dr. Shahny Yeylagh, to be used for children of 7 to 13 years. It was conducted on 1500 boy and girl students of the first to fifth grade in elementary schools of Ahvaz. This test consists of 11 subscales, 38 sub-categories and 260 items. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-test was used. (P <0.05. Results:The mean scores of social adjustment of students showed no statistically significant difference between the viewing and the blind (p=0.8. Also the mean of social adjustment in blind girls and boys was not statistically significant (p=0.1, but the incompatibility was found in more boys than the girls. Conclusion: Regarding the results, social incompatibility was higher in the blind girl students than the viewing girl students. Also this incompatibility was higher in the boys than the girls thereby requiring scientific and coherent planning for them.

  19. Focusing on dissociated motor development in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Maria Avanise Yumi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociated motor development (DMD is considered when the baby starts independent walking late, with normality of the other fields of development. There is evidence that babies with DMD present an atypical crawling pattern and hypotonia. To investigate the frequency and characteristics of DMD, neurological examination was performed monthly in 177 healthy full-term babies from 6 months age, in urban and rural zone samples in Brazil. Among 20 children with atypical crawling, none presented hypotonia neither did they start independent walking late. The means of the ages at the begining of atypical crawling and independent walking acquisitions, 7.40mo (SD 1.4 and 12.76mo (SD 2.5 respectively, did not differ from the group with crossed crawling pattern. Thus, in this sample of Brazilian healthy children we did not find cases with DMD.

  20. Semantic Richness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss Who Are Developing Spoken Language: A Single Case Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…

  1. Thresholds of Tone Burst Auditory Brainstem Responses for Infants and Young Children with Normal Hearing in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Lee

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: Based on the published research and our study, we suggest setting the normal criterion levels for infants and young children in Taiwan of the tone burst auditory brainstem response to air-conducted tones as 30 dB nHL for 500 and 1000 Hz, and 25 dB nHL for 2000 and 4000 Hz.

  2. A Look at the Memory Performance of Retarded and Normal Children Utilizing the Levels of Processing Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupart, Judy L.; Mulcahy, Robert F.

    Memory performance differences of mental age matched (9-12 years) educable mentally retarded (EMR) (n=56) and normal (n=56) children were examined in two experiments using the F. Craik and R. Lockhart levels of processing framework. In experiment 1, Ss were randomly assigned to an incidental, intentional, or planned intentional learning condition,…

  3. Comparability of Self-Concept among Normal Achievers and Children with Learning Difficulties within a Greek Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonadari, Angeliki

    1994-01-01

    Assessed Greek third through sixth graders on the Perceived Competence Scale for Children (PCSC). Subjects were normally achieving (NA) and low achieving students and a special class (SC) of students identified as at risk for learning difficulties. The SC students scored lower than the NA students on the PCSC global self-worth, competence affect,…

  4. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomseok Sohn

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  5. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasempour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  6. Dietary adequacy of Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder compared to healthy developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Anwar, Mona; Bjørklund, Geir; Hashish, Adel; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Hemimi, Maha; Sultan, Eman

    2017-04-01

    Although the etiology and pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still poorly understood, a number of environmental, anthropological, neurobiological and genetic factors have been related to the pathophysiology of ASD, even the impact of oxidative stress response related to the environment and nutrition intake. Usual recommended dietary habits are based on the combination of behavioral and dietary or nutraceutical interventions together with pharmacotherapy. Investigations about a reliable relationship between diet and ASD are still lacking. The present study aimed at comparing dietary regimens and habits of normally developing apparently healthy children, without diagnosed ASD, with a pediatric population of individuals affected by autistic disorder. Assessments of nutritional and anthropometric data, in addition to biochemical evaluation for nutrient deficiencies, were performed. A total of 80 children with autistic disorder and 80 healthy, normally developing pediatric individuals were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked to complete the standardized questionnaire regarding the different types of food and the proportion of a serving for their children. Biochemical analysis of micro- and macronutrients were also done. Plotting on the Egyptian sex-specific anthropometric growth (auximetric) chart, absolute weights as well as weight-related for age classes, were significantly higher in cases than healthy controls. No differences between groups were observed in regard to total kilocalories (kcal), carbohydrates, and fat intake. A total of 23.8% of children with autistic disorder vs. 11.3% in the healthy control group had a nutrient intake with features below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein. Children with autistic disorder showed low dietary intake of some micronutrients; calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) and sodium (Na), also they had significantly high intake of potassium (K) and vitamin C compared to healthy

  7. Computerized tomography and head growth curve infantile macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eda, Isematsu; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takashima, Sachio; Takeshita, Kenzo

    1982-01-01

    Macrocephaly was defined as a head measuring larger than 98th percentile. We have evaluated CT findings and head growth curves in 25 infants with large heads. Ten (40%) of 25 infants with large heads were normal developmentally and neurologically. Five (20%) of those were mentally retarded. The other 10 infants (40%) included hydrocephalus (4 cases), malformation syndrome (3 cases), brain tumor (1 case), metabolic disorder (1 case) and degenerative disorder (1 case). Their head growth curves were typed as (I), (II) and (III): Type (I) (excessive head growth curve to 2 SDs above normal); Type (II) (head growth curve gradually approached to 2 SDs above normal); Type (III) (head growth curve parallel to 2 SDs above normal). Ten of macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development were studied clinically and radiologically in details. They were all male. CT pictures of those showed normal or various abnormal findings: ventricular dilatations, wide frontal and temporal subdural spaces, wide interhemispheric fissures, wide cerebral sulci, and large sylvian fissures. CT findings in 2 of those, which because normal after repeated CT examinations, resembled benign subdural collection. CT findings in one of those were external hydrocephalus. Head growth curves were obtained from 8 of those. Six cases revealed type (II) and two cases did type (III). The remaining 2 cases could not be followed up. We consider that CT findings of infants showed macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development reveals normal or various abnormal (ventricular dilatations, benign subdural collection, external hydrocephalus) and their head growth curves are not at least excessive. Infants with mental retardation showed similar CT findings and head growth curves as those with normal psychomotor development. It was difficult to distinguish normal from mentally retarded infants by either CT findings or head growth curves. (author)

  8. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, pphysical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on helping parents and children to be physically active together. PMID:22456036

  9. Theory of mind and emotion-recognition functioning in autistic spectrum disorders and in psychiatric control and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, J K; van der Wees, M; Swaab-Barneveld, H; van der Gaag, R J

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that weak theory of mind (ToM) and/or emotion recognition (ER) abilities are specific to subjects with autism. Differences in ToM and ER performance were examined between autistic (n = 20), pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (n = 20), psychiatric control (n = 20), and normal children (n = 20). The clinical groups were matched person-to-person on age and verbal IQ. We used tasks for the matching and the context recognition of emotional expressions, and a set of first- and second-order ToM tasks. Autistic and PDD-NOS children could not be significantly differentiated from each other, nor could they be differentiated from the psychiatric controls with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 9). The psychiatric controls with conduct disorder or dysthymia performed about as well as normal children. The variance in second-order ToM performance contributed most to differences between diagnostic groups.

  10. Impaired fasting glucose and the metabolic profile in Danish children and adolescents with normal weight, overweight, or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloppenborg, Julie T; Fonvig, Cilius E; Nielsen, Tenna R H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Whether the definitions of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) differentially impact estimates of the metabolic profile and IFG-related comorbidities in Danish children and adolescents is unknown. METHODS......: Two thousand one hundred and fifty four (979 boys) children and adolescents with overweight or obesity (median age 12 years) and 1824 (728 boys) children with normal weight (median age 12 years) from The Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank were studied. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, puberty......, and fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipids were measured. RESULTS: About 14.1% of participants with overweight or obesity exhibited IFG according to the ADA and 3.5% according to the WHO definition. Among individuals with normal weight, the corresponding...

  11. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication

  12. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  13. Correlation of ultrasound imaging of oral swallow with ventilatory alterations in cerebral palsied and normal children: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D J; Casas, M J; McPherson, K A

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation that synchronizes the videotaped output of ultrasound camera and the analog data from physiological measurements of swallowing and ventilation in normal and cerebral palsied (CP) children are presented. Four cerebral palsied children and three control children undertook a single sip-swallow of 5 ml of liquid and a solid mastication-swallow sequence on three occasions according to a defined protocol. The CP children exhibited much more variability and less control of the liquid bolus than did the controls. The ultrasound image clearly demonstrates the lack of control of the posterior of the tongue in many CP children. Some parts of the sequence of oral swallow and the time to achieve maximum anterior displacement of the hyoid bone appear to be slowed. The sequential events of swallowing show less variability as the sip-swallow proceeds from the oral voluntary to pharyngeal and lower involuntary phases. This study also identified a short-latency apnea that appears to accompany a saliva (protective) swallow and a long-latency apnea that accompanies semi-solid or liquid bolus (alimentary) swallows. Further investigations of normal and CP children utilizing a combined diagnostic imaging-physiological measurement approach will follow this initial study.

  14. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  15. Normal pituitary volumes in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Hsuan; Nicoletti, Mark; Sanches, Marsal; Hatch, John P; Sassi, Roberto B; Axelson, David; Brambilla, Paolo; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Soares, Jair C

    2004-01-01

    The volume of the pituitary gland in adults with bipolar disorder has previously been reported to be smaller than that of healthy controls. Such abnormalities would be consistent with the HPA dysfunction reported in this illness. We conducted a study of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder to determine whether size abnormalities in the pituitary gland are already present early in illness course. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric analysis of the pituitary gland was carried out in 16 DSM-IV children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (mean age+/-sd=15.5+/-3.4 years) and 21 healthy controls (mean age+/-sd=16.9+/-3.8 years). Subjects underwent a 1.5 T MRI, with 3-D Spoiled Gradient Recalled (SPGR) acquisition. There was no statistically significant difference between pituitary gland volumes of bipolar patients compared to healthy controls (ANCOVA, age, gender, and ICV as covariates; F=1.77, df=1,32, P=.19). There was a statistically significant direct relationship between age and pituitary gland volume in both groups (r=.59, df=17, P=.007 for healthy controls; r=.61, df=12, P=.008 for bipolar patients). No evidence of size abnormalities in the pituitary gland was found in child and adolescent bipolar patients, contrary to reports involving adult bipolar patients. This suggests that anatomical abnormalities in this structure may develop later in illness course as a result of continued HPA dysfunction. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Determining the Motor Skills Development of Mentally Retarded Children through the Contribution of Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erim, Gonca; Caferoglu, Müge

    2017-01-01

    Visual arts education is a process that helps the reflection of inner worlds, socialization via group works and healthier motor skills development of normally developing or handicapped children like the mentally retarded. This study aims to determine the influence of visual art studies on the motor skills development of primary school first grade…

  17. Behavioural, Academic and Neuropsychological Profile of Normally Gifted Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, M.-J.; Ghesquiere, P.; Symons, H.; Fryns, J. P.; Legius, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study the neuropsychological, academic and social-emotional profiles were examined in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) children. Subjects: 17 NF1 children (ages 7-11) with NF1 without serious medical problems and with a full scale IQ (FSIQ) above 70. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), academic tests and an…

  18. The MR evaluation of normal children and disorders of neuronal migration and myelination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamachi, Keikichi; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Abe, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were available for review in 10 healthy children (aged one month-4 years) and 5 pediatric patients with disorders of neuronal migration and myelination during the developing process (aged 2-10 years). Such disorders in the 5 patients were megalencephaly, pachygyria, heterotopia, delayed myelination, and dysmyelinating disease. In the heathy group, myelination was matured during the first two years on MRI. This was depicted earlier on T1-weighted images than T2-weighted images (7 months vs one year and 9 months after birth). Abnormality in myelination was clearly visualized on T2-weighted images. Furthermore, MRI had the ability to detect morphologically the associated brain malformations. Thus, MRI may be a promising diagnostic procedure of choice in pediatric brain abnormality. (N.K.)

  19. Serum levels of growth hormone binding protein in children with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Fisker, Sidse; Scheike, Thomas Harder

    2000-01-01

    To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty.......To study the regulation of GHBP serum levels by gonadal steroids in normal and precocious puberty....

  20. Cortical networks for vision and language in dyslexic and normal children of variable socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-05-15

    In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  2. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Meethale Veettil; Sheeba Damodar; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Vimal Rohan K; Jayasree Ananda Bhavan Kumaran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychia...

  3. Effect of Volume of Fluid Resuscitation on Metabolic Normalization in Children Presenting in Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakes, Katherine; Haukoos, Jason S; Deakyne, Sara J; Hopkins, Emily; Easter, Josh; McFann, Kim; Brent, Alison; Rewers, Arleta

    2016-04-01

    The optimal rate of fluid administration in pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether the volume of fluid administration in children with DKA influences the rate of metabolic normalization. We performed a randomized controlled trial conducted in a tertiary pediatric emergency department from December 2007 until June 2010. The primary outcome was time to metabolic normalization; secondary outcomes were time to bicarbonate normalization, pH normalization, overall length of hospital treatment, and adverse outcomes. Children between 0 and 18 years of age were eligible if they had type 1 diabetes mellitus and DKA. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous (IV) fluid at low volume (10 mL/kg bolus + 1.25 × maintenance rate) or high volume (20 mL/kg bolus + 1.5 × maintenance rate) (n = 25 in each). After adjusting for initial differences in bicarbonate levels, time to metabolic normalization was significantly faster in the higher-volume infusion group compared to the low-volume infusion group (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.9; p = 0.04). Higher-volume IV fluid infusion appeared to hasten, to a greater extent, normalization of pH (HR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.2-5.0; p = 0.01) than normalization of serum bicarbonate (HR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.6-2.3; p = 0.6). The length of hospital treatment HR (0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.5; p = 0.5) and time to discharge HR (0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.5; p = 0.5) did not differ between treatment groups. Higher-volume fluid infusion in the treatment of pediatric DKA patients significantly shortened metabolic normalization time, but did not change overall length of hospital treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01701557. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung; Yoon, Choon-Sik; Choi, Jiin

    2015-01-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  6. Radiation dose and image quality in pediatric chest CT: effects of iterative reconstruction in normal weight and overweight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Haesung; Kim, Myung-Joon; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Mi-Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon-Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jiin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    New CT reconstruction techniques may help reduce the burden of ionizing radiation. To quantify radiation dose reduction when performing pediatric chest CT using a low-dose protocol and 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) compared with age/gender-matched chest CT using a conventional dose protocol and reconstructed with filtered back projection (control group) and to determine its effect on image quality in normal weight and overweight children. We retrospectively reviewed 40 pediatric chest CT (M:F = 21:19; range: 0.1-17 years) in both groups. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups using paired Student's t-test. Image quality including noise, sharpness, artifacts and diagnostic acceptability was subjectively assessed by three pediatric radiologists using a four-point scale (superior, average, suboptimal, unacceptable). Eight children in the ASIR group and seven in the control group were overweight. All radiation dose parameters were significantly lower in the ASIR group (P < 0.01) with a greater than 57% dose reduction in overweight children. Image noise was higher in the ASIR group in both normal weight and overweight children. Only one scan in the ASIR group (1/40, 2.5%) was rated as diagnostically suboptimal and there was no unacceptable study. In both normal weight and overweight children, the ASIR technique is associated with a greater than 57% mean dose reduction, without significantly impacting diagnostic image quality in pediatric chest CT examinations. However, CT scans in overweight children may have a greater noise level, even when using the ASIR technique. (orig.)

  7. The impact of epilepsy on academic achievement in children with normal intelligence and without major comorbidities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, S W; Ong, L C; Low, W Y; Lai, P S M

    2017-10-01

    To systematically examine published literature which assessed the prevalence of academic difficulties in children with epilepsy (CWE) of normal intelligence, and its associating factors. A search was conducted on five databases for articles published in English from 1980 till March 2015. Included were studies who recruited children (aged 5-18 years), with a diagnosis or newly/recurrent epilepsy, an intelligent quotient (IQ) of ≥70 or attending regular school, with or without a control group, which measured academic achievement using a standardised objective measure, and published in English. Excluded were children with learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities (IQchildren with asthma or reported norms. The remaining six studies (30%) did not report any differences. CWE had stable academic achievement scores over time (2-4 years), even among those whose seizure frequency improved. Higher parental education and children with higher IQ, and had better attention or had a positive attitude towards epilepsy, were associated with higher academic achievement score. Older children were found to have lower academic achievement score. In CWE of normal intelligence, the majority of published literature found that academic achievement was lower than controls or reported norms. The high percentages of low achievement in CWE, especially in the older age group, and the stability of scores even as seizure frequency improved, highlights the need for early screening of learning problems, and continued surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Eun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm{sup 3}). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m{sup 2}/kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  9. Length and volume of morphologically normal kidneys in Korean Children: Ultrasound measurement and estimation using body size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lim, Sok Hwan; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Ji Eun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and renal length and volume measured with ultrasound in Korean children who have morphologically normal kidneys, and to create simple equations to estimate the renal sizes using the anthropometric measurements. We examined 794 Korean children under 18 years of age including a total of 394 boys and 400 girls without renal problems. The maximum renal length (L) (cm), orthogonal anterior-posterior diameter (D) (cm) and width (W) (cm) of each kidney were measured on ultrasound. Kidney volume was calculated as 0.523 x L x D x W (cm 3 ). Anthropometric indices including height (cm), weight (kg) and body mass index (m 2 /kg) were collected through a medical record review. We used linear regression analysis to create simple equations to estimate the renal length and the volume with those anthropometric indices that were mostly correlated with the US-measured renal sizes. Renal length showed the strongest significant correlation with patient height (R2, 0.874 and 0.875 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). Renal volume showed the strongest significant correlation with patient weight (R2, 0.842 and 0.854 for the right and left kidneys, respectively, p < 0.001). The following equations were developed to describe these relationships with an estimated 95% range of renal length and volume (R2, 0.826-0.884, p < 0.001): renal length = 2.383 + 0.045 x Height (± 1.135) and = 2.374 + 0.047 x Height (± 1.173) for the right and left kidneys, respectively; and renal volume 7.941 + 1.246 x Weight (± 15.920) and = 7.303 + 1.532 x Weight (± 18.704) for the right and left kidneys, respectively. Scatter plots between height and renal length and between weight and renal volume have been established from Korean children and simple equations between them have been developed for use in clinical practice.

  10. Prelinguistic communication development in children with childhood apraxia of speech: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highman, Chantelle; Leitão, Suze; Hennessey, Neville; Piek, Jan

    2012-02-01

    In a retrospective study of prelinguistic communication development, clinically referred preschool children (n = 9) aged 3-4 years, who as infants had failed a community-based screening program, were evaluated for features of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Four children showed no features and either delayed or normal language, five had from three-to-seven CAS features and all exhibited delayed language. These children were matched by age with 21 children with typically-developing (TD) speech and language skills. Case-control comparisons of retrospective data from 9 months of age for two participants with more severe features of CAS at preschool age showed a dissociated pattern with low expressive quotients on the Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Assessment-Second Edition (REEL-2) and records of infrequent babbling, but normal receptive quotients. However, other profiles were observed. Two children with milder CAS features showed poor receptive and expressive development similar to other clinically referred children with no CAS features, and one child with severe CAS features showed poor receptive but normal expressive developmental milestones at 9 months and records of frequent babbling. Results suggest some but not all children with features of suspected CAS have a selective deficit originating within speech motor development.

  11. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  12. Investigating the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in children: a subtle effect of the normal allele range on the normal ability range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loat, C S; Craig, G; Plomin, R; Craig, I W

    2006-09-01

    The FMR1 gene contains a trinucleotide repeat tract which can expand from a normal size of around 30 repeats to over 200 repeats, causing mental retardation (Fragile X Syndrome). Evidence suggests that premutation males (55-200 repeats) are susceptible to a late-onset tremor/ataxia syndrome and females to premature ovarian failure, and that intermediate alleles ( approximately 41-55 repeats) and premutations may be in excess in samples with special educational needs. We explored the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in 621 low ability and control children assessed at 4 and 7 years, as well as 122 students with high IQ. The low and high ability and control samples showed no between-group differences in incidence of longer alleles. In males there was a significant negative correlation between allele length and non-verbal ability at 4 years (p = 0.048), academic achievement in maths (p = 0.003) and English (p = 0.011) at 7 years, and IQ in the high ability group (p = 0.018). There was a significant negative correlation between allele length and a standardised score for IQ and general cognitive ability at age 7 in the entire male sample (p = 0.002). This suggests that, within the normal spectrum of allele length, increased repeat numbers may have a limiting influence on cognitive performance.

  13. Parental Perceptions of Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Self-Esteem, and Mothers' Reported Stress in Younger and Older Hyperactive and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Eric J.; Johnston, Charlotte

    1983-01-01

    Examined parental perceptions of child behavior, parenting self-esteem, and mothers' reported stress for younger and older hyperactive and normal children. Parenting self-esteem was lower in parents of hyperactives than in parents of normal children. Self-esteem related to skill/knowledge as a parent was age related. (Author/RC)

  14. [Speech perception development in children with dyslexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Jiménez, Juan E; Muñetón, Mercedes; Rojas, Estefanía; Estévez, Adelina; Guzmán, Remedios; Rodríguez, Cristina; Naranjo, Francisco

    2008-11-01

    Several studies have indicated that dyslexics show a deficit in speech perception (SP). The main purpose of this research is to determine the development of SP in dyslexics and normal readers paired by grades from 2nd to 6th grade of primary school and to know whether the phonetic contrasts that are relevant for SP change during development, taking into account the individual differences. The achievement of both groups was compared in the phonetic tasks: voicing contrast, place of articulation contrast and manner of articulation contrast. The results showed that the dyslexic performed poorer than the normal readers in SP. In place of articulation contrast, the developmental pattern is similar in both groups but not in voicing and manner of articulation. Manner of articulation has more influence on SP, and its development is higher than the other contrast tasks in both groups.

  15. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sudipta; Kundu, Goutam; Maiti, Shyamal Kumar; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Mukhopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST). In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired) and control group (normal children). In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  16. Polycystic ovarian morphology in normal women does not predict the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M K; Hall, J E; Adams, J M; Lee, H; Welt, C K

    2006-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) is present in 25% of normal women in the absence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, the natural history of PCOM is unknown. We hypothesized that the presence of PCOM predisposes the development of PCOS. The study was a longitudinal follow-up study over 8.2 +/- 5.2 yr (mean +/- sd; range 1.7-17.5 yr). The study took place in an outpatient setting. Women who took part in a previous study as a normal control and had an ultrasound examination (n = 40) participated. Subjects underwent an interval menstrual history, physical exam, blood sampling, and repeat ultrasound in the follicular phase. Development of PCOS was diagnosed by irregular menses and hyperandrogenism, in the absence of other disorders. Changes in ovarian morphology over time were evaluated. At the baseline visit, 23 women (57.5%) had PCOM and 17 (42.5%) had normal ovarian morphology. One subject with PCOM developed irregular menses and presumptive PCOS. Eleven subjects with PCOM no longer met the criteria for PCOM at follow-up. There was no factor that predicted the change to normal ovarian morphology at the follow-up visit. These data suggest that PCOM in women with regular ovulatory cycles does not commonly predispose the development of PCOS. Although it is unusual to develop PCOM if the ovaries are normal on first assessment, ovaries in women with PCOM no longer meet the criteria for PCOM in approximately half of cases over time.

  17. Postnatal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus under normal and experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.; Bayer, S.

    Studies on postnatal maturation of the dentate gyrus are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: normal development of the dentate gyrus, cytogenesis, morphogenesis, synaptogenesis, gleogenesis, myelogenesis, development of the gyrus under experimental conditions, and effects of x radiation on cytogenesis and morphogenesis

  18. Mealtime Behaviors of Preschool Children: Comparison of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Crowe, Terry K.; Osbourn, Patricia L.; McClain, Catherine; Skipper, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified mealtime behaviors of young children (3-6 years old) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these behaviors to children with typical development matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. The parents of children with ASD (n = 24) and children with typical development (n = 24) completed a mealtime survey to assess early…

  19. 'Beyond Milestones': a randomised controlled trial evaluating an innovative digital resource teaching quality observation of normal child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Anne M; Cunningham, Clare; Sinclair, Adriane J; Rao, Arjun; Lonergan, Amy; Bye, Ann M E

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to create and evaluate the educational effectiveness of a digital resource instructing paediatric trainees in a systematic approach to critical and quality observation of normal child development. A digital educational resource was developed utilising the skills of an expert developmental paediatrician who was videoed assessing normal early child development at a series of critical stages. Videos illustrated aspects of language, sophistication of play and socialisation, cognition, and motor progress. Expert commentary, teaching text and summaries were used. A randomised controlled trial evaluated the resource. Paediatric trainees were recruited from The Sydney Children's Hospitals Network. Outcome measures were repeated at three time points (pre-teaching, immediate-post and 1 month) and included self-rated attitudes, knowledge of markers of development and observational expertise. Qualitative data on teaching usefulness were obtained through open-ended questions. Fifty-six paediatric trainees (registrar 79%, women 82%; mean age 31 years) completed the pre-assessment, 46 the immediate-post and 45 the 1-month follow-up (20% attrition). Compared with the Control group, the Teaching group scored higher over time on markers of development (P = 0.006), observational expertise (P improves knowledge, increases confidence and is useful, providing a structured approach to developmental assessment. The techniques taught can be applied to every paediatric consultation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Recognition of Disorders and Emotional Problems of Deaf Children Using House-Tree-Person and Draw-A-Person Tests in Comparison with Normal Children of Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Deaf children have special emotional reactions, Understanding these characteristics and problems can help medical and paramedical professionals, parents and teachers to reach the purpose of behavioral adaptability.The present study was performed in order to recognize disorders, emotional problems and functions of deaf children compared with normal children in emotional components of anxiety, depression, aggression, impulsiv-ity and lack of compromise. Materials & Methods: In order to recognize emotional disorders and problems of deaf children, sample groups of 120 male and female patients (60 deaf children and 60 children with nor-mal hearing with equal number of male and female enrolled in primary schools of Hamadan province were selected by multi stage randomly sampling in this casual_comparative study. House-Tree-Person (HTP and Draw-A-Person tests (DAP were used to determine their emotional problems. Results:Our results indicate that in terms of parameters related to the two tests (distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and impulsivity and lack of compromise, participants' overall scores in two tests by major scales such as anxiety (?=0.01, P< 0.05; 3.48, 3.13 aggression (?= 0.05 , 0.01, P< 0.05; 6.12 ,3.97 depression (?=0.05 P<0.05 ; 3.75,3.81 , impulsivity (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05 ; 3.47, 3.01 and lack of compromise (?=0.05, 0.01, P<0.05; 4.89, 4.95 are significantly different from each other. Conclusion:The deaf children in terms of denotative parameters related to the two tests are sig-nificantly different from normal children; and the overall scores obtained on each of the scales generally show a significant difference with normal children,In the deaf group with regard to gender variable (male and female significant differences in some of the scales such as distance of three components of each other ,anxiety, aggression, depression and lack of compromise iare observed between

  1. The development of auditory skills in young children with Mondini dysplasia after cochlear implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqing Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to survey and compare the development of auditory skills in young children with Mondini dysplasia and profoundly-deaf young children with radiologically normal inner ears over a period of 3 years after cochlear implantation. A total of 545 young children (age 7 to 36 months with prelingual, severe to profound hearing loss participated in this study. All children received cochlear implantation. Based on whether or not there was a Mondini dysplasia as diagnosed with CT scanning, the subjects were divided into 2 groups: (A 514 young children with radiologically normal inner ears and (B 31 young children with Mondini dysplasia. The Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS was used to assess the children's auditory skills that include vocalization changes, spontaneous alerting to sounds in everyday living environments, and the ability to derive meaning from sounds. The assessment was performed prior to surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months after implant device switch-on. The mean scores for overall auditory skills were not significantly different between groups A and B at pre-surgery, 1, 12, 24, and 36 months post-surgery, but were significantly different at 3, 6, and 9 months post-surgery. The mean scores for all auditory skills in children with Mondini dysplasia showed significant improvement over time. The mean scores for the three subcategories of auditory skills in children with Mondini dysplasia also showed significant differences at pre-surgery, 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, however, there were no significant differences at 12, 24, and 36 months. Overall, the auditory skills of young children with Mondini dysplasia developed rapidly after cochlear implantation, in a similar manner to that of young children with radiologically normal inner ears. Cochlear implantation is an effective intervention for young children with Mondini dysplasia.

  2. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Karppanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n = 53 to normal weight children (n = 65, and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C. Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run. Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results: Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72 were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p = 0.004; no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p = 0.741. Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r = 0.363, p < 0.001, but no such association was found between fathers and children (r = 0.019, p = 0.864. Conclusion: This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and

  3. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content: Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. The study included 420 children and adolescents (91 normal-weight, 99 overweight, and 230 obese) 8-18 years of age. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed with a 3T MR system using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series echo times. The mean absolute mass concentration of liver fat was obtained: 0.5 ± 0.04% in normal-weight boys; 0.5 ± 0.03% in normal-weight girls; 0.9 ± 0.16% in boys with overweight; 1.1 ± 0.24% in girls with overweight; 1.7 ± 0.24% in boys with obesity; and 1.4 ± 0.21% in girls with obesity. The cutoff value of absolute mass concentration of liver fat for hepatic steatosis was found to be 1.5%. Based on this cutoff value, hepatic steatosis was diagnosed in 16% of boys with overweight, 11% of girls with overweight, 32% of boys with obesity, and 27% of girls with obesity. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was successfully applied to obtain the cutoff value of absolute mass concentration of liver fat for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with obesity have higher risk of hepatic steatosis than their peers with overweight. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Normal magnetic resonance appearances of the temporomandibular joints in children and young adults aged 2-18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angenete, Oskar W.; Augdal, Thomas A.; Jellestad, Stig; Rygg, Marite; Rosendahl, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of normal appearances of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is paramount when assessing the joint for disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Reliable features defining normal TMJs in children are limited. To establish reliable normal standards for the TMJ at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We included children and young adults aged 2-18 years undergoing a head MRI for reasons not believed to affect the TMJs. We assessed TMJ anatomy and contrast enhancement using a high-resolution 3-D T1-weighted sequence. We noted joint fluid and bone marrow oedema based on a T2-weighted sequence. Three experienced radiologists read all examinations twice in consensus and defined intraobserver consensus agreement. We evaluated the TMJs in 101 children and young adults (45 female), mean age 10.7 years (range 2-18 years). The intraobserver consensus agreement for the assessment of anterior condylar inclination in the sagittal/oblique plane was moderate to good (Cohen κ=0.7 for the right side). Cohen κ for intraobserver consensus agreement for condylar shape in the coronal plane on a 0-2 scale was 0.4 for the right and 0.6 for the left. Intraobserver agreement for measurement of joint space height and assessment of bone marrow oedema was poor. There was a statistically significant increase in anterior inclination by age in the sagittal plane on a 0-2 scale (P<0.0001). Eighty percent of the condyles showed a rounded shape in the coronal plane while 20% showed mild flattening. Thirty-five of 36 right TMJs showed contrast enhancement (mild enhancement in 32 joints, moderate in 3 joints). Subjective assessment of the anterior condylar inclination in the sagittal/oblique plane and condylar flattening in the coronal plane can be considered precise features for describing TMJ anatomy in healthy children. There is an increasing anterior inclination by age. Mild contrast enhancement of the TMJs should be considered a normal finding. (orig.)

  5. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  6. Intramedullary rodding in type III osteogenesis imperfecta. Effects on neuromotor development in 10 children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; Helders, P. J.; Keessen, W.; Pruijs, H. E.; Gooskens, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    We studied retrospectively gross motor development and the impact of intramedullary rodding in 10 children with type III osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). There was a pronounced delay in motor development and the order in achieving gross motor milestones differed from the normal developmental sequence.

  7. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Taur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls ( p <0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests.

  8. Development of an Age Band on the ManuVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2017-08-01

    To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. 26 children with visual impairment (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 3 months); 17 boys) and 28 children with normal vision (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 4 months); 14 boys) participated in the study. The ManuVis age band for 3-year-old children comprised two one-handed tasks, two two-handed tasks, and a pre-writing task. Children with visual impairment needed more time on all tasks (p children with normal vision (p Children aged 42-47 months performed significantly faster on two tasks and had better total scores than children aged 36-41 months (p children is appropriate to assess fine motor skills, and is sensitive to differences between children with visual impairment and normal vision and between half-year age groups. Reference scores are provided for 3-year-old children with visual impairment to identify delayed fine motor development.

  9. Children with severe Osteogenesis imperfecta and short stature present on average with normal IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Höbing, Laura; Cassens, Julia; Schoenau, Eckhard; Semler, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by bone fragility and short stature. Data about IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels are rare in OI. Therefore IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels in children with different types of OI were investigated. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels of 60 children (male n=38) were assessed in a retrospective cross-sectional setting. Height/weight was significant different [height z-score type 3 versus type 4: p=0.0011 and weight (p≤0.0001)] between OI type 3 and 4. Mean IGF-I levels were in the lower normal range (mean±SD level 137.4±109.1 μg/L). Mean IGFBP-3 measurements were in the normal range (mean±SD 3.105±1.175 mg/L). No significant differences between OI type 3 and 4 children have been observed (IGF-I: p=0.0906; IGFBP-3: p=0.2042). Patients with different severities of OI have IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in the lower normal range. The type of OI does not significantly influence these growth factors.

  10. How Children with Parents Suffering from Mental Health Distress Search for "Normality" and Avoid Stigma: To Be or Not to Be... Is "Not" the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjone, Heidi Haug; Ytterhus, Borgunn; Almvik, Arve

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 20 children, this study finds that children with parents suffering from mental health distress struggle hard to present themselves as "normal" and equal among their peer group. The study shows how they avoid stigma in their presentation of self in everyday life. All the children in this study,…

  11. Changes in language development among autistic and peer children in segregated and integrated preschool settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S L; Handleman, J S; Kristoff, B; Bass, L; Gordon, R

    1990-03-01

    Five young children with autism enrolled in a segregated class, five other children with autism in an integrated class, and four normally developing peer children in the integrated class were compared for developmental changes in language ability as measured by the Preschool Language Scale before and after training. The results, based on Mann-Whitney U tests, showed that (a) all of the children as a group made better than normative progress in rate of language development, (b) the scores of the autistic children were significantly lower than the peers before and after treatment, and (c) there were no significant differences in changes in language ability between the autistic children in the segregated and integrated classes.

  12. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content. Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. Materials and Methods: The study...... steatosis was found to be 1.5%. Based on this cutoff value, hepatic steatosis was diagnosed in 16% of boys with overweight, 11% of girls with overweight, 32% of boys with obesity, and 27% of girls with obesity. Conclusions: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was successfully applied to obtain the cutoff...... value of absolute mass concentration of liver fat for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with obesity have higher risk of hepatic steatosis than their peers with overweight....

  13. Family Relationships Effect to Children s Psychology Development.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵科研

    2012-01-01

    Based on studying the social interaction development of children,and analysis on the reasons and the necessity of children's behavior occurrence,I conclude that the importance of family influence on child development.

  14. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutomi, Kimiko [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2005-05-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  15. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutomi, Kimiko

    2005-01-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  16. Overweight and obese infants present lower cognitive and motor development scores than normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Compare the cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers and investigate the correlation of body weight, body length and body mass index with cognitive and motor development. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 28 overweight/obese infants and 28 normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Both groups were evaluated with cognitive and motor scales of the Bayley-III infant development test. The t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the groups, and the Spearman correlation was used to verify the association between variables. Overweight/obese infants showed lower cognitive and motor composite scores than their normal-weight peers. A significant negative association was found of body weight and body length with cognitive development and of body mass index with motor development. This is the first study that found an effect on both cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants when compared with normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhaled corticosteroid treatment for 6 months was not sufficient to normalize phagocytosis in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Martins, Carmen Lívia Faria; Couto, Shirley Claudino; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2013-08-30

    Corticosteroids are the first-line therapy for asthma; however, the effect of corticosteroids on the innate immune system remains unclear. This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroid therapy (ICT) on phagocytic functions. To evaluate the impact of ICT, the phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by blood monocytes and neutrophils and the production of superoxide anions were assessed before and after three and six months of ICT treatment in 58 children with persistent asthma and 21 healthy controls. We showed that the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils that occurred via pattern recognition receptors or was mediated by complement and immunoglobulin receptors in asthmatic children before treatment was significantly lower than in healthy controls (pICT for 6 months was not sufficient to normalize phagocytosis by the phagocytes. Superoxide anion production was also decreased in the asthmatic children before treatment, and ICT normalized the O- production only for children with mild persistent asthma when assessed at baseline but caused this function to decrease after stimulation (p<0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). Our data suggest that an immunodeficiency in phagocytes remained even after treatment. However, this immunodeficiency does not appear to correspond with the clinical evolution of asthma because an improvement in clinical parameters occurred.

  18. Comparison of penile length at 6–24 months between children with unilateral cryptorchidism and a healthy normal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Soo Ryu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urologic diseases affected by testosterone can be associated with smaller penis size compared to the normal population. We sought to compare penile length in children with unilateral cryptorchidism and normative data from a cohort of healthy Korean boys. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in 259 Korean boys (212, normal cohort; 47, cryptorchidism aged 6–24 months, each of whom had been brought to an outpatient clinic at one of five tertiary hospitals (Gyeongsangnam-do Province between April 2014 and June 2015. Penile length was measured via stretched penile length (SPL and testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL. Results: SPL in children with cryptorchidism was significantly shorter compared to a cohort of healthy Korean boys aged 6–24 months (3.7±0.5 cm and 4.3±0.8 cm, p<0.001, although there were no differences with regard to height, body weight and contralateral testicular size between the two groups. According to the stratified ages (6–12, 12–18, and 18–24 months, SPL in children with cryptorchidism was persistently shorter at their ages than those without. Conclusions: It might be that the penile length aged 6–24 months of children with unilateral cryptorchidism is shorter than that of a cohort of healthy Korean boys.

  19. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  20. Myelination progression in language-correlated regions in brain of normal children determined by quantitative MRI assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peijen; Kuan, Chen-Chieh; Kaga, Kimitaka; Sano, Masaki; Mima, Kazuo

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the myelination progression course in language-correlated regions of children with normal brain development by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis compared with histological studies. The subjects were 241 neurologically intact neonates, infants and young children (128 boys and 113 girls) who underwent MRI between 2001 and 2007 at the University of Tokyo Hospital, ranging in age from 0 to 429 weeks corrected by postnatal age. To compare their data with adult values, 25 adolescents and adults (14 men and 11 women, aged from 14 to 83 years) were examined as controls. Axial T2-weighted images were obtained using spin-echo sequences at 1.5 T. Subjects with a history of prematurity, birth asphyxia, low Apgar score, seizures, active systemic disease, congenital anomaly, delayed development, infarcts, hemorrhages, brain lesions, or central nervous system malformation were excluded from the analysis. Seven regions of interest in language-correlated areas, namely Broca's area, Wernicke's area, the arcuate fasciculus, and the angular gyrus, as well as their right hemisphere homologous regions, and the auditory cortex, the motor cortex, and the visual cortex were examined. Signal intensity obtained by a region-of-interest methodology progresses from hyper- to hypointensity during myelination. We chose the inferior cerebellar peduncle as the internal standard of maturation. Myelination in all these seven language-correlated regions examined in this study shared the same curve pattern: no myelination was observed at birth, it reached maturation at about 1.5 years of age, and it continued to progress slowly thereafter into adult life. On the basis of scatter plot results, we put these areas into three groups: Group A, which included the motor cortex, the auditory cortex, and the visual cortex, myelinated faster than Group B, which included Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the angular gyrus before 1.5 years old; Group C, consisting of the

  1. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzannah K Helps

    Full Text Available Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR, auditory white noise (WN can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability.Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25; normal- (N = 29 and sub-attentive (N = 36 children (aged 8 to 10 years. Two non-executive function (EF tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations.There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group.The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  2. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Suzannah K; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Söderlund, Göran B W

    2014-01-01

    Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25); normal- (N = 29) and sub-attentive (N = 36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  3. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm development in men following a "normal" aortic ultrasound scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H; Druce, P S; Ashton, H A

    2008-11-01

    To determine predictors related to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development following a "normal" aortic ultrasound scan. Over a 23-year period, 22 961 men participated in an AAA screening programme. Maximum aortic diameter of less than 30 mm was deemed "normal". 4308 of these "normal" individuals were later re-scanned at intervals for research purposes. AAA prevalence was 4.4% at initial scanning. In those with a normal scan, 46 patients subsequently presented with AAAs incidentally detected and 120 (2.8%) had AAAs identified as part of the ongoing surveillance. The median initial aortic size of these 166 men was 25 mm (range 15-29 mm). Over the follow-up period, there have been 24 (14%) AAA-related deaths, 24 patients underwent successful AAA surgery and 36 died of unrelated causes. In those with an initial aortic diameter of <25 mm who later developed an AAA, the odds ratio for AAA-related mortality was 2 (95% CI 1-4.1, p=0.03, x(2)). AAAs can develop following an initial "normal" scan and men with an aortic diameters of 25-29 mm appear to be at greater risk. Surveillance for this sub-group may further reduce the incidence of undiagnosed AAA and AAA-related mortality.

  5. The approximate number system and domain-general abilities as predictors of math ability in children with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Marschark, Marc; Nordmann, Emily; Sapere, Patricia; Skene, Wendy A

    2018-06-01

    Many children with hearing loss (CHL) show a delay in mathematical achievement compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). This study examined whether there are differences in acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) between CHL and CNH, and whether ANS acuity is related to math achievement. Working memory (WM), short-term memory (STM), and inhibition were considered as mediators of any relationship between ANS acuity and math achievement. Seventy-five CHL were compared with 75 age- and gender-matched CNH. ANS acuity, mathematical reasoning, WM, and STM of CHL were significantly poorer compared to CNH. Group differences in math ability were no longer significant when ANS acuity, WM, or STM was controlled. For CNH, WM and STM fully mediated the relationship of ANS acuity to math ability; for CHL, WM and STM only partially mediated this relationship. ANS acuity, WM, and STM are significant contributors to hearing status differences in math achievement, and to individual differences within the group of CHL. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children with hearing loss often perform poorly on measures of math achievement, although there have been few studies focusing on basic numerical cognition in these children. In typically developing children, the approximate number system predicts math skills concurrently and longitudinally, although there have been some contradictory findings. Recent studies suggest that domain-general skills, such as inhibition, may account for the relationship found between the approximate number system and math achievement. What does this study adds? This is the first robust examination of the approximate number system in children with hearing loss, and the findings suggest poorer acuity of the approximate number system in these children compared to hearing children. The study addresses recent issues regarding the contradictory findings of the relationship of the approximate number system to math ability

  6. Motor Development of Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheysen, Freja; Loots, Gerrit; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cochlear implant (CI) on the motor development of deaf children. The study involved 36 mainstreamed deaf children (15 boys, 21 girls; 4- to 12-years old) without any developmental problems. Of these children, 20 had been implanted. Forty-three hearing children constituted a comparison…

  7. Longitudinal adaptation in language development: a study of typically-developing children and children with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Fein, Deborah

    Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display distinctive language development trajectories (Tek et al., 2013). Because language-learning is a social endeavor, these trajectories could be partially grounded in the dynamics that characterize the children's social and lingu......Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display distinctive language development trajectories (Tek et al., 2013). Because language-learning is a social endeavor, these trajectories could be partially grounded in the dynamics that characterize the children's social......’s previous behavior. In this study, we tested this model of mutual influence in a longitudinal corpus (6 visits over 2 years), consisting of 30 minutes of controlled playful activities between parents and 66 children (33 ASD and 33 matched typically developing (TD), Goodwin et al. 2012). Methods: We first.......Results:Developmental trajectories: Our models described the developmental trajectories (0.3 ASD (β: from -1.14 to -0.86), with an interaction between the two (children with ASD showed shallower trajectories, β: -2.43 to -1...

  8. Language Development in Context: A Longitudinal Study of Typically-Developing Children and Children with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan; Fein, Deborah

    Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display distinctive language development trajectories (Tek et al., 2013). Because language-learning is a social endeavor, these trajectories could be partially grounded in the dynamics that characterize the children's social and lingu......Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display distinctive language development trajectories (Tek et al., 2013). Because language-learning is a social endeavor, these trajectories could be partially grounded in the dynamics that characterize the children's social...... and linguistic interactions (Waurlamont et al., 2014). Objectives: We investigate language development trajectories and interpersonal linguistic adaptation over time in a longitudinal corpus of parent-child interactions. Methods: Participants included 66 children, 33 with ASD (MA=33 months at visit 1) and 33 TD...... (linear β: -160, -39; quadratic: 22.92, 5.32), group (β: 332, 100.16), severity (β: -27, -8) and Mullen (β: -6, -1.6). Time significantly interacts with Mullen scores (linear β: 7.4, 1.92; quadratic β: -0.84, -0.2). Children with ASD showed shallower trajectories; higher Mullen scores were associated...

  9. COMPARISON OF STRESS LEVELS IN THE PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY AND PARENTS OF NORMAL CHILDREN IN VADODARA REGION OF GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vivek H. Ramanandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parenting is inherently stressful at times and several studies have shown that being a caregiver of a child who is disabled is even more stressful. A number of studies have identified the factors which exacerbate or mediate parenting stress in caregivers of children who are disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the parenting stress levels in parents of children who have cerebral palsy as compared to parents of normal children. Further objectives were to ascertain variables predictive of parenting stress levels. Methods: The Gujarati translated version of Parenting Stress Index/Short Form was first validated and was given to 49 parents of children with cerebral palsy (Group-A who were attending Varun Mahajan Apang Shishu Mandal, Vadodara and to the 50 parents of normal children(Group-B. Caregivers also completed a demographic questionnaire. 43 questionnaires from Group-A and 45 from Group-B were returned to the researcher. Means and frequencies were used to summarise the demographic data. T-tests were performed to establish whether there was any significant difference between the parenting stress levels in Group-A and Group-B. Results: The parents in Group-A showed clinically significant, and in many cases, pathological levels of parenting stress as compared to the parents in Group-B. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm that parenting stress is complex matter and it is important to predict the parenting stress levels of caregivers of disabled children. Therapists should evaluate the needs of each family individually and follow a family centred approach when managing children with cerebral palsy.

  10. Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance values in children with minimal renal disease: can a normal range be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.; Hahn, K.; Piepsz, A.; Kolinska, J.; Lepej, J.; Sixt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Use of technetium-99m labelled mercaptoacetyltriglycine ( 99m Tc-MAG3) simplifies and improves the quantification of renal clearance in children by virtue of its permanent availability, good imaging properties and low radiation exposure. Due to the lack of reference values for 99m Tc-MAG3 clearance in children, the Paediatric Task Group of the EANM initiated a multicentre study to evaluate 99m Tc-MAG3 clearance values in children with minimal renal disease. One hundred and twenty-five children aged between 12 months and 17 years, classified as renally healthy using defined diagnostic criteria, were included in the study. 99m Tc-MAG3 clearance was calculated using an algorithm on the basis of a single blood sample taken at any time between 30 and 40 min after tracer injection. In addition, the absolute 99m -Tc-MAG3 clearance values were normalized to body surface area. For further evaluation the children were classified into several groups according to age. There was a continuous increase in non-corrected 99m Tc-MAG3 clearance values from the age of 1 year up to the age of 17 years (mean value 8 years: 208±66 ml/min). Normal clearance values for adults were achieved by the age of 8 years. Analysis of the relationship between non-corrected clearance and age yielded a correlation coefficient of r=0.7. When these absolute clearance values were normalized to body surface area, we found nearly constant clearance values for all age groups, with a mean clearance value of 315±114 ml/min x 1.73 m 2 . The correlation coefficient for the relationship between normalized clearance and age was r=0.28. In conclusion, the clearance of 99m Tc-MAG3 increases continuously throughout childhood into adolescence due to the maturation and growth of the kidney. After normalization of the absolute clearance to body surface area, no correlation between clearance and age could be proven. (orig.)

  11. Longitudinal Brain Development of Numerical Skills in Typically Developing Children and Children with Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Ursina; von Aster, Michael; Maurer, Urs; Martin, Ernst; O'Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Kucian, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disability affecting the acquisition of numerical-arithmetical skills. Studies report persistent deficits in number processing and aberrant functional activation of the fronto-parietal numerical network in DD. However, the neural development of numerical abilities has been scarcely investigated. The present paper provides a first attempt to investigate behavioral and neural trajectories of numerical abilities longitudinally in typically developing (TD) and DD children. During a study period of 4 years, 28 children (8-11 years) were evaluated twice by means of neuropsychological tests and a numerical order fMRI paradigm. Over time, TD children improved in numerical abilities and showed a consistent and well-developed fronto-parietal network. In contrast, DD children revealed persistent deficits in number processing and arithmetic. Brain imaging results of the DD group showed an age-related activation increase in parietal regions (intraparietal sulcus), pointing to a delayed development of number processing areas. Besides, an activation increase in frontal areas was observed over time, indicating the use of compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest a continuation in neural development of number representation in DD, whereas the neural network for simple ordinal number estimation seems to be stable or show only subtle changes in TD children over time.

  12. Longitudinal Brain Development of Numerical Skills in Typically Developing Children and Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursina McCaskey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia (DD is a learning disability affecting the acquisition of numerical-arithmetical skills. Studies report persistent deficits in number processing and aberrant functional activation of the fronto-parietal numerical network in DD. However, the neural development of numerical abilities has been scarcely investigated. The present paper provides a first attempt to investigate behavioral and neural trajectories of numerical abilities longitudinally in typically developing (TD and DD children. During a study period of 4 years, 28 children (8–11 years were evaluated twice by means of neuropsychological tests and a numerical order fMRI paradigm. Over time, TD children improved in numerical abilities and showed a consistent and well-developed fronto-parietal network. In contrast, DD children revealed persistent deficits in number processing and arithmetic. Brain imaging results of the DD group showed an age-related activation increase in parietal regions (intraparietal sulcus, pointing to a delayed development of number processing areas. Besides, an activation increase in frontal areas was observed over time, indicating the use of compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest a continuation in neural development of number representation in DD, whereas the neural network for simple ordinal number estimation seems to be stable or show only subtle changes in TD children over time.

  13. Role of CD56 in Normal Kidney Development and Wilms Tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Li-Wei; Brok, Jesper; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    The cell-surface glycoprotein CD56 has three major isoforms that play important roles in cell adhesion and signaling, which may promote cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, or migration. It is an important molecule in normal kidney development and acts as a key marker in Wilms tumor stem...

  14. It is time to abandon "expected bladder capacity." Systematic review and new models for children's normal maximum voided volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Roberto; Ubeda-Sansano, Maria Isabel; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gil-Salom, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    There is an agreement to use simple formulae (expected bladder capacity and other age based linear formulae) as bladder capacity benchmark. But real normal child's bladder capacity is unknown. To offer a systematic review of children's normal bladder capacity, to measure children's normal maximum voided volumes (MVVs), to construct models of MVVs and to compare them with the usual formulae. Computerized, manual and grey literature were reviewed until February 2013. Epidemiological, observational, transversal, multicenter study. A consecutive sample of healthy children aged 5-14 years, attending Primary Care centres with no urologic abnormality were selected. Participants filled-in a 3-day frequency-volume chart. Variables were MVVs: maximum of 24 hr, nocturnal, and daytime maximum voided volumes. diuresis and its daytime and nighttime fractions; body-measure data; and gender. The consecutive steps method was used in a multivariate regression model. Twelve articles accomplished systematic review's criteria. Five hundred and fourteen cases were analysed. Three models, one for each of the MVVs, were built. All of them were better adjusted to exponential equations. Diuresis (not age) was the most significant factor. There was poor agreement between MVVs and usual formulae. Nocturnal and daytime maximum voided volumes depend on several factors and are different. Nocturnal and daytime maximum voided volumes should be used with different meanings in clinical setting. Diuresis is the main factor for bladder capacity. This is the first model for benchmarking normal MVVs with diuresis as its main factor. Current formulae are not suitable for clinical use. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Developing Responsive Preventative Practices: Key Messages from Children's and Families' Experiences of the Children's Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Katherine; Evans, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    As part of the prevention and social inclusion agenda, the Children's Fund, set up in 2000, has developed preventative services for children at risk of social exclusion. Drawing on a large qualitative dataset of interviews conducted in 2004/05 with children, young people and their parents/carers who accessed Children Fund services, this article…

  16. Dietary Patterns and Feeding Problems of Turkish Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Kubra; Ilik, Senay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether dietary patterns and feeding problems differ among children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and typically developing children (TDC) in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 220 (112 children with ID and 108 TDC) 7-12 aged children in Konya, Turkey. We assessed usual dietary intakes by a…

  17. Memory development in preschool children with disabilities in the game

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoriya Shypikova

    2013-01-01

    The scientific article "Development of memory in preschool children with disabilities in the game" reveals the relevance of the application of the game as the leading activity during the preschool years to optimize the development of the mental process of memory in children with disabilities. Work on the development of children's memory in the form of a game as the most effective form, aimed at attracting the attention of professionals working with preschool children with disabilities, a...

  18. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  19. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  20. Estrogen and progesterone signalling in the normal breast and its implications for cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Heidi N; Clarke, Christine L; Graham, J Dinny

    2018-05-05

    The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are master regulators of the development and function of a broad spectrum of human tissues, including the breast, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, brain and bone. Acting through the nuclear estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), both play complex and essential coordinated roles in the extensive development of the lobular alveolar epithelial structures of the normal breast during puberty, the normal menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The past decade has seen major advances in understanding the mechanisms of action of estrogen and progesterone in the normal breast and in the delineation of the complex hierarchy of cell types regulated by ovarian hormones in this tissue. There is evidence for a role for both ER and PR in driving breast cancer, and both are favourable prognostic markers with respect to outcome. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of ER and PR in the normal breast, and implications for the development and management of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Experience Changes How Emotion in Music Is Judged: Evidence from Children Listening with Bilateral Cochlear Implants, Bimodal Devices, and Normal Hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Giannantonio

    Full Text Available Children using unilateral cochlear implants abnormally rely on tempo rather than mode cues to distinguish whether a musical piece is happy or sad. This led us to question how this judgment is affected by the type of experience in early auditory development. We hypothesized that judgments of the emotional content of music would vary by the type and duration of access to sound in early life due to deafness, altered perception of musical cues through new ways of using auditory prostheses bilaterally, and formal music training during childhood. Seventy-five participants completed the Montreal Emotion Identification Test. Thirty-three had normal hearing (aged 6.6 to 40.0 years and 42 children had hearing loss and used bilateral auditory prostheses (31 bilaterally implanted and 11 unilaterally implanted with contralateral hearing aid use. Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Accurate judgment of emotion in music was achieved across ages and musical experience. Musical training accentuated the reliance on mode cues which developed with age in the normal hearing group. Degrading pitch cues through cochlear implant-mediated hearing induced greater reliance on tempo cues, but mode cues grew in salience when at least partial acoustic information was available through some residual hearing in the contralateral ear. Finally, when pitch cues were experimentally distorted to represent cochlear implant hearing, individuals with normal hearing (including those with musical training switched to an abnormal dependence on tempo cues. The data indicate that, in a western culture, access to acoustic hearing in early life promotes a preference for mode rather than tempo cues which is enhanced by musical training. The challenge to these preferred strategies during cochlear implant hearing (simulated and real, regardless of musical training, suggests that access to pitch cues for children with hearing loss must be improved by preservation of residual hearing and

  2. Experience Changes How Emotion in Music Is Judged: Evidence from Children Listening with Bilateral Cochlear Implants, Bimodal Devices, and Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papsin, Blake C.; Paludetti, Gaetano; Gordon, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Children using unilateral cochlear implants abnormally rely on tempo rather than mode cues to distinguish whether a musical piece is happy or sad. This led us to question how this judgment is affected by the type of experience in early auditory development. We hypothesized that judgments of the emotional content of music would vary by the type and duration of access to sound in early life due to deafness, altered perception of musical cues through new ways of using auditory prostheses bilaterally, and formal music training during childhood. Seventy-five participants completed the Montreal Emotion Identification Test. Thirty-three had normal hearing (aged 6.6 to 40.0 years) and 42 children had hearing loss and used bilateral auditory prostheses (31 bilaterally implanted and 11 unilaterally implanted with contralateral hearing aid use). Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Accurate judgment of emotion in music was achieved across ages and musical experience. Musical training accentuated the reliance on mode cues which developed with age in the normal hearing group. Degrading pitch cues through cochlear implant-mediated hearing induced greater reliance on tempo cues, but mode cues grew in salience when at least partial acoustic information was available through some residual hearing in the contralateral ear. Finally, when pitch cues were experimentally distorted to represent cochlear implant hearing, individuals with normal hearing (including those with musical training) switched to an abnormal dependence on tempo cues. The data indicate that, in a western culture, access to acoustic hearing in early life promotes a preference for mode rather than tempo cues which is enhanced by musical training. The challenge to these preferred strategies during cochlear implant hearing (simulated and real), regardless of musical training, suggests that access to pitch cues for children with hearing loss must be improved by preservation of residual hearing and improvements in

  3. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  4. Differences in the perceived music pleasantness between monolateral cochlear implanted and normal hearing children assessed by EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Graziani, I; Cherubino, P; Astolfi, L; Marsella, P; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The perception of the music in cochlear implanted (CI) patients is an important aspect of their quality of life. In fact, the pleasantness of the music perception by such CI patients can be analyzed through a particular analysis of EEG rhythms. Studies on healthy subjects show that exists a particular frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha rhythm which can be correlated with pleasantness of the perceived stimuli (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we describe differences between EEG activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a monolateral CI group of children and a normal hearing one during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns related to the normal hearing group refers to a higher pleasantness perception when compared to the cerebral activity of the monolateral CI patients. In fact, the present results support the statement that a monolateral CI group could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to normal hearing children.

  5. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  6. Young Children's Computer Skills Development from Kindergarten to Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation explores young children's computer skills development from kindergarten to third grade using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) dataset. The sample size of the study was 8642 children. Latent growth curve modeling analysis was used as an analytical tool to examine the development of children's computer…

  7. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  8. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  9. Expansion of Prosodic Abilities at the Transition From Babble to Words: A Comparison Between Children With Cochlear Implants and Normally Hearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinato, Michèle; Clerck, Ilke De; Verhoeven, Jo; Gillis, Steven

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of emerging vocabulary production on the ability to produce the phonetic cues to prosodic prominence in babbled and lexical disyllables of infants with cochlear implants (CI) and normally hearing (NH) infants. Current research on typical language acquisition emphasizes the importance of vocabulary development for phonological and phonetic acquisition. Children with CI experience significant difficulties with the perception and production of prosody, and the role of possible top-down effects is, therefore, particularly relevant for this population. Isolated disyllabic babble and first words were identified and segmented in longitudinal audio-video recordings and transcriptions for nine NH infants and nine infants with CI interacting with their parents. Monthly recordings were included from the onset of babbling until children had reached a cumulative vocabulary of 200 words. Three cues to prosodic prominence, fundamental frequency (f0), intensity, and duration, were measured in the vocalic portions of stand-alone disyllables. To represent the degree of prosodic differentiation between two syllables in an utterance, the raw values for intensity and duration were transformed to ratios, and for f0, a measure of the perceptual distance in semitones was derived. The degree of prosodic differentiation for disyllabic babble and words for each cue was compared between groups. In addition, group and individual tendencies on the types of stress patterns for babble and words were also examined. The CI group had overall smaller pitch and intensity distances than the NH group. For the NH group, words had greater pitch and intensity distances than babbled disyllables. Especially for pitch distance, this was accompanied by a shift toward a more clearly expressed stress pattern that reflected the influence of the ambient language. For the CI group, the same expansion in words did not take place for pitch. For intensity, the CI group gave

  10. Mothers' Speech Addressed to One-, Two-, and Three-Year-Old Normal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.; Stepanich, Lyanne

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of mother-child interaction data for 36 children and their mothers revealed that the three groups of mothers' verbal interactions differed significantly in their mean length of utterance, percentage of yes-no questions, percentage of information questions, and percentage of clarification questions. (Author/CS)

  11. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  12. How to Distinguish Normal from Disordered Children with Poor Language or Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray; Piek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims: We tested the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) hypothesis that so-called specific developmental disorders are marked by a pattern of specific discrepant achievement, and an alternative hypothesis that children with these disorders show a pattern of relatively pervasive low achievement. Methods…

  13. Behavioral Treatment and Normal Educational and Intellectual Functioning in Young Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovaas, O. Ivar

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of behavior modification treatment for two groups of similarly constituted, young autistic children. Pretreatment measures revealed no significant differences between the intensively treated experimental group and the minimally treated control groups. At follow-up, experimental group subjects (N=19) did significantly better…

  14. Longitudinal motor development of "apparently normal" high-risk infants at 18 months, 3 and 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Traci Anne; Lui, Kei

    2002-12-01

    Motor development appears to be more affected by premature birth than other developmental domains, however few studies have specifically investigated the development of gross and fine motor skills in this population. To examine longitudinal motor development in a group of "apparently normal" high-risk infants. Developmental follow-up clinic in a perinatal centre. Longitudinal observational cohort study. Fifty-eight infants born less than 29 weeks gestation and/or 1000 g and without disabilities detected at 12 months. Longitudinal gross and fine motor skills at 18 months, 3 and 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. The HOME scale provided information of the home environment as a stimulus for development. A large proportion (54% at 18 months, 47% at 3 years and 64% at 5 years) of children continued to have fine motor deficits from 18 months to 5 years. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased over this period (14%, 33% and 81%, pmotor development was positively influenced by the quality of the home environment. A large proportion of high-risk infants continued to have fine motor deficits, reflecting an underlying problem with fine motor skills. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased, as test demands became more challenging. In addition, the development of gross and fine motor skills appears to be influenced differently by the home environment.

  15. Effects of tracheal occlusion with retinoic acid administration on normal lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabaere, Amélie; Marceau, Geoffroy; Coste, Karen; Blanchon, Loïc; Déchelotte, Pierre-Jean; Blanc, Pierre; Sapin, Vincent; Gallot, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Tracheal occlusion (TO) is an investigational therapy for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia that decreases pulmonary hypoplasia, but sustained TO also induces deficient surfactant synthesis. Intramuscular maternal administration of retinoic acid (RA) in a surgical rabbit model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia showed a beneficial effect on lung maturation. We evaluated the potential of RA delivery into the trachea and studied the combined effects of TO and RA on normal lung development. Experiments were performed on normal rabbit fetuses. Liposomes and capric triglyceride (Miglyol ® ), alone and with RA, were administered in the trachea just before TO (d26). Lung morphology and surfactant production were studied at term (d30). Tracheal occlusion increased lung weight and enhanced alveolar development but increased apoptotic activity and decreased surfactant expression. Tracheal injection of RA improved surfactant production to levels of normal controls. We established the potential of liposome and Miglyol as RA vehicle for delivering this bioactive molecule in the fetal airways. Tracheal RA injection seems to oppose the effects of TO in fetuses with normal lungs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-12-02

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life. Directional normal strain maps revealed that, during the first 6 months, the growth pattern of gray matter is anisotropic and spatially inhomogeneous with higher left-right stretch around the temporal lobe and interhemispheric fissure, anterior-posterior stretch in the frontal and occipital lobes, and superior-inferior stretch in right inferior occipital and right inferior temporal gyri. In contrast, anterior lateral ventricles and insula showed an isotropic stretch pattern. Volumetric and directional growth rates were linearly decreased with age for most of the cortical regions. Our results revealed anisotropic and inhomogeneous brain growth patterns of the human brain during the first year of life using longitudinal MRI and a biomechanical framework.

  17. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett F; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Olsen, Nanna J; Stougaard, Maria; Mortensen, Erik L; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children's diet complied with the Danish national guidelines. Linear regression per protocol and intention-to-treat analyses of differences in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruit, vegetables, fish, sugar-sweetened beverages and diet quality index between the two groups were conducted. The Healthy Start study was conducted during 2009-2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (dietary intake. Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P=0·02) compared with the control group. We observed lower intakes of carbohydrates and added sugar in the intervention group compared with the control group after the intervention (P=0·002, P=0·01). The intervention resulted in a lower energy intake, particularly from carbohydrates and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity.

  18. Ringers lactate vs Normal saline for children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration- a double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vidushi; Sajan, Shiv Saini; Sharma, Amit; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2012-12-01

    WHO recommends Ringers lactate (RL) and Normal Saline (NS) for rapid intravenous rehydration in childhood diarrhea and severe dehydration. We compared these two fluids for improvement in pH over baseline during rapid intravenous rehydration in children with acute diarrhea. Double-blind randomized controlled trial Pediatric emergency facilities at a tertiary-care referral hospital. Children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration received either RL (RL-group) or NS (NS-group), 100 mL/kg over three or six hours. Children were reassessed after three or six hours. Rapid rehydration was repeated if severe dehydration persisted. Blood gas was done at baseline and repeated after signs of severe dehydration disappeared. Primary outcome was change in pH from baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes in serum electrolytes, bicarbonate levels, and base-deficit from baseline; mortality, duration of hospital stay, and fluids requirement. Twenty two children, 11 each were randomized to the two study groups. At primary end point (disappearance of signs of severe dehydration), the improvement in pH from baseline was not significant in RL-group [from 7.17 (0.11) to 7.28 (0.09)] as compared to NS-group [7.09 (0.11) to 7.21 (0.09)], P=0.17 (after adjusting for baseline serum Na/ Cl). Among this limited sample size, children in RL group required less fluids [median 310 vs 530 mL/kg, P=0.01] and had shorter median hospital stay [38 vs 51 hours, P=0.03]. There was no difference in improvement in pH over baseline between RL and NS among children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration.

  19. Perception Development of Complex Syntactic Construction in Children with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Teymouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory perception or hearing ability is critical for children in acquisition of language and speech hence hearing loss has different effects on individuals’ linguistic perception, and also on their functions. It seems that deaf people suffer from language and speech impairments such as in perception of complex linguistic constructions. This research was aimed to study the perception of complex syntactic constructions in children with hearing-impairment. Methods: The study design was case-control. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, twenty children with severe to profound hearing impairment, aged 8-12 years and twenty normal-hearing children, aged 6-7 years were selected in a simple random sampling from exceptional schools for deaf people and from normal kindergartens and schools for normal cases. The perception of sentences was tested by using a researcher-made task called sentence-picture matching task. At first the content validity was determined and then the reliability was confirmed with Cronbach Alpha Test. Data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Independent Samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U Test using SPSS. Results: Perception of the group with hearing-impairment was significantly lower than the normal control group. The hearing-impaired children failed to perceive complex syntactic structures. Linguistic function of the group with hearing-impairment on perception of sentences with simple word order was better than on complex sentences. Discussion: If rich linguistic inputs are not available for children during the critical period of the first language acquisition, the syntactic skill, especially in complex syntactic constructions, will not normally develop. In order to establish a foundation for a healthy perfect development of syntax, at the early years of life, children should be exposed to a natural language.

  20. Promoting an "Active Start" for Young Children: Developing Competent and Confident Early Movers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Wall, Sarah; Getchell, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    With childhood obesity and physical inactivity at an all-time high, parents and physical educators alike must look to the early years to promote competent and confident young movers. Popular opinion believes that children are naturally active and motor skill development progresses as a normal function of getting older. However, if one looks at…

  1. Normal Development of Sutures and synchondroses in the central skull base : CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Hong Gee; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kang, Jee Hee; Lee, Kyung Hee; Lim, Myung Kwan; Cho, Young Kuk; Ok, Cheol Su; Suh, Chang Hae

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the developmental patterns of the sutures and synchondroses in the central skull base. We evaluated the CT scans of 109 children (age range 29 days to 15 years) with no skull base abnormality who had undergone axial CT of the skull base with 1-mm collimation. Using a five-tier scheme, we analyzed the developmental patterns of the 18 sutures and synchondroses related to the sphenoid and occipital bones. Fusion of the sutures and synchondroses related to the sphenoid bone progressed rapidly during the first two years. Thereafter, changes in the sphenoid bone were dominated by pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus. Fusion of the synchondroses within the sphenoid body, including intersphenoidal, intrapresphenoidal, intrapostsphenoidal synchondrosis occurred early and in most cases was graded ≥3D4. Fusion of the sphenosquamosal, sphenoethmoidal, and frontosphenoidal sutures was delayed, and residual sclerosis was a common finding. Except for Kerckring-supraoccipital synchondrosis, fusion of the six sutures and synchondroses related to the occipital bone occurred more gradually than that of those related to the sphenoid bone. Among these, fusion of the occipitomastoidal suture and petro-occipital synchondrosis was the last to occur. A knowledge of the developmental patterns of sutures and synchondroses can help differentiate normal conditions from those such as fracture, osseous dysplasia, or congenital malformation, which are abnormal. Our results provide certain basic information about skull base maturity in children. (author)

  2. Normal variability of children's scaled scores on subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary scale of Intelligence - third edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, P P M; Hendriksen, J G M; Dek, J E; Kooij, A P

    2013-01-01

    Intelligence tests are included in millions of assessments of children and adults each year (Watkins, Glutting, & Lei, 2007a , Applied Neuropsychology, 14, 13). Clinicians often interpret large amounts of subtest scatter, or large differences between the highest and lowest scaled subtest scores, on an intelligence test battery as an index for abnormality or cognitive impairment. The purpose of the present study is to characterize "normal" patterns of variability among subtests of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III-NL; Wechsler, 2010 ). Therefore, the frequencies of WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scatter were reported for 1039 healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years. Results indicated that large differences between highest and lowest scaled subtest scores (or subtest scatter) were common in this sample. Furthermore, degree of subtest scatter was related to: (a) the magnitude of the highest scaled subtest score, i.e., more scatter was seen in children with the highest WPPSI-III-NL scaled subtest scores, (b) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores, i.e., higher FSIQ scores were associated with an increase in subtest scatter, and (c) sex differences, with boys showing a tendency to display more scatter than girls. In conclusion, viewing subtest scatter as an index for abnormality in WPPSI-III-NL scores is an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs within a population of healthy children aged 4:0-7:11 years.

  3. The development of autonomy in children's education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of autonomy in the education of the child and focuses on the analysis of empirical data collected in some services for children in North and South of Italy (Trento, Bologna, Caltagirone, through the administration of semi-structured interviews with educators of the nursery and kindergarten teachers. The returned responses were read in the light of the phenomenological paradigm that permitted to highlight two major kinds of considerations: the one refers to as "parents support and encourage the development of the autonomy of their child more in words than deeds"; the other to as the educators and teachers interviewed showed an explicit difficulty to attribute a clear meaning to the concept of adult autonomy. The incoming in this set of considerations first of all emphasize the important role of adult education and its path of reflexivity and growth.

  4. [Growth and development of children in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán Rodríguez, J; Bebel Agua, A; Rubén, M; Hernández, J

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1972 to 1974, a great scale study was carried out on development and growth taking at random a stratified sample of multiple stages of 50,311 children from birth to 20 years. Fifteen anthropometric dimensions were considered and evaluation was made of sexual development in both sexes. In girls, the age of menarche was registered. An X-ray of the hand was taken to 10% of the sample. One year later, 30% of the sample was X-rayed again to determine speed of growth. Response of the population was close to 94%. The importance of a national system of growth is recognized, together with the colaboration of the orgaism of masses to achieve these purposes. Information related with some of measurements reported is offered and comments related with these findings are made.

  5. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, George A. [Harvard Medical School and Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  6. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  7. Normal P50 gating in children with autism, yet attenuated P50 amplitude in the Asperger subcategory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Gitte; Bilenberg, Niels; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are separate disorders, but there is evidence of conversion or comorbid overlap. The objective of this paper was to explore whether deficits in sensory gating, as seen in some schizophrenia patients, can also be found in a group of ASD children...... compared to neurotypically developed children. An additional aim was to investigate the possibility of subdividing our ASD sample based on these gating deficits. In a case-control design, we assessed gating of the P50 and N100 amplitude in 31 ASD children and 39 healthy matched controls (8-12 years......) and screened for differences between groups and within the ASD group. We did not find disturbances in auditory P50 and N100 filtering in the group of ASD children as a whole, nor did we find abnormal P50 and N100 amplitudes. However, the P50 amplitude to the conditioning stimulus was significantly reduced...

  8. Research and analysis of contradictions and strategies of Hainan tourism development under the new normal background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xiangxiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, China’s economic and social development has entered into a new normal state, the construction of Hainan international tourism island also has entered into the middle and late period. Hainan tourism has made brilliant achievements, but the development contradictions have become increasingly serious. Based on the analysis of the current situation and realistic problems of Hainan tourism, this paper points out five principal problems of Hainan tourism development--industrial status, supply-demand relationship, cultural preservation, subject-object relationship and government-business relationship, and it also proposes strategic suggestions on the great tourism, large interconnection, great culture, big Hainan and big special zone.

  9. A Comparison of the Development of Audiovisual Integration in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie; Isaac, Claire; Milne, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of audiovisual integration in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Audiovisual integration was measured using the McGurk effect in children with ASD aged 7-16 years and typically developing children (control group) matched approximately for age, sex, nonverbal ability and verbal ability.…

  10. Establishing Contextual Control over Symmetry and Asymmetry Performances in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jennifer; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    Experiments 1, 2, and 3 investigated generalized contextually controlled symmetry and asymmetry in typically developing children and children with autism. In Experiment 1, eight typically developing children demonstrated the target performances without intervention. In Experiment 2, multiple-exemplar training and the use of familiar stimuli…

  11. Normal development and growth of the human neurocranium and cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, H

    1981-01-01

    The literature on normal development and growth of certain areas of the human head is reviewed, starting with the early induction of the desmal neurocranium. the development of the brain capsule with its dural reinforcement bands and their connection with the basicranium is discussed, as is the primordial chondrocranium, including its bone replacement. Growth of the calvaria and the three cranial fossae is also analysed. Special interest is focused on the anterior fossa, as knowledge of the growth in this area is very important for an understanding of pathogenesis and possibilities of treating premature craniosynostosis. Finally it is stressed that close observation of the effects of treatment on this pathology may increase our knowledge of normal growth.

  12. Normal Brain-Skull Development with Hybrid Deformable VR Models Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation framework for a clinical application involving skull-brain co-development in infants, leading to a platform for craniosynostosis modeling. Craniosynostosis occurs when one or more sutures are fused early in life, resulting in an abnormal skull shape. Surgery is required to reopen the suture and reduce intracranial pressure, but is difficult without any predictive model to assist surgical planning. We aim to study normal brain-skull growth by computer simulation, which requires a head model and appropriate mathematical methods for brain and skull growth respectively. On the basis of our previous model, we further specified suture model into fibrous and cartilaginous sutures and develop algorithm for skull extension. We evaluate the resulting simulation by comparison with datasets of cases and normal growth.

  13. Features and outcomes of malaria infection in glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase normal and deficient Nigerian children

    OpenAIRE

    Adebola Emmanuel Orimadegun; Olugbemiro Sodeinde

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malaria and G6PD deficiency-related haemolyses are known causes of hospital admissions in Nigeria and pose great danger to child survival but data on interactions of these two pathologies are scarce. This study was carried out to determine the association between features of Plasmodium falciparum infection and G6PD status. Methods: G6PD and haemoglobin were typed by fluorescent spot test and electrophoresis respectively, in 1120 children with microscopically-proven...

  14. Normal and abnormal fetal brain development during the third trimester as demonstrated by neurosonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinger, G.; Lev, D.; Lerman-Sagie, T.

    2006-01-01

    The multiplanar neurosonographic examination of the fetus enables superb visualization of brain anatomy during pregnancy. The examination may be performed using a transvaginal or a transfundal approach and it is indicated in patients at high risk for CNS anomalies or in those with a suspicious finding during a routine examination. The purpose of this paper is to present a description of the normal brain and of abnormal findings usually diagnosed late in pregnancy, including malformations of cortical development, infratentorial anomalies, and prenatal insults

  15. Immunohistochemical analysis of Sonic hedgehog signalling in normal human urinary tract development

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Dagan; Winyard, Paul J D; Woolf, Adrian S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of mouse mutants have demonstrated that Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling has a functional role in morphogenesis and differentiation at multiple sites within the forming urinary tract, and urinary tract malformations have been reported in humans with mutations that disrupt SHH signalling. However, there is only strikingly sparse and fragmentary information about the expression of SHH and associated signalling genes in normal human urinary tract development. We used immunohistochemistry ...

  16. Examination of muscle composition and motor unit behavior of the first dorsal interosseous of normal and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan D; Sterczala, Adam J; Trevino, Michael A; Herda, Trent J

    2018-05-01

    We examined differences between normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) children aged 8-10 yr in strength, muscle composition, and motor unit (MU) behavior of the first dorsal interosseous. Ultrasonography was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), subcutaneous fat (sFAT), and echo intensity (EI). MU behavior was assessed during isometric muscle actions at 20% and 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) by analyzing electromyography amplitude (EMG RMS ) and relationships between mean firing rates (MFR), recruitment thresholds (RT), and MU action potential amplitudes (MUAP size ) and durations (MUAP time ). The OW group had significantly greater EI than the NW group ( P = 0.002; NW, 47.99 ± 6.01 AU; OW, 58.90 ± 10.63 AU, where AU is arbitrary units) with no differences between groups for CSA ( P = 0.688) or MVC force ( P = 0.790). MUAP size was larger for NW than OW in relation to RT ( P = 0.002) and for MUs expressing similar MFRs ( P = 0.011). There were no significant differences ( P = 0.279-0.969) between groups for slopes or y-intercepts from the MFR vs. RT relationships. MUAP time was larger in OW ( P = 0.015) and EMG RMS was attenuated in OW compared with NW ( P = 0.034); however, there were no significant correlations ( P = 0.133-0.164, r = 0.270-0.291) between sFAT and EMG RMS . In a muscle that does not support body mass, the OW children had smaller MUAP size as well as greater EI, although anatomical CSA was similar. This contradicts previous studies examining larger limb muscles. Despite evidence of smaller MUs, the OW children had similar isometric strength compared with NW children. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Ultrasound data and motor unit action potential sizes suggest that overweight children have poorer muscle composition and smaller motor units in the first dorsal interosseous than normal weight children. Evidence is presented that suggests differences in action potential size cannot be explained

  17. Influence of parents on the development of children's reading literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Žagar, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The BA thesis explores how parents influence the development of children's literacy, how much attention is paid to the development of children's reading development and in what way and to what extent the parents’ education impacts the children's reading development. The theoretical part of the thesis defines the concept of literacy, types of literacy and the principles and factors of promoting it. In doing so, I highlighted the role of parents, the impact of the environment and the importance...

  18. China's natural gas exploration and development strategies under the new normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China's natural gas industry has experienced a great leap-forward development in the past decade. Since the second half of 2014, however, international oil price has dropped sharply and global oil and gas markets have been sluggish. In China, economy growth rate slows down and resource environments tend to be more restricted. And energy production and consumption revolution speed up, and the development of natural gas industry experience profound changes internally and externally. Through review on the achievements in recent high-speed development and analysis on the future development of China's natural gas industry, it is believed that the growth rates of China's natural gas output and consumption will slow down and the supply and demand fundamentals present loose states. Low-permeability tight, deep–extra deep and unconventional reservoirs will be the principal targets of natural gas exploration and development and the tendency of resource deterioration is inevitable. The pressure to the decrease of gas price rises due to the sustained recession of oil price and the sharp decrease of alternative energy price. The normal means to increase benefits is to control investment strictly and reduce cost greatly. As for the new normal, five suggestions are proposed for natural gas exploration and development in China. Firstly, reinforce exploration continuously by guaranteeing work load and investment at the required level, and tamp the development basis. Secondly, pay much attention to early development evaluation, give prominence to plan implementation design and control productivity construction rhythm. Thirdly, pay attention to the top-level design of mature gas field development and adjustment, with fine description and management as the priority, and improve overall development level. Fourthly, strengthen the researches on exploration and development technologies, with the simplification and practicability of technologies as the focus, and

  19. Study and Comparison of Phonological Awareness Skills and Naming Speed in Dyslexic and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A'tiyeh Ashtari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent decades, it has been accepted that , deficiencies in phonological Awareness is related to reading problems, and phonological Awareness is the most important causal factor of dyslexia. Although recent researchers on naming speed skill reveal that this skill is orther possible source of dyslexia. Materials & Methods: Present research has been fulfilled on 58 second elementary grade students on the aim of reviewing and comparing the phonological awareness and naming speed. There was 28 dyslexic subject and 30 normal people. There was analyzing of all collected information in this research by independent statistical “ T “ and U – man Whitney Test . Likewise, The correlation between phonological awarecess skills and naming speed in two subject groups by Pearson and Spearman correlated coefficint. Results: Results shiwed that, it was significant differences detween both dyslexia and normal groups in mentioned skills, and dyslexic groupe is weaker than normal group for both skills. Furthermore, in this research there was not significant corellation between phonological awareness and naming speed. Keywords dyslexia/ phonological awarness/ naming speed. Conclusion: consistent with the previous studies , the results of this study revealed that dyslexic individuals have problems in phonological awareness and naming speed . Also insignificant Correlation between the above skills may show that naming speed is independant of phonological awareness.

  20. COMPARISON BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL COST INDEX IN HEALTHY NORMAL CHILDREN AS AGAINST AMBULATORY SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY (WITH AND WITHOUT ORTHOSIS IN THE AGE GROUP 6 TO 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swatia Bhise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy of rehabilitation program for subjects with orthosis with objective measurement. The study aiming to objectively compare the PCI and walking speed of normal children with ambulatory spastic diaplegic. Also we aimed to analyze whether BMIhad impact on energy cost. Methods: 41 normal children and 41 community walking spastic diaplegic aged between 6 to 18 yrs. were assessed to compare the PCI. Speed of walking and heart rate were checked constantlyboth barefoot and in shoes in normal children and with and without conventional AFO in children with spastic diaplegic at their chosen velocities over four consecutive lengths of a 12.5m walkway i.e. total 50m.,Pre and Post readings are taken. Heart rate is affected by speed; PCI with speed of walking and heart rate was calculated for each child. Results: The mean PCI in shoes and barefoot was same in normal children i.e. 0.05 ±0.039beats/meter. The PCI for children with pathological gait i.e. spastic diaplegic without orthosis and with orthosis is 0.199 ±0.176 and 0.104± 0.093beats/meter appreciably greater than that for normal children(p less than 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that walking with orthosis in spastic diplegic CP children showed higher costs of energy and slower walking speed compared normal children with age matched. The PCI of walking, with orthosis in children with spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy is less as compared to without orthosis i.e. gait is more energy efficient with orthosis. BMI doesn’t show any correlation with PCI further study may require.

  1. Children with Down Syndrome: oral development and morphology after use of palatal plates between 6 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, B; Grevér-Sjölander, A-C; Holm, A-K; Johansson, I

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe oral development and morphology in 18-month-old children with Down syndrome (DS) treated with palatal plates in combination with structured communication and speech training. The aim is further to describe the design of the palatal plates, compliance in their use and to give a brief report of their effect on oral motor function and speech. Forty-two children with DS were followed from language intervention, and oral motor and sensory stimulation provided by speech therapists for all children with DS in Sweden, palatal plates provided by dentists are included in the training programme. In the evaluation, the children in the project were compared with two control groups of children matched for age; one group of children with DS who had not been treated with palatal plates, and one group of children with normal development. Compared to the children with normal development, both groups of children with DS had fewer teeth erupted and a lower prevalence of sucking habits. Deviant morphology of the tongue in the form of diastase, lingua plicata or a sulcus in the anterior third of the tongue was only seen in children with DS. All children with normal development had positive values for overjet compared to 53% of the children with DS. The palatal plates were used 2-3 times daily for a total mean time of 15 min. Compliance in use of the plates decreased with age, mainly due to eruption of teeth and subsequent loss of retention. Evaluation of oral motor function and speech show that the children with DS in the project had better motor prerequisites for articulation than the control children with DS. Palatal plate therapy did not affect oral parameters, i.e., eruption of teeth, types and prevalence of sucking habits, tongue morphology and symptoms of hypotonia. In combination with oral motor and sensory stimulation, palatal plate therapy had a positive effect on oral motor performance and prerequisites for articulation.

  2. [A survey of pubertal development in children born with assisted reproductive technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yuan; Wang, Xin-Li; Han, Tong-Yan; Cui, Yun-Pu; Wang, Xue-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Li, Song

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the status of pubertal development in children born with assisted reproductive technology (ART). A retrospective analysis was performed on the pubertal development data of children born with ART in Peking University Third Hospital from 1994 to 2003 (ART group). The data in the cross-sectional study "Reports on the Physical Fitness and Health Research of Chinese School Students in 2010" were used as a control. The age at menarche and the age at spermarche were compared between the two groups. The status of pubertal development in the overweight and obese children in the ART group was evaluated to investigate the correlation between pubertal development and body mass index (BMI). A total of 200 children born with ART were enrolled in this study, and 72 of them (41 males and 31 females) completed the survey (response rate=36.0%). In the ART group, the mean age at spermarche and the mean age at menarche were 13.9 years (95%CI: 13.7-14.3 years) and 12.2 years (95%CI: 11.8-12.6 years), respectively. There were no significant differences in the age at spermarche and the age at menarche between the ART and control groups (P>0.05). In the ART group, there were no significant differences in the age at spermarche and the age at menarche between the overweight and obese children and the normal weight children (P>0.05). There were also no significant differences in overweight rate and obesity rate between the children in the ART group and the adolescents in Beijing (P>0.05). In the ART group, there was no significant correlation between the age at spermarche or menarche and BMI (P>0.05). No delayed or precocious puberty is observed in children born with ART. This is consistent with the normal control data. And there is no significant correlation between pubertal development and BMI in children born with ART.

  3. Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study of implementation processes. This paper describes the process by which it was built. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, we developed a theory. We derived a set of empirical generalizations from analysis of data collected in qualitative studies of healthcare work and organization. We developed an applied theoretical model through analysis of empirical generalizations. Finally, we built a formal theory through a process of extension and implication analysis of the applied theoretical model. Results Each phase of theory development showed that the constructs of the theory did not conflict with each other, had explanatory power, and possessed sufficient robustness for formal testing. As the theory developed, its scope expanded from a set of observed regularities in data with procedural explanations, to an applied theoretical model, to a formal middle-range theory. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through procedures that were properly sceptical and critical, and which were opened to review at each stage of development. The theory has been shown to merit formal testing.

  4. Association between individual fat depots and cardio-metabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Geisler, C; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Müller, M J

    2017-05-08

    To determine age-related associations between fat mass (FM), regional fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults. Detailed body composition (regional subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue; SAT, VAT) by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FM and fat-free mass by air-displacement plethysmography, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), plasma glucose and plasma insulin were measured in 433 subjects (BMI: 23.6 (21.0-27.7); 151 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, 150 young adults, aged 18-30 years and 132 adults, aged 30-60 years). Data were derived from pooled data of the 'Reference Center for Body Composition' in Kiel, Germany. Insulin resistance was determined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between body composition and cardiometabolic traits. A descriptive approach was used to demonstrate age-dependent differences in associations between body fat depots and insulin resistance, independent of BMI. FM, SAT, and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood with low VAT in children and adolescents. When compared to children, TG was higher in adults. HDL and DBP did not differ between age groups. Insulin resistance was highest in male adolescents and female young adults. Associations between body fat depots and cardiometabolic traits were seen after puberty with no associations in pre- and intrapubertal children. When compared to FM, SAT and VAT had the strongest association with insulin resistance in adults. This association was independent of BMI. Associations between individual body fat depots and most cardiometabolic traits became evident after puberty only. The strongest associations were observed between insulin resistance and abdominal fat in adults. The impact of VAT was independent

  5. The Influence of Classroom Layout on Children's English Learning Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琬媚

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more Children English Training organization developed, all the parents and teachers also want to improve the children's English. So the parents will find the organization where the teachers are better in teaching. They will motive a lot of imagine and acquire many information which you can not know. If we can care more about this point from the children, may be it also can help children to learn English well. This essay aims at how does classroom Layout influence the children to learn English well and let the children love this environment.

  6. Neocortical Development in Brain of Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Majken; Fabricius, Katrine; Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup

    2017-01-01

    The early postnatal development of neuron and glia numbers is poorly documented in human brain. Therefore we estimated using design-based stereological methods the regional volumes of neocortex and the numbers of neocortical neurons and glial cells for 10 children (4 girls and 6 boys), ranging from...... neonate to 3 years of age. The 10 infants had a mean of 20.7 × 109 neocortical neurons (range 18.0-24.8 × 109) estimated with a coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.11; this range is similar to adult neuron numbers. The glia populations were 10.5 × 109 oligodendrocytes (range 5.0-16.0 × 109; CV = 0.40); 5...

  7. Gaps-in-Noise test: gap detection thresholds in 9-year-old normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculino, Carolina Finetti; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-12-01

    To establish the standard criteria for the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test in 9-year-old normal-hearing children; to obtain the mean gap detection thresholds; and to verify the influence of the variables gender and ear on the gap detection thresholds. Forty normal-hearing individuals, 20 male and 20 female, with ages ranging from 9 years to 9 years and 11 months, were evaluated. The procedures performed were: anamnesis, audiological evaluation, acoustic immittance measures (tympanometry and acoustic reflex), Dichotic Digits Test, and GIN test. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. The results revealed similar performance of right and left ears in the population studied. There was also no difference regarding the variable gender. In the subjects evaluated, the mean gap detection thresholds were 4.4 ms for the right ear, and 4.2 ms for the left ear. The values obtained for right and left ear, as well as their standard deviations, can be used as standard criteria for 9-year-old children, regardless of ear or gender.

  8. C4.4A gene ablation is compatible with normal epidermal development and causes modest overt phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Füchtbauer, Annette

    2016-01-01

    of C4.4A in normal physiology and cancer progression. The unchallenged C4.4A-deficient mice were viable, fertile, born in a normal Mendelian distribution and, surprisingly, displayed normal development of squamous epithelia. The C4.4A-deficient mice were, nonetheless, significantly lighter than...

  9. Site-specific differences of insulin action in adipose tissue derived from normal prepubertal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Stewart, Claire; Welsh, Gavin; Hunt, Linda; Tavare, Jeremy; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Sabin, Matt; Crowne, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Body fat distribution determines obesity-related morbidity in adults but little is known of the aetiology or pathophysiology in children. This study investigates differences in insulin-mediated metabolism in primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes derived from prepubertal children. The impact of differentiation and responses to TNFα exposure was also investigated. Proliferation rates were greater in subcutaneous versus visceral preadipocytes (41 h(3) versus 69 h(4); P = 0.008). Insulin caused a dose-dependent increase in GSK-3 phosphorylation and an increase in MAPK phosphorylation over time, with increased sensitivity in subcutaneous preadipocytes. Post-differentiation, dose-dependent increases in GSK-3 phosphorylation were maintained, while MAPK phosphorylation was identical in both subtypes. No changes were observed in insulin receptor abundance pre-/post-differentiation. GLUT4 abundance was significantly increased in visceral versus subcutaneous adipocytes by 76(4)%; P = 0.03), coincidental with increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (+150(26)% versus +79(10)%; P = 0.014) and further elevated by acute exposure to TNFα (+230(52)%; P = 0.019 versus +123(24)%; P = 0.025, respectively). TNFα also significantly increased basal glucose transport rates (+44(14)%; P = 0.006 versus +34(11)%; P = 0.007) and GLUT1 localisation to the plasma membrane. These data establish site-specific differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat cells from children. Responses to insulin varied with differentiation and TNFα exposure in the two depots, consistent with parallel changes in GLUT1/4 abundance and localisation

  10. Sonographic assessment of normal renal parenchymal and medullary pyramid thicknesses among children in Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, C.U.; Akpan, V.P.; Nwadike, I.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal medullary pyramid thickness (MPT) are important renal size parameters. This study was aimed at establishing normograms for RPT and MPT with respect to age and somatometric parameters among children. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done in Enugu, Nigeria between May 2013 and April 2014. The subjects were 512 children aged 1–17 years scanned with ultrasound equipment with 3.5 MHz and 5 MHz curvilinear transducers. The RPT was measured perpendicularly to the long axis of the kidney from the medullary papilla to the renal capsule and MPT was measured from the apex to the base of the medullary pyramid on the same plane. The age and somatometric parameters of the subjects were recorded. Results: The mean ± SD of RPT and MPT for the right kidney were 12.62 ± 1.67 mm and 7.10 ± 0.92 mm and the left kidney were 12.81 ± 1.7 and 7.23 ± 0.94 mm respectively. There was a significant difference between the right and left RPT and MPT (p < 0.05). The right and left RPT correlated strongly with age, body surface area (BSA), height, and weight but moderately with body mass index (BMI). A moderate positive correlation was observed between MPT and age, BSA, height, and weight. However, a weak correlation was observed between MPT and BMI. Conclusion: Normograms of RPT and MPT in relation to age could be useful for grading hydronephrosis in children. - Highlights: • Sonography of RPT and MPT at the anterior longitudinal axis of the kidney is simple. • RPT and MPT Measurements are reliable within and between experienced sonographers. • No significant gender differences in RPT and MPT values exist in this study. • Significant differences exist between the right and left RPT and MPT measurements. • Normative values of RPT and MPT in relation to age in children are useful.

  11. The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

  12. The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

  13. Using Guided Participation to Support Young Children's Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Families and teachers spend countless hours supporting preschoolers and primary age children in the development of mental tools like focus, memory, and other problem-solving skills that help children think better, pay attention, and remember what they have experienced. Children use these tools to succeed in reading, writing, math, science, and…

  14. Who will develop dyslexia? Cognitive precursors in parents and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, E.

    2013-01-01

    Which children go on to develop dyslexia? This thesis presents findings of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme, a longitudinal study following the progress of children with and without a family history of dyslexia. Since there is a substantial genetic influence on reading ability, many of the children at

  15. Normative data on mental and motor development in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa at large, there has been heavy reliance on the “Caucasian data” in the developmental assessment of children. Hence, this study set out to establish normative data for psychomotor development on Nigerian children. Study design: One hundred and twenty eight children ...

  16. The Influence of Media on Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…

  17. Music and Movement for Young Children's Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…

  18. Bannatyne-Recategorized WISC-R Patterns of Mentally Retarded, Learning Disabled, Normal, and Intellectually Superior Children: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Horst H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Metaanalytical procedures examined the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised subtest performance patterns of 36 samples of below average, normal average, learning disabled average, and above average IQ children from research. Relative patterning of WISC-R subtests as reflected in children's Bannatyne-recategorized performance profiles appeared to be…

  19. Listening effort and perceived clarity for normal-hearing children with the use of digital noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Samantha; McCreery, Ryan; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy G; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate how digital noise reduction (DNR) impacts listening effort and judgment of sound clarity in children with normal hearing. It was hypothesized that when two DNR algorithms differing in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output are compared, the algorithm that provides the greatest improvement in overall output SNR will reduce listening effort and receive a better clarity rating from child listeners. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relation between the inversion method measurements and listening effort with DNR processing. Twenty-four children with normal hearing (ages 7 to 12 years) participated in a speech recognition task in which consonant-vowel-consonant nonwords were presented in broadband background noise. Test stimuli were recorded through two hearing aids with DNR off and DNR on at 0 dB and +5 dB input SNR. Stimuli were presented to listeners and verbal response time (VRT) and phoneme recognition scores were measured. The underlying assumption was that an increase in VRT reflects an increase in listening effort. Children rated the sound clarity for each condition. The two commercially available HAs were chosen based on: (1) an inversion technique, which was used to quantify the magnitude of change in SNR with the activation of DNR, and (2) a measure of magnitude-squared coherence, which was used to ensure that DNR in both devices preserved the spectrum. One device provided a greater improvement in overall output SNR than the other. Both DNR algorithms resulted in minimal spectral distortion as measured using coherence. For both devices, VRT decreased for the DNR-on condition, suggesting that listening effort decreased with DNR in both devices. Clarity ratings were also better in the DNR-on condition for both devices. The device showing the greatest improvement in output SNR with DNR engaged improved phoneme recognition scores. The magnitude of this improved phoneme recognition was not accurately predicted with

  20. [Nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in