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Sample records for children national nutrition

  1. The nutritional status of children in Bhutan: results from the 2008 National nutrition survey and trends over time

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    Zangmo Ugyen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports on the nutritional status of Bhutanese children. The objective of this paper is to summarize results from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey and to describe progress achieved during the last two decades. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2376 children aged 6 to 59 months was conducted during November-December 2008 to provide national and regional estimates. A multi-stage cluster sampling method was applied and 40 gewogs/thromdes were selected from each region (Western, Central, Eastern. Guidelines on how to measure length/height and weight followed WHO standardized procedures. Data were analysed for consistency and validation using the software WHO Anthro and the WHO SPSS macro. Underweight, stunting, overweight, wasting and thinness were defined based on the WHO Child Growth Standards. Data from 1986-88 and 1999 national surveys were reanalysed using the WHO standards to describe trends in nutritional status. Results Nationally, 34.9% Bhutanese preschool children are stunted and 10.4% are underweight. Wasting is 4.7%, with severe wasting close to 2% in rural areas, while overweight affects 4.4% of preschool children. While underweight rates are similar across regions, wasting is substantially more prevalent in the Western region and stunting in the Eastern region. Stunting shows a steep rise during the first two years of life, as high as 40%, and levels off thereafter, while wasting is greatest among children aged 6-24 months and subsequently decreases. The prevalence of stunting fell from 60.9% in 1986-88 to 34.9% in 2008, and underweight declined from 34.0% to 10.4% during same period. The percentage of wasted children dropped from 5.2% in 1986-88 to 2.5% in 1999 but then increased to 4.7% in 2008. Conclusions There have been major improvements in the nutritional status of Bhutanese children over the past two decades, however, linear growth retardation remains a significant concern. Early

  2. Dietary patterns of children and adolescents analyzed from 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joung-Won; Hwang, Jiyoung; Cho, Han-Sok

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify dietary patterns among children and adolescents in Korea and to examine their associations with obesity and some blood profiles. One day food consumption data measured by 24-hour recalls on 2704 subjects aged 1 to 19 were used from 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. The data of blood profiles available in the ages of 10 or older was also used. After categorizing each food consumed into 29 food or food groups, five dietary patterns were d...

  3. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: Results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

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    Hernández Bernardo; Cuevas-Nasu Lucía; Shamah-Levy Teresa; Monterrubio Eric A; Ramírez-Silva Claudia Ivonne; García-Feregrino Raquel; Rivera Juan A.; Sepúlveda-Amor Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican schoolage children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). Material and Methods. Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administere...

  4. Dietary fat intake of Japanese male children and its associated factors: Results of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey in Japan

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    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To clarify the factors associated with reported dietary fat intake by Japanese male children. Methods: This study is based on the data of a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Japan. Three hundred and seventy-seven male children (age, 6 - 11 years whose households were sampled in the 1995 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare, and the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and whose parents were identified through record linkage between the 2 survey data sets were enrolled. Results: The final dataset in this study consisted of 377 boys with 329 of their parents. Fifty-two boys were found to be overweight (13.8%. The reported dietary fat intake was higher among the overweight boys than among the non-overweight boys. Maternal obesity was significantly associated with obesity in male children. Boys who frequently consumed foods from the “fats and lipids” group and the “meat” groups, and children from nuclear families rather than 3- generation families reported high dietary fat intake. In addition, parental fat intake was also significantly associated with fat intake of male children. Conclusions: Child and parental dietary habits along with the household status should be considered when implementing nutritional education programmes to control dietary fat intake and reduce the obesity risks of male children.

  5. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

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    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

  6. Nutritional status of under-five children in Libya: a national population-based survey

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    Lenoir Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya.Population and methods: A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a nationalrepresentative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995.Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined usingstandard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventypercent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in ruralareas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups.Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight.Conclusion: The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence ofstunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition withevidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of thesenutritional problems, particularly overweight.

  7. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

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    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  8. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

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    Victor L. Fulgoni; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Carol E. O'Neil; Keast, Debra R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined ...

  9. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  10. Fruit juice consumption is associated with improved nutrient adequacy in children and adolescents: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006

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    The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruit juice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...

  11. Body Fat Percentile Curves for Korean Children and Adolescents: A Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010

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    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-01-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys an...

  12. Relationship of sodium intake with obesity among Korean children and adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-03-14

    We investigated whether dietary and urinary Na is associated with adiposity in Korean children and adolescents (10-18 years), a population with a high salt intake. Study subjects were Korean children and adolescents who participated in the cross-sectional nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). This study used measures of dietary (24-h dietary recall) and urinary Na (Na:creatinine ratio) and three methods to determine obesity (BMI, waist circumference (WC) and total body per cent fat (TBPF)). Higher Na intake was significantly associated with obesity, adjusting for the covariates. Subjects in the highest tertile of urinary Na excretion had a significantly higher OR for higher adiposity compared with those in the lowest tertile (multivariate-adjusted OR 3·13 (95% CI 1·81, 5·50) for BMI, 2·15 (95% CI 1·27, 3·66) for WC and 1·92 (95% CI 1·29, 2·86) for TBPF, respectively). Na intake estimated by the 24-h recall method also showed significant association with adiposity (multivariate-adjusted OR 2·79 (95% CI 1·66, 4·68) for BMI and 2·14 (95% CI 1·25, 3·67) for WC, respectively). The significant associations between Na and adiposity remained significant after additionally adjusting for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Our results revealed a significant positive association between urinary and dietary Na and adiposity in Korean children and adolescents, independent of SSB consumption. PMID:26759221

  13. Diarrhea and health inequity among Indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition

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    Escobar, Ana Lúcia; Coimbra, Carlos EA; James R. Welch; Bernardo L. Horta; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cardoso, Andrey M

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children under five. In Brazil, mortality due to diarrhea underwent a significant reduction in recent decades principally due to expansion of the primary healthcare network, use of oral rehydration therapy, reduced child undernutrition, and improved access to safe drinking water. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nation...

  14. Nutrition in neurologically impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition, either under- or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Energy needs are difficult to define in this heterogeneous population, and there is a lack of information on what normal growth should be in these children. Non-nutritional factors may influence growth, but nutritional factors such as insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism also contribute to growth failure. Malnutrition is associated with s...

  15. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Children 1 to 5 Years of Age in the United States from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2011 to 2012

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    Lanzieri, Tatiana M.; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Dollard, Sheila C

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence among U.S. children 1 to 5 years old was assessed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2011 to 2012. The overall seroprevalence (95% confidence interval) of IgG was 20.7% (14.4 to 28.2%), that of IgM was 1.1% (0.4 to 2.4%), and that of low IgG avidity was 3.6% (1.7 to 6.6%), corresponding to a 17.3% (10.1 to 26.7%) prevalence of recent infection among IgG-positive children.

  16. Children's television and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, P; Macken, Alan P; Leddin, Des; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter; O'Gorman, Clodagh S.

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The prevalence of overweight children, and hours of television viewed are positively correlated1,2. Causality may include greater periods of inactivity and exposure to food advertising and product placement while watching television. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum of 2 hours of non-educational television viewing per day for children over 2 years3. However, recent evidence suggests that children aged 6-11 years watch 24.5 hours of ...

  17. Nutrition Marketing on Children's Foods

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    Given the rise in childhood obesity, marketing non-nutrient dense foods to children has instigated a worldwide debate. This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% ...

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012

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    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age flour fortification. PMID:27171139

  19. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

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    Hye Ah Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001, and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet.

  20. Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999

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    Resano-Pérez Elsa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99 is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years, and women of childbearing age (12-49 years. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin levels, morbidity and its determinants, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. In addition, data on diet and micronutrients intakes (iron, zinc, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin C, and iodine were obtained in a sub-sample of subjects. RESULTS: The response rate for the NNS-99 was 82.3%; the non-response rate was 5.9% and the remaining did not participate due to uninhabited houses. CONCLUSIONS: This survey updates the information on nutritional status in Mexico and should serve as the basis for food and nutrition policy-making and priority program design.

  1. Socioeconomic Status, Food Security, and Dental Caries in US Children: Mediation Analyses of Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008

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    Masterson, Erin E.; Carle, Adam C.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children’s oral health outcomes. Methods. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES–caries relationship. Results. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES–caries relationship. Conclusions. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic. PMID:24625141

  2. Migration, Remittances and Nutrition Outcomes of Left-Behind Children: A National-Level Quantitative Assessment of Guatemala.

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    Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli

    2016-01-01

    Historically, Guatemalans have suffered high rates of poverty and malnutrition while nearly ten percent of their population resides abroad. Many Guatemalan parents use economic migration, mainly international migration to the United States, as a means to improve the human capital prospects of their children. However, as this investigation shows, the timing of migration events in relation to left-behind children's ages has important, often negative and likely permanent, repercussions on the physical development of their children. To illustrate these dynamics, this investigation uses an instrumental variables framework to disentangle the countervailing effects of Guatemalan fathers' absences due to migration from concomitant remittances on left-behind children's growth outcomes. Based on national-level data collected in 2000, the investigation reveals that the international migration of a father in the previous year is correlated with a 22.1% lower length/height-for-age z-score for the average left-behind child aged ≤ 3. In contrast, the receipt of remittance income has no influence on the physical stature of a child, which may indicate that migrant fathers with young children are not able to achieve economic success soon enough during their ventures abroad to fully ameliorate the harmful effects caused by their absences. PMID:27002528

  3. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999 to 2014. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults...

  4. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Children Based on Data From the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, and risk factors of AD in the Korean pediatric population. We examined AD prevalence using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of 8,947 children up to age 18 throughout the country. Overall, 13.50% of children reported a diagnosis of AD. The age-standardized prevalence ranged from 9.13% to 17.67% between cities and provinces, with the highest prevalence-observed in many of the larger cities at low latitudes, as well as Jeju-do. After adjusting for confounders, high economic status was found to be a significant factor for predicting increased prevalence of AD, with an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.79, P=0.0034). Urban living (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.53, P=0.0526) was also associated with a higher prevalence of AD. In this first large scale, nationwide study in Korean children, we found that the overall prevalence of AD depends on age, household income, and geographic distribution. PMID:26540505

  5. Nutritional and socio-economic factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in children from Equatorial Guinea: results from a nationally representative survey

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    Bernis Cristina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has traditionally been a major endemic disease in Equatorial Guinea. Although parasitaemia prevalence on the insular region has been substantially reduced by vector control in the past few years, the prevalence in the mainland remains over 50% in children younger than five years. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour for febrile illness at country level, in order to provide evidence that will reinforce the EG National Malaria Control Programme. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of children 0 to 5 years old, using a multistaged, stratified, cluster-selected sample at the national level. It included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and thick and thin blood smears to determine the Plasmodium infection. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors for parasitaemia, taking into account the cluster design. Results The overall prevalence of parasitemia was 50.9%; it was higher in rural (58.8% compared to urban areas (44.0%, p = 0.06. Age was positively associated with parasitemia (p Conclusion Results suggest that a national programme to fight malaria in Equatorial Guinea should take into account the differences between rural and urban communities in relation to risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour, integrate nutrition programmes, incorporate campaigns on the importance of early treatment, and target appropriately for bed nets to reach the under-fives.

  6. Dietary intakes and lifestyle patterns of Korean children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis: Using the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV,V), 2007-11.

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    Yang, Ae-Ri; Kim, Young-Nam; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dietary intake and lifestyle patterns of atopic children and adolescents (N = 539) by obesity level using a national survey of South Korea. Intakes of calcium, iron, and vitamin C in the underweight group were less than those of other groups. The frequency of drinking milk of the overweight group was higher than that of the normal weight group. Majority of the subjects had not applied nutrition labeling in food choices, had no experience of nutrition education, and were vitamin D deficient. In conclusion, most of the atopic subjects had little knowledge of nutrition and were vitamin D deficient. PMID:26595187

  7. Under-nutrition more in male children: a new study

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    Henna Ahmadi Qadri

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Nutritional status of children has been recognized as an important of National development which in turn depends on social development indices. Though the country is developing fast with wide availability of resources and food we still notice under-nourishment. Health education to the parents, especially to the mothers on dietary practices like feeding their children with healthy food in terms of quality and quantity should be given. Nutritional rehabilitation centre should be established which will guide the parents in regard to the nutrition of child to be maintain at particular growing age group. The finding of prevalence of under-nutrition in males is unique in Indian context where females are prone to get neglected and sex wise prevalence of under nutrition was usually higher in females as compared to males. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3363-3366

  8. Nutrition and Intellectual Growth in Children.

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    Sunderlin, Sylvia, Ed.; Wills, Brooke, Ed.

    A consideration of nutrition and intellectual growth opens with a glossary of 12 terms and two reports on hunger in America, one by J.L. Frost and B.L. Payne, the other by the Citizens' Board of Inquiry into Hunger and Malnutrition. Included are articles on nutrition and intellectual development in children, by M. Winick; maternal diet, growth,…

  9. Nutritional assessment in children with cystic fibrosis

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    Optimal nutrition, including consuming 35–40% of calories (kcal) as fat, is a vital part of the management of cystic fibrosis (CF), and involves accurate assessment of dietary intake. We compared 3 methods of nutritional assessment in 8– to 14-year-old children (n=20) with CF: 1) a 24-h Dietary Reca...

  10. A survey of nutritional practices for children with cancer in India

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    A Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing nutritional status and delivering optimal nutritional care is a part of modern day treatment of children with cancer. The nutritional practices in India for these children have not been previously described. Aims: To describe the existing nutrition assessment and management practices for children with cancer in India. Methods: Attendees of the First International Society of Pediatric Oncology-Pediatric Oncology in Developing Countries workshop on nutrition in children with cancer organized in September 2014 at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire related to three domains: nutritional assessment, intervention, and education. Results: Hundred and eight respondents from 42 health institutions and background in the health sector participated in the survey. There was variability in nutritional assessment, practice and education. Lack of resources and time are contributory. Conclusions: This assessment of nutritional services in India provided useful information to plan development of national guidelines, policy, and delivery of services.

  11. Screening Rastafarian children for nutritional rickets.

    OpenAIRE

    James, J A; Clark, C; Ward, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    We examined 42 Rastafarian children under 5 years of age who were registered with a single inner city general practice to determine the prevalence of nutritional rickets. Twenty children were receiving a strict vegan(I-tal) diet and were considered to be at high risk of developing rickets and were referred for biochemical and radiological investigation. Seven of 20 children investigated had rickets, giving an overall prevalence of 7/42. Treatment with oral cholecalciferol was successful in al...

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 14 044 US children and adolescents aged 2-19 years. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted with the use of the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-, plausible and over-reporters of EI were identified using two methods: based on the 95 % confidence limits (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI:BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1·55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1·0. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under- or over-reporter compared with a plausible reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-, plausible and over-reporters were 13·1, 81·5 and 5·4 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR and 18·8, 72·3 and 8·8 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites) and overweight and obesity (compared with normal weight). Over-reporting was associated with younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, normal weight and the first survey cycle. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 22 949). In conclusion, we found that EI misreporting remains prevalent and differential in US children and adolescents. PMID:26525591

  13. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

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    Victor L. Fulgoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332 in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%; protein — milk (13.2% and poultry (12.8%; total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5% and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%; total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2% and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%; added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7% and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%; dietary fiber — fruit (10.4% and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%; total fat — cheese (9.3% and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3% and milk (13.3%; cholesterol — eggs (24.2% and poultry (13.2%; vitamin D — milk (60.4% and milk drinks (8.3%; calcium — milk (33.2% and cheese (19.4%; potassium — milk (18.8% and fruit juice (8.0%; and sodium — salt (18.5% and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%. Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient

  14. INFLUENCES OF ASTHMA AND HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT ON LUNG FUNCTION OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: THE THIRD NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...

  15. Analysis on the causes of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in one - year old children of Kazak nationality%哈萨克族1岁儿童营养性缺铁性贫血原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 周平

    2011-01-01

    目的:对哈萨克族1岁儿童营养性缺铁性贫血的原因进行分析,并提出具体应对措施。方法:选择2008年~2010年在乌鲁木齐市妇幼保健院体检的汉族儿童100名,维吾尔族儿童100名,哈萨克族儿童100名,对随机抽取的儿童进行血液检测,并对受检儿童的生活环境、饮食习惯、母亲贫血史、生育史、母乳喂养史、儿童疾病史等进行问卷调查。结果:哈萨克族儿童营养性缺铁性贫血的发病率高于汉族和维吾尔族儿童(P<0.05)。哈萨克族儿童易患营养性缺铁性贫血与其生活环境、饮食习惯、母亲贫血史、生育史、母乳喂养史等有关。结论:哈萨克族儿童营养性缺铁性贫血发生率高,应积极改善儿童的居住环境和饮食习惯,及时为儿童添加辅食,合理营养,注重母亲孕期保健,重视儿童的疾病预防。%Objective: To analyze the causes of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in one - year old children of Kazak nationality, put forward specific measures. Methods; 100 children of Han nationality, 100 children of Uyghur nationality and 100 children of Kazak nationality who received physical examination in the hospital from 2008 to 2010 were selected, then the selected children received blood test; their living environment, dietary habits, anemia history and reproductive history of mothers, breastfeeding history and medical history were surveyed by a questionnaire. Results; The incidence of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in children of Kazak nationality was significantly higher than those in children of Han nationality and Uyghur nationality ( P < 0.05 ) . Nutritional iron deficiency anemia in children of Kazak nationality was related to living environment, dietary habits, anemia history and reproductive history of mothers, breastfeeding history. Conclusion; The incidence of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in children of Kazak nationality is high, the living environment and dietary habits

  16. Nutritional Considerations for Severely Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick

    Children and adults with severe disabilities may have nutritional problems due to the effects of the primary disability (including such syndromes as phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and Hurler's Disease), effects related to medications (including anticonvulsants, tranquilizers, and laxatives), effects of food preferences (restrictive food…

  17. Nutrition for children with epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Lesley

    2010-04-01

    Optimization of resistance to infection, growth, sexual maturation, wound healing, and provision of the best possible overall quality of life are important management goals in children with epidermolysis bullosa. However, all these goals rely on the maintenance of optimal nutritional status, and achieving this is extremely challenging in the severe types of the disease. Strategies to improve nutritional status have the best chance of success when the dietitian or nutritionist works as an integral member of the multidisciplinary team and is well informed of patients' situations, family dynamics, and prognoses. Even the best-coordinated dietetic interventions may exert only limited impact. PMID:20447494

  18. National nutrition objectives for the years 1990 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    1989-02-01

    Development of nutrition objectives for the years 1990 and 2000 forms an important part of a national strategy to reduce preventable health risks. These initiatives present an opportunity for nutrition professionals to define priorities for nutrition in preventive health care and to establish the nation's nutrition policy agenda for the next decade. PMID:2712964

  19. Nutritional support of children in the intensive care unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Seashore, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Nutritional support is an integral and essential part of the management of 5-10 percent of hospitalized children. Children in the intensive care unit are particularly likely to develop malnutrition because of the nature and duration of their illness, and their inability to eat by mouth. This article reviews the physiology of starvation and the development of malnutrition in children. A method of estimating the nutritional requirements of children is presented. The techniques of nutritional su...

  20. Epidemiology of nutritional rickets in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Atawi M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In most developing countries, nutritional rickets is a major health problem. The aim of this study was to explore the magnitude of nutritional rickets among Saudi infants, and the various clinical presentations, as well as to address the possible operating risk factors behind the disease. We carried out a retrospective study at King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records of Saudi infants under the age of 14 months over a 10-year period (between January 1990 and January 2000 were reviewed. Infor-mation collected included age, sex, clinical presentations, biochemical, radiological findings, infant nutrition, presence of other nutritional deficiencies and exposure to sunlight. There were 283 infants diagnosed with nutritional rickets due to Vitamin D deficiency (67% males who were between 6 and 14 months of age. Among the total, 70% were exclusively breast-fed, and 23% were breast-fed until the age of 1 year. The most frequent clinical presentation was hypo-calcemic convulsions (34% followed by chest infections (33% and gastroenteritis (25%. In conclusion, nutritional rickets is still prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the primary etiology being vitamin D deficiency. Therefore we recommend that every infant, who is exclusively on breast-feeding, has routine supplement of vitamin D in the range of 200 IU/day (alone or as apart of multivitamin, started soon after birth until the time of weaning.

  1. Epidemiology of nutritional rickets in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most developing countries, nutritional rickets is a major health problem. The aim of this study was to explore the magnitude of nutritional rickets among Saudi infants, and the various clinical presentations, as well as to address the possible operating risk factors behind the disease. We carried out a retrospective study at King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records of Saudi infants under the age of 14 months over a 10-year period (between January 1990 and January 2000) were reviewed. Information collected included age, sex, clinical presentations, biochemical, radiological findings, infant nutrition, presence of other nutritional deficiencies and exposure to sunlight. There were 283 infants diagnosed with nutritional rickets due to Vitamin D deficiency (67% males) who were between 6 and 14 months of age. Among the total, 70% were exclusively breast-fed, and 23% were breast-fed until the age of 1 year. The most frequent clinical presentation was hypo-calcemic convulsions (34%) followed by chest infections (33%) and gastroenteritis (25%). In conclusion, nutritional rickets is still prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the primary etiology being vitamin D deficiency. Therefore we recommend that every infant, who is exclusively on breast-feeding, has routine supplement of vitamin D in the range of 200 IU/day (alone or as apart of multivitamin), started soon after birth until the time of weaning. (author)

  2. Cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goskowicz, M; Eichenfield, L F

    1993-08-01

    Nutritional deficiencies may be associated with a variety of cutaneous findings in children. This review emphasizes new developments relating to cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies. Zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica, and acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruptions are seen with a variety of conditions including cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, and breastfeeding. Similar cutaneous findings not related to zinc deficiency may also occur with such metabolic disorders as methylmalonic aciduria, multiple carboxylase deficiency, essential fatty acid deficiency and other amino acid deficiencies. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and coagulopathy. Vitamin A deficiency presents with a variety of systemic findings and distinctive dermatologic findings. Acute vitamin A deficiency may be seen in children infected with measles and is associated with more severe disease. The systemic and cutaneous findings of vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, are discussed. PMID:8374671

  3. MRI in children receiving total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial MRI was obtained in 13 of a group of 57 children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition, who were being investigated for hypermanganasaemia. Increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images has been reported in adult patients on long-term parenteral nutrition and with encephalopathy following chronic manganese exposure in arc welding. It has been postulated that these changes are due to deposition of the paramagnetic trace element manganese. In excess manganese is hepato- and neurotoxic and we present the correlation of whole blood manganese levels with imaging findings. The age range of our patients was 6 months to 10 years, and the duration of therapy 3 months to 10 years. In 7 children we found characteristic increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with no abnormality on T2-weighted images. All patients had elevated whole blood manganese levels, suggesting that the basis for this abnormality is indeed deposition of manganese within the tissues. (orig.). With 3 figs

  4. Nutritional status of rural Bolivian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, B W; Krober, M S; Gloyd, S S; Kozakowski, M; Casey, L

    1993-06-01

    While providing health care in rural Bolivia, 349 children under 4 years old were seen. Height and weight were measured and demographic data obtained. The purpose was to describe the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated socioeconomic factors. The sample included Mataco Indians and Bolivians of European or of mixed descent. Using international standards, 21% of the children had weight below the fifth percentile for age; 27% had height below the fifth percentage for age; 17% were below the fifth percentile for weight/height. Malnutrition was more common in younger children (peak prevalence in 1-2 year olds). Malnutrition was associated with race and water source, but not with family size, literacy, immunizations, meals per day, or deaths in family. Attempts to improve nutrition should focus on the youngest children. PMID:8361590

  5. Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge among a National Sample of School Nutrition Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…

  6. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia among children (6-35 months) in rural Wardha, Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha N; Deshmukh P; Garg B

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materi...

  7. Development of supplemental nutrition care program for women, infants and children in Korea: NutriPlus +

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Cho-Il; LEE, YOONNA; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Jang, Young-Ai

    2009-01-01

    Onto the world-fastest ageing of society, the world-lowest fertility rate prompted a development of various policies and programs for a betterment of the population in Korea. Since the vulnerability of young children of low socio-economic class to malnutrition was clearly shown at the in-depth analysis of the 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, an effort to devise supplemental nutrition care program for pregnant/breastfeeding women, infants and preschool children...

  8. Children aged 12–59 months missed through the National Vitamin A Capsule Distribution Program in Bangladesh: findings of the Nutritional Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akhter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From January 1990 to December 2006, Helen Keller International implemented the Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP in Bangladesh, which has been used to conduct regular surveillance and special surveys to provide information on health and nutritional status of children and mothers, and report on the coverage and impact of nutrition and health programs in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB distributes vitamin A Capsule (VAC among children aged 12–59 months biannually. The NSP data was analyzed to assess VAC coverage and to explore which children were less likely to receive a VAC in order to help GOB identify necessary modifications aimed at higher coverage of VAC among all eligible children. Results showed that coverage among girls and boys was not different (P=0.970. However, coverage was consistently lower among children aged 12-23 months compared to older children (24–59 months (P≤0.001 in each of the distribution rounds. Coverage among children from poorer households was lower than among children from wealthiest households (P<0.001, with the extent of this difference varying by round. Coverage was significantly higher if households had had contact with a government health assistant in the last month (P<0.001; and among households who owned a radio or a TV compared to those who did not. The VAC distribution campaign needs to be strengthened to cover the children who are currently not reached; especially younger children, children living in underserved regions, children from poorer households and from households with less contact with health service providers or mass media.De janvier 1990 à décembre 2006, l’ONG Helen Keller International a mis en oeuvre le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP au Bangladesh. Ce projet a permis de réaliser une surveillance régulière et des études ciblées afin de recueillir des informations sur l’état de santé et l’état nutritionnel des mères et des enfants, et de

  9. Evaluation of nutrition manner and nutritional status of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Radziszewska; Joanna Sadowska; Agnieszka Krzymuska

    2010-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status and nutrition manner of children attending preschools located in Szczecin. Material and methods. The study was carried out in autumn 2008. The survey covered 105 children at the age 4-6 years. Information on home food intake was collected by parents, on the same days, the authors noted the kind and quantity of food eaten by the child in the preschool. Results. The results revealed that the nutritional status of ...

  10. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  11. Healthy nutrition and eating habits of children in kindergarten.

    OpenAIRE

    KRBCOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is aimed to the important question relevant to the provision of the healthy lifestyle of the pre-school children. It is about the implementation of the healthy nutrition principles in the nursery school. The topic of the thesis is the children?s nutrition in terms of their healthy growth; nutrition value analysis for various food; how some food can improve the health condition of the child; connection between the healthy nutrition and immunity. Attention is also paid to th...

  12. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design: Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR or above the adequate intake (AI among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results: Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01 total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01 total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01 percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001 higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g. The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples. Conclusion: Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children.

  13. [How much nutrition matters for children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catassi, Carlo; Gatti, Simona

    2015-02-01

    Overweight/obesity is a growing epidemic in the Western world and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Doctors are going to play a major role as they are being called on to adapt their practices to confront it. In particular, nutrition seems to be at the core of obesity in children. The ascending trend of this phenomenon in pediatric age, with inherent healthcare implications, was already reported in epidemiological studies of the mid '90s. Public health programs of primary prevention should be stimulated and recommended, with the aim of promoting diet and lifestyle changes in the general population. In addition, accurate anthropometric measurements should be performed for use by pediatricians, who should focus efforts on preventing obesity during infancy and childhood. Nutrition plays such a pivotal role that it may be considered a valuable treatment strategy for multiple pediatric conditions, including celiac disease, Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, galactosemia, congenital deficiency of urea cycle enzymes. In view of all this, it would be advisable that food science be given higher relevance in medical education. PMID:25734596

  14. Implementing the global plan of action. IAEA's programme for improving children's health and nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is working to ensure improved health for all, particularly children and women, in partnership with its 132 Member States, other United Nations organizations, and donors. Its programme of technical activities is fully supportive of the recommendations adopted in 1990 by the international community during the World Summit for Children, particularly the statement 'enhancement of children's health and nutrition is a first duty'. (IAEA)

  15. Nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior of Taiwanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating. PMID:17723993

  16. Nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases on children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilton Marques dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a sistematiy review of the literature about the nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents.DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, with inclusion of articles in Portuguese and in English with original data, that analyzed nutritional aspects of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents. The initial search used the terms "inflammatory bowel diseases" and "children" or "adolescents" and "nutritional evaluation" or "nutrition deficiency". The selection of studies was initially performed by reading the titles and abstracts. Review studies and those withouth data for pediatric patients were excluded. Subsequently, the full reading of the articles considered relevant was performed.RESULTS: 237 studies were identified, and 12 of them were selected according to the inclusion criteria. None of them was performed in South America. During the analysis of the studies, it was observed that nutritional characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease may be altered; the main reports were related to malnutrition, growth stunting, delayed puberty and vitamin D deficiency.CONCLUSION: There are nutritional consequences of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents, mainly growth stunting, slower pubertal development, underweight and vitamin deficiencies. Nutritional impairments were more significant in patients with Crohn's disease; overweight and obesity were more common in patients with ulcerative rectocolitis. A detailed nutritional assessment should be performed periodically in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos de edad escolar: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Hernández; Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Eric A Monterrubio; Claudia Ivonne Ramírez-Silva; Raquel García-Feregrino; Rivera, Juan A; Jaime Sepúlveda-Amor

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administer...

  18. Nutrition Recommendations for Foods Marketed to Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-25

    In this audio podcast, listen to Michigan State University authors Lorraine J. Weatherspoon, PhD, RD, and Elizabeth Taylor Quilliam, PhD, talk about the impact food advertising may have on children’s eating behaviors.  Created: 9/25/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/25/2013.

  19. The effectiveness of nutrition education programme for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzita, A T; Wan Azdie, M Ab; Ismail, M N

    2007-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine changes in nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice of 8-year-old school children after receiving a nutrition education package. A total of 418 school children from urban and rural areas participated in this study. The intervention group consisted of 237 children while 181 children who did not receive the nutrition education package acted as controls. The nutrition education programme that was conducted for 3 weeks comprised of a video viewing session and a comic reading session followed by exercise questions as reinforcement for each session, and also classroom activities. Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaires were distributed to the children before (pre-intervention) and after (postintervention) receiving the nutrition education programme. A follow-up visit was conducted six months after the programme had elapsed. The results obtained indicated that the nutrition knowledge score increased significantly in the intervention group from 48.3±13.2 at pre-test to 54.6±16.2 in post-test and 55.0±14.3 in follow-up test (ppositive impact whereby better nutrition knowledge, attitude and healthy eating habits in children were seen. It is hoped that the improvements would be sustained throughout their lives. PMID:22692188

  20. The Link between Nutrition and Cognitive Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…

  1. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klipstein-Grobusch Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%, was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97. HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  2. Nutrition: basis for healthy children and mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, A S G; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Roy, S K; Alam, Nurul; Kabir, Iqbal; Sack, David A

    2008-09-01

    Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that about 60% of all deaths, occurring among children aged less than five years (under-five children) in developing countries, could be attributed to malnutrition. It has been estimated that nearly 50.6 million under-five children are malnourished, and almost 90% of these children are from developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest rate of malnutrition. The recent baseline survey by the National Nutrition Programme (NNP) showed high rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting. However, data from the nutrition surveillance at the ICDDR,B hospital showed that the proportion of children with stunting, underweight, and wasting has actually reduced during 1984-2005. Inappropriate infant and young child-feeding practices (breastfeeding and complementary feeding) have been identified as a major cause of malnutrition. In Bangladesh, although the median duration of breastfeeding is about 30 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding until the first six months of life is low, and practice of appropriate complementary feeding is not satisfactory. Different surveys done by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Bangladesh Breastfeeding Foundation (BBF) showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding to be around 32-52%, which have actually remained same or declined over time. The NNP baseline survey using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding (12.8%) until six months of age. Another study from the Abhoynagar field site of ICDDR,B reported the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding to be 15% only. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Nationally, initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, feeding colostrum, and exclusive breastfeeding have been promoted through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) implemented and supported by BBF and

  3. Nutrition Beliefs of Disadvantaged Parents of Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescud, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone; Henley, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore low socioeconomic parents' beliefs in relation to children's nutrition. Design: A qualitative, longitudinal study over 12 months involving 37 low socioeconomic parents. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Method: Parents' nutrition-related beliefs were explored via interviews, focus groups and…

  4. Nutritional Disorders of Children. Prevention, Screening, and Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Intended for child health care providers, the text contains information on improving preventive efforts in nutrition, particurlarly those focused on prevention of the major health problems which are nutrition related (obesity, atherosclerosis, dental caries, and anemia). Part I focuses on screening of individual children likely to be at risk of…

  5. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Liu; Juan Liu; Xueqin Xiong; Ting Yang; Nali Hou; Xiaohua Liang; Jie Chen; Qian Cheng; Tingyu Li

    2016-01-01

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)...

  6. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices. PMID:16442667

  7. 75 FR 32191 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples: Guidelines for Proposals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination...: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of periodic surveys... Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for...

  8. Integrating local agriculture into nutrition programs can benefit children's health

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel E. Scherr; Cox, Rachel J; Feenstra, Gail; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity has multiple interrelated causes and so should be addressed with multiple interventions, including innovative nutrition education programs that encourage healthy lifestyle choices in children. Research indicates that garden-based nutrition education increases fruit and vegetable preferences and consumption in children. Additionally, many reports on Farm to School programs indicate they promote both increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and participation in th...

  9. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH children who were malnourished at the 6th month was significantly lower than that of well-nourished children (P = .003). On laboratory assessment, serum prealbumin levels of the all subjects were below normal ranges, but no relation was found for serum prealbumin or albumin levels in patients who were malnourished or not at diagnosis. Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children. PMID:26418028

  10. Insights in Public Health: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children: Strengthening Families for 40 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong

    2014-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately ha...

  11. Socioeconomic Determinants of Nutritional Status of Children in Lao PDR: Effects of Household and Community Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...

  12. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  13. Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki Janet M; Heyman Melvin B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and...

  14. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Julio A. Poterico

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peru...

  15. Nutrition support for neurologically impaired children: a clinical report of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undernutrition, growth failure, overweight, micronutrient deficiencies, and osteopenia are nutritional co-morbidities that affect the neurologically impaired child. Monitoring neurologically impaired children for nutritional co-morbidities is an integral part of their care. Early involvement by a ...

  16. Nutrition myths - the factor influencing the quality of children's diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Mrosková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the influence of parents' belief in nutrition myths on the frequency of their serving certain foods to their children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Survey carried out with 297 respondents - parents of children aged 5-18 years. The data collection took place between September 2013 and December 2014. The questionnaire focussed on 14 nutrition myths related to selected foods (milk, dairy products, meat, offal, fruit, vegetables, eggs, fish, legumes, soya, and flour dishes. At the same time, the parents reported the frequency of their serving the monitored foods to their children. In the statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used. Results: For nine nutrition myths we found significant negative coefficients between a certain nutrition myth and the frequency of the serving of the food. The nutrition myths related to the consumption of fish (r = -0.328, eggs (r = -0.203, soya (r = -0.301; -0.290, offal (r = -0.155, meat (r = -0.128, milk (r = -0.272; -0.254, and fruit/vegetables (r = -0.104. Conclusion: The belief in nutrition myths appears to be a determinant modifying parental behaviour and subsequently the quality of children's diets.

  17. Nutritional assessment and intervention in children with severe neurological disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bachlet, Allison M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Providing adequate nutrition to children with severe neurological disabilities is extremely difficult due to the high prevalence of oral-motor dysfunction in this group. Short stature and light weight for height are common in disabled children and undernutrition is believed to play a role in this poor growth. This programme of study investigated the effect of gastrostomy-tube feeding in disabled children with oral-motor dysfunction and evaluated the energy balance and body ...

  18. Determinants of Nutritional Status in Children living in Mashhad, Iran

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    T Shafieian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age.   Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package.   Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study.   Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition.   Keywords:Malnutrition Prevention, Nutritional Intake, Nutritional Status, Preschool Children.  

  19. Teething and nutritional condition in children between 5 and 13 years.

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    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During last decades it has become increasingly evident the importance of nutritional factors in the development and renovation of buccal tissues, particularly of teeth. Objective: To characterize permanent teething and its relation with nutritional factors in children between 5 and 13 years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive, observational study developed in a universe formed by 1003 children of Health Area II in Cienfuegos, out of which a sample of 330 children was selected. Data was collected from schools, regarding the teething age and nutritional status. Ponder and measurements were carried out. Results: The average teething age was lower for girls in both maxillary bones; teething sequence was 6,1,2,4,5,3,7 for the maxilla and 6,1,2,3,4,5,7 for the inferior maxillary bone. There was a prevalence of normal weight among girls, followed by thin and undernourished values. Among boy, there was a prevalence of obesity, overweight and normal weight in that order. Nutritional statuses of thin and undernourished were related with a delayed teething, mainly in the inferior maxillary bone. Permanent teething was delayed with regard to the national media. Conclusion: A clear relation was established between teething age and nutrition, mainly among thin and undernourished children.

  20. Nutrition in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 2000 Chicago, IL 60606–6995 Internet: ... does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing ...

  1. Nutrition in Chinese-Korean Children and Adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Xiao Jian; XU Ya Tao; JI Liu; JI Cheng Ye

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the nutrition habits among Chinese-Korean children and adolescents in Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin, China. MethodsData were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 for Chinese-Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.The number of the subjects included was 4789, 4704, 5875, and 5315, respectively. ResultsThe rate of the occurrence of stunting showed a declining trend from 1995 to 2010 (for boys:urban, 6.3%; rural, 12.7% in 1995 and 3.5% for both in 2010. For girls: urban, 7.8%; rural, 13.4% in 1995 and 4.2% and 5.5%, respectively, in 2010). Although the ratio of wasting did not show significant differences between the urban and rural children and adolescents in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 respectively, the ratio of occurrence of overweight or obesity increased (for boys: urban, 7.3% and 1.3%in 1995, 17.6% and 12.9% in 2010; rural, 7.0% and 1.3% in 1995, 14.6% and 12.8% in 2010, respectively. For girls: urban, 8.1% and 1.0% in 1995, 17.3% and 8.6% in 2010; rural 5.7% and 0.7% in 1995, 16.4%and 7.4% in 2010, respectively). ConclusionThe ratio of malnutrition in children and adolescents in Chinese-Korean areas declined from 1995 to 2010, and the distinction in malnutrition between the urban and rural areas was negligible in 2010. Further, the ratio of overweight and obesity increased over this period.

  2. Nutrition and neurodevelopment in children: focus on NUTRIMENTHE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Tania; Altmäe, Signe; Emmett, Pauline; Tiemeier, Henning; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Luque, Verónica; Wiseman, Sheila; Pérez-García, Miguel; Lattka, Eva; Demmelmair, Hans; Egan, Bernadette; Straub, Niels; Szajewska, Hania; Evans, Jayne; Horton, Claire; Paus, Tomas; Isaacs, Elizabeth; van Klinken, Jan Willem; Koletzko, Berthold; Campoy, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that early nutrition affects later cognitive performance. The idea that the diet of mothers, infants, and children could affect later mental performance has major implications for public health practice and policy development and for our understanding of human biology as well as for food product development, economic progress, and future wealth creation. To date, however, much of the evidence is from animal, retrospective studies and short-term nutritional intervention studies in humans. The positive effect of micronutrients on health, especially of pregnant women eating well to maximise their child's cognitive and behavioural outcomes, is commonly acknowledged. The current evidence of an association between gestational nutrition and brain development in healthy children is more credible for folate, n-3 fatty acids, and iron. Recent findings highlight the fact that single-nutrient supplementation is less adequate than supplementation with more complex formulae. However, the optimal content of micronutrient supplementation and whether there is a long-term impact on child's neurodevelopment needs to be investigated further. Moreover, it is also evident that future studies should take into account genetic heterogeneity when evaluating nutritional effects and also nutritional recommendations. The objective of the present review is to provide a background and update on the current knowledge linking nutrition to cognition and behaviour in children, and to show how the large collaborative European Project NUTRIMENTHE is working towards this aim. PMID:23884402

  3. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. PMID:27307424

  4. Effect of weaning period on nutritional status children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect of age of introduction and the type of weaning foods used, on the nutritional status of children under three years of age. Three hundred and fifty-nine children under 3 years were included in the study. Based on the age of commencement of weaning, the children were categorized as children weaned at appropriate and inappropriate age. For the type of weaning foods, the children were grouped into two categories based on the nature of food items. Children for whom weaning was started at the recommended age of 4-6 months were found to be significantly less malnourished on anthropometric measurements as compared to the other set in which weaning was started at an earlier or later age. Significant statistical difference was noted in the children weaned on nutritious home-made items compared to children having commercial foods. (author)

  5. Evaluation of nutrition manner and nutritional status of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Radziszewska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status and nutrition manner of children attending preschools located in Szczecin. Material and methods. The study was carried out in autumn 2008. The survey covered 105 children at the age 4-6 years. Information on home food intake was collected by parents, on the same days, the authors noted the kind and quantity of food eaten by the child in the preschool. Results. The results revealed that the nutritional status of more than half of the children was appropriate; however, one out of five children exhibited overweight or obesity. The analysed menus revealed that most nutrients were oversupplied in relation to the requirements. The intake of total protein, animal proteins, copper, as well as vitamins A, B2, and B6, exceeded the recommended levels more than twice. Other B-group vitamins, vitamin C, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium were supplied in a considerable surplus too. On the other hand, more than a half of the children received diets with insufficient amounts of calcium, potassium, iron and cholesterol. Conclusions. The dietary shortcomings we found may have a negative impact on the physical and mental development of the children and may increase a risk of diseases in their future adult life.

  6. Gut microbiomes of Indian children of varying nutritional status.

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    Tarini Shankar Ghosh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a global health problem affecting more than 300 million pre-school children worldwide. It is one of the major health concerns in India since around 50% of children below the age of two suffer from various forms of malnutrition. The gut microbiome plays an important role in nutrient pre-processing, assimilation and energy harvest from food. Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Metagenomics approach was adopted to investigate the gut microbiome sampled from 20 rural Indian children with varying nutritional status. The changes in the abundances of various taxonomic and functional groups were investigated across these gut microbiomes. A core set of 23 genera were observed across samples, with some showing differential abundances with varying nutritional status. One of the findings of the current study is the positive/negative associations of specific taxonomic and functional groups with the nutritional status of the children. Notable alterations in the architecture of the inter-microbial co-occurrence networks were also observed with changes in nutritional status. A key example is the clustering of potentially pathogenic groups into a distinct hub in severely malnourished gut. Our data does not demonstrate causality with the microbiome patterns that we observed, rather a description of some interesting patterns, whose underlying mechanism remains to be uncovered. CONCLUSIONS: The present study envisioned interrelationships between the pattern of gut microbiome and the nutritional status of children. The cause of this pattern needs to be explored. However, insights obtained from the present study form the basis for further metagenomic investigations on larger population of children. Results of such studies will be useful in identifying the key microbial groups that can be utilized for targeted therapeutic interventions for managing severe acute

  7. Obesity, Nutrition, and Asthma in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Jason E.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates have increased dramatically among children in many parts of the world, especially in North America and several other English-speaking countries. The impact of obesity on pediatric health has become a major prevention initiative by the Obama administration and several public health organizations. Children with obesity are at increased risk for developing asthma, which is already one of the most common chronic diseases among children. The cause underlying obesity's impact on asthm...

  8. NUTRIENTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STREET CHILDREN IN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Patriasih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this research were to analyze food habits and nutrients intake, and health and nutritional status of street children. The research was carried out in the City of Bandung, West Java; Indonesia. A sample of 324 street children was selected randomly. The sample consisted of 232 boys and 92 girls. The data obtained from questionnaires. Means, standard deviation, frequency and proportion were calculated with a combination of software applications:  Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System. The result showed the level of consumption adequacy did not meet the recommended dietary allowances i.e. with the shortage of 10-15%, this is an indication that the street children should be aware of their daily food consumption. The most common diseases suffered by the respondents were acute respiratory infections (ARI (47%. In addition, 22.7 % and 18.4 % of them suffered from diarrhoea and skin diseases, respectively. Blood haemoglobin status of street children shows that the incidence of anemia was 29.3%. Based on the classification of nutritional status, 42.7% and 80.4 % of street children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Key words: nutrients intake, nutritional status, street children

  9. Migration, Agribusiness and Nutritional Status of Children under Five in Northwest Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Montaño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status of children of Mexican migrant worker families under five years of age within the context of global food markets. The sample included 404 children less than five years old from farms and agricultural communities in northwest Mexico. Prevalence of stunting and underweight of children appeared very similar to that of indigenous children from the national sample survey (difference 0.9 and 1.6 percentage points, respectively. Compared to the national sample of Mexican children, stunting and underweight seemed higher in migrant children (difference 17.7 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively, but wasting, an indicator of both chronic and acute undernutrition, appeared to indicate a process of nutritional recuperation. Migrant children living in poverty and suffering from chronic undernutrition, poor performance and scarce education opportunities, can be expected to eventually become agricultural workers with low productivity and poor general health. Consumer’s demands on social and environmental standards of fresh food production in developed countries could be an opportunity to impact the lives of migrant agricultural workers, their families and communities.

  10. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years and 73 typically-developing (TD children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021. No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied.

  11. Correlation between Nutrition and Symptoms: Nutritional Survey of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Xueqin; Yang, Ting; Hou, Nali; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = -0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied. PMID:27187463

  12. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

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    Sathish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children . 1 This study is being done to know about the feeding practices, nutritional sta tus, anaemia prevalence in children residing in rural areas of Puducherry. OBJECTIVES : 1. To study feeding practices, nutritional status, prevalence of anemia in children from 1 month to 2 years of age. 2. Influence of feeding practices on nutritional stat us and hemoglobin levels. METHODS : This is a hospital based prospective study done for a period of 1yr. The study included 200 children from 1 month to 2 years of age. Patients from rural areas of Puducherry nearing Tamil Nadu border and people from adjoi ning rural areas of Tamil Nadu come to our hospital. A questionnaire is provided to parents/guardians of children asking about feeding practices . Participants weight in kilograms and length in centimeters are measured. Blood samples are drawn from participants for the estimation of hemoglobin levels. Peripheral smear study will be done if hemoglobin level is less than 11 gram/dl. Observations are tabulated. RESULTS : 85 % children under study were initiated feed according to guidelines and 15 % were not initiated. 54% children were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and 46% children were not exclusively breast fed. 54% children were given complementary feeds after the age of 6 months. 70% had normal weight for length, 12% were moderately wasted, 18% children were severely wasted, 86% children were anemic and 14% children were not anemic. CONCLUSION : 1 . The study shows the effect of feeding practices on the

  13. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Keshani; Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Zahra Mirzaei; Zeinab Hematdar; Najmeh Maayeshi; Mahsa Mirshekari; Hanieh Ranjbaran; Shiva Faghih

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions ...

  14. Relationship Between Nutritional Status and Intensity of Common Intestinal Helminths Among Children in Enugu, South-East Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, CGA; Ubesie, AC; Onyire, NB; Emechebe, G; Eze, JC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is associated with malnutrition in children. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the intensity and effect of the common intestinal helminths on the nutritional status of children in Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 460 children conducted in Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria between August and September 2003. Their stools were analyzed at the research laboratory of the Federal Ministry of Health, National Arb...

  15. Conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999: translating results into nutrition policy Conclusiones de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999: traduciendo resultados a política nutricional

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Juan A; Jaime Sepúlveda Amor

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999) and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The NNS-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18 000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural levels in Mexico. Subjects included were children

  16. Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Metodología de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Resano-Pérez; Ignacio Méndez-Ramírez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Rivera, Juan A; Jaime Sepúlveda-Amor

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99) is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years), and women of chi...

  17. Epidemiological correlates of nutritional anemia among children (6-35 months in rural Wardha, Central India

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    Sinha N

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materials and Methods : Seven hundred seventy-two children between 6 months and 35 months of age were studied for anemia by cluster-sampling method. The hemoglobin was estimated in the child by ′Filter paper cyanmethemoglobin method.′ Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and other variables. Data was analyzed by SPSS 12.0.1. Results : Mean hemoglobin level was 98.5 ± 12.9 gm/L. Prevalence of anemia was 80.3%. Only 1.3% children had severe anemia (hemoglobin < 70 gm/L. The univariate analysis showed that anemia is significantly associated with age of the child, education of mother and father, occupation of father, socioeconomic status, birth order and nutritional status as measured by weight for age. The final model suggested that only educational status of the mother, occupation of the father, birth order and nutritional status of the child were significantly associated with anemia. Interpretation and Conclusion : For short-term impact, appropriate nutritional interventions remain the only operational intervention as only the nutritional status (weight for age is a modifiable factor. But for long-term sustained impact, policy makers need to focus on improving maternal education and reducing family size.

  18. Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Overseas Refugee Children with Low Income Children in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth E.; Suzinne Pak-Gorstein; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Jasmine Matheson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent that the dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition affects refugee children before resettlement in the US is not well described. Objective To describe the prevalence of wasting, stunting, overweight, and obesity among refugee children ages 0–10 years at their overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in Washington State (WA), and to compare the nutritional status of refugee children with that of low-income children in WA. Methods We analyzed an...

  19. Nutritional status of children hospitalized for parapneumonic effusion.

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    Koen Huysentruyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Among children hospitalized for pneumonia, those with parapneumonic effusion (PPE are at particular risk for nutritional deterioration. This study aimed to 1 investigate the evolution of the nutritional status during hospitalization and at outpatient follow-up; 2 determine clinical risk factors for weight loss during hospitalization; 3 describe the nutritional interventions for these children. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (January '07 - September '12 of 56 children with pneumonia, complicated by PPE in two Belgian hospitals for data on body weight and height at admission (t0 and discharge (t1, and two weeks (t2 and one month (t3 after discharge. Length of hospitalization (LoS, length of stay in paediatric intensive care (LoSPICU and maximal in-hospital weight loss (tmax were calculated and nutritional interventions were recorded. RESULTS: The median (range age was 3.5 (1.0-14.8 years. Weight or height was lacking in five (8.9% children at t0 and in 28 (50% at t1; 21.4% was weighed only once during hospitalization. At tmax, respectively 17/44 and 5/44 children lost ≥ 5% and ≥ 10% of their weight. Median (range LoS and LoSPICU were 18.0 (10-41 and 4.0 (0-23 days. One-fourth received a nutritional intervention. Weight for height at admission (WFH(t0 significantly predicted maximal weight loss (β (95% CI = -0.34 (-2.0--0.1; p = 0.03. At t2 and t3, 13/32 and 5/22 of the children with available follow-up data did not reach WFH(t0, whilst in 4/35 and 5/26 body weight remained ≥ 5% under the weight(t0. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of children with pneumonia complicated by PPE and monitored for weight and height, lost ≥ 5% of their body weight during hospitalization. One-fourth did not reach initial WFH one month after discharge. Those with a higher WFH at admission were at higher risk of weight loss. More attention for monitoring of weight loss and the nutritional policy during and after hospitalization is warranted.

  20. Determinants of nutritional status of pre-school children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of nutritional status of children of less than three years through Z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height using data collected by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99), India. The nutritional status of pre-school children was regressed on different socio-demographic factors after eliminating the effect of age. The data show that there are gender differences and spatial variations in the nutritional status of children in India. Gender difference is not very pronounced and almost disappears when the effects of age and socio-demographic variables are removed. The spatial difference, especially the rural-urban difference, was found to be very large and decreased substantially when the effects of age and socioeconomic variables were removed. However, the differences were not close to zero. All the variables were found to affect significantly the nutritional status of children. However, the literacy of mothers did not affect height-for-age significantly. The weight-for-age and height-for-age scores showed a dismal picture of the health condition of children in almost all states in India. The worst affected states are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Rajasthans are also lagging behind. Weight-for-height scores do not give a clear picture of state-wise variation. Goa, Kerala and Punjab are the three most developed states in India and also have the lowest percentages of underweight children according to the Z-scores. Along with these three states come the north-eastern states where women are well educated. Thus overall development, enhancement of level of education and low gender inequality are the key factors for improvement in the health status of Indian children. PMID:18442431

  1. Determinants of Nutritional Status in Children living in Mashhad, Iran

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    Tahereh Shafieian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age.   Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package.   Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study.   Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition.  

  2. Effects of Nutritional variables in children with iron deficiency anemia

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    Ali Ghasemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency (ID is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA is about 9% in toddlers, 9-11% in adolescent girls and less than 1% in teenage boys. IDA presents when there is not sufficient iron for haemoglobin synthesis. In particular it has negative effects on the behavior, cognitive performance, immune system and physical growth of infants, preschool and school age children. Material and Methods: Blood samples of 337 randomly selected children (6-59 months living in the Ahwaz, Khuzestan province, were taken. Serum ferritin, Complete Blood Cell (CBC and hematological indices were measured Results and Discussion: In this study 61.1% of the children had serum ferritin less than 12mcg/dl. Prevalence of IDA were 29.1 %. The results showed that most children with IDA were at 12-23 months. Families with more than 6 children had 4.49 times greater chance of IDA. The mean of breast-feeding in non-IDA children was higher than IDA children (17.6 and 16.3 months respectively, P>0.05. In this study families who gave tea to their children for 1-11 months had the highest prevalence of IDA. Conclusion: There are several main risk factors for ID & IDA in the children. Parent's illiteracy, family income and using cow's milk before 12 months are among most important risk factors for iron deficiency for children.

  3. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Cerebral Palsy and Down Syndrome: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor; Nur Shahida Abdul Aziz; Cheong Siew Man; Rashidah Ambak; Mohd Azahadi Omar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS) and Cerebral Palsy (CP) are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This s...

  4. Nutrition and Immune System in Children with Simple Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Janusz, Malgorzata; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrzak, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary factors in nutrition influencing the immune system of children and teenagers suffering from simple obesity. The study involved 100 children and teenagers aged 7-18 with simple obesity. Nutritional data were obtained from 3-day food records. The consumed nutrients, including immunomodulators and immunostimulants, were estimated based on the nutrition interview. The results were compared with the nutritional norms. On average, the proportion of n-6:n-3 fatty acids equalled 10:1. Among the amino acids, the highest intake values in the diet were observed for glutamine (13,694.6 mg/day). The study demonstrates inadequate intake levels of iron (73% of recommended dietary allowance, RDA), vitamin C (65% of RDA), and vitamin D (11% of RDA) taking into account the median values for the entire study group. The median daily intake of other nutrients exceeded the RDA values. The diets of the participants in this study were not properly balanced with respect to immunomodulators, which may contribute to the occurrence of immunological disorders and immunodeficiency in this group of patients. PMID:26269024

  5. Iodine Nutritional Status of School Children in Nauru 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920

  6. Nutritional Status of Mentally Disabled Children in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Asmaa M AbdAllah, **Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny and ***Sahar Khairy

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Mental disability can interfere with education and scholastic achievement. It can lead to school dropout and minimize opportunities to participate in the labor force. Moreover, disabilities affect the overall health and psychological state of the individuals. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Egypt on the basis of anthropometric indicators and laboratory data. Subjects and Methods: Across sectional study...

  7. Growth and Nutrition Disorders in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    KUPERMINC, MICHELLE N; Stevenson, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Growth and nutrition disorders are common secondary health conditions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Poor growth and malnutrition in CP merit study because of their impact on health, including psychological and physiological function, healthcare utilization, societal participation, motor function, and survival. Understanding the etiology of poor growth has led to a variety of interventions to improve growth. One of the major causes of poor growth, malnutrition, is the best-studied cont...

  8. Effects of Nutritional variables in children with iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemi; Bijan Keikhaei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is about 9% in toddlers, 9-11% in adolescent girls and less than 1% in teenage boys. IDA presents when there is not sufficient iron for haemoglobin synthesis. In particular it has negative effects on the behavior, cognitive performance, immune system and physical growth of infants, preschool and school age children. Material and Methods: Blood samples of 3...

  9. Nutritional standards for energy-dense low-nutrient density foods for children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Kyu; Park, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Youn-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The increasing rate of child obesity has developed into a serious concern in contemporary society. In Korea, additional concerns over unsanitary environments of food establishments near schools led to the enforcement in 2009 of the Special Act on the Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life in order to improve food safety and nutrition. Some of the main policies of the Special Act are the prohibition of Energy- dense Low-Nutrient density Foods (hereinafter referred to as EDLNF) at school canteens and in the outstanding businesses, along with restrictions on television advertisement for EDLNF products. Confectioneries, candies, sweetened-ice products, breads, chocolates, processed milk, fermented milk, ice cream, fish-meat sausages, fruit/vegetable beverages, carbonated beverages, mixed beverages, and lactic acid bacteria beverages are classified as applicable food types of EDLNF. To establish the nutritional standards for EDLNF, the intake proportions and the pattern of nutrients in children's preferred foods in Korea were analyzed, based on the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Korea. The foods containing more than 250 kcal, more than 17 g of sugar or more than 4 g of saturated fat and less than 2 g of protein per serving are considered EDLNF snacks. The Korean government is concentrating its efforts in promoting healthy environments for children in its research and in food policies. Further studies are necessary to investigate the current state of changes in the children's foods industry. PMID:24561969

  10. Using data from a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system to assess trends and influence nutrition programs and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nasima Akhter; Nancy Haselow

    2010-01-01

    The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP*) of Helen Keller International (HKI), Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB) Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN) from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone are...

  11. Trace minerals in the nutrition of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, J A

    1990-08-01

    Trace elements perform important functions in growth and development. However, little information exists about their dietary requirements during the demanding period of infancy. Opportunities to add to knowledge of the physiologic significance and dietary adequacy of trace elements in human nutrition are provided by recent analytic advances. Specific, sensitive, and reliable methods for the detection of trace element imbalances are sorely needed. Although several factors influence the dietary needs of these essential elements, the basis for establishing dietary needs in infants is hindered by the death of studies that have assessed their bioavailability in this age group. Thus until it has been conclusively shown otherwise, the physiologic response to human milk is used as the standard for infant feeding practices. This review is limited primarily to the physiologic significance and bioavailability of zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, fluoride, and selenium. The space devoted to each trace element is not meant to represent the element's importance but, rather, to reflect some of the present understanding of its metabolism and utilization. PMID:2199650

  12. Socioeconomic determinants of nutritional status of children in Lao PDR: effects of household and community factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-intercepts was used for estimating the determinants of child anthropometric indices. The empirical results revealed that children from households in southern Laos and from ethnic minority groups were less-nourished. Level of education of parents, attitudes of mothers towards domestic violence, assets of household, local health services, and the condition of sanitation and water were considered to be important determinants of nutritional status of children. The pattern of growth-faltering in children by age was identified. Children aged 12-59 months were less-nourished than those aged 0-11 months. The empirical results were consistent with the collective household model which incorporates a decision-making process within the household. Since there is scarce evidence about the predictors of childhood undernutrition in Laos, the findings of this study will serve as a benchmark for future research. PMID:21957672

  13. 77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination... Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination...: Geraldine McQuillan, Ph.D., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for...

  14. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Ana; Santiago Maria J; López-Herce Jesús; Montoro Sandra; López Jorge; Bustinza Amaya; Moral Ramón; Bellón Jose M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of il...

  15. Assessing the Nutritional Status and Blood Glutathione Level for Preschool Children

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    Hanaa H. Elsayed * and Amr Abd El-Hafez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assessment nutrition status and blood glutathione (GSH level for preschool children. Subjects and methods: The study included 70 (boys and girls preschool children at aged from 2-5 years. Children was randomly selected from the out patients clinic at the National Nutrition Institute Cairo. Weigh and height were measured for them to evaluate the effect of nutrients on bodies, dietary intake was collected for the children were subjected to estimation of (Energy, Protein, Fat, Carbohydrate, vitamins A, folic acid and minerals iron, zinc and selenium in their daily diet. Blood samples were collected to determine hemoglobin, glutathione and total protein concentration. Results: The dietary analysis showed that, every nutrient was lower than the requirement except total protein was higher than the recommend. Stunting showed (25.5% of boys and (20% of girls, underweight (23% of boys and 14% of girls were the problems among preschool children. A glutathione deficiency was found among 97% of boys and 100% of girls. The hemoglobin ratio 77.1% from children was equal or less than normal concentration. Total protein noticed 82.9% of boys and 85.7 of girls in normal value. Conclusion: There was little quantity of nutrients intake, glutathione level and growth. The study can be recommended to improve their daily dietary intake and nutrition habits by education programs for their parents or supplement of studied cases with special ferrous and protein specially contains sulphur amino acids in daily diet to cover Recommended Dietary Allowances and can improve tissue GSH concentration

  16. Can mother’s education and family welfare reduce under-nutrition of pre-school children in India?

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    Premananda Bharati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since, the children are the future well-being of the entire society, it is necessary to see how the status of health of children can be improved.Objective: This paper reveals the growth and nutritional status of 0-59 month old children in India and also tries to delineate the responsible socio-economic factors behind nutrition.Methodology: The sample size of this study is 30,105 which have been collected by the third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3. Data on socio-economic backgrounds are gender differences of the children, place, religion, education and age-group of mothers, wealth index and impact of colostrums on children’s growth and nutrition. Under nutrition has been assessed through the cutoff point of –2 of the z-score value corresponding to weight for age and height for age.Results: The data show that in India, 35.7 per cent children are undernourished. By age-group distribution, the maximum occurrence is noticed in the age between 24-35 months. More than 50% occurrences of underweight and stunted children are found in the states of east to central belt of India. It is also found that the distributions of weight and height around the means remain remarkably stable over age. This would appear to indicate that using of colostrums and weaning practices are possibly more important factors than solid food intake. Data reveals that mother’s education and family welfare are the prime factors to regulate the nutritional status of children. The study also reveals that mother’s education, economy, age-groups, and religion have great impact on use of colostrums.Conclusion: Analysis of possible regional and socio-economic factors thought to influence child nutrition outcomes does not reveal any substantive causal relations except for the mother’s educational status and household welfare.

  17. Nutrition, maternal responsiveness and mental development of Ethiopian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, F E; Alemu, T

    1995-09-01

    Forty children between the ages of 16 and 42 months and their mothers, living in an Ethiopian rural village, participated in the study. The objective was to determine the mental development of the children using the Bayley Scale of Mental Development, and to examine its relation to nutritional status and mother-child interaction. Forty-eight percent of the children were mildly or moderately malnourished; 7.5% severely so. The child's weight for age was significantly related to the child's scores on the Bayley scale. Mother-child interaction was assessed through a 30-60 min observation of the pair in a naturalistic setting around the home. The number of verbal, gestural and motor actions spontaneously initiated by the mother and child, as well as responses made by each to the others' behavior were recorded and coded separately. The rate of a mother's verbal responses to the child positively predicted the child's verbal score. In contrast, the mother's spontaneously initiated motor actions toward the child correlated negatively with the child's performance score. The mother's responsiveness was unrelated to the child's nutritional status, age or sex, but was best predicted by a fussing/crying child and by her expectations about the ages when specific social-cognitive abilities would be acquired by a child. PMID:7502104

  18. Cooperative breeding and Aka children's nutritional status: is flexibility key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Courtney L; Helfrecht, Courtney; Quinlan, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that nonmaternal caregivers (allomothers) offer essential assistance through caregiving and provisioning, helping to support lengthy child development. Here, we examine the role of allomothers and the broader social and sharing network on Aka forager children's anthropometrics. We hypothesize that nonmaternal investors strategically target their assistance when it is most needed and when it will have the greatest effect. We evaluate children's nutritional status using WHO standards [weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ)] during four periods of child development [early infancy (birth to social network across these different risk periods and examine whether the broader social network buffers the loss of a primary allomother. ANOVA results suggest that girls may be experiencing some growth faltering, while boys start smaller and remain small across these stages. We used OLS multiple regression models to evaluate the effects of sex, camp composition, risk periods, and allomothers' presence on WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ. Grandmothers are the most influential allomother, with their effect most evident during the 9 to networks buffer the loss of a grandmother. Overall, our results suggest the importance of social networks to children's nutritional status and that individuals target investment to critical phases. PMID:24452414

  19. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination... Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination... Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Geraldine McQuillan, PhD, Division of Health and Nutrition...

  20. Effect of a School-based Nutrition Education Program on the Nutritional Status of Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.

  1. 76 FR 35095 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Exclusion of Combat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Food assistance programs, Food donations, Grant programs--Social programs, Indians, Nutrition education... Service 7 CFR Part 246 RIN 0584-AE04 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and... regulations governing the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC)...

  2. Nutritional adequacy of diets containing growing up milks or unfortified cow’s milk in Irish children (aged 12-24 months)

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growing up milks (GUM) are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12-36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children.Objective: To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 1224-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM). Design: Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2...

  3. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN BLIND CHILDREN: ISFAHAN ABABASIR BOARDING SCHOOL

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    M RAJAI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate dietary intake causes malnutrition associated with poor physical and mental development, specially in children. This study evaluated the nutritional status in blind children in Ababasir Boarding Center (a boarding school in Isfahan city. Methods: A 72 hours food regimen survey was measured in 50 subjects (boys and girls by weighting method. The anthropometric data was collected to compare with NCHS normal data. Results: Energy intake was less than 75 percent RDA in all the subjects and the amounts of animal protein intake was also little. Chronic malnutrition was more prevalent. Discussion: Althought the energy intake was lower than RDA, but it did not cause under weight among them probably because of reduced physical activity due to their disability and inadequate high quality protein and other nutrients probably could be the major cause in chronic malnutrition.

  4. Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Infected With Giardia Intestinalis

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    SM Sadjjadi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is the most common intestinal parasite in human worldwide. It can produce a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to assess the nutritional status of preschool children infected with Giardia intestinalis, a cross sectional study was made in Marvdasht city, Fars Province, Southern Iran. A total of 337 preschool boys and girls aged 3-6 years were randomly selected for stool examination of intestinal parasites as well as measurement of height, weight, head and arm circumferences. A total of 77 individuals were infected with G. intestinalis. Seventy-one individuals who had only G. intestinalis and 229 with no parasitic infections were selected as infected and control groups, respectively. Z-Score of -2SD was used as cut off point of malnutrition. A total of 9 (12.7% of infected children and 18 (7.9% of non infected individuals had a height for age Z-score (HAZ below -2SD. Eight (11.3% of former group had a weight for age Z-score (WAZ under-2SD. In control group 4.4% of preschool children had WAZ under-2SD. 4.2% of infected children had a weight for height Z-score (WHZ under-2SD but none of the controls had it. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in height, weight, head circumference, HAZ, and WAZ between infected and control children (P<0.05. Also, HAZ and WAZ, was significantly different between these two groups, but not for WHZ. A higher infection with G. intestinalis in the children with lower parents’ education was observed. However the distribution of malnutrition was not significantly different between boys and girls. In conclusion the present study indicated that giardiasis retarded growth of preschool children in this region.

  5. Nutritional status and mortality of highland children in Nepal : Impact of sociocultural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, PMJF; Hendriks, JLM; Gerver, WJM; de Jong, Peter; deMeer, K

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the nutritional status of native children in the highlands of Nepal (1,700-3,000 m) and explores the relationship between child mortality and surviving children's nutritional status. A random sample of 145 households from 11 villages in the Koshi Hill Zone in east Nepal was s

  6. Undernutrition in children with a neurodevelopmental disability. Nutrition Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for optimal nutritional care in children with a neurodevelopmental disability and an associated impairment in their ability to eat and drink. OPTIONS: Assessment of nutritional status by skinfold thickness measurement, high-energy nutrition supplementation given orally and feeding by nasogastric tubes, gastrostomy tubes or gastrojejunal tubes. OUTCOMES: Children receiving adequate nourishment are generally calmer and appear more normal than those who are underno...

  7. Nutrition Education intervention in dyslipidemic children and adolescent with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

    OpenAIRE

    Asmaa m. Abdallah*, Zainab B* and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2008-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder of childhood and adolescence with important consequences for physical and emotional development. Aim of the study: This study was designed to detect the effect of diet therapy (through nutrition education program) on lipid profile and blood glucose level in diabetic children. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried on 45 diabetic children aged between 8-15 years old at diabetic nutrition clinic of nutrition inst...

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION MEASURES ON CHILDREN ADMITTED IN NUTRITIONAL REHABILITATION CENTER (NRC KING GEORGE HOSPITAL- VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Rao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND NRC was started in Visakhapatnam (KGH in December’ 2012 to nutritionally rehabilitate severely acute malnourished children. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation services provided at Nutritional Rehabilitation Center. OBJECTIVES 1 To evaluate the effectiveness of Nutritional interventional measures undertaken at Nutritional Rehabilitation Center through review of selected anthropometric measure indicators. 2 To assess the nutritional status after discharge from Nutritional Rehabilitation center. METHODS A Retrospective record based (secondary data study conducted in the month of November 2013.Sevevnty five children were admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Center (NRC of KGH, Visakhapatnam in the months of April to October 2013. The data was obtained from NRC records including anthropometric measurements at admission, discharge and follow-up. RESULTS Twenty percent of the children were less than 12 months of age and 34.7% were in the age group of 13–24 months. Forty eight percent were female and 52% were male children. Majority (93% of the children stayed in the NRC for more than 14 days. There was significant difference in the weight of children at the time of admission and at the time of discharge (t= - 15.942, p=0.001. There was no significant difference in Mid Arm Circumference at the time of admission and at the time of discharge (t = -0.942, p=0.349. Fourteen percent were defaulted. There was significant difference in weight of children at the time of discharge and at the time of first follow-up (t=2.203, p=0.03 and third follow-up (t= -8.903, p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS NRCs are effective in improving the nutritional status of severely acute malnourished children and the follow-up also shows the children are having catch-up growth. RECOMMENDATIONS: 1 Adequate number of NRCs should be available for severely acute malnourished children in all the areas. 2 Effective counseling measures should be

  9. Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years In Slums Of Ghaziabad City

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    Garg S.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.

  10. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

  11. Application of the WHO Growth Reference (2007) to Assess the Nutritional Status of Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-PING LI; XIAO-QI HU; JING-ZHAO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; GUAN-SHENG MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the nutrition status of children and adolescents in China using the WHO growth reference (2007) in comparison with that defined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Methods Overweight and obesity were defined by age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by WHO (2007), IOTF (2000), and WGOC (2004), respectively. Stunting and thinness were defined as height and BMI less than two standard deviations (SD) of the WHO growth reference (2007), respectively. Data of children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years (n=54 857, 28 273 boys, 26 584 girls) from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) were used in the study. Results The prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting and thinness among Chinese children and adolescents aged 5-19 years was 5.0%, 1.2%, 13.8%, and 7.4%, respectively when the WHO growth reference (2007) was used, whereas the estimated absolute total number affected by these 4 conditions were 14.6, 3.7, 40.6, and 21.8 million, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.1% in large cities, while the stunting prevalence was 25.1% in rural 4. Obesity prevalence assessed by the WHO growth reference was higher than that as assessed by the IOTF reference, and obesity prevalence assessed by the WGOC reference was lower than that as assessed by the IOTF reference. Conclusion The nutritional status of children and adolescents is not equal in different areas of China. Stunting is still the main health problem of the poor, while overweight and obesity are the main health problems in large cities.

  12. Estudio antropométrico y valoración del estado nutricional de una población de escolares de Granada: comparación con los estándares nacionales e internacionales de referencia Anthropometric study and evaluation of the nutritional status of a population school children in Granada: comparison of national and international reference standards

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    E. González Jiménez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudios recientes muestran un incremento alarmante en las tasas de sobrepeso y obesidad entre la población infantil y juvenil. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron realizar una valoración del estado nutricional y composición corporal mediante antropometría en una población de escolares de Granada capital y provincia, así como comparar el estado nutricional de la población escolar estudiada con los estándares nacionales e internacionales de referencia. La prevalencia general de sobrepeso encontrado en ambos sexos fue del 22,03% y la tasa de obesidad del 9,12%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la variable peso para la edad y el sexo (p Recent studies show an alarming increase in levels of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The main objectives of this research were the following: (i to carry out an anthropometric evaluation of the nutritional status and body composition of school children in the city and province of Granada; (ii to compare the nutritional status of this population sample with national and international reference standards. The results obtained in this study showed that the general prevalence of overweight in both sexes was 22.03% and that 9.12% of the children were obese. Statistically significant differences were found between the variable, weight for age and sex (p < 0.05 and the variable, height for age and sex (p < 0.05. Regarding the body mass index, no statistically significant differences were found for the variable, sex (p = 0.182. This contrasted with the variable, age, which did show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05. As a conclusion, the results of our study highlighted the fact that these anthropometric values were much higher than national and international reference standards.

  13. Principles of Proper Nutrition in Children with Celiac Disease

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    H Khajavikia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Celiac disease (CD is a hereditary disorder of the immune system which damages the mucosa of the small intestine caused by gluten consumption(even very small amounts. Villous atrophy, leads to malabsorption, which is due to decreased absorption levels. The first bowel symptoms are seen during the first 2 years of life. Currently, the only treatment is to compliance with a gluten-free diet lifelong. The purpose of this study was to introduce the principles of proper nutrition in children with CD to prevent complications of malabsorption.   Results: The patients do not tolerate the proteins of cereals in bread such as wheat, barley, black barley and rye. Substituting wheat flour with rice flour, corn and potatoes and using olive oil, sunflower, corn oil and peanut oil for cooking is recommended. Until the disappearance of symptoms, consumption of milk, fat and high-fiber foods should be avoided. Deficiency of folic acid, iron, vitamin B12 and calcium are common. If necessary, iron, folic acid and multivitamin can be used. These children need proper energy according to their personal needs and should have a diet high in protein. Consumption of potatoes, corn, vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy and nuts (non- roasted in any form is allowed. Identifying foods which contain gluten (prepared sauces, sausages, salami, herbal supplements, all canned meat products, crushed barbecue, prepared soups, espresso and coffee , white vinegar, curd, dried milk, pasta, pastries prepared by wheat flour, compote and food supplements is recommended.   Conclusions: The identification of substances containing gluten by parents and children, and removal of harmful substances from the diet causes the intestines to quickly begin to rebuild itself. Keywords: Nutrition, Child, Celiac, Diet.

  14. Intensive nutritional support improves the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea A. García-Contreras; Edgar M Vásquez-Garibay; Enrique Romero-Velarde; Ana Isabel Ibarra-Gutiérrez; Rogelio Troyo-Sanromán; Imelda E. Sandoval-Montes

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate that a nutritional support intervention, via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy, has a significant impact on the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia Methods: Thirteen patients with moderate/severe malnutrition and cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia who were fed via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy were included in a cohort study. Anthropometric measurements and estimated bod...

  15. Ordinal logistic regression analysis on the nutritional status of children in KarangKitri village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyver, Margaretha; Yongharto, Kimmy Octavian

    2015-09-01

    Ordinal logistic regression is a statistical technique that can be used to describe the relationship between ordinal response variable with one or more independent variables. This method has been used in various fields including in the health field. In this research, ordinal logistic regression is used to describe the relationship between nutritional status of children with age, gender, height, and family status. Nutritional status of children in this research is divided into over nutrition, well nutrition, less nutrition, and malnutrition. The purpose for this research is to describe the characteristics of children in the KarangKitri Village and to determine the factors that influence the nutritional status of children in the KarangKitri village. There are three things that obtained from this research. First, there are still children who are not categorized as well nutritional status. Second, there are children who come from sufficient economic level which include in not normal status. Third, the factors that affect the nutritional level of children are age, family status, and height.

  16. Relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection with diarrhea and nutritional status among nutritionally-at-risk children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crossectional study of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was carried out in 275 children (Age range = 6-36 months) belonging to the low socio-economic strata (SES) in the rural and suburban areas of Bogor (West Java Indonesia). H. Pylori infection was diagnosed by using C-13 urea breath test and nutritional status was analyzed by z- 2 scores. The study revealed a strong (χ2 = 30.9; df=4; p2 =7.2; df=3; p<0.05) association was observed between the educational status of mothers and prevalence of H. pylori infection. Although there was a trend, the results did not yield any significant association between diarrhoea and H. pylori infection. A similar trend was also seen between anemia status and H. pylori infection. Of particular interest was the higher rate of H.pylori infection in children who were on breast-feeding as compared to those who had already been weaned (p<0.05). Stunting, a deficit of length-for-age was the only parameter among the three indicators of malnutrition (underweight, wasting, stunting), which was observed to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with H. pylori infection in our study. Although the other two parameters, underweight and wasting, were also manifested, the associations were not statistically significant. The results of this study have demonstrated that H. Pylori infection has an effect on malabsorption leading to a negative impact on the ability of children to thrive. (author)

  17. Energy and nutrient intake among Mexican school-aged children, Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos en edad escolar, Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

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    Mario Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban/rural areas, socioeconomic status (SES and nutrition status (body mass index and height/age. RESULTS: Median energy intake was 1501 kcal/d (percent adequacy: 88.0. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 25.5%. Stunting prevalence was 10%. Children at lowest SES, indigenous and from rural communities showed the highest inadequacies for vitamin A, folate, zinc, and calcium. Overweight children and those highest SES had higher risk of excessive intakes. CONCLUSIONS: Coexistence of over and undernutrition reflects a polarized model of nutrition transition among Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Estimar el consumo y adecuación de energía y nutrimentos en niños escolares mexicanos que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos en 8 716 niños de entre 5 y 11 años de edad. Se calcularon la ingesta y la adecuación de energía y nutrimentos. Se hicieron comparaciones por región, área urbana/rural, nivel socioeconómico (NSE y estado nutricio (índice de masa corporal y talla/edad. RESULTADOS: La mediana de ingestión de energía fue 1 501 kcal/día (% adecuación 88.0; 25.5% de los niños tuvieron sobrepeso u obesidad; 10%, retardo en talla. Los niños con menor NSE, los indígenas y los de comunidades rurales mostraron mayores inadecuaciones dietarias de vitamina A, folato, zinc y calcio. Los niños con sobrepeso y los de mayor NSE presentaron más riesgo de ingestiones excesivas. CONCLUSIONES: La coexistencia de malnutrición por exceso y por deficiencia

  18. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION MEASURES ON CHILDREN WITH SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION ADMITTED IN NUTRITION REHABILITATION CENTER AT CIVIL HOSPITAL BAIRAGARH, BHOPAL, MADHYA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh; Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The state of Madhya Pradesh has 1.3 million severely malnourished children. Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) were started in the state to control severe malnutrition and decrease the prevalence of severe malnourished children to less than 1% among c hildren aged 1 – 5 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutritional interventional measures for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) admitted in Nutrition Rehabilitation Center by ...

  19. Nutritional Status of Preschool (2-6 Years of Age) Children

    OpenAIRE

    MIDYAT, Levent; AKSIT, Sadık; GOKCE, Sule; YAGCI, Rasit Vural

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical life period because of its importance for supplying regular and adequate nutrition, and giving essential nutritional education to the children. In the present study, between January 2004 and March 2006, food consumption of 2- to 6-year-old children from different socioeconomic levels in Izmir was investigated. Anthropometric measurements of these 518 children were also recorded. SPSS 14.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. Total duration of breastfeed...

  20. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in Nnewi, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, EF; Onubogu, CU; Edokwe, ES; Okeke, KN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school-age children. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1018 primary 1-6 pupils selected by stratified systematic random sampling from six prim...

  1. A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Ken K; Sharp Stephen J; Lakshman Rajalakshmi R; Forouhi Nita G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years) were recruited...

  2. Insights in public health: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children: strengthening families for 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong

    2014-09-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately half the births in the nation as well as locally. By providing nutrition education, breastfeeding promotion and foods in addition to referrals, WIC plays a crucial role in promoting lifetime health for women, infants and children. WIC helps achieve national public health goals such as reducing premature births and infant mortality, increasing breastfeeding, and reducing maternal and childhood overweight. Though individuals and families can self-refer into WIC, physicians and allied health professionals have the opportunity and are encouraged to promote awareness of WIC and refer families in their care. PMID:25285258

  3. Nutritional Status of Mentally Disabled Children in Egypt

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    Asmaa M AbdAllah, **Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny and ***Sahar Khairy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental disability can interfere with education and scholastic achievement. It can lead to school dropout and minimize opportunities to participate in the labor force. Moreover, disabilities affect the overall health and psychological state of the individuals. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Egypt on the basis of anthropometric indicators and laboratory data. Subjects and Methods: Across sectional study was conducted on 639 mentally disable children aged 6-<14 years (422males and 217females, from urban areas. They were classified into two age groups (6-<11& 11-<14 years. The following variables were determined using Z score indicator of weight for age, height for age and weight for height. Also, body mass index, mid arm circumference and triceps skin fold thickness percentiles were determined. Laboratory investigation including blood hemoglobin concentration and plasma levels of vitamin A and -tocopherol as well as plasma zinc, copper and magnesium concentration were estimated. Results: Prevalence of underweight was 14.1% by Wt/age Z score. Stunting was estimated among 33.5% with significantly higher prevalence in older children. Muscle &fat depletion was detected in 30.2%, with significantly higher prevalence among males than females. Depleted fat store was detected in 14.7% of children. Wasting was documented in 14.1% of children by BMI percentile, and was significantly higher among males than females. No significant difference was detected between male and female handicapped children regarding mean blood hemoglobin values as well as mean plasma levels of the measured vitamins and minerals, except for mean plasma zinc level. The overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was higher in males (41.5% than females (37.1%. Deficiency of - tocopherol was more prevalent than that of vitamin A. The overall prevalence of deficiency of zinc, magnesium and copper

  4. Zinc Intake and Its Dietary Sources: Results of the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

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    Anna M. Rangan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRV use different Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for zinc for adolescent boys and girls compared to the previous recommendations. The adequacy of zinc intakes of 2–16 years old children (n = 4834 was examined in the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Zinc intakes were estimated from two 24-h recalls and compared with age- and gender-specific NRV. Food sources of zinc were assessed and compared with those of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. The mean (SD zinc intake was 10.2 (3.0 mg/day for all children. Nearly all children met the EAR for zinc except for 14–16 years old boys (29% did not meet EAR. Children (2–3 years were at highest risk of excessive zinc intakes with 79% exceeding the Upper Level of Intake. Meat and poultry; milk products; and cereals and cereal products contributed 68% of total zinc intake. The contribution of cereals to total zinc intake has increased significantly since 1995, due to the greater market-availability of zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. We conclude that sub-groups of Australian children are at-risk of inadequate (boys 14–16 years or excessive (children 2–3 years zinc intakes, and monitoring of zinc status is required.

  5. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

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    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  6. Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-07-01

    We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024

  7. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ..., Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs, (77 FR 4088, January 26... the web at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_child_07_08/obesity_child_07_08.htm . \\6\\ Riazi... foods provided under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) and the Richard B. Russell National...

  8. Thyroid volume in Swedish school children; a national, stratified, population-based survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipsson Nyström, Helena; Andersson, Maria; Berg, Gertrud; Eggertsen, Robert; Gramatkovski, Elisabeth; Hansson, Marie; Hulthén, Lena Birgitta; Milakovic, Mille; Nyström, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/ Objectives: Sweden has had a salt iodination program since 1936. This first national surveillance study on iodine nutrition infers an adequate level of urinary iodine concentration (UIC 125 ug/L) and the aim is now to evaluate thyroid volume (Tvol) in the same national sample. Subjects/ Methods: A stratified probability proportionate to size cluster sampling was used to obtain a representative national sample of Swedish children aged 6-12 years. Media...

  9. Nutritional status in children with cancer: Before, during and after therapy

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    R D Barr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Malnutrition is prevalent in children with cancer at diagnosis, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC where the great majority of children live. It is associated with an added burden of morbidity and mortality. Aims: Answers were sought to the best measure of nutritional status in LMIC, the impact of anti-neoplastic therapy, effective interventions to achieve normal nutritional status and the impact of these on clinical outcomes. Results: Arm anthropometry offers reasonable estimates of fat mass and lean body mass that are both impacted adversely by treatment. Nutritional supplementation, including the use of simple local resources, is beneficial and can improve survival. Long-term survivors may continue to exhibit perturbed nutritional status. Conclusions: The prevalence and severity of malnutrition in children with cancer in LMIC demand attention. Opportunities exist to conduct studies in India to examine the effects of nutritional interventions, including on the overall well-being of survivors.

  10. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downs Shauna M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151 with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11% of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY

  11. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    Context Dietary guidance for children emphasizes fruit over fruit juices but little is known about the potential nutritional and economic impact of substituting fruit for juice. Objective To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the US. Design Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a national food price database. Energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in three models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, low-cost, and widely-consumed and a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. Setting A nationwide, representative sample of children in the US. Participants 7,023 children ages 3-18. Main Outcome Measures Difference in energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost between observed and modeled diets. Results For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/day (−2.6% [95% CI −5.1, −0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 grams/day (+31.1% [95% CI 26.4, 35.9%]) and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/day (+13.3% [95% CI 8.8, 17.8%]). Conclusions Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children’s diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers and families. Cost impacts could be minimized by selecting processed fruits but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved. PMID:22566547

  12. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5-11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health-Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of 'Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  13. Data Resource Profile: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

    OpenAIRE

    Kweon, Sanghui; Kim, Yuna; Jang, Myoung-jin; Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Kirang; Choi, Sunhye; Chun, Chaemin; Khang, Young-Ho; Oh, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national surveillance system that has been assessing the health and nutritional status of Koreans since 1998. Based on the National Health Promotion Act, the surveys have been conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). This nationally representative cross-sectional survey includes approximately 10 000 individuals each year as a survey sample and collects information on socioeconomic status...

  14. Influencing Factors in Nutrition Status of 6-12 Years Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Hamdani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutrition status of school-age children is still poor while the need for balanced nutrition is very important for school children and this is because the public's attention to the nutritional needs only focuses in infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. According to data of Health Research (Riskesdas in 2010, the prevalence stunting in the age group of 6-12 years was 25.6%, underweight prevalence was 11.2% and overweight prevalence was accounted to 9.2%. This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of children by conducting crosssectional descriptive study with the analysis of invariance and bivariate (Chi square. The study was conducted at SDN 05 of grade 1-6 Sirnagalih Bogor with totaling 263 students aged 6-12 years old in November 2014 and assessed the nutritional status of students based on the z-score of the WHO / NCHS and reviewing the primary data (weight and height measurement and secondary data (data or documents and the identity taken from the student attendance. Nutritional status average of children in SDN 05 Sirnagalih was in normal nutritional status at approximately 68.2%. However, it still reflected some nutritional problems (very underweight, underweight and overweight, accounted for 31.8%. In underage group category, there was the nutritional status of malnourishment of 9-12 years age group with the highest number scored 37.5%. By gender, the malnourishment of boys acquired at most 34.9%. Based on parent education, malnourishment was found in students with less educated fathers; it was about 41.6%. Nutritional status of children based on the number of siblings in the family showed the nutritional status of malnourishment, showing by the number of brothers and sisters greater than two sisters and brothers that amounted to 57.9%.

  15. Mothers and Children -as Targets for Two Nutrition Supplementation Programs in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Executive summary Background: South Africa is affected by the nutrition transition as one of many countries, with high prevalence of both over and undernutrition. Differences are sharp throughout the population, rural and poor suffering most frequently from underweight, stunting, vitamin A deficiency and hunger. Several initiatives have been implemented in order to improve the nutrition status. Among these are i) the Nutrition Supplementation Program, which targets children with growth pr...

  16. The Effectiveness of Enteral Nutrition Support in the Growth of Children Patients with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Can Acipayam

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess, through anthropometric and biochemical parameters, the positive effect on growth of enteral nutrition support in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Material and Method: Forty-three consecutive patients newly diagnosed with pediatric malignant disease and receiving intensive chemotherapy were included. Twenty-six patients received an enteral nutrition formula. Seventeen control patients did not receive enteral nutrition formula. Anthropom...

  17. Nutritional status, breakfast habits and fruit and vegetables consumption among children in a preschool at Fundão city

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.; Figueiredo, M.; Vieira, M.

    2013-01-01

    Comunicação oral apresentada no Ist World Congress of Children and Youth Health Behaviors / 4th National Congress on Health Education que decorreu em Viseu‑Portugal, de 23 a25 May 2013, da qual só está disponível um resumo. This paper presents the nutritional status of 3‑5 years old children in a public preschool from Fundão and describes the breakfast (BF), fruit and vegetables (F&V) habits consumption.

  18. Vitamin A Deficiency Among School Children of Bareilly: Crucial Role of Nutrition Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Swati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To find out the prevalence of VAD among urban school children of District Bareilly, to identify the associated biosocial factors and to suggest the suitable measures to prevent xerophthalmia among them. Methods: Six month cross sectional study was conducted among school going children in 2 purposively selected schools in an urban area of Bareilly District. A structured proforma was used to collect the information. Chi- square test was used to analyze data. Results: Of the 800 children examined, the overall prevalence of VAD was found to be 6.37%. The prevalence of VAD was highest in 11-12 years of age group children and lowest in the 3-5 years age group (P-value >.05. The prevalence of VAD was slightly higher among boys as compared to girls (P-value >.05. The prevalence of VAD was significantly higher among the children belonging to lower socioeconomic class as compared to those belonging to upper and middle socioeconomic class (P-value >.05. Nearly 48.5% of children were found to be underweight while 12.25% were overweight. Nearly a quarter of children were found to be anemic. Conclusion: Nutrition education regarding regular intake of plant foods rich in carotene such as green leafy vegetables, yellow fruits, carrots and animal foods containing retinol like fish liver oil, fish, liver, egg, meat, milk, butter, cheese, and use of fortified food like vanaspati, margarine, dried skimmed milk should be strengthened. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 188-190

  19. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among malnourished children in nutritional rehabilitation centres of Karnataka, India: missed opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant G Bhat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB. In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts with NRCs (population: 1.8 million of Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85% reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72% were evaluated for TB and 19(2% were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%. Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%, chest radiography alone in 99 (13% and no investigations in 337 (45%. The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4% as compared to those who were not (0.3% (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]. Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India.

  20. 78 FR 19180 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-6547 appearing on pages 17631-17632...

  1. Nutrition Claims Influence Health Perceptions and Taste Preferences in Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldavini, Jessica; Crawford, Patricia; Ritchie, Lorrene D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether children perceive food with nutrition claims as healthier and tasting differently than those without claims. Methods: Fourth- and fifth-graders (n = 47) from 3 California schools participated. Two identical products (cookies, crackers, or juice) were placed in front of product packages, 1 with a nutrition claim, the…

  2. 7 CFR 250.66 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. 250.66 Section 250.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  3. Nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Over half of all food products marketed to children via television in Spain made some type of nutrition or health claim. Most of these products were less healthy, which could mislead Spanish consumers.

  4. Nutrition Knowledge of Honduran Caretakers and Dietary Change of Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham-Hardee, Sofia E.

    2009-01-01

    A mixed method study pretest and posttest research design was used in this study similar to those used by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Women, Infants and Children (WIC). An individual interview method was used to gather the qualitative data. The study was conducted using 26 caretakers and 31 children. No significant change in knowledge in the caretakers was observed across all lessons. A significant gain in knowledge was observed only in the nutrition lesson â...

  5. Usefulness of nutritional indices and classifications in predicting death of malnourished children

    OpenAIRE

    Briend, A; Dykewicz, C.; Graven, K; Mazumder, R. N.; Wojtyniak, B; Bennish, M.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of nutritional indices and classifications in predicting the death of children under 5 years old was evaluated by comparing measurements of 34 children with diarrhoea who died in a Dhaka hospital with those of 318 patients who were discharged in a satisfactory condition. In a logistic regression analysis mid-upper arm circumference was found to be as effective as other nutritional indices in predicting death. Combinations of different indices did not improve the prediction. Arm...

  6. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Anurag; Mahmood, Syed E.; Srivastava, Payal M; Shrotriya, Ved P; Kumar, Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in ...

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

    2010-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

  8. The Relationship between the Neighborhood Safety and Nutritional Status of Children in Baghdad City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanain Faisal Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The neighborhoods where the children live play an important role in their development physically and mentally. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between neighborhood safety and child nutritional status in Baghdad city, Iraq. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Baghdad city, Iraq, among 400 primary school children from 4 schools. BMI-for-age Z score was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. Newly developed questionnaires on neighborhood safety were distributed to the parents to answer them. Results. In this study, males were more predominant than females with 215 participants compared to 185 females. A total of 49% were normal weight, 38.8% either overweight or obese, and only 12.2% underweight. There was a significant relationship between father education, father and mother working status, family income, and children nutritional status (P=0.10, 0.009, <0.001, 0.37, respectively. The association between neighborhood safety variables and child nutritional status was significant except for worrying about child safety and thinking of leaving the neighborhood (P=0.082, 0.084, respectively. Conclusion. Nutritional status of school children continues to be a public health issue in Iraq especially Baghdad city. There was a significant association between neighborhood safety and children nutritional status.

  9. Conventional nutritional indices and Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure: which seems more appropriate for assessing under-nutrition among children? A cross-sectional study among school children of the Bengalee Muslim Population of North Bengal,Indi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Stunting, wasting and under-weight have been conventionally utilized to assess the prevalence of under-nutrition among children. As these indices grossly underestimate this prevalence mainly due to overlapping of the children into multiple categories of anthropometric failure, there is a need for an appropriate single measure to assess this prevalence and identify the more susceptible individuals. The present study tries to ascertain whether the use of the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF is more appropriate than the conventional indices for the estimation of under-nutrition among children.

    Methods: The present cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of under-nutrition using both the conventional indices and the CIAF among 1143 children aged between 5 years to 11 years (565 boys; 578 girls belonging to the Bengalee Muslim Population (BMP, and residing in the district of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. The children were selected using a multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure. The data was collected during the period from February 2009 to May 2010. Height and weight of the children were recorded using standard procedures. The conventional anthropometric indices and the CIAF were compared with the National Center for Health Statistics reference data to determine the prevalence of under-nutrition. A child having a value 2SD’s below that of the reference median in any of these indices was classified as suffering from under-nutrition. All the necessary approvals and consents were obtained from the Gram Panchayets and school authorities, and the study was conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines for human experiments as laid down in the Helsinki Declaration of 2000.

    Results: Using the conventional indices, the prevalence of under-nutrition was observed to be 17.4% (wasting, 38.5% (stunting and 47.0% (under

  10. Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    OpenAIRE

    Urban Jonsson

    1993-01-01

    Nutrition is mentioned specifically only three times in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, through its emphasis upon food, health, and care, the Convention makes it clear that good nutrition should be regarded as a fundamental human right. This study reviews the progress that governments have made in implementing this aspect of the Convention, providing ‘status reports’ on the inclusion of nutrition goals in individual ‘National Programmes of Action’. The paper includes a bac...

  11. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

  12. How parents'education and working status affect the nutri-tion and immunization status of preschool children in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharati P; Pal M; Bharati S

    2008-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the paper is to see how educational and working status of the parents affect the nutri-tional and immunization status of preschool children in India.Methods:We have used data of more than 24 000 preschool children spread over different states in India.The data were collected by National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2)in 1998-99.For assessing the nutritional status,only the Z-scores of weight-for-height (WHZ)have been computed and for immunization status,it has been seen whether BCG,DPT3,Poli-o3 and measles have been administered.Children who fall below -2SD(-3SD)from median are considered to be moderately (severely)malnourished.Results:According to the NFHS-2 data,70% of children are vac-cinated by BCG,50% receive the full course of DPT,54% get all the three dozes of polio and only 42% are protected from measles by vaccination in India.The percentages of moderately and severely wasted children in India are 12.1 and 2.8,respectively.There is a marked regional variation of these percentages.Bivariate and multivariate analysis clearly points to the need of educational status of mothers rather than fathers for proper nu-tritional and immunization status of preschool children.Parents'occupation and working status also have some effect,but not so pronounced as parents'education.Conclusion:The Indian preschool children need particu-lar attention for high risk of wasting and low immunization.The prevalence of malnutrition can be arrested more by improving the mother's education level rather than their fathers and by raising the standard of living of their house-holds.

  13. Nutritional Status And Its Association With Diabetes Mellitus In School Children, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muninarayana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor health and nutrition may impair both the growth and intellectual development of school children. Incidence of malnutrition related childhood diabetes mellitus has increased and continues to be on the rise.Objectives: To assess the nutritional status by anthropometry and to screen for diabetes by capillary blood examination of school children. Design: Longitudinal study Setting: The study was carried out at Sri R.L.Jalappa Central School, Kolar from August 2008 to December 2009. Methods: All the school children were interviewed with pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Height, Weight was measured by standard procedures. The nutritional status was analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI for age. The school children were also screened for diabetes mellitus by Finger stick capillary random plasma glucose testing. The children were followed up for any major medical problems during the study period.Participants: All the students studying in the school during study period.Results: Mean height and weight of children were found comparable to the ICMR pooled data. However, compared to NCHS standards and affluent Indian children the mean height and weight were found to be much inferior at all ages. According to BMI for age as per NCHS most of the children were undernourished (79.2% and 3 children (0.6% were overweight. Out of 495 children screened for diabetes 14 children had hyperglycaemia (>160mg/dl. These 14 children were further tested by oral glucose tolerance test and found to have normal blood sugars levels. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The magnitude of malnutrition among school going children was found to be 79%. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus, hence under nutrition was associated with diabetes mellitus.

  14. Child Nutritional Status by Rural/Urban Residence: A Cross-National Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…

  15. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Cerebral Palsy and Down Syndrome: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Down Syndrome (DS and Cerebral Palsy (CP are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This scoping review was conducted using a framework suggested by Arksey and O'Maley. A comprehensive search was performed to identify published and unpublished works, reviews, grey literature and reports. Inclusion criteria for the search were articles in English published from 1990 to 2014 and related to children with ASD, DS and CP. Titles, abstract, and keywords for eligibility were examined independently by the researchers. Results: A total of 305,268 titles were extracted from electronic databases and other resources. Based on the inclusion criteria, 21 articles were selected for review. The prevalence of overweight or obese children with DS ranged from 33.5% to 43.5%. The prevalence of underweight children with CP was 22.2% to 78.2%. Children with ASD at a younger age were more likely to be overweight or obese compared with normal developing children. The common nutritional indicators used were z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, body mass index-for-age, and head circumference-for-age. Conclusions: Overall, there is emerging evidence on the nutritional status of children with ASD, DS and CP although this is still very limited in developing countries including Malaysia. The evidence shows that children with CP were at risk of being underweight, while children with DS and ASD were at risk of being overweight or obese.

  16. National Nutrition Education Clearing House Reference List, General Teacher References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Nutrition Education Clearing House, Berkeley, CA.

    References applicable to both elementary and secondary levels, as well as background information of importance to teachers in the field of nutrition and nutrition education, are included in this bibliography. Although not a comprehensive list, resources include books, pamphlets, curriculum guides, bibliographies, newsletters, article reprints, and…

  17. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Oh, Seung-Won; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label readin...

  18. 78 FR 56233 - National Foundation on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition Establishment Act; Delegation of Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary National Foundation on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition... Foundation on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition Establishment Act, Public Law 111-332 (Dec. 22, 2010)....

  19. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Register on June 28, 2013, at 78 FR 39068, was approved by OMB on August 14, 2013, under OMB Control Number... National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in... School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the...

  20. Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukudi, E.

    2003-01-01

    National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

  1. 78 FR 40625 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... 77 FR 4088 was approved by OMB on February 1, 2013, under OMB Control Number 0584-0006. FOR FURTHER... / Monday, July 8, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AD59 Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and...

  2. Anemia and nutritional status of pre-school children in Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K A; Kumar, N S; Lal, J J; Sreedevi, R

    2000-08-01

    A study on the pattern of anemia and its relation to nutritional status and dietary habits was conducted among 3633 pre-school children of 108 selected anganwadi centers in rural areas of Kerala State during the period 1996 to 1998. Children were invited with their parent or guardian. Capillary blood was collected from each child and hemoglobin was estimated by cyanomethemoglobin method. Weight and height of children were taken for assessing their nutritional status. The information regarding their age, sex, clinical condition and dietary habits was collected in a performa through an interview. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship of anemia to sex, dietary habits, and nutritional status. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was employed. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%. The percentage of anemic children among male and female children was 10.25 and 12.55 respectively and statistical analysis showed that female children were more susceptible to anemia. Normal nutritional status was seen among 46.7% of the children. When 187 (11.78%) of the mild undernourished children were anemic, the percentage anemic among the moderate undernourished children was 57 (16.37%). Moderate under nutrition and anemia showed a significant association. Anemia was reported among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Among 927 vegetarians, 86 (9.27%) were anemic and among 2,706 non-vegetarians, 328 (12.1%) were anemic. Dietary survey revealed that, consumption of iron sources, whether haem or non-haem, was below the recommended level. Undernutrition can be attributed as the major reason for nutritional anemia. Changes in eating behaviour could have potentially affected the iron bio-availability. PMID:10984998

  3. Nutritional Status of Mexican American Preschool Children in East Los Angeles and San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…

  4. Children as Subjects in Nutrition Research: A Retrospective Look at Their Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Tamar; Economos, Christina; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore children's motivations for and perceived benefits and barriers to nutrition research participation. To explore children's perspectives on how to improve the research experience. Design: Seven focus group sessions were conducted during March 2008 with research participants from a trial that examined the effects of pre-exercise…

  5. Thought for Food: A Starting Point for Children's Nutritional Meals. Accreditation and Beyond Series, Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Debbie

    This publication is designed to assist early childhood providers, cooks, and parents in hygienic food preparation and a healthy diet provision for young children in Australian child care. The guide recommends nutritional requirements for children, using the five food groups as a guide for meal planning. The Australian dietary guidelines are also…

  6. The Prevalence of Anemia in Head Start Children. Nutrition Evaluation, 1968-69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Olaf; And Others

    Concern over the nutritional status of the disadvantaged in America led to this study describing the prevalence of anemia among Head Start children in Pontiac, Michigan. Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, along with measurements of height and weight, were performed on 77 children, 4 to 6 years old, enrolled in Head Start classes. These…

  7. Children's Eating Behavior: The Importance of Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…

  8. A comparative study of nutritional status between government and private primary school children of Mysore city

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    N C Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School health has been acknowledged as important since the beginning of 20 th century. Nutritional status is a major component of school health services. This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of government and private primary school children of Mysore city. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design was adopted. One private and one government school were selected using multistage stratified random sampling method. A total of 1566 school children aged 6-12 years were measured for height and weight. Data on demographic details, dietary habits, and physical activity of child and education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents were collected. Results: Of 1566 children, 385 (24.5% were underweight, 132 (8.4% were overweight, and 65 (4.1% were obese. Majority of underweight children 226 (32.5% were found in government school. Except for two overweight children in government school, all overweight and obese children were found in private schools. Socioeconomic status, dietary habits, and physical activity of the child were found to be the determinants of their nutritional status. Conclusion: This study attempt to highlight the dual nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class on one hand and growing epidemic of obesity among the affluent on the other.

  9. A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial

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    Ong Ken K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2 and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6. Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042. At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6% or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7% than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.

  10. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-02-01

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313

  11. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Jayatissa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.

  12. What Effect Does International Migration Have on the Nutritional Status and Child Care Practices of Children Left Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313

  13. Infectious and nutritional mechanisms in children with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Diaconu Ramona; Bozomitu Laura; Anton Emil; Popovici Paula; Anton Carmen; Timofte Daniel; Alin Ciobica; Moraru Evelina

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a polymorphic disease characterized by severe genetic dysfunctions. Besides the complex genetic background, most patients with cystic fibrosis also have increased susceptibility to infections and and their nutritional status is affected. Chronic pulmonary infection and gastrointestinal or nutritional abnormalities are characteristics of this disorder. Of our selected 56 subjects, 21.28% presented a pulmonary condition, and 28.57% digestiv...

  14. Young children's dietary habits and associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea

    2010-02-01

    The study investigates the dietary habits of Flemish preschoolers and associations of these habits with both sociodemographic characteristics and the mother's nutritional knowledge and attitudes. A sample of 862 parents of preschoolers from 56 schools completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children's dietary intake, and a nutritional knowledge-and-attitude questionnaire. Regression analysis showed a lower dietary adequacy in children of mothers with low and medium level of education, medium-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food-related health attitude. The highest excess score (representing items that should be avoided or moderated) was found in children of mothers with low education level, without a job, with three or more children, of age less than 30 years, and possessing lower levels of nutritional knowledge and attitude scores for health and taste. The associations of the dietary adequacy and excess scores with sociodemographic background can help practitioners to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions. The associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions. PMID:19751782

  15. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes. PMID:23899758

  16. Nutritional adequacy of diets containing growing up milks or unfortified cow's milk in Irish children (aged 12–24 months

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    Janette Walton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Growing up milks (GUM are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12–36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children. Objective : To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 12–24-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM. Design : Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2010–2011, two groups of children were defined. The groups included children aged 12–24 months with an average daily total milk intake of at least 300 g and consuming GUM (≥100 g/day together with cow's milk (n=29 or cow's milk only (n=56. Results : While average total daily energy intakes were similar in both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of protein, saturated fat, and vitamin B12 were lower and intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, iron, zinc, vitamins C and D were higher in consumers of GUM. These differences in nutrient intakes are largely attributable to the differences in composition between GUM and cow's milk. For both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of carbohydrate and fat were generally in line with recommendations while intakes of protein, dietary fibre and most micronutrients were adequate. For children consuming cow's milk only, high proportions had inadequate intakes of iron and vitamin D; however, these proportions were much lower in consumers of GUM. Conclusions : Consumption of GUM reduced the risk of inadequacies of iron and vitamin D, two nutrients frequently lacking in the diets of young children consuming unfortified cow's milk only.

  17. Estado nutricional de niños con Síndrome Down del Centro Nacional de Educación Especial de Costa Rica Nutritional status of children with Down syndrome from the National Center for Special Education in Costa Rica

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    Alejandra Madrigal Loría

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el estado nutricional de niños con Síndrome Down de 7 a 14 años, que asistieron al Centro Nacional de Educación Especial, durante el 2007. Métodos: Se valoraron indicadores antropométricos (peso, talla, pliegues cutáneos, bioquímicos (glicemia basal, perfil de lípidos, hemoglobina, hematocrito y función tiroidea, clínicos (revisión de expedientes, examen físico realizado por médico del Centro, dietéticos (frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, observación no participante de meriendas y almuerzos y peso directo para determinación del valor nutricional del almuerzo servido en el Centro, de estilo de vida y socioeconómicos (método de entrevista semiestructurada. Resultados: Se logró captar 16 niños, la mitad de los cuales presentó exceso de peso, bajo consumo de vegetales y un elevado consumo de harinas refinadas y alimentos fuente de carbohidratos simples (bebidas azucaradas y postres, grasa saturada y colesterol (embutidos, frituras. Llama la atención que 12/15 sujetos presentó hipertrigliceridemia y 11/15 valores bajos de HDL-colesterol. Además se reportó un bajo nivel de actividad física. Conclusión: Esta investigación es un primer acercamiento desde el punto de vista nutricional, a la niñez costarricense con Síndrome Down, sin embargo se necesita profundizar para generar lineamientos de atención nutricional que mejoren la calidad de vida de estos niños.Objective: To evaluate the condition of children suffering from Down syndrome with ages between seven and 14, who went to "National Center for Special Education" during 2007. Methods: Several processes were evaluated; for example: anthropometric indicators (weight, height, cutaneous skinfolds, biochemical (basal blood glucose, lipids profile, hemoglobin, hematocrit, thyroidal function, clinical (revision of medical records and physical exams performed in the medical center. Also eating habits, life style and socioeconomic aspects were taken into

  18. Transgenerational healing: Educating children in genesis of healthy children, with focus on nutrition, emotion, and epigenetic effects on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Simon H

    2014-07-01

    before conception prevents both structural faults and wrong setting of gene-switches. Children's habits set. Once courting most are preoccupied and many pregnant unintentionally. Childhood is the time to be adopting a healthy lifestyle, the way to healthy babies The mother's nutritional and emotional status throughout pregnancy continues to affect her child's future physical and mental health, behaviour and ability. Before conception a woman needs to build her appropriate body stores - vitamins and minerals, proteins, docosahexaenoic acid. Before bearing another child, a replenishment time of 3 years is desirable. A return to childbearing in the 20s and early 30s could reduce risks that have risen with the recent shift towards conception by school children and by women in their late 30s or more. Governments, schoolteachers, health professionals, need to adopt this policy of transgenerational health. Empowerment with knowledge is the one way to fend off the growing pandemic of mental ill health and related disorders and to make the most of a nation's genetic potential. Financially there could be no better investment, let alone in enhancing people's lives. Childhood is the most appropriate time for education in this way to generating a healthy, able and peaceful human race. Essential to our amazing genetic systems are the resources of land, sea and air. We are one with our biosphere. We need urgently to follow up the vital work of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, and of Far East initiatives in sea-bed and sea husbandry. PMID:25005446

  19. Improving women's and children's nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa : an issues paper

    OpenAIRE

    Abosede, Olayinka; McGuire, Judith S.

    1991-01-01

    The main sources of malnutrition in Africa, as elsewhere, are inadequate food intake, excessive disease, maternal malnutrition, and deleterious food and health behavior. The authors review several successful innovative approaches to addressing nutrition problems in Africa: the Iringa Nutrition Program in Tanzania, the Zimbabwe Children's Supplementary Feeding Program, the Zaire Weaning Foods Processing Program, and the Senegal Growth Promotion Program. They identify the lessons from these pro...

  20. Nutritional behavior and attitudes in food allergic children and their mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Polloni, Laura; Toniolo, Alice; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Baldi, Ileana; Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Background Avoidance of food allergens requires adapting dietetic habits, changing nutritional approach. A restriction of food choice can result in a monotonous diet and impact social life. This study investigated the impact of food allergy on nutritional behavior and attitudes of patients and their families. Methods A survey involving mothers of food allergic children aged 0–16 years was carried out. We primarily studied the variables related to the child (age, gender, clinical history, food...

  1. Advertisement and Children: is Brand Logo Recognition of Children Effected their Nutritional Habits and Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tokuc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted for determining the eating habits and food knowledge and rate of recognizing brand logos currently featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry of the school children. And to explore the relationship between the ability of recognizing brand logos currently featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eating habits, food knowledge and preferences. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 primary schools in the provincial center of Edirne. The questionnaire form was composed of three parts. In the first part; the socio-demographic characteristics and nutritional habits, in the second part; food knowledge and preferences of the students and in the third part; ability to recognize brand logos were questioned. RESULTS: 1018 students were participated in the study. The results of the study confirmed the findings of previous studies that the diet of children aged 9-11 was poor. The majority of the children reported eating unhealthy foods such cips, crisps and fast-food and drinking fizzy drinks at least once a day. Children knew healthy foods (med:8 but did not prefer healthy foods (med:5. 84.9 % of the students recognized more than the half of the brand logos. A correlation was found between higher brand logo recognition and poorer eating behaviors and food knowledge. CONCLUSION: Nonetheless this study did not presented strong evidence to suggest a casual link between food advertising and poor diet; it indicated that food promotion may have an influence on children. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 459-464

  2. [Nutritional status of street children in the district of Manga (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, M; Ndiaye, P; Yameogo, I; Faye, B F; Dia, A Tal; Diousse, P

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is an important indicator of development, and its consequences in children and adolescents produce a serious socioeconomic burden. Children living on the street are more vulnerable than others. Thus, our objective was to analyze the nutritional status of children living on the streets of Manga, through a cross-sectional and analytical study. The snowball technique was used for sampling. Data came from individual interviews, blood samples and medical examinations. Of the 237 children studied, 84.8% were boys; the overall mean age was 11.5 years, and 72.6% were adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years). Growth retardation (15.9%) predominated among the children aged 4 to 9 years, while a weight deficit (27.9%) was most common among those aged 10 to 17. Half of the children (50.2%) with blood tests (N = 119) had anemia. There was a link between anemia and underweight (p = 0.0145). Children who ate at least three times a day were 2.63 times less likely to be anemic (p<0.001). Factors associated with anemia (p<0.005) included survival activities. We frequently found nutritional deficits and anemia in these children. A targeted nutritional program would be a good entry point for their successful reintegration.. PMID:25466289

  3. Nutritional status of soil-transmitted helminthiasis-infected and uninfected children

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    Nelly Simarmata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections remain a public health problem in developing countries. Their prevalence is particularly high in rural areas with people of low socioeconomic level. A single or mixed STH infection rarely causes death, but can affect nutritional status, growth, cognitive development and human health, especially in children. Objective To compare the nutritional status of STH-infected and uninfected children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2010 in children from 3 primary schools in the Simpang Empat and Kabanjahe Subdistricts, Karo District, North Sumatera Province. Fecal examinations were done by the Kato-Katz method to diagnose STH infections. Participants of this study consisted of 140 infected children and 141 uninfected children. Nutritional status classification was based on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control growth charts. All categorical data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results Of 140 infected children, 8.6% were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 17.1% with Trichuris trichiura and 74.3% with mixed infections (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. We found significantly more STH infected children with mild to moderate malnutrition than the uninfected group. We also found significantly more mildly to moderately malnourished children with moderate infection intensity than mild infection intensity. Conclusion We find significantly more STH infected children with mild to moderate malnutrition than the uninfected group. We also find significantly more mildly to moderately malnourished children with moderate infection intensity than mild infection intensity. Higher severity of infection is associated with lower nutritional status. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:136-41.].

  4. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  5. Update on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dietary data: Focus on collection, release, analytical considerations, and uses to inform public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has be...

  6. Antropometric assessment of nutritional status and socio-demographic characteristics in children up to 2 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to realize that normal length and weight being attained at 1 year of age, would predict the nutritional status at 3 years of age. To asses the nutritional status and the associated socio-demographic characteristics in supposedly healthy Children of up to 2 years of age and highlight the importance of anthropometric measurements in routine child health care. Anthropometric measurements i.e. height and weight, were measured and a standard Questionnaire was used to interview the mothers regarding socio-demographic back ground information after a verbal informed consent and ensuring confidentiality. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height of the children were compared with the National Centre of Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population of the United States and Z -score< - 2 SD were considered as stunted, under weight and wasted respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS software package. We observed stunting in 22%, wasting in 15% and under weight in 31.6% children. Majority of children with low weight were between 19 - 24 months of age Regarding socio-economic status of the households, 53.8% had family income less than Rs. 6000 month and almost 50% had a family size of 6-10 persons. Parents' education to the level of illiteracy (father, 27% and mother, 4 0%) and incomplete immunization ( 20%) were other associated factors for stunting, wasting and under weight. About 32% of children up to 2 years of age in the selected population were under weight, followed by stunning (22%). Policy Message: Anthropometric measurement of children is useful in routine child care settings as it will facilitate early identification and timely interventions for emerging health problems. (author)

  7. Efeito dos vieses de sobrevivência nas prevalências da desnutrição em crianças no sexto ano de vida. Brasil ­ PNSN, 1989 Effects of survival bias on the prevalence of malnutrition in six-year-old children in Brazil, based on the National Survey on Health and Nutrition, 1989

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    Odete de Oliveira

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da criança mensurado por indicadores antropométricos é um instrumento importante na avaliação da condição nutricional das crianças e do estágio de desenvolvimento de uma sociedade. Este estudo usa o indicador estatura para idade, com ponto de corte em -2 Z para estimar a prevalência da desnutrição entre uma população em crianças com seis anos de idade incluída na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição (PNSN. Baseando-se em estimativas relacionadas às taxas de mortalidade das crianças com menos de cinco anos cujas mortes poderiam ser atribuídas à desnutrição, a correção do viés de sobrevivência é feita usando a metodologia de Boerma. Esta correção torna-se mais evidenciada na população de baixa renda e menos desenvolvida. Comparando as áreas de menor e maior desenvolvimento no País (Nordeste e Sudeste respectivamente, observou-se que as taxas de prevalência da desnutrição no grupo das crianças de seis anos de idade não demonstram quaisquer alterações na região Sudeste, ao passo que na região Nordeste estas taxas sofrem um aumento de 26% para 34%, representando desta forma um aumento de 31% na taxa de desnutrição. Em números absolutos, esta taxa corresponde à adição de 90.100 crianças ao grupo de desnutridos.Child growth as measured by anthropometric indicators is an important tool for assessing children's nutritional status and society's developmental stage. This study uses the height-for-age indicator with the cutoff point at -2 Z to estimate prevalence of malnutrition in a population of six-year-old children included in the Brazilian National Survey on Health and Nutrition (PNSN. Prevalence variability was analyzed according to gender, trimestral age range, per capita family income, and region of residence. Based on estimates of mortality rates for children under five whose deaths could be ascribed to malnutrition, the survival bias correction was performed using the Boerma

  8. Nutrition Content of Food and Beverage Products on Web Sites Popular With Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingas, Elena O.; Bukofzer, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the nutritional quality of branded food and beverage products advertised on 28 Web sites popular with children. Of the 77 advertised products for which nutritional information was available, 49 met Institute of Medicine criteria for foods to avoid, 23 met criteria for foods to neither avoid nor encourage, and 5 met criteria for foods to encourage. There is a need for further research on the nature and extent of food and beverage advertising online to aid policymakers as they assess the impact of this marketing on children. PMID:19443816

  9. Nutritional situation of Kaingangs children attending indigenous state school / Monte Caseiros area - Muliterno (RS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Grazziotin Longhi; Jeanine Eggers Caramori

    2010-01-01

    At present, we undergo a nutritional transition, that is, from malnutrition to obesity, and it is known that it presents deleterious effects to health. A sample of 94 children from 4 to 14 years, resident in Aldeia Monte Caseiros, Muliterno (RS) was studied. The predominance of nutritional deficits determined were 5.08% for the weight index for the age, of 22.03% for the height index for the age and obesity/overweight, of 8.57% for adolescents, and 10.16% for children. It is conclude...

  10. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  11. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index.

    OpenAIRE

    Alkon, A; Crowley, AA; Neelon, SE; Hill, S.; Pan, Y.; Nguyen, V.; Rose, R.; Savage, E; Forestieri, N; Shipman, L; Kotch, JB

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A seven-month randomized control tr...

  12. China's Left-Behind Children: Impact Of Parental Migration On Health, Nutrition, And Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengchao; Sylvia, Sean; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Yi, Hongmei; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Loyalka, Prashant; Chu, James; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-11-01

    China's rapid development and urbanization have induced large numbers of rural residents to migrate from their homes to urban areas in search of better job opportunities. Parents typically leave their children behind with a caregiver, creating a new, potentially vulnerable subpopulation of left-behind children in rural areas. A growing number of policies and nongovernmental organization efforts target these children. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether left-behind children are really the most vulnerable and in need of special programs. Pulling data from a comprehensive data set covering 141,000 children in ten provinces (from twenty-seven surveys conducted between 2009 and 2013), we analyzed nine indicators of health, nutrition, and education. We found that for all nine indicators, left-behind children performed as well as or better than children living with both parents. However, both groups of children performed poorly on most of these indicators. Based on these findings, we recommend that special programs designed to improve health, nutrition, and education among left-behind children be expanded to cover all children in rural China. PMID:26526256

  13. Physical growth and nutritional status of Tsimane' Amerindian children of lowland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Z; Byron, E; Reyes-García, V; Huanca, T; Vadez, V; Apaza, L; Pérez, E; Tanner, S; Gutierrez, Y; Sandstrom, B; Yakhedts, A; Osborn, C; Godoy, R A; Leonard, W R

    2005-03-01

    This study examines patterns of growth and nutritional status of indigenous Tsimane' children under 9 years of age (n = 199 boys and 210 girls), based on a cross-sectional sample from 58 villages from the Beni Deparment of lowland Bolivia. Compared with US children, Tsimane' children are quite short, with linear growth tracking at or below the US 5th centile in both sexes. The prevalence of low height-for-age ("stunting;" HA Z-scores weight-for-height in Tsimane' children approximates the US median, with the prevalence of low weight-for-height ("wasting"; WH Z-scores children is similar to that of their US age peers, and this suggests that they are not experiencing acute protein malnutrition. Variation in measures of nutritional status of Tsimane' children is modestly correlated with village-level differences. Degree of isolation, as measured by distance to urban centers or to primary forest, was not a strong predictor of children's anthropometric status. Rather, in both boys and girls, nutritional status was most strongly associated with number of teachers in the village, a measure of access to education. Comparative analyses indicate that high levels of statural growth stunting are common among indigenous populations throughout lowland South America. This problem appears to be largely attributable to poor dietary quality (diets low in key micronutrients) and high disease loads. Further research is needed to identify the specific causes and potential interventions for the high rates of childhood growth stunting in this region. PMID:15386291

  14. [Nutritional challenges in the Brazilian Unified National Health System for building the interface between health and food and nutritional security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Silvia do Amaral; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the establishment of inter-sector action between health and food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2003 to 2010, when this issue was launched as a priority on the government's agenda. A qualitative study was developed according to constructivist epistemology, using key-informant interviews in the field's nationwide social oversight body. Advances and challenges in this process are addressed as analytical categories. The National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) was mentioned as the link between the two fields, decentralized through a network with activity in the states and municipalities. However, the study found political, institutional, and operational obstacles to the effective implementation of the PNAN in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and consequently to a contribution to the advancement of Health and Food and Nutritional Security in the country. The predominance of the biomedical, curative, and high-complexity model was cited as the principal impediment, while health promotion policies like the PNAN were assigned secondary priority. PMID:27049315

  15. 76 FR 2493 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... salty foods at a young age. The proposed intermediate standards should help children reduce their salt preference and develop healthier eating habits. However, a simultaneous reduction of sodium levels in foods... Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN...

  16. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

  17. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  18. What are children's trusts? Early findings from a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, M.O.; Reading, R; Husbands, C.; O'Brien, M.; Thoburn, J.; Shemilt, I; Watson, J.; N. Jones; Haynes, R; Mugford, M

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Children Act 2004 and National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services require fuller integration of health, education and social services for children and young people in England and Wales. The UK government supported the establishment of 35 experimental children's trust pathfinders (henceforth called children's trusts) in England. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by managers in all 35 children's trusts a year after their start. Children'...

  19. Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application.

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhalter, B. R.; Abel, E; Aguayo, V.; Diene, S. M.; Parlato, M. B.; Ross, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowl...

  20. An Investigation of Children's Understanding of Food and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Jones, Ithel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the influences of age, family socio-economic status (SES), and parents' food knowledge on preschool, kindergarten, and second grade students' conceptual understanding of food and nutrition. Fifty-two parent-child dyads, consisting of 17 preschoolers, 17 kindergartners, and 18 second graders participated in…

  1. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  2. [Health and indigenous peoples in Brazil: reflections based on the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Jr, E A Coimbra

    2014-04-01

    The current configuration of indigenous peoples' health in Brazil results from a complex historical trajectory, responsible for major delays for this population segment in the countrywide social advances seen in recent decades, particularly in the fields of health, education, housing, and sanitation. The main focus of this contribution is to review synthetically a selection of the main results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition, conducted in the period 2008-2009, which visited 113 villages across the Brazil and interviewed 6,692 women and 6,128 children. Among the results, emphasis is given to the observed poor sanitation conditions in villages, high prevalence of chronic malnutrition, anemia, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections in children, and the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases in women. The scenario depicted by this survey requires urgent critical review of indigenous health policy in order to better meet the health needs of Brazil's indigenous population. PMID:24896060

  3. Nutrition disorder frequency in 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Clemente; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; Bautista-Hernández, Víctor Manuel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. The objectives were to determine nutrition disorder frequency, energy intake and type of nutrients in the diet of 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A populational survey was applied to 1992 children in the state of Colima, Mexico. The variables studied were weight, age, age-related weight, age-related height and body mass index (the last 3 expressed in percentiles). In a direct survey, parents provided information on all foods their...

  4. Nutritional status and substance abuse among street children in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Meshram, Indrapal I; Stephen Gade; PothuRaju Battina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Street children are the most neglected and vulnerable population group in most of the urban cities in India, and are at risk of undernutrition, and substance abuse. Aims & Objectives:  To assess the nutritional status, prevalence of anemia, risk behavior and substance abuse among street children. Material & Methods: It was a street based cross-sectional study carried out on the streets of Hyderabad. Data on age, schooling, family history, reasons for street life, number ...

  5. Nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada; María José Bosqued-Estefanía; Javier Damián; Lázaro López-Jurado; María Ángeles Moya-Geromini

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the use of nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain and to analyse their nutrient profile. Methods: A cross-sectional study of television food advertisements over 7 days in five Spanish television channels popular among children. The products were classified as core, non-core or miscellaneous, and as either healthy or less healthy, according to the United Kingdom Nutrient Profile Model. We registered all claims contained on...

  6. A prospective, longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and sedentary behaviour in young children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Weir Kelly A; Tweedy Sean M; Boyd Roslyn N; Bell Kristie L; Stevenson Richard D; Davies Peter SW

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality o...

  7. Effect of Iron Treatment on Nutritional Status of Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Agustian, Leon; Sembiring, Tiangsa; Ariani, Ani; Lubis, Bidasari

    2009-01-01

    Background Iron has been shown to improve growth in children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), as indicted by increases in height and weight. Frequently, malnutrition and iron deficiency coexist. Objective To determine the effect of iron treatment on nutritional status in children with IDA. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at Bilah Hulu, a subdistrict of Labuhan Batu, North Sumatera, Indonesia, between November 2006 and February 2007. Iron deficie...

  8. Association between household food insecurity and nutritional outcomes among children in Northeastern of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naser, Ihab; Jalil, Rohana; Wan Muda, Wan Manan; Wan Nik, Wan Suriati; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Abdullah, Mohamed Rusli

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and nutritional status of children in low-income households. A cross sectional study involved a survey of households (n = 223) receiving the financial assistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS Eligible mothers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria such as non-pregnant, non-lactating mothers, aged 18 to 55 years with their youngest children aged 2 to 12 years, were purposively selected. The ...

  9. Nutritional status and various morbidities among school children of a coastal area in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Sherin Billy Abraham; Ramesh Chand Chauhan; Muthu Rajesh; Anil Jacob Purty; Zile Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition and poor health among school children is the common cause of low school enrolment, high absenteeism, early dropout and poor classroom performance. This study was conducted to assess the various morbidities and nutritional status among school children. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted during year 2013 in a higher secondary school located in a coastal area of Puducherry. A total of 714 students were interviewed and examined. A pre-designed and pre-teste...

  10. Nutritional status and various morbidities among school children of a coastal area in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Billy Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition and poor health among school children is the common cause of low school enrolment, high absenteeism, early dropout and poor classroom performance. This study was conducted to assess the various morbidities and nutritional status among school children. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted during year 2013 in a higher secondary school located in a coastal area of Puducherry. A total of 714 students were interviewed and examined. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to interview and examine all the participated students. Body weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. WHO criteria for classification of nutritional status was used. Visual acuity and colour vision was assessed using Snellen's chart and Ishihara's pseudo isochromatic chart respectively. Mean scores and proportions were calculated and chi-square test was applied. P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Among 714 student, 369 (51.4% were males and 345 (48.6% were females. The mean age of children was 10.2 +/- 3.1 years. Among all age groups and both sexes, the observed BMI was lower as compared to the reference values. The prevalence of underweight among children of 5-9 years was (30.7% and (1.1% were severely underweight. The prevalence of stunting was 10.4%, including 0.1% of severely stunted children. A total of 30.7% children were thin (low BMI for age. Pallor (39.5%, myopia (34.9% and dental caries (14.7% were the common morbidities observed among children. The pallor was observed more commonly among girls and this difference was statistically significant (p value <0.05. Conclusion: Under-nutrition is a prevalent condition among school children. Apart from various nutritional programmes, health education to parents, community and school teachers are quite important to address this problem. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 718-722

  11. Incidence of nutritional anaemia among the under five children attending Ahmed Gasim hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was carried out in Khartoum North Ahmed Gasim specialist Hospital for children to identify aetiological factors that lead to incidence of nutritional anaemia among children under under five years of age. The sample consists of 192 patients taken from the hospital wards (experimental group), and 60 healthy children taken from out patient vaccination department of same hospital. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collection data regarding children and their families with emphasis to general information, socio-economic information, dietary information, anthropometric information, medical history and laboratory investigations including haemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV)%, peripheral blood picture, serum ferritin, serum folate and serum B12. Results show no correlation between anaemia and age R(0.1048) p12 deficiency. Some children affected had mixed deficiency anaemia (3.182). Iron deficiency without anaemia was common among healthy children (control) 22.8%. Some recommendations were set for the improvement of the existing situation e.g. health education, nutrition education with emphasis on intake of supplements and weaning diets rich in iron and folate. Follow up and surveillance program to compact nutritional anaemia should be adopted.(Author)

  12. Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (pbreakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO recommendations. The parent questionnaires reveal that most

  13. Nutritional Deficiencies and Food Insecurity Among HIV-infected Children in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea E. Modlin, BA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor nutrition has been associated with impaired immunity and accelerated disease progression in HIV- infected children. The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of nutrient intake in HIV-infected children and compare these to standard recommendations. Methods: We surveyed HIV-infected Tanzanian children enrolled in a pediatric care program that provided routine nutritional counseling and vitamin supplementation. We obtained anthropometric measurements and determined 24-hour macronutrient and micronutrient intakes and food insecurity. Values were compared to recommended nutrient intakes based on age and gender. Results: We interviewed 48 pairs of children and their caregiver(s. The age of the child ranged from 2-14 years; median age 6 and 60% female. The median weight-for-height z-score for children ≤ 5 years was 0.69 and BMI-for-age z-scores for children >5 was -0.84. Macronutrient evaluation showed that 29 (60% children were deficient in dietary intake of energy; deficiency was more common in older children (p=0.004. Micronutrient evaluation shows that over half of study subjects were deficient in dietary intake of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B12, and calcium. Food insecurity was reported by 20 (58% caregivers. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: The diets of many HIV-infected children at a specialized treatment center in Tanzania do not meet recommended levels of macro- and micro-nutrients. Food insecurity was a contributory factor. Enhanced dietary counseling and provision of macro- and micro-nutrient supplements will be necessary to achieve optimal nutrition for most HIV-infected children in resource-poor regions.

  14. United we stand divided we fall : maternal social participation and children's nutritional status in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Favara, Marta

    2012-01-01

    In previous literature, social capital has been hypothesized as a substitute for other forms of capital, such as physical and human capital. This paper contributes to this literature, studying the association between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community organizations and their children's nutritional status at 1 and 5 years. Using the Peruvian sample of the Young...

  15. Mortality risk among children admitted in a large-scale nutritional program in Niger, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nael Lapidus; Andrea Minetti; Ali Djibo; Guerin, Philippe J; Sarah Hustache; Valérie Gaboulaud; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2006, the Médecins sans Frontières nutritional program in the region of Maradi (Niger) included 68,001 children 6-59 months of age with either moderate or severe malnutrition, according to the NCHS reference (weight-for-height

  16. The Contribution Made by School Milk to the Nutrition of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Judith; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Study discusses the assessment of the contribution of school milk to the nutrition of 396 Kent primary school children aged eight to eleven years, using information collected in a survey which included a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical examination. [Available from Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street,…

  17. [Nutritional screening tool versus anthropometric assessment in hospitalized children: which method is better associated to clinical outcomes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Costa, María Verónica; Alberici Pastore, Carla

    2015-03-01

    Hospitalization contributes to worsening of the nutritional status and malnutrition is associate to increase in morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to asses nutritional status/risk using anthropometry and the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids), comparing their results to clinical outcomes. For that propose, was conducted an observational longitudinal study with children up to one month of life, hospitalized in Pediatric ward of a teaching hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by Body Mass Index for age and weight for age. Nutritional risk was classified as high, intermediate or low. The length of stay, clinical outcome and complications were taken of the medical records. This project was approved by the Ethics Committee on Research. Were evaluated 181 children, from both sexes. The median age was 8.8 (IQR 3.3; 26.9) months and the median length of stay was 7 (IQR 4; 10) days. There was 20.8% of malnutrition in children younger than one year. Most of the children (55.3%) were classified as in intermediate nutritional risk. The length of stay was associated to nutritional risk, while anthropometry was associated to only in those younger than one year. There were five infectious complication, not associated to nutritional status/risk. Therefore, nutritional risk was significantly associated to length of stay, showing that STRONGkids was a better method compared to anthropometric nutritional assessment to predict this outcome. PMID:26320301

  18. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos de edad escolar: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hernández

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.OBJETIVO: Documentar las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos en edad escolar (5 a 11 años de edad obtenidas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición en 1999 (ENN-1999. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El sobrepeso y la obesidad (definida como un exceso de tejido adiposo en el organismo se evaluaron a través del Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC en 10 901 niños, tomando como patrón de referencia el propuesto por el International Obesity Task Force. Las variables sociodemográficas se obtuvieron a partir de un cuestionario aplicado a la madre del niño. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia nacional de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 19

  19. Otitis media. How are First Nations children affected?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Thomson

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether otitis media affects First Nations children more severely than other children, I studied the data on otitis media occurrence among these children; on risk factors, particularly bottle feeding; and on prevention and treatment. First Nations children do seem to have more severe otitis media than other children. Health promotion might help ameliorate the situation. Supporting breastfeeding in the community is strongly recommended.

  20. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal-Medina Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.

  1. Principles of Proper Nutrition in Children with Celiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    H Khajavikia; N Taleschian-Tabrizi

    2014-01-01

      Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is a hereditary disorder of the immune system which damages the mucosa of the small intestine caused by gluten consumption(even very small amounts). Villous atrophy, leads to malabsorption, which is due to decreased absorption levels. The first bowel symptoms are seen during the first 2 years of life. Currently, the only treatment is to compliance with a gluten-free diet lifelong. The purpose of this study was to introduce the principles of proper nutrition...

  2. Mothers’ conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Sarubbi Junior, Vicente; Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Bertoli, Ciro João; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive®). RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children.

  3. Danish National Framework for collecting information about patients’ nutritional status. Nursing Minimum dataset (N-MDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Madsen, Inge; Bjerrum, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark the national guidelines for nursing documentation outlines twelve areas in which nurses have to systematically document daily care. Nutrition is one of these areas. However, the guidelines are frameworks that do not specify exactly what data nurses have to collect and which areas nurses...... need to document about nutrition in order to make a nursing specific documentation. This present study set out to identify a Nursing Minimum Data set for nutrition in a clinical setting. As data was used validated and available tools to screen or assess patients’ nutritional risk. A systematic...... literature search was undertaken identifying x eligible instruments. An inductive qualitative content analysis identified eighteen subcategories that were divided into five main categories: 1 Anthropometry such as weight, height, biochemistry, muscle mass and fat etc., 2 Ability to eat, 3 Intake, 4 Factors...

  4. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage. PMID:19083442

  5. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156

  6. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Kin Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orang Asli (aborigine children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC, Kato-Katz (KK, and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33 of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33 of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97% were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.

  7. Physical activity and nutrition attitudes in obese Hispanic children with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lana N Hattar; Theresa A Wilson; Leanel A Tabotabo; E O'Brian Smith; Stephanie H Abrams

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess nutrition, physical activity and healthful knowledge in obese children with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH or NA) compared to children without liver disease. METHODS: Children with biopsy-proven NASH comprised the NASH group. Age, sex and ethnicity matched control groups consisted of obese (OB) and lean (CO) children with no liver disease. Subjects were administered the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey and one blood draw was obtained. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were enrolled with a mean age of 12.1 2.1 years, and all were Hispanic. Even though the OB and NA had a similar increased body mass index (%), 35% of the NA group always read nutrition labels compared to none in the OB (P 2 compared to only 63.6% of those with grade 1 or no fibrosis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Children with NASH had increased sedentary behavior, decreased activity, and fruit intake. Larger studies may determine the benefit of changing these behaviors as treatment for NASH.

  8. Nutritional condition of school age children. Clinic, anthropo-medical and alimentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Esther González Hermida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine. Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality. Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups. Results: the relation weight/height in the two genders presents a prevalence of normal weight; undernourishment is more common among females, overweight is more usual among boys and obesity can be found in both genders. The variable weight/age showed one bad-nutrition (for defect among females, there was a prevalence of bad-nutrition for excess in both genders. There were no children with height under the third percentile, with prevalence of boys and girls tall and very tall. Bronchial asthma was the most common disease. Conclusions: Food consumption in general, taking into account frequency and kind of food, is not the appropriate. There is a relation between positive clinical findings and the anthropometric assessment of weight/height.

  9. Application of compounds labelled with nitrogen-15 for nutritional studies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed to use N-15 labelled amino acids to study protein turnover in nutritionally vulnerable population groups in Ghana, particularly children with Kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition) and measles. The Ministry of Health of Ghana has recently formulated a low cost protein-rich supplement (Weanimix) using local food products. The purpose of the research project is to study protein turnover in normal and malnourished children, and thereby to gain a better understanding of how to identify those children that are really in need of protein supplementation. 2 refs

  10. Nutritional status of refugee children entering DeKalb County, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor Y; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mitchell, Tarissa; Shetty, Sharmila; Warner, Catherine; Oladele, Alawode; Reines, Susan

    2014-10-01

    This study determines the nutritional status among refugee children entering one of the largest resettlement counties in the United States and identifies differences between incoming populations. Medical records of all newly arriving pediatric refugees (0-18 years) entering DeKalb County, Georgia between October 2010 and July 2011 were reviewed. Refugee children were grouped as African, Bhutanese, or Burmese (resettling from either Thailand or Malaysia) for comparative analysis. Approximately one in five refugees were anemic or malnourished, while a quarter had stool parasites, and nearly half had dental caries. African refugees had the highest anemia but the lowest underweight prevalence (p Malaysia, Burmese children from Thailand had a higher prevalence of anemia, underweight, and stool parasites (p refugees, as well as ensure proper nutritional support and follow-up care. PMID:23828627

  11. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free teraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  12. Early nutrition intervention services for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, R J; Cloud, H H; Carithers, T; Hickey, C; Hinton, A W

    1989-11-01

    Dietitians must be responsive to the changing needs of their clients and employers, to societal concerns, and to legal mandates. A recently passed amendment (PL 99-457) to the Federal Education for the Handicapped Act gives nutrition professionals the opportunity to have a voice in establishing nutrition policy and standards of care for young handicapped and high-risk children. The new law extends preventive services to children as young as 3 years of age, and Part H of the law provides financial incentives for states to provide services to children with special health care needs from birth to 2 years of age. This article reviews relevant provisions of the new law and describes two projects undertaken by nutritionists from Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas. It also summarizes challenges to nutritionists that will result from the law's implementation. PMID:2809041

  13. Gut Microbiomes of Indian Children of Varying Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Tarini Shankar Ghosh; Sourav Sen Gupta; Tanudeep Bhattacharya; Deepak Yadav; Anamitra Barik; Abhijit Chowdhury; Bhabatosh Das; Mande, Sharmila S.; G Balakrish Nair

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a global health problem affecting more than 300 million pre-school children worldwide. It is one of the major health concerns in India since around 50% of children below the age of two suffer from various forms of malnutrition. The gut microbiome plays an important role in nutrient pre-processing, assimilation and energy harvest from food. Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Metagenomics...

  14. Gut Microbiomes of Indian Children of Varying Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Tanudeep; Yadav, Deepak; Barik, Anamitra; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Bhabatosh; Mande, Sharmila S.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is a global health problem affecting more than 300 million pre-school children worldwide. It is one of the major health concerns in India since around 50% of children below the age of two suffer from various forms of malnutrition. The gut microbiome plays an important role in nutrient pre-processing, assimilation and energy harvest from food. Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. Methodology/Principal Findings Metagenomics a...

  15. Nutritional consequences in children undergoing chemotherapy for malignant disease

    OpenAIRE

    Skolin, Inger

    2005-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy has side effects that may interfere with food intake. Children suffering from a malignant disease are subjected to treatment with chemotherapy. They may therefore become at risk of undernutrition during the period of treatment. This in turn may increase the risk of infections, delayed therapy and influence the outcome of treatment. Few studies have investigated how children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer perceive food and eating. Attempts to improve food intake an...

  16. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of illness scores, CRRT-related complications, duration of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, and mortality. Results The sample comprised 174 critically ill children on CRRT. The median weight of the patients was 10 kg, 35% were under percentile (P 3, and 56% had a weight/P50 ratio of less than 0.85. Only two patients were above P95. The mean age for patients under P3 was significantly lower than that of the other patients (p = 0.03. The incidence of weight under P3 was greater in younger children (p = 0.007 and in cardiac patients and in those who had previous chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.047. The mortality analysis did not include patients with pre-existing renal disease. Mortality was 38.9%. Mortality for patients with weight P3 (51% vs 33%; p = 0.037. In the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the only factor associated with mortality was protein-energy wasting (malnutrition (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.067-4.173; p = 0.032. Conclusions The frequency of protein-energy wasting in children who require CRRT is high, and the frequency of obesity is low. Protein-energy wasting is more frequent in children with previous end-stage renal disease and heart disease. Underweight children present a higher mortality rate than patients with normal body weight.

  17. Upper arm composition and nutritional status of school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idowu Odunayo Senbanjo; Kazeem Adeola Oshikoya; Olisamedua Fidelis Njokanma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Upper arm composition is a reflection of body protein and calorie reserves. However, there is a paucity of data on upper arm composition of children from African countries, including Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the composition of upper arm and nutritional status of school children in Abeokuta, Nigeria and to compare with international reference standards. The sensitivity and specifi city of upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) as a nutritional assessment tool was also determined. Methods: Five hundred and seventy children aged 5 to 19 years were selected from seven schools using multistage random sampling. Weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were measured. Body mass index, upper arm muscle area (UAMA), upper arm fat area (UAFA), fat percentage and UAMAH were derived. Results: The TSF, UAFA and fat percentage were significantly higher in females than males at each age group. MUAC and UAMA were significantly higher in female children aged 10-14 years, whereas UAMA was significantly higher in male children aged 15-19 years. UAMA and UAFA of the children were lower than those of Americans but similar to those of Zimbabweans, and higher than those of Indians. The sensitivity and specifi city of UAMAH for detecting wasting were 80.8% and 63.9%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for stunting were 32.2% and 58.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The school children studied have a combination of poor calorie and protein reserve. UAMAH may be a valuable tool for complete evaluation of the nutritional status of school children.

  18. An Assessment of the Nutritional Status of under Five Children in Four Districts in the Central Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayensu Eunice

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the nutritional status of under five children in Komenda Edina EguafoAbirem (KEEA districts in Central region, Ghana. Weight and height measurements for 120 children selected from 4 clusters were taken and survey data collected by structured questionnaire from mothers of the selected children. Prevalence of underweight/severely underweight stunting/severely stunted and wasting/severely wasted was 13.3%, 34.2% and 10.8% respectively. Results also indicated that stunting, wasting and underweight were more prevalent in girls than in boys and in children aged >2 - 5 years than those <2 years. Wasting only occurred in a small percentage of the boys and girls, and children <2 years.Survey revealed that there is a significant association between nutritional status of children and mothers’ age, education, nutrition knowledge and feeding practices. Wald statistics and confidence intervals after adjusting for mother’s age, education, occupation, father’s occupation and feeding practices showed mothers nutrition knowledge, feeding practices and mothers’ education as predictors of children nutrition status.Curbing teenage pregnancy, encouraging girls to pursue education, developing and implementing a comprehensive nutrition education programme for mothers with emphasis on providing quality nutritious and adequate food to children is highly recommended.

  19. Poverty, Health Infrastructure and the Nutrition of Peruvian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Valdivia

    2004-01-01

    After the Peruvian economic crisis of the late 1980s, the 1990s witnessed a significant pro-poor expansion of the country`s health infrastructure that was instrumental in increasing preventive and primary health care expenditures. Using empirical evidence, this paper discusses the effect of this expansion in health infrastructure on child nutrition in Peru, as measured by the height-for-age z-score. Using a pooled sample from the 1992, 1996 and 2000 rounds of the Peruvian DHS, this analysis c...

  20. Nutrition Education intervention in dyslipidemic children and adolescent with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa m. Abdallah*, Zainab B* and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder of childhood and adolescence with important consequences for physical and emotional development. Aim of the study: This study was designed to detect the effect of diet therapy (through nutrition education program on lipid profile and blood glucose level in diabetic children. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried on 45 diabetic children aged between 8-15 years old at diabetic nutrition clinic of nutrition institute in Cairo from 2003-2005. Children included in the study were divided into two groups: insulin dependent dyslipidemic group (IDDM (diet control/ group and insulin dependent non dyslipidemic (control group. All were subjected to full dietetic history by the 24 hour recall for 3 days, thorough clinical examination, they were evaluated for plasma lipids, lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels. The dyslipidemic were measured after three months for the previously measured parameters. The nutrition education process was performed and continued on weekly intervals for three months. Results: There was significant decrease in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the study group after the program, and insignificant increase in serum HDL and decrease in serum LDL. Also, there was insignificant decrease in FBG but there was statistically significant decrease in HbA1 after the program. These changes occurred in parallel with increases in intakes of protein and total calories with adequate carbohydrate and sometimes a reduction in intakes of total fat. Conclusion: Nutrition therapy for children with IDDM is essential to improve measures of glycemic control and lipoprotein mediated risk for dyslipidemia. More innovative approaches to achieve lifestyle changes are required to meet current recommendations which are likely to produce greater beneficial changes than those observed in this study

  1. A case-control study of nutritional factors associated with chronic suppurative otitis media in Yemeni children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Elemraid; I.J. Mackenzie; W.D. Fraser; G. Harper; B. Faragher; Z. Atef; N. Al-Aghbari; B.J. Brabin

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in children are common in low resource settings, but there are few studies of their interactions. The aim is to evaluate nutritional factors associated with CSOM in Yemeni children. A case-control study of 75 children with CSOM and 74 health

  2. Energy and nutrient intake in Mexican children 1 to 4 years old: results from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos de 1 a 4 años de edad: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Mundo-Rosas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the energy and nutrient intake of Mexican preschool children using data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dietary data from 3 552 children less than 5 years old collected through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analyzed. Energy and nutrient daily intakes and adequacies were calculated. Comparisons were made by geographic region, residence locality, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The Mexico City region showed the highest energy (103.2%, carbohydrate (109.9%, and fat (110.1% adequacies. The highest proportion of preschoolers with energy and micronutrients inadequacy (adequacy OBJETIVO: Documentar el consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos menores de cinco años, a partir de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006, realizada en México en 2006. MMATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó información de un cuestionario semicuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos de 3552 niños. Se calcularon consumos y adecuaciones diarias de energía y nutrimentos, comparando por región geográfica, tipo de localidad y nivel socioeconómico. RESULTADOS: La región Ciudad de México presentó la adecuación más alta de energía (103.2%, carbohidratos (109.9% y grasa (110.1%. Las proporciones más altas de inadecuación (adecuación < 100% en energía y micronutrimentos se observaron en las localidades rurales, indígenas, región sur y nivel socioeconómico bajo. CONCLUSIONES: Esta información es un indicador de la disponibilidad y acceso a los alimentos de diferentes estratos de la población y una herramienta para focalizar a los beneficiarios de programas de asistencia alimentaria.

  3. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Carla R. McGill; Victor L. Fulgoni III; Latha Devareddy

    2015-01-01

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16...

  4. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Total and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition ... less than 10% of women) had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol during 2011–2012. The percentage ...

  5. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Miglioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs.METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels. Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels, age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables.RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73 and height/age (-0.99 of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82, prenatal appointments (-0.43, geographical area of the residence (-0.41, and household incomeper capita (-0.42. Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44 showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48 was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72 and retinol serum levels (-0.40 of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43.CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  6. Nutritional status and malaria infection in primary school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washli Zakiah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common nutritional problem affecting the pediatric population in developing countries is protein energy malnutrition (PEM. The nutritional problem may be caused by a variety of factors, most of which are related inadequate food intake and infection. One of the highest causes of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas is malaria. Malaria infection and nutritional status have been suggested to be interrelated. Objective To assess for a relationship between nutritional status and malaria infection in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in October and November 2010 in primary school children at Panyabungan City, North Sumatera Province. Peripheral thick and thin blood smear examinations were done to confirm the diagnosis of malaria. Participants were divided in two groups (malaria-infected and uninfected by consecutive sampling. Nutritional status was determined by body weight and height measurements based on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC chart. The mild and moderate malnutrition classification was further sub-divided into stunted and wasted, based on the 2007 NCHS/WHO chart. Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between nutritional status and malaria infection. Results There were 126 children in each group. Significant differences in mild-moderate malnutrition were found between the malaria-infected and uninfected groups (23.8% vs. 46.8%, respectively; P= 0.011. There were also significant differences between the malaria-infected and uninfected groups with regards to chronic malnutrition type: stunted (20.0% vs. 37.3%, respectively; P=0.042 and stunted-wasted (6.7% vs. 28.8%, respectively; P= 0.008 in both groups of the children with mild-moderate malnutrition. Conclusion There are significantly more children with mild-moderate malnutrition in the uninfected group than in the malaria-infected group, furthermore, of those with mild-moderate malnutrition, there are

  7. 78 FR 36163 - National Advisory Council on Maternal, Infant and Fetal Nutrition; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... updates and a discussion of Breastfeeding Promotion and Support activities, the WIC food packages, WIC... the National Advisory Council on Maternal, Infant and Fetal Nutrition are open to the public. Members of the public may participate, as time permits. Members of the public may file written...

  8. 75 FR 38771 - National Advisory Council on Maternal, Infant and Fetal Nutrition: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... discussion of WIC Reauthorization, Breastfeeding Promotion, the new WIC food packages, WIC funding... of the National Advisory Council on Maternal, Infant and Fetal Nutrition are open to the public. Members of the public may participate, as time permits. Members of the public may e- mail or file...

  9. Nutritional supplement practices in UK junior national track and field athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Nieper, A

    2005-01-01

    Methods: The nutritional supplementation practices of 32 national track and field athletes competing at the 2004 World Junior Championships were studied using an anonymous questionnaire. Information was sought on the prevalence and type of supplement used, the reasons for use, knowledge of supplements, and sources of information.

  10. Role of Nutrition in Children Growth in View of Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsani, Gholamreza Mohammadi; Movahhed, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growth and development are the basic science in pediatric medicine. Growth disorder in children is one of the important health problems in the world, especially in developing countries. Regardless of the underlying disease, as the main cause of growth disorders, assessment and correction of nutritional status of these children are very important. Given the fundamental importance of this issue and ascending tendency to use complementary medicine in the world, this article discusses the traditional Iranian philosopher’s views on the role of nutrition in child development. Methods: This study reviews textbooks of traditional medicine, particularly in the field of pediatric medicine with a focus on Canon of Medicine of Avicenna. Results: Temperament is the physiological concept of the human body in traditional medicine and has an important role in health, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Generally, children are born with warm and wet temperament that provides the best condition for growth. However, the personal temperament of each child determines growth, the need for a variety of food groups, and even physical activity. Different appetite and food preferences in children show temperamental variation. Therefore, children need special management regarding special temperament. In Iranian traditional medicine, special lifestyle orders are discussed in detail according to these differentiations and nutritional management is the most important factor considered. Conclusion: In spite of advances in classical medicine in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, there are still a lot of therapeutic challenges in many health problems. Temperamental approach to the human body in traditional medicine provides a different perspective on the medicine. Reflecting on temperamental view in child development may lead to a better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. On the other hand, further research studies based on the reform of nutrition

  11. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa al-reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Camel milk is the closest to a human mother’s milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. Methods The search strategy of the current review is “(camel AND milk) AND (autism OR food allergy OR milk allergy OR children OR diarrhea.” The search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar. Also two Persian scientific databases (SID and Iranmedex) and international congresses were investigated. Full-text papers and abstracts on the topic of camel milk, evaluating nutritional value and medicinal properties, were included in this systematic review. Results Out of the 472 records found in the resources, 35 related studies were included in the final analysis. The result showed that camel milk is highly nutritious and is safe for consumption by children. Conclusion It seems that many researchers did not follow a specific guideline for reporting and confirming the therapeutic properties of camel milk in children, but there is evidence denoting the importance, trials, and investigations of its usability and benefits. Camel milk as a supplemental treatment seems less invasive and costly than specialist care, medications, alternative treatments, and behavioral interventions. Based on our findings, camel milk is safer for children, effective in the treatment of autism, improves general well-being, promotes body natural defenses, is a good nutritional source, and can helps the daily nutritional needs of humans. PMID:26767108

  12. Systematic Review: Medical and Nutritional Interventions for the Management of Intestinal Failure and its Resultant Complications in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, Andrew; Beattie, Lynne M; Weaver, L T; Wilson, David C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Intestinal failure (IF) affects a growing number of children due to increasing numbers of preterm infants surviving intestinal resection for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and improving surgical techniques for congenital gut anomalies. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is the mainstay of therapy; enteral nutrition (EN) may have trophic effects on the gut. We aimed to systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of medical and nutritional interventions...

  13. Results of a 3-Year, Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention for Children in Rural, Low-Socioeconomic Status Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying

    2015-01-01

    Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers…

  14. How to Protect and Promote the Nutrition of Mothers and Children in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This section describes the priority nutrition interventions and cross-cutting approaches that are essential to promote and protect the nutritional status of mothers and children as well as a country's human capital in the short-, medium-, and long-terms. The main thrust of the guidance is that: (1) policies give special attention to the critical 'window of opportunity' represented by the f...

  15. Development and Evaluation of Nutrition Education Competencies and a Competency-Based Resource Guide for Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Reed, Heather; Briggs, Marilyn; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate nutrition education competencies and a competency-based resource guide, Connecting the Dots...Healthy Foods, Healthy Choices, Healthy Kids (CTD), for preschool-aged children in California. Methods: Nutrition education experts and California Department of Education staff…

  16. Assessment of Nutritional Status and Developing Low Cost Recipes for Malnourished Children in the Tsunami affected Areas of Nagapattinam District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja lakshmi. J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean is one of the worst natural disasters in the modern times. The grief and worry created by the disaster has affected the health status of women and children. Malnutrition and ill health are major problems. This study investigated the nutritional status of the children and provided a nutrition education program for the mothers. Aims: To study the demographic profile, dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, clinical assessment, incident rates of infectious diseases among the 500 children. To assess the dietary intake of 100 malnourished children and to formulate ten low cost nutritionally balanced recipes and to provide nutrition education program for the mothers. Sample: 500 preschool children in the age group of 3-6 years of the tsunami affected Nagapattinam district were the samples of this study. Method: Interview schedule was administered to 500 mothers. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, mid arm circumference, head circumference and chest circumference were recorded by the investigator. Three day dietary recall method was used to assess the nutrient intake. Clinical assessment was conducted with the help of a doctor. Nutrition education was provided to the mothers with the help of posters and charts. Results: The results found that, majority of the children were under nourished and there was a significant difference between the mean nutrient intake and the recommended dietary allowance. Mean scores of nutritional knowledge and awareness significantly increased after the nutrition education program. Conclusion: Nutrition education must be provided to the mothers to improve the nutritional status of the children. The gained knowledge had to be put into practice.

  17. Breakfast of Champions? The School Breakfast Program and the Nutrition of Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effect of the School Breakfast Program (SBP) availability with the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. Our work builds on previous research by developing a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without, using serum…

  18. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Southwestern China: A Cross-Sectional Study of Links to Cognitive Ability, Nutrition, and School Performance among Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfang Liu

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests that the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections in remote and poor rural areas is still high among children, the most vulnerable to infection. There is concern that STH infections may detrimentally affect children's healthy development, including their cognitive ability, nutritional status, and school performance. Medical studies have not yet identified the exact nature of the impact STH infections have on children. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between STH infections and developmental outcomes among a primary school-aged population in rural China.We conducted a large-scale survey in Guizhou province in southwest China in May 2013. A total of 2,179 children aged 9-11 years living in seven nationally-designated poverty counties in rural China served as our study sample. Overall, 42 percent of the sample's elementary school-aged children were infected with one or more of the three types of STH--Ascaris lumbricoides (ascaris, Trichuris trichuria (whipworm and the hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. After controlling for socioeconomic status, we observed that infection with one or more STHs is associated with worse cognitive ability, worse nutritional status, and worse school performance than no infection. This study also presents evidence that children with Trichuris infection, either infection with Trichuris only or co-infected with Trichuris and Ascaris, experience worse cognitive, nutritional and schooling outcomes than their uninfected peers or children infected with only Ascaris.We find that STH infection still poses a significant health challenge among children living in poor, rural, ethnic areas of southwest China. Given the important linkages we find between STH infection and a number of important child health and educational outcomes, we believe that our results will contribute positively to the debate surrounding the recent Cochrane report.

  19. IMPORTANCE OF BREAKFAST IN THE NUTRITIONAL STATE AND INFORMATION PROCESSING IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE MARTÍN JOFRÉ,

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the breakfast meal in children’s nutritional statusand mental processing. Anthropometric measures of 26 children (13 males, 6.3 to 6.9 years old were used to evaluatenutrition levels. Eight tests of the K-ABC Kaufman battery were applied: numbers recall, word order, hand movements,gestalt closure, triangles, analog matrixes, spatial memory and series of photos. The obtained K-ABC averages wereinside normal ranges, with certain dispersion of values and decreased values for some (Z score of hand movements,triangles, numbers recall and sequential processing: -2.30, -1.50, -1.41 y -1.71 respectively. The children that didn’t havebreakfast showed diminished nutritional status and deficiencies in their sequential, simultaneous and compositemental processing.

  20. Nutritional Status of a Group of Children Under Five Suffering from Malaria in a Timor Leste District

    OpenAIRE

    Anagalys Ortega Alvelay; Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola; Sol Esther García Morales; Denis Monzón Vega; Mabel Vega Galindo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria is a health problem in underdeveloped countries. The child population is particularly vulnerable. Objective: to determine the nutritional status of children under five suffering from malaria who attended a clinic in Timor Leste. Method: a descriptive, correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of 435 children under five years old, diagnosed with malaria, who attended consultation from June 2008 to July 2009. Nutritional status was evaluated. A medical history ...

  1. Study on utilization status of internet and needs assessment for developing nutrition education programs among elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Yun; Kim, Kyung-Won

    2007-01-01

    This study was to investigate utilization status of internet, health/nutrition websites among children, and to assess the needs for developing nutrition websites and education programs for children. The survey questionnaire was administered to 5-6th grade students (n=434) at two elementary schools. About 32% used the internet every day while 19.5% used it whenever they needed, showing significant differences in internet usage by gender (p

  2. Assessment of Nutritional Status and Developing Low Cost Recipes for Malnourished Children in the Tsunami affected Areas of Nagapattinam District

    OpenAIRE

    Raja lakshmi. J; Sheila John

    2011-01-01

    Background: The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean is one of the worst natural disasters in the modern times. The grief and worry created by the disaster has affected the health status of women and children. Malnutrition and ill health are major problems. This study investigated the nutritional status of the children and provided a nutrition education program for the mothers. Aims: To study the demographic profile, dietary habits, anthropometric measurements, clinical assessment...

  3. The Impact of Nutritional Status and Longitudinal Recovery of Motor and Cognitive Milestones in Internationally Adopted Children

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Mandalakas; H. Lester Kirchner; Karen Olness; Eva Holsinger; Hyun Park; Denise Bothe

    2011-01-01

    Internationally adopted children often arrive from institutional settings where they have experienced medical, nutritional and psychosocial deprivation. This study uses a validated research assessment tool to prospectively assess the impact of baseline (immediately post adoption) nutritional status on fifty-eight children as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height and head circumference-for-age z scores, as a determinant of cognitive (MDI) and psychomotor development (PD...

  4. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN OF AGRARIAN FAMILIES IN BANGLADESH: A MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Alom, Jahangir; Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Quddus, Md. Abdul

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional status of under five children is a sensitive sign of a country's health status as well as economic condition. This study investigated differential impact of some demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and health related factors on nutritional status among under five children in Bangladesh whose fathers' occupation was agriculture. The study used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 data. Bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis (Cox's linear logistic regression mo...

  5. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Kumar; Ankitha; Udayamaliny

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children...

  6. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION MEASURES ON CHILDREN WITH SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION ADMITTED IN NUTRITION REHABILITATION CENTER AT CIVIL HOSPITAL BAIRAGARH, BHOPAL, MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The state of Madhya Pradesh has 1.3 million severely malnourished children. Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs were started in the state to control severe malnutrition and decrease the prevalence of severe malnourished children to less than 1% among c hildren aged 1 – 5 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutritional interventional measures for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM admitted in Nutrition Rehabilitation Center by reviewing anthropometric indicators. Material and methods: The p resent study was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014; all children admitted during the study period in NRC civil hospital Bairagarh, Bhopal were observed during their stay at NRC to analyze the effect of interventional measures on select anthropometr ic and outcome indicators. The data were entered into Microsoft excel spreadsheet and analyzed. RESULT: 61.8 % of the total 102 children admitted were female, 42.1% were in the age group of 13 – 24 months and 34.3% in the age group of 0 - 12 months. About 60% of the population belonged to schedule caste and tribe. The mean weight at admission was 6.4 kg and on discharge 7.09 kg. Of the total 102, 8 children defaulted and 92 were discharged amongst them 66.3% were recovered. CONCLUSION: The study reveals a propo rtion of 66.3% children amongst the study group recovered with at least 15% weight gain of initial weight

  7. Nutritional Status: The Interpretation of Indicators. Children in the Tropics: Review of the International Children's Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, Michel; Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1989-01-01

    The assessment of individual or community nutritional status involves the use of indicators; when properly analyzed and interpreted, these may be used to decide what strategies to implement, or how to orient activities aimed at improving nutritional status. In primary health care programs, one approach which remains underused involves obtaining…

  8. The Family-Home Nutrition Environment and Dietary Intake in Rural Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Jennifer A.; Ellen Smit; Manore, Melinda M.; Deborah John; Katherine Gunter

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars) in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102). Pare...

  9. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children’s chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes’ daily curriculum for five we...

  10. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa al-reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Camel milk is the closest to a human mother’s milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. Methods The search strategy of the current review is “(camel AN...

  11. Nutritional aspects of children and adolescents with epidermolysis bullosa: literature review *

    OpenAIRE

    Zidorio, Ana Paula Caio; Dutra, Eliane Said; Leão, Dryelle Oliveira Dias; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis Bullosa is a genetic disorder that affects mainly the skin, however, all others systems are influenced. The nutritional care of children and adolescents with Epidermolysis Bullosa is a key treatment strategy, since the energy needs are increased due to the disease's metabolism, burdening the immune system and cicatrization process, symptoms caused by the disease hinder the intake and adequate absorption of nutrients, which may result in inadequate growth and development. Because...

  12. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahama Saaka; Shaibu Mohammed Osman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), household dietary diversity score (HDDS), and food consumption score (FCS)...

  13. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PR ESCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLUMS OF DIBRUGARH TOWN.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajanta; Alak

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study had been carried out in the urban slums of Dibrugarh during July, 2007 to June, 2008 and a total of 316 preschool children (aged one to five years) had been included in the study. The nutritional sta tus of the study subjects had been assessed by anthropometry and for this Z- score approach is uti lized. In order to compare the prevalence of malnutrition in different categories, z-test for testing the difference between two propo...

  14. Infant and child feeding index reflects feeding practices, nutritional status of urban slum children

    OpenAIRE

    Lohia, Neha; Udipi, Shobha A

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant and child feeding index (ICFI) an age-specific index, can be used to assess child feeding practices. We used the ICFI to assess feeding practices for urban slum children and the association between ICFI and child nutritional status. Methods 446 children aged 6 to 24 months from urban slums of Mumbai, India were studied. We used the 24-hour diet recall to study dietary diversity and a food frequency questionnaire for consumption of food groups during the preceding week. ICFI ...

  15. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl, 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl, 328.19±148.91 (μg/dl, 191.30±50.17 (μg/dl, 86.40±42.40 (μg/dl, 6.32±2.59 (μg/dl, and 0.23±0.15 (μg/dl, respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01 and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05. Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that

  16. A study on nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior of elementary school children in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Suil; Shin, Na-Ri; Jung, Eun-Im; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Hong-Mie; Song, Kyung-Hee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition and diet related knowledge, attitude, and behavior of elementary school children in Seoul. The subjects included were 439 (male 236, female 203) elementary school children in the 4th to the 6th grades. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 12.0 program. The average obesity index (OI) was 104.98 and 99.82 for male and female subjects, respectively. The average percentage of underweight, normal, overweight and obese of subje...

  17. Nutritional Status of a Group of Children Under Five Suffering from Malaria in a Timor Leste District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagalys Ortega Alvelay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is a health problem in underdeveloped countries. The child population is particularly vulnerable. Objective: to determine the nutritional status of children under five suffering from malaria who attended a clinic in Timor Leste. Method: a descriptive, correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of 435 children under five years old, diagnosed with malaria, who attended consultation from June 2008 to July 2009. Nutritional status was evaluated. A medical history demographic, socioeconomic and Plasmodium type data was obtained. Results: 254 children (58.4% were in the group from 2 to 4 years old. Most children (415, 95.4% had no toilet or piped water in their homes. The average number of people living in the house is 8.3; 5.6 per room. Females were predominant with 50.3%, as well as rural children 402 (92.4%. Most children (84.6% are undernourished. Statistical relationship was found between nutritional status and age (X2 = 7.44, df = 1, p = 0.01 and nutritional status and sex (X2 = 14.37, df = 1, p = 0, 01. A higher frequency of moderate malnutrition was observed in children with malaria (41; 61.2%. Plasmodium vivax was highly frequent, being present in 299 children (68.7%. Conclusion: children from 0 to 1 year of age are 2 to 4 times more likely to experience malnutrition. Females are between 2 and 5 times more likely to be undernourished than other children with malaria.

  18. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  19. Missed Opportunities for Nutritional Rehabilitation in Children Admitted to Surgical Wards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Pooja; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Phatak, Ajay; Desai, Rajendra; Srivastava, Shirish

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition in children has serious health and economic consequences. We studied documentation of malnutrition, actual prevalence, and treatment given in children admitted to surgical wards. Methods. Retrospective study of 154 patients aged <5 yrs admitted to general surgical, orthopedic, and otorhinolaryngology wards. Records were evaluated for completeness of data, way of documentation, and data quality. Descriptive analysis was done. If malnutrition was not identified and/or proper action was not taken, it was defined as a “missed opportunity.” Results. Of 154 records audited, 100 (64.94%) were males, 108 (70.13%) were from general surgery ward, and 78 (50.65%) were residing in suburban area. The mean (SD) age of the study population was 2.32 (1.16) years whereas mean (SD) duration of stay was 5.84 (6.29) days. Weight and height were mentioned in 116 (75.32%) and 8 (5.19%) records, respectively, mostly by nonsurgical personnel. Documentation and treatment of malnutrition were poor. Out of 106 apparently correct weight records, 19 (17.93%) children were severely undernourished and 30 (28.30%) were moderately undernourished whereas 20 (18.87%) children were not undernourished but required nutritional attention. Conclusion. There is poor documentation of nutritional indicators of children admitted to surgical wards. From data that was available, it is apparent that malnutrition is at high levels. “Identification” and hence management of malnutrition need more attention.

  20. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  1. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  2. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

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    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  3. Application of isotopic and nuclear techniques in the study of nutrition - Pollution interactions and their impact on the nutritional status of children subject in Vietnamese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on malnutrition of Vietnamese children and its features is presented. In spite of the recent economic development, the proportion of malnutrition for children in the country is still rather high at about 33.8%. The rapid and uncontrolled industrial growth has aggravated environmental pollution, which is one of the reasons for malnutrition of children. The nuclear techniques such as neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are proposed to analyze the nutritional elements and pollutants (Zn, Se, Ca, Cd, Hg, Pb,) in the study on nutrition - pollution interactions. Three groups of malnourished children with adequate real-time monitoring (RTM), (placenta, breast milk, urine), long-term monitoring (LTM), (hair, nails) and food specimens are chosen for the study. The protocol for sampling and sample preparation of placenta is proposed. (author)

  4. Revised System to Evaluate Measurement of Blood Chemistry Data From the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey and Prefectural Health and Nutrition Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Background We developed a monitoring system that uses total errors (TEs) to evaluate measurement of blood chemistry data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) and Prefectural Health and Nutrition Surveys (PHNS). Methods Blood chemistry data from the NHNS and PHNS were analyzed by SRL, Inc., a commercial laboratory in Tokyo, Japan. Using accuracy and precision from external and internal quality controls, TEs were calculated for 14 blood chemistry items during the period 1999–201...

  5. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  6. Poor Nutrition Status and Associated Feeding Practices among HIV-Positive Children in a Food Secure Region in Tanzania: A Call for Tailored Nutrition Training

    OpenAIRE

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B; Urassa, David P.; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among HIV-positive children can be ameliorated if they are given adequate foods in the right frequency and diversity. Food insecurity is known to undermine such efforts, but even in food rich areas, people have undernutrition. As yet no study has examined feeding practices and their associations with nutrition status among as HIV-positive children in regions with high food production. We therefore examined the magnitude of undernutrition and its association with feeding practic...

  7. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children's nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal : a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-Yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled "Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification" (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren's health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) provide an ev...

  8. The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense surveys: lasting impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Barbara A

    2005-05-01

    The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND) Surveys provided previously unavailable representative information on the food and nutrition situations of military or civilian populations in 33 developing countries. Information on related social and economic conditions also were assessed. These data provided a framework for planning follow-up programs to correct problems identified and to prevent them from recurring, such as fortification of salt with iodine and sugar with vitamin A. Educational materials specific to the nutrient content of local foods, dietary patterns, and availability within countries and cultures were also developed, such as food composition tables and dietary guidelines. In-country scientists were motivated to continue nutrition research, and, in several countries, institutes and departments of nutrition evolved. Impact was documented by improved nutritional status in several countries, although success is not always attributed directly to the impetus provided through the ICNND Surveys. Furthermore, the surveys and their leaders provided inspiration and role models for aspiring young nutritionists both within their own countries and internationally. PMID:15867321

  9. Grizzly bear nutrition and ecology studies in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Charles T.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Servheen, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    T HE CHANCE TO SEE a wild grizzly bear is often the first or second reason people give for visiting Yellow - stone National Park. Public interest in bears is closely coupled with a desire to perpetuate this wild symbol of the American West. Grizzly bears have long been described as a wilderness species requiring large tracts of undisturbed habitat. However, in today’s world, most grizzly bears live in close proximity to humans (Schwartz et al. 2003). Even in Yellowstone National Park, the impacts of humans can affect the long-term survival of bears (Gunther et al. 2002). As a consequence, the park has long supported grizzly bear research in an effort to understand these impacts. Most people are familiar with what happened when the park and the State of Montana closed open-pit garbage dumps in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when at least 229 bears died as a direct result of conflict with humans. However, many may not be as familiar with the ongoing changes in the park’s plant and animal communities that have the potential to further alter the park’s ability to support grizzly bears.

  10. Lactose intolerance among severely malnourished children with diarrhoea admitted to the nutrition unit, Mulago hospital, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mworozi Edison

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactose intolerance is a common complication of diarrhoea in infants with malnutrition and a cause of treatment failure. A combination of nutritional injury and infectious insults in severe protein energy malnutrition reduces the capacity of the intestinal mucosa to produce lactase enzyme necessary for the digestion of lactose. The standard management of severe malnutrition involves nutritional rehabilitation with lactose-based high energy formula milk. However, some of these children may be lactose intolerant, possibly contributing to the high rate of unfavorable treatment outcomes. This study was therefore designed to establish the prevalence of lactose intolerance and associated factors in this population. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study involving 196 severely malnourished children with diarrhoea aged 3-60 months was done in Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit (MNU, Mulago hospital between October 2006 and February 2007. Results During the study period, 196 severely malnourished children with diarrhoea were recruited, 50 (25.5% of whom had evidence of lactose intolerance (stool reducing substance ≥ 1 + [0.5%] and stool pH Other factors that were significantly associated with lactose intolerance on bi-variate analysis included: young age of 3-12 months; lack of up to-date immunization; persistent diarrhoea; vomiting; dehydration, and abdominal distension. Exclusive breastfeeding for less than 4 months and worsening of diarrhoea on initiation of therapeutic milk were the other factors. Conclusions The prevalence of lactose intolerance in this study setting of 25.5% is relatively high. Routine screening by stool pH and reducing substances should be performed especially in the severely malnourished children with diarrhoea presenting with oedematous malnutrition, perianal skin erosion, higher mean stool frequency and having had ≥2 diarrhoea episodes in the previous 3 months. Use of lactose-free diets such as yoghurt

  11. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PR ESCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLUMS OF DIBRUGARH TOWN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajanta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study had been carried out in the urban slums of Dibrugarh during July, 2007 to June, 2008 and a total of 316 preschool children (aged one to five years had been included in the study. The nutritional sta tus of the study subjects had been assessed by anthropometry and for this Z- score approach is uti lized. In order to compare the prevalence of malnutrition in different categories, z-test for testing the difference between two proportions had been employed and χ 2 - test was utilized for testing the associations. T he study revealed that the overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting among the preschool children was 59.37%, 53.12% and 17.81% respectively. Also, it had been observed that the prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in children of il literate mothers (p <0.01 and wasting was significantly higher (p < 0.001 amongst the childre n of working mothers. Underweight and stunting was higher in Class III socioeconomic grou p (p<0.01 and wasting was higher in class IV socioeconomic group (p<0.05 as per modified Kuppusw ami’s socioeconomic classification. From the present study it had been revealed that il literacy, lower socioeconomic status and working status of the mother had a negative impact on the nutritional status of their children. The results of the present study indicate the urgent need for appropriate steps to be taken to improve the nutritional status of the children of th ese areas

  12. School Health and Nutrition Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Yabanci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schools play an effective role for adopt and maintain healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in children and adolescents. Schools are an important part of national efforts to prevent chronic diseases such as childhood obesity, coronary heart diseases, diabetes and cancer. Nutrition programs in schools can help children and adolescents participate in full educational potential; improve academic performance and health quality. To ensure a healthy future for our children, school-based nutrition education programs must become a national priority. Governments, community leaders, doctors, dieteticians, nurses, teachers, and parents must commit to implementing and sustaining nutrition education programs within the schools. School health and nutrition programs which part of public health and education are summarized in this review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 361-368

  13. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15 371 German speaking subjects 14–80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II o...

  14. Food and nutrition insecurity in northern Benin: impact on growth performance of children and on year to year nutritional status of adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ategbo, E.A.D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the consequences of a substantial nutritional stress, created by an unimodal climate on the energy balance of adults and on children's growth. Coping strategies of adults, at an individual level, with the seasonal fluctuations in food availability were also co

  15. The High Prevalence of Anemia in Cambodian Children and Women Cannot Be Satisfactorily Explained by Nutritional Deficiencies or Hemoglobin Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Kuong, Khov; Sophonneary, Prak; Sinuon, Muth; Greuffeille, Valerie; Hong, Rathavuth; Berger, Jacques; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency, hemoglobin disorders and intestinal parasite infection. Methods: One-sixth of households from the CDHS-2014 were selected for a follow-up visit for the micronutrient survey. Households were visited from two weeks to two months after the CDHS-2014 visit. Data on micronutrient status were available for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). Results: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin < 15 g/L), vitamin A (retinol-binding-protein (RBP) < 0.70 mol/L) or vitamin B12 (<150 pmol/L) were not prevalent in the women (<5% for all), whereas 17.8% of the women had low concentrations of folic acid (<10 nmol/L). In the children, the prevalence of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency was <10%. Zinc deficiency, hookworm infection and hemoglobinopathy were significantly associated with anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children <2 years, but in older children and women, the prevalence of IDA was <5%. The most prevalent, preventable causes of anemia were hookworm infection and zinc and folic acid deficiency. Over 40% of the anemia was not caused by nutritional factors. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian women and children cannot be explained solely by micronutrient deficiencies and hemoglobin disorders. Micronutrient interventions to improve anemia prevalence are likely to have limited impact in the Cambodian setting. The focus of current interventions to

  16. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY FROM VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what factors are associated with malnutrition? Objective: To assess the nutritional status of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates of nutritional status. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were involved in the study. Results: Out of total 816 study subjects 429 or 52.6% (201 boys and 228 girls were underweight and 75 or 9.2% (39 boys and 36 girls were stunted. Educational status of the parents was found to be significantly associated with the nutritional status of school children Conclusion: As the literacy status of the parents has been revealed to be strongly associated with nutritional status of children, there is an increasing need to focus the efforts towards the parents to improve the nutritional status of primary school children.

  17. Serving the Nation's Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Bureau (DHHS/OHS), Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes activities of the three bureaus of the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF). The Children's Bureau of ACYF helps state, local, public and private agencies, and associations of agencies develop programs to assist families with problems which affect their children. Activities of the Children's Bureau focus…

  18. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D

    2005-05-01

    Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products. PMID:15883552

  19. Inflammatory Response Using Different Lipid Parenteral Nutrition Formulas in Children After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Gómez, María Auxiliadora; de la Torre-Aguilar, María José; Aguilera-García, Concepción María; Olza, Josune; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis; Gil-Campos, Mercedes

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional support is an integral part of the supportive care of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) emulsions in parenteral nutrition (PN) may modify the inflammatory response. The purpose of this study is to compare plasma cytokine levels in children after HSCT using an n-3 FA-containing lipid emulsion (LE) and a soybean oil-based formulation in PN. A randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted on 14 children following HSCT. Children were randomized to receive either a fish oil or a soybean oil LE. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, on Day 10 and after completion of PN to analyze plasma interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), 2 (IL-2), 6 (IL-6), 8 (IL-8), 10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). After 10 days of PN, there were no significant changes in interleukins levels when comparing the two groups or time points (baseline vs. Day 10 of PN). In children requiring PN >21 days, IL-10 and TNF-α levels (P ≤ 0.05) were lower in the fish-oil-containing LE group. Fish oil- and soybean oil-supplemented PN administered for at least 10 days does not cause inflammatory changes. Prolonged PN based on fish oil LE may modulate the inflammatory response. PMID:27270245

  20. Impact of water pollution by Hg, Cd and Pb on nutritional status of children in the north-west of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals are natural elements that exist in air, water, soils and sediments but at trace level. However, their level might increase due to various domestic and industrial activities. Man can be exposed directly (e. g. drinking polluted water or eating contaminated vegetables and fruits) or indirectly to these heavy metals (e. g. exposure to cigarette smoke (Pb), tobacco or painting areas (Cd), old dwellings (Pb), dental amalgam (Cd, Hg)). The north west region of Morocco, represent a zone where meet all sewages charged of heavy metals coming from different industries and human activities as well. Regarding the nutritional situation of the Ghrab population, many national and regional surveys indicated that stunting (24% children), anaemia (38% children and women), and vitamin A deficiency (40,9 % marginal deficiency in children) are the most known nutritional problem. The main causes of these nutritional problems are poor nutritional intake as well as a poor socio-economic situation. However, no study exists on the relationship between these nutritional disorders (or other not yet discovered) and heavy metals contaminants. This relationship deserves to be solved especially in this region. Indeed several pollution indicators such as aquatic organisms have always recorded a strong level of contamination by heavy metals going from 1 to 6 μg/g for Pb, 0.4 to 2 μg/g for Cd and 0.15 to 1μg/g for Hg. The health consequence of heavy metals contamination of water in this region are not yet well understood. (author)

  1. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Asao; Amandine Sambira Marekani; Jessica VanCleave; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food...

  2. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  3. Improving nutrition through nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good nutrition is essential to health and quality of life. As a United Nations agency dedicated to helping Member States achieve their social and economic goals, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recognizes the importance of good nutrition and is working to address the problems underlying poor nutrition. In fact, many Agency activities serve basic human needs, by applying nuclear science to increase food production, improve health care, improve management of water resources, and assess sources of environmental pollution. Global progress in reducing malnutrition throughout the human life cycle has been slow and patchy. In its 2000 Report on the World Nutrition Situation, the United Nations Sub Committee on Nutrition estimated that in developing countries 182 million children under five years of age are chronically undernourished and 150 million are underweight. An estimated 30 million infants are born each year with impaired growth due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Worldwide, renewed international commitments have been made to address this situation, and the IAEA is a vital partner in these efforts. Nuclear science provides valuable tools for monitoring factors that influence nutrition, such as micronutrients, body composition, and breast milk uptake. Through its sub-programme on nutrition, the Agency is helping countries to use isotope applications and other nuclear techniques to their nutritional problems and is supporting leading-edge research on the interaction between nutrition and environmental pollution and infection with the ultimate goal of improving human nutrition

  4. The evaluation of nutritional status of children by anthropometric measurements attending the day nursery of Cerrahpaşa Medical School Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan, Tülay; Yalvaç, Sema; Erginöz, Ethem; Çokuğraş, Fügen; Kutlu, Tufan

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the nutritional status of children attending the day nursery by anthropometric measures and to investigate the nutritional status of children who live in families having a certain educational status a socio economic level and social assurance Material and Method: Children who attending the day nursery between November 2004 January 2005 were evaluated for their nutritional status by measuring their weight head circumference thorax circumference superior midarm circumference s...

  5. Role of Young Child Formulae and Supplements to Ensure Nutritional Adequacy in U.K. Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Brouzes, Chloé M C; Maillot, Matthieu; Briend, André; Hankard, Régis; Lluch, Anne; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) "cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements" of children aged 12-36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12-18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When access to all foods was allowed, smaller food changes were required when YCFs and supplements were initially consumed than when they were not. In the total sample, the main dietary shifts needed to ensure nutritional adequacy were an increase in YCF and a decrease in cow's milk (+226 g/day and -181 g/day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children. PMID:27598195

  6. Nutrition recommendations and the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's 2014 approved food and beverage product list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children. PMID:25906434

  7. Social protection to support vulnerable children and families: the potential of cash transfers to protect education, health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adato, M; Bassett, L

    2009-01-01

    Investing in social protection in sub-Saharan Africa has taken on a new urgency as HIV and AIDS interact with other drivers of poverty to simultaneously destabilise livelihoods systems and family and community safety nets. Cash transfer programmes already reach millions of people in South Africa, and in other countries in southern and East Africa plans are underway to reach tens and eventually hundreds of thousands more. Cash transfers worldwide have demonstrated large impacts on the education, health and nutrition of children. While the strongest evidence is from conditional cash transfer evaluations in Latin America and Asia, important results are emerging in the newer African programmes. Cash transfers can be implemented in conjunction with other services involving education, health, nutrition, social welfare and others, including those related to HIV and AIDS. HIV/AIDS-affected families are diverse with respect to household structure, ability to work and access to assets, arguing for a mix of approaches, including food assistance and income-generation programmes. However, cash transfers appear to offer the best strategy for scaling up to a national system of social protection, by reaching families who are the most capacity constrained, in large numbers, relatively quickly. These are important considerations for communities hard-hit by HIV and AIDS, given the extent and nature of deprivation, the long-term risk to human capital and the current political willingness to act. PMID:22380980

  8. Um modelo para avaliação rápida da situação nutricional e de saúde de crianças e mães no "dia nacional de vacinação" A model for quick evaluation of the nutritional and health situation of mothers and children on the "national vaccination day"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaquias Batista Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: relatar a experiência com a concepção e desenvolvimento de um modelo simplificado de avaliação do estado nutricional e situações correlatas de saúde materno-infantil, aproveitando o "dia nacional de vacinação" como estratégia, quando 90% das crianças e 80% das mães comparecem aos postos de atendimento. MÉTODOS: cinco postos de vacinação de uma cidade da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco foram pesquisados. A amostra, dimensionada para um erro de prevalência de 3% a 5% em relação às variáveis básicas, foi representada pela prevalência de desnutrição, anemia, diarréia, infecção respiratória aguda (IRA, amamentação/desmame, vigilância de crescimento e desenvolvimento e situação vacinal, além de quatro aspectos referentes às mães: índice de massa corporal, prevalência de anemia, cuidados pré-natais e nível de educação. RESULTADOS: foram observadas 579 crianças e 417 mães. 80,3% das mães eram alfabetizadas. Entre as crianças 18,0% apresentaram IRA nos últimos 7 dias. Nas de seis a 12 meses apenas 7,4% não tinham completado o esquema vacinal com a Sabin e a DPT. 37,8% eram anêmicas e 11% tinham déficit estatural. A média e a mediana da amamentação exclusiva foram de 11,5 e 9,0 dias, respectivamente. Constatou-se que há duas vezes mais mulheres obesas do que magras (10,6% e 4,9%, e que 16,2% eram anêmicas. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados concordam com os valores esperados, a partir de estudos prévios em Pernambuco, demonstrando a validade da aplicação do modelo no Brasil e outros países que utilizam esta estratégia.OBJECTIVES: to discuss the experience, conception and development of a simplified model to evaluate the nutritional status and correlated health situation of mothers and children using the "national vaccination day" as strategy, when 90% of children and 80% of mothers appear at the vaccination center. METHODS: five health units of vaccination were observed in a town from the coastal

  9. Socio-Cognitive and Nutritional Factors Associated with Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents: Possibilities for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    A large national study of schoolchildren aged 6-18 years was conducted to assess nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional quality of breakfast, importance of physical activity and food variety score, among 4441 students from randomly selected schools in all states…

  10. Evidence-Based Psychotherapies and Nutritional Interventions for Children With Bipolar Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristad, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment guidelines recommend that psychotherapy be used in conjunction with pharmacotherapy in children with bipolar disorder. A well-established category of psychotherapy is family skill-building plus psychoeducation; 3 examples of this are family-focused treatment, psychoeducational psychotherapy, and child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. These treatments share several common elements that are important in pediatric populations, including being family-based, providing psychoeducation on symptoms and their management, and training patients and families in emotion regulation, communication, and problem-solving skills. Clinicians may also wish to explore nutritional interventions; multinutrient complexes are experimental, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements are possibly efficacious. Nutritional interventions are particularly attractive in this patient population because of their favorable safety profile. PMID:27570930

  11. An assessment of nutritional status of children aged 0-14 years in a slum area of Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsan Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Under-nutrition contributes to more than one-third of all deaths in children. It does this by diminishing children's immunity and making illness more dangerous. The primary aim of the study is to assess the nutritional status of children aged from 0 to 14 years in a slum area of Kolkata and secondary aim is to determine the prevalence of under-nutrition and its association with various risk factors among the study population. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in urban slum of Chetla, Kolkata involving children of age group (0-14 years from February to May 2012. All children (120 were examined clinically; their anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC were taken using the standard operating procedures, after obtaining verbal consent from their parents with the help of a predesigned and pre-tested schedule. The anthropometric data was analyzed using World Health Organization Anthro and Anthro Plus Softwares. Results: The overall prevalence of under-nutrition among the study population was found to be 54 (45%. Among infants 9 (25% were underweight, 3 (8.3% were stunted, 22 (61.1% were wasted and 23 (63.9% showed thinness. Among 1-5 years aged children, 18 (30.5% were underweight, 17 (28.8% were stunted, 17 (28.8% were wasted, 12 (20.3% had MUAC 12.5-13.5 cm and 17 (28.8% showed thinness. Among 5-14 years aged children, 11 (44% were underweight, 10 (40% were stunted and 12 (48% showed thinness. Conclusion: The nutritional status of children in Chetla slum is not satisfactory in spite of proper immunization coverage and institutional deliveries. Special emphasis should be given for promotion of nutritional education to the mothers.

  12. Nutritionists in industry can play a key role in helping to achieve Health of the Nation targets for nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, T R; de Looy, A; Fletcher, R; Ruxton, C H

    2007-06-01

    Nutritionists working in food manufacturing and retailing are potentially in a more powerful position than any other professional group to contribute towards achieving the national targets for nutrition and the reduction of nutrition-related diseases, set out in The Health of the Nation (DoH, 1992) and in Scotland's Health, A Challenge to Us All (Scottish Office, 1993). The present paper sets out the details of this argument. First, a review is given of the functions and types of activities carried out by nutritionists in industry. Then a number of key practical ways in which nutritionists, through their activities and functions, can help towards achieving national targets for nutrition and nutrition-related diseases are described. Finally, suggestions are made about the knowledge, skills, and personal attributes needed by nutritionists who intend making successful careers in industry and who wish, at the same time, to contribute towards improving the health of the nation. PMID:17539871

  13. Nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available School Health has been regarded as a high priority intervention in developing countries. However it has not been prioritized in Nepal for many years. The objectives of the study are to find out the nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children. To arouse importance of personal hygiene and healthful surrounding through information, education and communication (IEC. This cross-sectional study was administered in two schools located in Bolde phedeche and Mahure of Kavrepalanchowk. From the selected schools, a total number of 160 students studying from Grade 1 to V were enumerated in the study using census survey method. Among 160 students, the most important three problems were pediculosis 42(26.2 %, dental caries 29(18.1%, and waxy ear 27(17.1 %. Thus the school health education should put more emphasis on oral care, nutrition, personal hygiene and others. Applying classification of Indian Academy of Pediatrics: based on weight for age, 36(55.3% boys and 34(35.8% girls fall under 1st degree malnutrition and 15(23.07% boys and 44(46.3% girls fall under IInd degree malnutrition, 7(7.2 % girls fall under IIIrd degree malnutrition.The health and nutritional standards of school children in this study were found to be unsatisfactory. Among different morbidity pediculosis is found more in girls. The present study put more emphasis on the need for initiation of school health program in the school with more on improving personal hygiene, prevention of disease like parasitic infection/infestation and improvement of their nutritional status. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-2, 12-16 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i2.6832

  14. Breakfast of Champions? The School Breakfast Program and the Nutrition of Children and Families

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors use the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III to examine the effect of the availability of the school breakfast program (SBP). Their work builds on previous research in four ways - First, they develop a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without. Second, they examine serum measures of nutrient in addition to intakes based on dietary recall data. ...

  15. Nutrition Integrity in School Menu Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenshaw, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Nutrition integrity ensures that all foods available in schools for children are consistent with recommended dietary allowances and contribute to the development of lifelong, healthy eating habits. Attaining nutrition integrity is the goal of numerous changes in National School Lunch and Breakfast Program regulations. Outlines new federal…

  16. Energy expenditure and body composition in children with Crohn's disease: effect of enteral nutrition and treatment with prednisolone

    OpenAIRE

    Azcue, M.; Rashid, M; Griffiths, A.; Pencharz, P

    1997-01-01

    Background—Malnutrition and growth retardation are common complications of Crohn's disease in children. The contribution of resting energy expenditure (REE) to malnutrition is unclear. 
Aims—To characterise the REE and body composition in children with Crohn's disease and compare them with normal controls and patients with anorexia nervosa; to compare the effects of prednisolone and enteral nutrition on energy expenditure and body composition. 
Subjects—Twenty four children wit...

  17. Changes in the volume, power and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Martin, Cherie L; Kent, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative pre- and post-implementation in terms of volume of marketing, marketing techniques, and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television. Methods Data for 11 food categories for May 2006 and 2011 were purchased from Nielsen Media Research for two children's specialty channels in Toronto. A content analysis of food advertisements examining the volume and marketing techniques was underta...

  18. Nutrition Education: USDA Provides Services through Multiple Programs, but Stronger Linkages among Efforts Are Needed. Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate. GAO-04-528

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    To help improve nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides nutrition education through five of its programs: Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP); Food Stamp Program (FSP); Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); National School Lunch Program (NLP); and Child and Adult Care…

  19. Low adherence of Swiss children to national dietary guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Suggs, L. Suzanne; Della Bella, Sara; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary guidelines aim to inform people of the types of foods and quantities they should consume each day or week to promote and maintain health. The aim of this study was to describe children's dietary behaviors in terms of adherence to the Swiss Society for Nutrition (SSN) dietary guidelines and possible determinants. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in September 2010 with 568 children aged 6–12 years old living in Ticino Switzerland. Food intake was collected usin...

  20. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples. PMID:21720425

  1. Consistency of Nutrition Recommendations for Foods Marketed to Children in the United States, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Elizabeth Taylor; Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Sookyong; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Plasencia, Julie; Lee, Mira; Rifon, Nora J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing has emerged as an environmental factor that shapes children’s dietary behaviors. “Advergames,” or free online games designed to promote branded products, are an example of evolving food marketing tactics aimed at children. Our primary objective was to classify foods marketed to children (aged 2–11 y) in advergames as those meeting or not meeting nutrition recommendations of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). We document the consistency of classification of those foods across agency guidelines and offer policy recommendations. Methods We used comScore Media Builder Metrix to identify 143 websites that marketed foods (n = 439) to children aged 2 to 11 years through advergames. Foods were classified on the basis of each of the 4 agency criteria. Food nutrient labels provided information on serving size, calories, micronutrients, and macronutrients. Results The websites advertised 254 meals, 101 snacks, and 84 beverages. Proportions of meals and snacks meeting USDA and FDA recommendations were similarly low, with the exception of saturated fat in meals and sodium content in snacks. Inconsistency in recommendations was evidenced by only a small proportion of meals and fewer snacks meeting the recommendations of all the agencies per their guidelines. Beverage recommendations were also inconsistent across the 3 agencies that provide recommendations (USDA, IOM, and CSPI). Most (65%–95%) beverages advertised in advergames did not meet some of these recommendations. Conclusion Our findings indicate that a large number of foods with low nutritional value are being marketed to children via advergames. A standardized system of food marketing guidance is needed to better inform the public about healthfulness of foods advertised to children. PMID:24070037

  2. [Evaluation of nutrition mode and nutritional status and pro health education of children during the period of pubertal spurt in the city of Szczecin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Friedrich, Mariola; Radziszewska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluation of the method of nutrition and the state of nutrition in the children aged 13 during the period of pubertal spurt who had their body mass, body height and waist measurement defined. These values led to calculation of BMI, WC, and WHtR indicators, which were related to centile distribution of children from Warszawa and Lódź. Only in 63.6% of girls and 68.9% of boys from Szczecin schools the value of BMI was proper. The problem of accumulation of fat tissue (WC > or = 90 c) around the waist refers to nearly 14% of girls and 9.4% of boys. The value of the indicator WHtR > or = 90 c was found in 11% of the children under research. Children with overweight (BMI 90-97 c) and obesity (BMI > or = 97 c) were selected based on the value of BMI indicator. Their menus of three chosen at random weekdays were obtained. Analysis of the nutrition method of children with overweight and obesity showed low energy value of the diet, general protein, complex carbohydrates, cellulose, mineral components (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn), A, E (girls), C (boys), group B vitamins and also liquids deficiency. The children have undergone a special pro health education in the form of "live" workshops and 3 months after an evaluation inquiry was conducted to assess the effects of the workshops. The analysis of the evaluation inquiry showed that the children have included in their diet breakfasts and afternoon snacks and to their main meal menus whole wheat products, larger quantity of vegetables, fruit and water. It has been also established that sweets, meals of fast food types, chips, pizzy and energizing drinks have been limited. PMID:19803444

  3. Socio Economic and Nutritional Status as Dental Caries Risk Factors in 12 Year Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Naskova, Sanja; Iljovska, Snezana; Pavlevska, Meri; Alimani - Jakupi, Jetmire

    2016-01-01

    The examined material consisted of 71 examinees from both genders at the age of 12, from which the experimental group consisted of 40 children and the control group consisted of 31 examinees.A survey was carried out in order to assess the socio-economic status of the families, to assess the nutritional status (BMI) of the examinees, to verify the dental health while noting the DMFS, DMFT and the intensity of dental caries. The data that presented the socio-economic status of the e...

  4. IMPORTANCE OF BREAKFAST IN THE NUTRITIONAL STATE AND INFORMATION PROCESSING IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE MARTÍN JOFRÉ,; MARCOS JESÚS JOFRÉ; MARÍA CRISTINA ARENAS; ROSANA AZPIROZ; MIGUEL ÁNGEL DE BORTOLI

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the breakfast meal in children’s nutritional statusand mental processing. Anthropometric measures of 26 children (13 males, 6.3 to 6.9 years old) were used to evaluatenutrition levels. Eight tests of the K-ABC Kaufman battery were applied: numbers recall, word order, hand movements,gestalt closure, triangles, analog matrixes, spatial memory and series of photos. The obtained K-ABC averages wereinside normal ranges, with certa...

  5. School Health and Nutrition Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Nurcan Yabanci

    2011-01-01

    Schools play an effective role for adopt and maintain healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in children and adolescents. Schools are an important part of national efforts to prevent chronic diseases such as childhood obesity, coronary heart diseases, diabetes and cancer. Nutrition programs in schools can help children and adolescents participate in full educational potential; improve academic performance and health quality. To ensure a healthy future for our children, school-based nu...

  6. The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jane A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91 or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90 in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond.

  7. Introducing infant and young child feeding indicators into national nutrition surveillance systems: lessons from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators. PMID:24074323

  8. Nutritional intake of various groups of Flemish vegetarians

    OpenAIRE

    Deriemaeker, P; Alewaeters, K; Hebbelinck, M; Clarys, P

    2011-01-01

    Background The most recent national nutritional survey (2004) indicates that 1.2% of the Flemish population follows a vegetarian diet. Information on nutritional intake in vegetarians in this population is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study is to describe the nutritional intake and dietary adequacy of various groups of Flemish vegetarians. Materials and methods Nutritional intake was assessed in various vegetarian groups from different study designs: young children (aged 1 to 10 y...

  9. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... display title no content is required Programs and Services Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Women, Infants, and Children ... Assistance State Systems Offices Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services (FNCS) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP) ...

  10. Impact Of Nutrition Education On Urral School Children Of Burdwan, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas A.B

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A nutrition education programme was conducted for 324 children of two (boys and girls Secondary schools in a village of Burdwan district. Lesson plans and evaluation parameters were formulated based on pre- determined learning objectives. The main methods of training were lectures and discussions using simple and relevant aids. Impact of training was evaluated by pre- training and post- training assessments of knowledge, attitude and dietary practice of students. Results revealed that poor pre- training mean score of knowledge was increased significantly following training but declined thereafter, although final mean score was significantly higher than basal knowledge status. Mean score of attitude also increased significantly but did not decline. Inconsistency of results regarding change in dietary practices observed was recognized as a short coming of isolated training of children only, because dietary habit of a community depends on various factors.

  11. A socio-demographic profile, growth, nutritional and hygiene status of children of primary and secondary boarding schools of Gandhinagar district: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh C. Thakor; Dipak Prajapati; Jyotsna Pandor; Samir Bhagora

    2014-01-01

    Background: A school is a key location for educating children about health, hygiene and nutrition, and for putting in place interventions to promote the health of children. Objectives: of current study were 1) To study the socio demographic profile of children of boarding schools. 2) To study the growth, nutritional and hygiene status of children of boarding schools. Methods: The study was a cross sectional study. After taking the permission of principal of resident schools and consent of ...

  12. INSTANT NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT (INA IN CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN ENERGY UNDERNUTRITION (PEU

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    Roopa Murgod

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: PEM is a significant nutritional disorder in India. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of the disorder and make a quick nutritional assessment in the patients using serum albumin, total cholesterol and lymphocyte count as the laboratory parameters. The study also aimed at correlating these biochemical parameters with physical parameters. Materials and Methods: 42 clinically undernourished children in the age group of 2-5yrs were enrolled for the study. Their age and body weight were noted and the subjects were accordingly grouped under Grade 1, 2 or 3 malnutrition as per Gomez’ classification. Serum Albumin, total lymphocyte count and total cholesterol values of these cases were noted. Depending on the values obtained, the subjects were grouped into 3 categories – mild, moderate and severe malnutrition. Physicalparameters were correlated with the biochemical parameters. Results: Pearson’s correlation test results showed a significant positive correlation between Grade 1&mild malnutrition; Grade 2&moderate malnutrition; and Grade III & severe malnutrition. Conclusion: We conclude that serum albumin, cholesterol and total lymphocyte count correlate significantly with physical parameters. They are reliable parameters that can be used not only to assess severity of undernutrition but they also provide more informationabout the nutritional status such as protein and lipid reserves in the body and immune status of the individual.

  13. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

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    O. O. Omitola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  14. Food consumption and nutritional adequacy in Brazilian children: a systematic review

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    Carolina Abreu de Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a review of studies of food consumption and nutritional adaptation in Brazilian infants pointing the main findings and limitations of these studies. DATA SOURCE: The articles were selected from Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Science Direct in Portuguese and in English. The descriptors were: ''food consumption'', ''nutritional requirements'', ''infant nutrition'' and ''child''. The articles selected were read by two evaluators that decided upon their inclusion. The following were excluded: studies about children with pathologies; studies that approached only food practices or those adaptation of the food groups or the food offert; and studies that did not utilize the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI. DATA SYNTHESIS: Were selected 16 studies published between 2003 and 2013. In the evaluation of the energy consumption, four studies presented energetic consumption above the individual necessities. The prevalence of micronutrients inadequacy ranged from 0.4% to 65% for iron, from 20% to 59.5% for vitamin A, from 20% to 99.4% for zinc, from 12.6% to 48.9% for calcium and from 9.6% 96.6% for vitamin C. CONCLUSIONS: The food consumption of Brazilian infants is characterized by high frequencies of inadequacy of micronutrients consumption, mainly iron, vitamin A and zinc. These inadequacies do not exist only as deficiencies, but also as excesses, as noted for energetic consumption.

  15. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  16. Application of isotopic and nuclear techniques in the study of nutrition-pollution interactions and their impact on the nutritional status of children subject in Vietnamese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beside problems on quality, sanitation and safety of food, the increase in environmental pollution created by anthropogenic socio-economic activities have caused harmful effects on public health, especially on children. The application of nuclear techniques such as neutron activation analysis (NAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is expected to understand and to evaluate the effects of environmental pollution on the nutritional status of children already exposed to marginal malnutrition. Samples of placentae including placentae of low weight newborns group and placentae of control group were collected for determination of nutritional elements and pollutants. The mean concentration of the most elements in human placenta for the control group (weight3 2.5 kg) is nearly within the same range of reference work. The concentration of the pollutants is higher and concentration of the nutritional elements is lower in the low weight newborns group (weight < 2.5 kg) in comparison with the control group. The mean ratios of pollutants and nutrients such as Cd /Zn, Hg/Se and Pb /Ca were evaluated for both groups. All these ratios in placenta of the low weight newborns are higher than that of the healthy group. It shows evidence of some nutrition-pollution interaction, which may lead to the more severe situation of malnutrition in low- weight newborns (author)

  17. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  18. Nutritional and Immunization Status as Determinant of Pneumonia Incident in Children Under Five in East Nusa Tenggara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Pneumonia in children under five years old is a health problem in Indonesia. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia. One of the control efforts are in recognition of the determinant factors of pneumonia in children under five, so the reduction and prevention of this disease can be done properly. This paper aims to outline some of the determinant factors of pneumonia in children under five years old in the province of East Nusa Tenggara include immunization status, nutritional status and healthy home. Methods:The data used are secondary data Provincial Health Office of East Nusa Tenggara in 2012 include data cases, nutritional status, immunization, exclusive breastfeeding and healthy home were analyzed. Results: The results indicate the scope of discovery and handling pneumonia in children under five in 2012 amounted to 19.2%, a factor of determination relating to pneumonia incidence was 59% complete immunization status, Nutritional status is less their 12.6%, 1.4% severe malnutrition, coverage exclusive breastfeeding is 49.7%, and 61.1% coverage of a healthy home. Conclusion: Cases of pneumonia in children under five in NTT has increased in 2012. The condition factor of immunization status, coverage Exclusive breastfeeding, nutritional status be a factor supporting the occurrence of pneumonia in under five. Recommendation: Suggested an improve in education about pneumonia, exclusive breastfeeding, toddler nutrition and the importance of immunization and growth monitoring sessions mobilize the community in a way increased participation posyandu cadres so as to improve immunization status and improvement of nutritional status of children under five years old.

  19. National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard; Hamby, Sherry; Kracke, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    This Bulletin discusses the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), the most comprehensive nationwide survey of the incidence and prevalence of children's exposure to violence to date, sponsored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention…

  20. Impact of long-term use of oral nutritional supplement on nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and growth of Filipino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Dieu T T; Estorninos, Elvira; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Oliver, Jeffery S; Low, Yen Ling; Rosales, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies during childhood have adverse effects on child growth and health. In a single-arm 48-week long-term intervention, we previously reported the efficacy of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and dietary counselling on catch-up growth and growth maintenance in nutritionally at-risk Filipino children. The present analysis was done to assess the contributing effects of ONS to nutritional adequacy, dietary diversity, food intake and longitudinal growth. ONS (450 ml) was consumed daily providing 450 kcal (1880 kJ) and at least 50 % of micronutrient requirements among 200 children aged 3-4 years with weight-for-height percentiles between 5th and 25th (WHO Growth Standards). Weight, height and dietary intakes using 24-h food recalls were measured at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48. Nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity score (DDS) were calculated. Generalised estimating equations were used to assess the effects of total nutrient intakes, DDS, ONS compliance and sociodemographic factors on longitudinal growth. The percentages of children with adequate intake of energy, protein, Fe, Ca and some vitamins at each post-baseline visit were improved from baseline, reaching 100 % for most nutrients. DDS was also increased from baseline and reached significance from week 16 onwards (P education level and ONS compliance were significantly associated with height-for-age percentile gain over time (P < 0·05). Long-term ONS intervention did not interfere with normal food intake and helped promote nutritional adequacy and growth of Filipino children. PMID:27293557

  1. Effects of aquatic exercise and nutritional guidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Eisfeld Milano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of aquatic exercise and nutritionalguidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents. Thirty obese childrenaged 10 to 16 years, with a body mass index (BMI above the 95th percentile according to theclassification proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000, weredivided into two groups: the first group started learning to swim (GSwim, n = 10 and the secondgroup underwent a deep water running program (GDeep, n = 20. Weight, height, BMI, BMIZ-scores, relative and absolute fat, and relative and absolute lean body mass were evaluated atbaseline and after 12 weeks. The program consisted of 12 meetings for nutritional guidance (oncea week and 36 sessions of exercise (three times per week. MANOVA and Fisher’s exact testwere used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. After 12 weeks,GDeep showed a significant reduction in BMI, BMI Z-scores and relative and absolute fat,and an increase in relative and absolute lean body mass. Significant differences were observedbetween GDeep and GSwim in terms of the reduction in body fat (p = 0.014 and the increasein lean mass (p = 0.006. A program of deep water running together with nutritional guidancemay promote significant changes in the body composition of obese children and adolescents dueto the cyclic characteristic of this physical activity.

  2. Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lyn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity are a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and mental retardation. Essential nutrients help maintain normal neuronal plasticity. Nutritional deficiencies, including deficiencies in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, the amino acid methionine, and the trace minerals zinc and selenium, have been shown to influence neuronal function and produce defects in neuronal plasticity, as well as impact behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional deficiencies and mercury exposure have been shown to alter neuronal function and increase oxidative stress among children with autism. These dietary factors may be directly related to the development of behavior disorders and learning disabilities. Mercury, either individually or in concert with other factors, may be harmful if ingested in above average amounts or by sensitive individuals. High fructose corn syrup has been shown to contain trace amounts of mercury as a result of some manufacturing processes, and its consumption can also lead to zinc loss. Consumption of certain artificial food color additives has also been shown to lead to zinc deficiency. Dietary zinc is essential for maintaining the metabolic processes required for mercury elimination. Since high fructose corn syrup and artificial food color additives are common ingredients in many foodstuffs, their consumption should be considered in those individuals with nutritional deficits such as zinc deficiency or who are allergic or sensitive to the effects of mercury or unable to effectively metabolize and eliminate it from the body.

  3. [Influence of helminthic infections and nutritional status on immune response in Venezuelan children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, D; Afonso, C; Hagel, I; Rodriguez, O; Ortiz, C; Palenque, M; Lynch, N R

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the influence of nutritional status, as determined from anthropometric measurement, and of helminthic infections on the immune response of children of low socioeconomic status in two rural communities in Venezuela: El Cardón in the state of Nueva Esparta and San Daniel in the state of Miranda. A total of 125 boys and girls between 2 and 15 years old participated in the study. Their socioeconomic stratum was determined by a modified Graffar method. A physical examination was performed, as was also an anthropometric evaluation that took into account three indicators--weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age--according to parameters established by the World Health Organization. Other examinations included feces, secretory IgA in saliva, total serum IgE, and anti-Ascaris-specific immunoglobulins. The children in both of the communities were in strata IV and V of the of Graffar scale, with a significantly greater number of stratum V inhabitants in San Daniel (P < 0.001). The results suggest that exposure level and individual susceptibility to the parasites are determining factors in parasitic infection and immune system behavior. The intensity of the parasitic burden plays an important role in stimulating polyclonal IgE, which diminishes the effectiveness of the specific response to those infections. On the other hand, nutritional deficiencies could change the immune mechanisms of the mucous membranes, negatively influence the synthesis of secretory IgA, and stimulate the production of polyclonal IgE. Poor sanitary and socioeconomic conditions promote more exposure to gastrointestinal parasites and a deficient nutritional status, which modulates the immune response and affects serum IgE and secretory IgA production mechanisms. PMID:11036425

  4. Nutrition Labeling and Portion Size Information on Children's Menus in Fast-Food and Table-Service Chain Restaurants in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sue; Wake, Yvonne; Zick, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate meals, price, nutritional content, and nutrition and portion size information available on children's menus in fast-food and table-service chain restaurants in London, since the United Kingdom does not currently require such information but may be initiating a voluntary guideline. Methods: Children's menus were assessed…

  5. Serum nutritional biomarkers and their associations with sleep among US adults in recent national surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear.Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2005-2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20-85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A Sleep duration; (B Sleep disorder; (C Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as "Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction" (Factor 1, "Sleepiness" (Factor 2 and "Sleep disturbance" (Factor 3. Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models.Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OHD and sleepiness (as well as insomnia, and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5-6 h per night compared to normal sleep duration (7-8 h per night.A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships.

  6. Maternal Factors Associated with Nutritional Status of 1-5 years Children Residing in Field Practice Area of Rural Health Training Centre Naila, Jaipur (Rajasthan) India

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh Sonkaria, Afifa Zafer, Kusum Lata Gaur, Ravindra Kumar Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition bene-fits families, their communities and the world as a whole. Maternal factors are important in maintaining the nutrition of 1-5 year children. Objective: To ascertain the association of maternal factors with nutrition of 1-5 year children. Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was carried out in the field practice area of RHTC Naila in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. 30 Cluster sampling technique was ...

  7. Nutritional status of children 0–59 months in selected intervention communities in northern Ghana from the africa RISING project in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Glover-Amengor, Mary; Agbemafle, Isaac; Hagan, Lynda Larmkie; Mboom, Frank Peget; Gamor, Gladys; Larbi, Asamoah; Hoeschle-Zeledon, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status during childhood and its long-term impact on economic growth and wellbeing is well known. This study assessed the nutritional status of children in selected communities in northern Ghana, to serve as baseline data for the Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation (Africa RISING) project that sought to improve farm-household nutrition through agriculture. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among children 0–59 months in ...

  8. Nutritional status of young children in Mumbai slums: a follow-up anthropometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sushmita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic childhood malnutrition remains common in India. As part of an initiative to improve maternal and child health in urban slums, we collected anthropometric data from a sample of children followed up from birth. We described the proportions of underweight, stunting, and wasting in young children, and examined their relationships with age. Methods We used two linked datasets: one based on institutional birth weight records for 17 318 infants, collected prospectively, and one based on follow-up of a subsample of 1941 children under five, collected in early 2010. Results Mean birth weight was 2736 g (SD 530 g, with a low birth weight ( Discussion Our data support the idea that much of growth faltering was explained by faltering in height for age, rather than by wasting. Stunting appeared to be established early and the subsequent decline in height for age was limited. Our findings suggest a focus on a younger age-group than the children over the age of three who are prioritized by existing support systems. Funding The trial during which the birth weight data were collected was funded by the ICICI Foundation for Inclusive Growth (Centre for Child Health and Nutrition, and The Wellcome Trust (081052/Z/06/Z. Subsequent collection, analysis and development of the manuscript was funded by a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award: Population Science of Maternal and Child Survival (085417ma/Z/08/Z. D Osrin is funded by The Wellcome Trust (091561/Z/10/Z.

  9. Effectiveness of a Nutrition Education Program to Improve Children's Chewing Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nanae; Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. PMID:27382638

  10. Children's Environmental Health: Beyond National Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark D; Marty, Melanie A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution, a major cause of disease, death, and disability in countries at every level of development. This article reviews threats to children, including air and water pollution, toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and hazardous wastes. Global climate change is expected to exacerbate many of these issues. Examples of innovative nongovernmental organizations and governmental programs that address the impacts of environmental hazards on children are included. International travel, adoption, migration, and movement of goods and pollutants worldwide make these conditions concerns for all pediatricians. PMID:26613694

  11. Lung ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in children on long-term parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary emboli (PE) are one of the major complications associated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q) remains the most used test for the diagnosis of PE and follow-up of patients on TPN. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the high prevalence of undiagnosed PE in children on TPN. The medical and imaging files of 64 patients on TPN who underwent V/Q examinations covering the period of 1986-2004 were reviewed. Children were aged between 3.18 months and 21.6 years. TPN was started at birth (range 0-15 years). All children had a normal chest radiograph and no symptoms at the time of the V/Q scan. A comparative analysis between the prevalence of PE and risk factors number of days per week with lipophilic content of the TPN, bowel inflammation and thrombophilic factors (protein C and S) was performed. Of the 64 patients, 25 (39%) had an abnormal V/Q scan. A total of 29 PE episodes were diagnosed in all patients. Two children had three episodes of PE. The median age at PE diagnosis was 4.6 years. In 17 patients (68%) diagnosis was achieved on the first V/Q scan performed. PE was bilateral in 56% and unilateral in 44%. PE was the main cause of 2 out 15 recorded deaths. All risk factors were associated with an increase in PE prevalence by statistical analysis. PE is underdiagnosed in children on long-term TPN. Lung V/Q scintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of PE in children with a low pretest probability. (orig.)

  12. Lung ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in children on long-term parenteral nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pifarre, Paloma; Roca, Isabel [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de la Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Irastorza, Inaki; Hill, Susan [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, London (United Kingdom); Simo, Marc [Instituto Universitario Dexeus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Biassoni, Lorenzo; Gordon, Isky [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Pulmonary emboli (PE) are one of the major complications associated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q) remains the most used test for the diagnosis of PE and follow-up of patients on TPN. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the high prevalence of undiagnosed PE in children on TPN. The medical and imaging files of 64 patients on TPN who underwent V/Q examinations covering the period of 1986-2004 were reviewed. Children were aged between 3.18 months and 21.6 years. TPN was started at birth (range 0-15 years). All children had a normal chest radiograph and no symptoms at the time of the V/Q scan. A comparative analysis between the prevalence of PE and risk factors number of days per week with lipophilic content of the TPN, bowel inflammation and thrombophilic factors (protein C and S) was performed. Of the 64 patients, 25 (39%) had an abnormal V/Q scan. A total of 29 PE episodes were diagnosed in all patients. Two children had three episodes of PE. The median age at PE diagnosis was 4.6 years. In 17 patients (68%) diagnosis was achieved on the first V/Q scan performed. PE was bilateral in 56% and unilateral in 44%. PE was the main cause of 2 out 15 recorded deaths. All risk factors were associated with an increase in PE prevalence by statistical analysis. PE is underdiagnosed in children on long-term TPN. Lung V/Q scintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of PE in children with a low pretest probability. (orig.)

  13. Associations of Prenatal Growth with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Nutritional Status in Chilean Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mardones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS, and insulin resistance (IR was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40 at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999. The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67 at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm. A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes.

  14. Increased Breakfast Frequency and Nutritional Quality among Schoolchildren after a National Breakfast Promotion Campaign in Australia between 2000 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wagstaff, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    This national study examined student breakfast consumption and nutritional quality of breakfast in 2000 and 2006 by gender, school grade, school socioeconomic status (SES) and weight status after the implementation of a national breakfast promotion campaign. Participants were 4237 schoolchildren in grades 2-12 from 32 schools in 2000 and 5645…

  15. Access to food outlets and children's nutritional intake in urban China: a difference-in-difference analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Rui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years supermarkets and fast food restaurants have been replacing those “wet markets” of independent vendors as the major food sources in urban China. Yet how these food outlets relate to children’s nutritional intake remains largely unexplored. Method Using a longitudinal survey of households and communities in China, this study examines the effect of the urban built food environment (density of wet markets, density of supermarkets, and density of fast food restaurants on children’s nutritional intake (daily caloric intake, daily carbohydrate intake, daily protein intake, and daily fat intake. Children aged 6–18 (n = 185 living in cities were followed from 2004 to 2006, and difference-in-difference models are used to address the potential issue of omitted variable bias. Results Results suggest that the density of wet markets, rather than that of supermarkets, positively predicts children’s four dimensions of nutritional intake. In the caloric intake model and the fat intake model, the positive effect of neighborhood wet market density on children’s nutritional intake is stronger with children from households of lower income. Conclusion With their cheaper prices and/or fresher food supply, wet markets are likely to contribute a substantial amount of nutritional intake for children living nearby, especially those in households with lower socioeconomic status. For health officials and urban planners, this study signals a sign of warning as wet markets are disappearing from urban China’s food environment.

  16. 76 FR 59885 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Implementation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... donations, Grant programs--Social programs, Indians, Nutrition education, Public assistance programs, WIC... breastfeeding promotion and support, consistent with the State agency's nutrition education component of Program... breastfed infants; sharing nutrition education materials with institutions participating in the......

  17. The effect of education on behavioral intention model of mothers’ attitude towards over weight preschool children's nutritional patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Momenzadeh, Fatemeh; Tavakkol, Khosrow; Kelishadi, Roya; Rad, Gholamreza Sharifi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and over weight is one of the causes of threatening children's present and future life. One of the factors that cause this problem is parents’ attitude toward preschool children's nutritional patterns. Education can improve the parents’ attitude and prevents from this big issue. This study aimed to assess changes in mother's attitude and behavioral intention using intention model. METHODS: This was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post test design. Forty-five mothe...

  18. From Nutrition to Aspirations and Self-Efficacy : Gender Bias Over Time Among Children in Four Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dercon, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We use data on children at age 8, 12 and 15 from Young Lives, a cohort study of 12,000 children across Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam, to document the presence of a gender gap across a wide variety of indicators, including nutrition, education, aspirations, subjective well-being and psychosocial competencies. First, we find that there is considerable heterogeneity across countries, ages and indicators in whether there is any gender bias and whether it is in favour of boys ...

  19. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Grace K. M. Muhoozi; Atukunda, Prudence; Mwadime, Robert; Iversen, Per Ole; Ane C. Westerberg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda’s children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development.Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda.Design: Five hundred and twelve households with mother–infant (6–8 months) pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background vari...

  20. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Grace K. M. Muhoozi; Prudence Atukunda; Robert Mwadime; Per Ole Iversen; Ane C. Westerberg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda's children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development. Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda. Design: Five hundred and twelve households with mother–infant (6–8 months) pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background va...

  1. Prevalence and determinants of under-nutrition among children under six: a cross-sectional survey in Fars province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Kavosi; Zahra Hassanzadeh Rostami; Zahra Kavosi; Aliasghar Nasihatkon; Mohsen Moghadami; Mohammadreza Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood malnutrition as a major public health problem among children in developing countries can affect physical and intellectual growth and is also considered as a main cause of child morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition and identify determinants of malnutrition among children under 6 years of age in Fars province, Iran. Methods This survey was conducted by house to house visit through multi-stag...

  2. Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin, and school performance

    OpenAIRE

    David C Taylor-Robinson; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. As the intervention is often claimed to have important health, nutrition, and societal effects beyond the removal of worms, we critically evaluated the evidence on benefits. Objectives To summarize the effects of giving deworming drugs to children to treat soil-transmitted helminths on weight, haemoglobin, and cognition; ...

  3. The National WIC Evaluation: evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children. I. Background and introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, D; Horvitz, D G; Seaver, W B; Alvir, J M; Garbowski, G C; Leighton, J; Sloan, N L; Johnson, S S; Kulka, R A; Shanklin, D S

    1988-08-01

    The Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) aims to improve the nutrition and health of low-income, nutritionally at-risk pregnant women and preschool children with supplemental food, nutrition education, and coordination of health care. Started in 1972, it recently served greater than 3.4 million persons monthly and at a cost of $1.66 billion annually. The National WIC Evaluation (NWE) consisted of four studies: The historical study estimated changes in birth outcome attributable to WIC from 1972 to 1980 in 19 states and the District of Columbia from WIC program data and vital statistics. The longitudinal study of pregnant women compared dietary intake, weight gain, anthropometry, duration of gestation, birth weight, and infant length and head circumference between a representative national sample of WIC participants and economically comparable women. The cross-sectional study of preschool children related WIC to dietary intake, anthropometry, and psychological development. The food expenditures study estimated the impact of WIC on family grocery and other food expenditures. PMID:3400624

  4. Explicit and implicit tasks for assessing hedonic-versus nutrition-based attitudes towards food in French children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnery-Patris, Sandrine; Marty, Lucile; Bayer, Frédéric; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chambaron, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes are important precursors of behaviours. This study aims to compare the food attitudes (i.e., hedonic- and nutrition-based) of children using both an implicit pairing task and an explicit forced-choice categorization task suitable for the cognitive abilities of 5- to 11-year-olds. A dominance of hedonically driven attitudes was expected for all ages in the pairing task, designed to elicit affective and spontaneous answers, whereas a progressive emergence of nutrition-based attitudes was expected in the categorization task, designed to involve deliberate analyses of the costs/benefits of foods. An additional exploratory goal was to evaluate differences in the attitudes of normal and overweight children in both tasks. Children from 3 school levels (n = 194; mean age = 8.03 years) were individually tested on computers in their schools. They performed a pairing task in which the tendencies to associate foods with nutritional vs. culinary contexts were assessed. Next, they were asked to categorize each food into one of the following four categories: "yummy", "yucky" (i.e., hedonic categories), "makes you strong", or"makes you fat" (i.e., nutritional categories). The hedonic/culinary pairs were very frequently selected (81% on average), and this frequency significantly increased through school levels. In contrast, in the categorization task, a significant increase in nutrition-driven categorizations with school level was observed. Additional analyses revealed no differences in the food attitudes between the normal and overweight children in the pairing task, and a tendency towards lower hedonic categorizations among the overweight children. Culinary associations can reflect cultural learning in the French context where food pleasure is dominant. In contrast, the progressive emergence of cognitively driven attitudes with age may reflect the cognitive development of children who are more reasonable and influenced by social norms. PMID:26522508

  5. Nutrition labelling: perspectives of a bi-national agency for Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Margaret A

    2002-01-01

    Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) is a bi-national government agency forming a partnership between all of Australia's States and Territories and the New Zealand government. Australia New Zealand Food Authority employs scientific, legal policy, communication and administrative staff in our Australia and New Zealand offices. Prior to 1991 each of Australia's States and Territories had their own food standards; however, in 1991 Commonwealth legislation was introduced to consolidate responsibility for developing food standards in one specialist agency and to ensure the uniformity of Standards across all States and Territories in Australia. This was extended to New Zealand in 1995 when we became a bi-national agency following the signing of a Treaty between Australia and New Zealand to develop joint food standards for both countries. Australia New Zealand Food Authority's objectives in setting food standards are to: protect public health and safety; provide adequate information to enable consumers to make informed choices; and prevent misleading or deceptive conduct. Health Ministers have recently approved a new Joint Food Standards Code for Australia and New Zealand. This is the result of over 6 year's work and many rounds of public consultation. The new Code has had extensive input from government agencies, industry and consumers. In drafting the new code our emphasis has been on making decisions based on sound science and the most up-to-date information available. We also recognized the need for Standards to be practical in not imposing unnecessary costs on food manufacturers with an inevitable flow on effect to consumer prices. The Joint Code will replace both the existing Australian Food Standards Code and the New Zealand Food Regulations after a 2-year transition period. During the development of the Joint Code a wide range of matters were considered in relation to labelling. Amongst these were consumer needs, costs to industry, voluntary versus

  6. Influence of postdischarge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne;

    Background: New research has shown that type of nutrition in early life may affect not only growth but also later body composition and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre trial on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been...... established and described previously2. Inclusion criteria were gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected aged, the infants received 3 different types of nutrition: A: human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier C: preterm formula. At 6 years of age, a dexa scan was performed......: It seems that HM is the preferable nutrition for preterm born children if a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass is regarded optimal. The results are not all significant, which might be due to the small sample size. Investigations of the remaining infants are awaited....

  7. Comparison of the nutritional content of products, with and without nutrient claims, targeted at children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa Mello; Rayner, Mike; Fernandes, Ana Carolina; Oliveira, Renata Carvalho de; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2016-06-01

    Many children's food products highlight positive attributes on their front-of-package labels in the form of nutrient claims. This cross-sectional study investigated all retailed packaged foods (n 5620) in a major Brazilian supermarket, in order to identify the availability of products targeted at children, and to compare the nutritional content of products with and without nutrient claims on labels. Data on energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, Na and total and SFA content, along with the presence and type of nutrient claims, were obtained in-store from labels of all products. Products targeted at children were identified, divided into eight food groups and compared for their nutritional content per 100 g/ml and the presence of nutrient claims using the Mann-Whitney U test (Plabels. Children's products with nutrient claims had either a similar or worse nutritional content than their counterparts without nutrient claims. The major differences among groups were found in Group 8 (e.g. sauces and ready meals), in which children's products bearing nutrient claims had higher energy, carbohydrate, Na and total and SFA content per 100 g/ml than products without nutrient claims (P<0·05). This suggests that, to prevent misleading parents who are seeking healthier products for their children, the regulation on the use of nutrient claims should be revised, so that only products with appropriate nutrient profiles are allowed to display them. PMID:27040439

  8. [Serum levels of Zn in children with different degress of nutritional deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesty-Valbuena, Alis; Pereira-Medero, Nayda; Núñez-González, José Rafael de Jesús; García, Doris; de Villaroel, Monserrat Vicente; Granadillo, Víctor; Manzanilla, José; Fernández, Denny

    2006-12-01

    The importance of Zinc (Zn) as a necessary oligoclement for human nutrition begins in the first three decades of life. At the moment, the role that Zn plays in the infantile nutrition is very well-known, acquiring a special connotation in children with proteic-energetics malnutrition (PEM). In this study the daily ingestion and the serum measuremets of Zn were determined in 64 undernourished children (light, mild and severe) and in 25 eutrophic children with ages between 1 to 5 years, belonging to families of the strata IV and V according to the Graffar scale corrected by age. The results of the serum values of Zn were for the light undernourished of 39.73 +/- 14.97 microg/dL (30.38 microg/dL-44.56 microg/dL), for the mild undernourished of 35.07 +/- 28.13 microg/dL (27.76 microg/dL-65.80 microg/dL) and for the severe undernourished of 15.48 +/- 10.44 microg/dL (5.57 microg/dL-28.56 microg/dL), which were diminished in relation with the control group, 76.71 +/- 33.29 microg/dL (45.75 microg/dL - 78.27 microg/dL) with p < 0.0001. Equally, there were significant differences (p < 0.001) among the group of severe undernourished with the light undernourished and normal subjects. In relation with the daily ingestion of Zn, a statistically significant difference was observed only (p < 0.001) in the severe undernourished, 1.87 +/- 0.54 mg/día (1.20 mg/día-2.87 mg/día) when comparing them with the light undernourished, 5.48 +/- 0.98 mg/día (3.50 mg/día-7.87 mg/día), the mild undernourished, 4.99 +/- 1.24 mg/día (4.10 mg/día-11.42 mg/día) ) and the normal subjects, 6.22 +/- 0.98 mg/día (4.8 mg/día-8.02 mg/día). There was a positive correlation between ingestion and seric values of Zn when the 3 undernourished groups were studied. These results allow to conclude that both the seric values of Zn and its ingestion show modifications in relation with the degree of nutritional deficiency. PMID:17176903

  9. Nutritional assessment and weight-height development of sickle cell children in Northeast Brazil - doi:10.5020/18061230.2009.p187

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Rebouças Antunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the weight-height development and the nutritional status of a sickle cell anemia infantile sample in relation to zinc seric levels and to bone age in comparison to a control group of eutrophic children of the same Brazilian region. Methods: There were studied 66 sickle cell children (GE and 50 eutrophic ones (GC. The nutritional status was assessed using Rohrer Index, Z-score analysis of weight/age, height/age and body mass index (BMI. Zinc seric level (SZn, growth velocity (VC and bone age (IO were assessed using the standards of the National Center for Health Statistic (NCHS data and the results obtained from the GC evaluation. Results: Both groups had similar Rohrer Index. GE presented weight/age and height/age Z scores and BMI of underdevelopment levels with significant statistical difference. VC and IO were also lower in GE. The mean SZn in GE was significantly lower than in GC. Conclusion: The studied sickle cell children were born with normal stature, after that an important decrease in weight-height development occurred, which may be related to under-nourishing status, bone age delay, smaller growth velocity and worse zinc seric levels.

  10. THE IMPACTS OF DAIRY CATTLE OWNERSHIP ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN COASTAL KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Charles F.; Thornton, Philip K.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements for children and household characteristics were collected form 198 households in coastal Kenya to examine the impacts of dairy technology adoption on nutritional status. Random effects models indicate that dairy technology adoption positively influences chronic malnutrition, but that dairy consumption has a larger impact than adoption per se.

  11. Feeding and Nutrition of Infants and Young Children. Guidelines for the WHO European Region. WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; Fleischcer Michælsen, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Good feeding practices will prevent malnutrition and early growth retardation, which is still common in some parts of the WHO European Region, especially countries of the former Soviet Union. Despite the importance of nutrition and feeding of infants and young children, limited attention has been...

  12. Construction of web-based nutrition education contents and searching engine for usage of healthy menu of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Myung; Lee, Tae-Kyong; Chung, Hea-Jung; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Nam, Hye-Seon; Jung, Soon-Im; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    A diet habit, which is developed in childhood, lasts for a life time. In this sense, nutrition education and early exposure to healthy menus in childhood is important. Children these days have easy access to the internet. Thus, a web-based nutrition education program for children is an effective tool for nutrition education of children. This site provides the material of the nutrition education for children with characters which are personified nutrients. The 151 menus are stored in the site together with video script of the cooking process. The menus are classified by the criteria based on age, menu type and the ethnic origin of the menu. The site provides a search function. There are three kinds of search conditions which are key words, menu type and "between" expression of nutrients such as calorie and other nutrients. The site is developed with the operating system Windows 2003 Server, the web server ZEUS 5, development language JSP, and database management system Oracle 10 g. PMID:20126375

  13. How to Protect and Promote the Nutrition of Mothers and Children in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The study covered a wide range of topics, making data collection especially challenging. Key informants were sometimes new to their posts and were unable to provide details on specific programs, policies, or coverage rates. Few countries in Latin America and the Caribbean mainstream into their crisis and emergency plans protection of the nutritional status of mothers and children in the fi...

  14. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  15. Mainstreaming Children into National Poverty Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    The purpose of this paper is to assess how the needs of children are incorporated into Ethiopia¿s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)¿known as the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme 2002-2005 (SDRDP) ¿and to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP based...... on a comparative content analysis with other countries¿ PRSPs. The paper begins by identifying the key ingredients of a child-centred PRSP, including: consideration of childhood poverty in the document¿s poverty analysis; spaces for consultation with children; childspecific policies and programmes as well as child...... the multi-dimensionality of childhood poverty in Ethiopia....

  16. Children and the Wealth of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Cordoba

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses calibrated versions of the Barro-Becker model to compute measures of well-being for 142 countries between 1970 and 2005. In the model, individuals are altruistic toward their descendants: they enjoy the well-being of their children. We derive a model based measure of effective "quantity of life," the effective life span of an individual. It depends positively on life expectancy, degree of altruism and number of children, and negatively on the rate of time discounting. Our calc...

  17. Growth Impairment and Nutritional Status in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Deniz Kara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Malnutrition is closely linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD in adult patients with poor outcome. But data on pediatric patients is inadequate. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of growth failure and malnutrition in pediatric CKD patients and explore the relationship of these parameters to each other and to other clinical parameters. Methods:This study included 42 patients and 29 healthy children matched for age and gender. Patients were classified firstly in age group and secondly in therapy modalities. Nutritional evaluations were performed according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines, and we performed adjustments using values from children with the same chronological age as reference. Findings:In pubertal group, the mean height SDS was lower than in pre-pubertal period while it was higher than in early childhood (P=0.4 and P=0.03 respectively. In all groups, 45% of patients had malnutrition: 20 patients on predialysis, 22 patients with end stage renal disease (14 on hemodialysis, and 8 on peritoneal dialysis. The mean weight SDS was lower in end stage renal disease groups (P<0.001. The height SDS was lower in end stage renal disease groups (P<0.001. Conclusion:Growth failure and malnutrition remain a significant clinical problem as age and therapy modalities are dependent in children with CKD.

  18. The "5 a day" game: a nutritional intervention utilising innovative methodologies with primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Alice; Scazzina, Francesca; Ingrosso, Lisa; Morandi, Angelica; Del Rio, Daniele; Sanna, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was observing and improving children's eating habits through an edutainment technological platform. A single-group education intervention was carried out in primary schools in Parma and Milano, Italy. A total of 76 children (32 females and 44 males, 8-10 years old) were involved in a 3-month nutritional program including lessons and educational videogames. Intakes of fruits, vegetables, juices and dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured using 3-day food diaries before and after the intervention. The daily total consumption of fruit and vegetables increased from 421.8 (320.3) to 484.3 (337.2) g/day (p = 0.016). Consequently, daily dietary TAC increased by 26%, rising from 1.4 (1.3) to 1.6 (1.3) mmol of Trolox equivalents (p = 0.006). The methods and, particularly, the use of technological tools proved to be effective in conducting an educational intervention in children aged 8-10 years old. PMID:26307556

  19. Dietary intake of non-nutritive sweeteners in type 1 diabetes mellitus children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Louise; Casteels, Kristina; Corthouts, Karen; Van de Kerckhove, Kristel; Van der Vaerent, Katrien; Vanmeerbeeck, Kelly; Matthys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current cross-sectional study were (1) to assess the intake of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-k, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, sucralose, saccharin, steviol glycosides and neotame among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); (2) to compare the obtained intakes with the respective acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; and (3) to conduct a scenario analysis to obtain practical guidelines for a safe consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) among children with T1D. T1D patients of the Paediatrics Department of the University Hospitals Leuven were invited to complete a food frequency questionnaire designed to assess NNS intake using a tier 2 and tier 3 exposure assessment approach. A scenario analysis was conducted by reducing the P95 consumption of the most contributing food categories in order to reach a total sweetener intake lower than or equal to the ADI. Estimated total intakes higher than ADIs were only found for the P95 consumers only of acesulfame-k, cyclamate and steviol glycosides (tier 2 and tier 3 approach). Scenario analysis created dietary guidelines for each age category for diet soda, bread spreads and dairy drinks. There is little chance for T1D children to exceed the ADI of the different NNS, however diabetes educators and dieticians need to pay attention regarding the use of NNS. PMID:26523968

  20. Mortality risk among children admitted in a large-scale nutritional program in Niger, 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nael Lapidus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2006, the Médecins sans Frontières nutritional program in the region of Maradi (Niger included 68,001 children 6-59 months of age with either moderate or severe malnutrition, according to the NCHS reference (weight-for-height38.5 degrees C (1.83 [1.25; 2.69], and age below 1 year (1.42 [1.01; 1.99]. CONCLUSIONS: Although clinicians will continue to perform screening using clinical signs and anthropometry, these risk indicators may provide additional criteria for the assessment of absolute and relative risk of death. Better appraisal of the child's risk of death may help orientate the child towards either hospitalization or ambulatory care. As the transition from the NCHS growth reference to the WHO standards will increase the number of children classified as severely malnourished, further studies should explore means to identify children at highest risk of death within this group using simple and standardized indicators.

  1. National food consumption surveys: micronutrient intakes and the role of fortified foods in the diets of Irish pre-school children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Áine

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the micronutrient intakes of Irish pre-school children (1-4 years) and adults (18-64 years) and the role that fortified foods (FFs) play in the diets of these population groups. Dietary intake data were collected as part of the National Pre-school Nutrition Survey (NPNS) (2010-2011) and the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-2010) using 4-day food and beverage records. Nutrient intakes were estimated using WISP©, which encompasses McCance and Widdowson’s T...

  2. Dimensions of nutritional vulnerability: Assessment of women and children in Sahariya tribal community of Madhya Pradesh in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Ghosh-Jerath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tribal communities are "at risk" of undernutrition due to geographical isolation and suboptimal utilization of health services. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of Sahariya tribes of Madhya Pradesh (MP, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in villages inhabited by Sahariya tribal community (specifically women in reproductive age group and children under 5 years in three districts of MP. Dietary surveys, anthropometric and biochemical assessments were carried out and descriptive statistics on the socio-economic and nutritional profile were reported. Association between household (HH food security and nutritional status of children was carried out using the logistic regression. Strength of effects were summarized by odd′s ratio. Results: Chronic energy deficiency and anemia was observed in 42.4% and 90.1% of women respectively. Underweight, stunting and wasting among under five children were 59.1%, 57.3% and 27.7% respectively. Low food security was found in 90% of HHs and the odds of children being underweight and stunted when belonging to HHs with low and very low food security was found to be significant (P = 0.01 and 0.04 respectively. Calorie, fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C and folic acid intake among women was lower than recommended dietary allowance. Infant and young child feeding practices were suboptimal. Awareness on nutritional disorders and utilization of nutrition and health services was poor. Conclusion: A high prevalence of undernutrition and dietary deficiency exists among Sahariyas. System strengthening, community empowerment and nutrition education may play a pivotal role in addressing this.

  3. Nutritional status at presentation, comparison of assessment tools, and importance of arm anthropometry in children with cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, approximately 40,000 new cases of cancer in children are diagnosed each year. However, there are no good studies analyzing their nutritional status. Also, since accurate and sensitive nutritional assessment is critical for optimal clinical outcomes through timely remediation of malnutrition, it is important to assess the relative sensitivity and feasibility of commonly used nutritional screening tools. Methods: This observational study analyzed height/length (cm, weight (kg, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT as well as their Z-scores or percentiles, albumin levels and history of weight loss at diagnosis in children aged 2–15 years being treated for cancer between November 2008 to December 2013. Body mass index (BMI and arm muscle circumference (AMC were calculated respectively from height and weight, and MUAC and TSFT. Results: A total of 1693 new patients were enrolled; 1187 had all anthropometric measurements performed. The prevalence of malnutrition was 38%, 57%, 76%, 69% and 81% on the basis of BMI, TSFT, MUAC, AMC, and arm TSFT + MUAC respectively with the highest prevalence in solid abdominal tumours. Addition of BMI and serum albumin to arm anthropometry increased the proportion classified as severely nutritionally depleted by a mere 2% & 1.5% respectively. Positive history of significant weight loss additionally identified 16.5% at nutritional risk over arm anthropometry. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition in Indian children with cancer at presentation is very high ranging from 40% and 80% depending on the method used for assessment, being higher with MUAC and lowest with BMI. Either MUAC alone or TSFT + MUAC (wherever feasible should be used for screening for malnutrition in children with cancer at diagnosis to plan timely nutritional interventions, reduce the treatment-related morbidity and optimise their chance of long-term cure.

  4. Anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entry to Manitoba/Saskatchewan residential schools—1919 to 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, F.J. Paul; Abonyi, Sylvia; Dyck, Roland F.

    2016-01-01

    Background First Nations people are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes but no anthropometric information exists from before the 1950s to provide context to these epidemics. Objective To compare anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entering residential schools with historical and contemporary reference groups. Methods This observational cross-sectional study used archival records from the Department of Indian Affairs to calculate body mass index (BMI), height for age (HA) and weight for age (WA) of all known children and youth undergoing physical examinations on first entering residential schools in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1919 to 1953. Proportions of children and youth in each BMI category were determined by age, sex, time period and residential school. Z-scores for HA and WA were determined by age group and sex. Finally, median heights and weights were compared with a non-Indigenous cohort from the 1953 Canadian survey. Results On admission to residential schools, 1,767 First Nations children and youth (847 boys, 920 girls) were more likely to have normal BMIs (79.8%) than Canadian children and youth today (66.5%), but lower rates of overweight/obesity (10.9% vs. 32.0%) and higher rates of underweight (9.3% vs. −2, age-specific median heights tended to be higher than Canadian children and youth in 1953. Under 3% of children and youth had WA Z-scores of >−2. Conclusions A large majority of First Nations children and youth exhibited normal anthropometric indices on first entering residential schools in Manitoba and Saskatchewan from 1919 to 1953. These historical findings provide an important context to the current epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes and suggest that the nutritional conditions in these First Nations children's communities were satisfactory during the residential school era. PMID:27357369

  5. Symposium on ‘Nutrition and health in children and adolescents’ Session 1: Nutrition in growth and development: Nutrition and bone growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ann; Schoenmakers, Inez; Laskey, M. Ann; de Bono, Stephanie; Ginty, Fiona; Goldberg, Gail R

    2006-01-01

    The growth and development of the human skeleton requires an adequate supply of many different nutritional factors. Classical nutrient deficiencies are associated with stunting (e.g. energy, protein, Zn), rickets (e.g. vitamin D) and other bone abnormalities (e.g. Cu, Zn, vitamin C). In recent years there has been interest in the role nutrition may play in bone growth at intakes above those required to prevent classical deficiencies, particularly in relation to optimising peak bone mass and m...

  6. Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2003-01-01

    Food & Nutrition Guidelines for Primary Schools The Government has identified school children as one group to be given priority during the planning and delivery of programmes and initiatives for good health throughout life. In the Governmentâ?Ts National Health Promotion Strategy 2000/2005, the two major objectives for children are: Click here to download PDF 458kb

  7. Graduate level training in nutrition: an integrated model for capacity building- a national report.

    OpenAIRE

    Robabeh Sheikholeslam; Hossein Ghassemi; Osman Galal; Abolghassem Djazayery; Nasrin Omidvar; Issa Nourmohammadi; Ma Antonia G Tuazon

    2015-01-01

    Iran has been active in human nutrition training for the past five decades, but the existing curricular programs do not equip the graduates with the knowledge and skills required for solving food security and nutritional problems of the country. Given this, the Nutrition Department (ND) of Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) initiated a curricular reform to develop responsive graduate programs in key areas of nutrition that fill the existing gaps in nutrition training with...

  8. The role of nutrition in children's neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan; Oddy, Wendy H

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the current evidence for a possible connection between nutritional intake (including micronutrients and whole diet) and neurocognitive development in childhood. Earlier studies which have investigated the association between nutrition and cognitive development have focused on individual micronutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, folic acid, choline, iron, iodine, and zinc, and single aspects of diet. The research evidence from observational studies suggests that micronutrients may play an important role in the cognitive development of children. However, the results of intervention trials utilizing single micronutrients are inconclusive. More generally, there is evidence that malnutrition can impair cognitive development, whilst breastfeeding appears to be beneficial for cognition. Eating breakfast is also beneficial for cognition. In contrast, there is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the association between obesity and cognition. Since individuals consume combinations of foods, more recently researchers have become interested in the cognitive impact of diet as a composite measure. Only a few studies to date have investigated the associations between dietary patterns and cognitive development. In future research, more well designed intervention trials are needed, with special consideration given to the interactive effects of nutrients. PMID:23532379

  9. Nutritional Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents with Beta-Thalassemia-Major: An Egyptian Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila M. Sherief

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Trace elements and vitamins play a vital role in human body to perform its function properly. Thalassemic patients are at risk of micronutrient deficiency. This study estimated levels of vitamins A, C, E, B12, folic acid, total homocysteine (tHcy, and methylmalonic acid (MMA along with trace elements, zinc, copper, and selenium in Beta-thalassemia-major patients. Methods. This study included 108 patients with Beta-thalassemia-major and 60 age and sex matched healthy children. Serum levels of vitamin A, E, C, tHcy, and MMA were estimated by high pressure liquid chromatography while serum levels of folic acid and B12 were estimated by thin layer chromatography. Serum zinc, copper, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. There was a significant decrease of vitamins A, C, E, and B12 and trace elements zinc, copper, and selenium in thalassemic patients as compared to controls. tHcy and MMA were significantly elevated in patients. No significant correlations were found between the serum levels of the studied vitamins and trace elements as regards age, frequency of transfusion, duration of transfusion, and serum ferritin. Conclusion. The level of various nutritional biomarkers (vitamins A, C, E, and B12 and trace elements zinc, copper, selenium was reduced in chronically transfused Egyptian thalassemic patient. These patients should have periodic nutritional evaluation and supplementation. Multicenter studies are highly recommended.

  10. The role of nutrition for pressure ulcer management: national pressure ulcer advisory panel, European pressure ulcer advisory panel, and pan pacific pressure injury alliance white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Banks, Merrilyn; Dorner, Becky; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and hydration play an important role in preserving skin and tissue viability and in supporting tissue repair for pressure ulcer (PrU) healing. The majority of research investigating the relationship between nutrition and wounds focuses on PrUs. This white paper reviews the 2014 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Nutrition Guidelines and discusses nutrition strategies for PrU management. PMID:25775201

  11. Nutritional intakes in children with Prader–Willi syndrome and non-congenital obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Daniela A; Jill Nowak; Erin McLaren; Monzeratt Patiño; Castner, Diobel M.; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) have extremely regulated diets to prevent the development of morbid obesity. Objective: This study evaluated potential deficiencies in macro and micronutrients in a cohort of youth with PWS and compared them to a group of children with non-congenital obesity and to US national recommendations. Design: Participants were 32 youth with PWS (age=10.8±2.6 years, body fat=46.7±10.1%) and 48 children without PWS but classified as obese (age=9....

  12. Advertisement and Children: is Brand Logo Recognition of Children Effected their Nutritional Habits and Food Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Tokuc; Ufuk Berberoglu; Galip Ekuklu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: This study was conducted for determining the eating habits and food knowledge and rate of recognizing brand logos currently featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry of the school children. And to explore the relationship between the ability of recognizing brand logos currently featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eating habits, food knowledge and preferences. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 primary schools in the provincial cente...

  13. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  14. Evolução nutricional de crianças hospitalizadas e sob acompanhamento nutricional Nutritional evolution of hospitalized children who were under nutritional orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo teve como finalidade avaliar a evolução nutricional de crianças hospitalizadas com doenças infecciosas, que estiveram sob acompanhamento nutricional. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 125 crianças com idade de 6 a 36 meses de vida, admitidas na enfermaria de infectologia pediátrica do Hospital São Paulo, durante o período de Março de 2001 a Dezembro de 2002. As avaliações do estado nutricional e da ingestão energética basearam-se nos dados obtidos em inquéritos alimentares e medições antropométricas. RESULTADOS: Das crianças avaliadas, 67 eram do sexo masculino (53,6%; a mediana de idade foi 17 meses e o tempo médio de internação, dez dias. Na época da admissão, 24,8% das crianças estavam desnutridas enquanto 10,0% delas apresentavam sobrepeso e obesidade. Prevaleceu o diagnóstico de doenças agudas (69,6%. Realizaram terapia nutricional 21,6% das crianças, sendo que destas, 81,5% receberam terapia nutricional via oral. O grupo de desnutridos teve melhora significativa do escore-Z de peso para estatura-Z peso/estatura (p=0,001; o grupo de eutróficos não teve alteração significativa de escore-Z peso/estatura (p=0,651 e o grupo com sobrepeso/obesos teve redução significativa do escore-Z peso/estatura (p=0,026. Não houve associação significativa entre realização de terapia nutricional e melhora do estado nutricional (p=0,37. A melhora doescore-Z peso/estatura esteve relacionada à ingestão de energia maior que a recomendação normal para a idade (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating the nutritional evolution of hospitalized children with infectious diseases, who were put under nutritional orientation. METHODS: Evaluate the effect of therapeutic nutritional orientation on 125 children between 6 and 36 months of age, who were admitted at the Pediatric Infectology Ward of the Hospital São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, between March 2001 and December 2002. The evaluations of nutritional status

  15. Implementing the National Strategy on Action for Children: 2015 results

    OpenAIRE

    Kaganov V.S.,

    2016-01-01

    The article consists of two parts: V.Sh.Kaganov’s interview (introduction) and data on the results of 2015 on the key activities in priority areas of the "National Strategy for Action on Children for 2012–2017" 2015 by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The paper describes agency’s activities, federal initiatives, advanced regional experiences and best practices. Special at- tention is given to the availability of inclusive, special education for children with di...

  16. The effect of providing nutritional information about fast-food restaurant menus on parents' meal choices for their children

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jae-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Kiwon; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Soyeong; Yang, Jihye; Song, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Youngmi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Particip...

  17. Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children

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    Elvira Verduci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI, blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50, triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25 mmol/L and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21, and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11 mmol/L. Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Social heterogeneity and children's nutrition in the rural environment La heterogeneidad social y la nutrición infantil en el medio rural A heterogeneidade social e a nutrição infantil no meio rural

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Rocha; Tatiana Engel Gerhardt; Daniel Labernarde dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: this study is inserted in an Interdisciplinary Program of Research and aims to learn about the nutritional situation and life context of children under five in the rural environment of Arambaré/RS, Brazil, through an epidemiological cross-sectional descriptive study. METHOD: the data of anthropometrical assessment (Weight/Age, Age/Height, Weight/Height) expressed in Z scores, whose reference population is that of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) were analyzed in th...

  19. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    .841 g), but no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Human milk seems to result in a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass among very preterm born infants. The results are preliminary due to the small number of children. The remaining children in this cohort will be invited to similar...... type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups. If...... possible to breastfeed, the infant was randomised to one of two groups • Breastfeeding solely (human milk) • Breastfeeding enriched with fortification (human milk fortifier) If breastfeeding was not possible the infant received • Preterm formula. They were all fed the specific nutrition from discharge to 4...

  20. A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Nutritional Intervention Measures on Admitted Children in Selected Nutrition Rehabilitation Centers of Indore and Ujjain Divisions of the State of Madhya Pradesh (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Gunjan Taneja; Sanjay Dixit; A K Khatri; Veena Yesikar; Deepa Raghunath; Sanjay Chourasiya

    2012-01-01

    Background: The state of Madhya Pradesh has 1.3 million severely malnourished children. Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) were started in the state to control severe malnutrition and decrease the prevalence of severe malnourished children to less than 1% among children aged 1–5 years. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted from November 2008 to October 2009; 100 children admitted to seven different NRCs in Indore and Ujjain divisions of Madhya Pradesh were observed durin...

  1. Magnitude of H. pylori infection and its impact on macro nutrients assimilation and nutritional status of under-five children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of weight loss and malnutrition are more common among children having frequently diarrhea. Among many causal factors of diarrhea, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role. The study consisted of two phases, Phase I and Phase II. Phase I: A crossectional study of H. pylori infection was carried out in 275 children aged 6-36 months from low SES in rural and suburb areas in Bogor, West Java - Indonesia. H. Pylori infection was determined by using 13C urea breath test, and nutritional status analyzed by z-scores. The study revealed that a strong (x2=30.9; df=4; p<0.01) association was observed between the ages of children with the prevalence of H. pylori infection. The younger the child the higher was the prevalence of H. pylori infection. A similar trend but less stronger (c2=8.1; df=3; p<0.05) was observed between mother's education with the prevalence of H. pylori infection. The higher the level of mother's education the lower was the percentage of H. pylori infection. Although there was a trend toward positive association, but the analysis yielded no significant association was found between diarrhea and H. pylori infection. A similar result of analysis was also shown between anemia status and H. pylori infection. Of particular interest is that the percentage of breastfed children with positive H. pylori infection is significantly (P<0.05) higher than those who were weaned. Stunting, a deficit of length-for-age is the only one among the three indicators of malnutrition (underweight, wasting, stunting) is significantly (P<0.05) associated with H. pylori infection, although the other two of indicators following the same pattern. These findings demonstrate that H. Pylori infection has an effect on malabsorption leading to a negative impact on the ability of children to thrive. Phase II: A total of 83 children aged 6-36 months with the third degree of undernourished who were outpatients at the Nutrition Clinic in Bogor served as

  2. Implementing the National Strategy on Action for Children: 2015 results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaganov V.S.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts: V.Sh.Kaganov’s interview (introduction and data on the results of 2015 on the key activities in priority areas of the "National Strategy for Action on Children for 2012–2017" 2015 by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The paper describes agency’s activities, federal initiatives, advanced regional experiences and best practices. Special at- tention is given to the availability of inclusive, special education for children with disabilities. Great attention is paid to new approaches and technologies to al- low reinforcing the social protection of orphans and children facing difficulties by including them in a fulfilling life. The article also stated objectives, results and prospects of the development of upbringing and additional education of children, gifted children supporting, promotion of healthy lifestyle, values and professional orientation of Russian youth.

  3. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  4. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  5. Poor nutrition status and associated feeding practices among HIV-positive children in a food secure region in Tanzania: a call for tailored nutrition training.

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    Bruno F Sunguya

    Full Text Available METHODS: We conducted this mixed-method study among 748 children aged 6 months-14 years attending 9 of a total of 32 care and treatment centers in Tanga region, Tanzania. We collected quantitative data using a standard questionnaire and qualitative data through seven focus group discussions (FGDs. RESULTS: HIV-positive children had high magnitudes of undernutrition. Stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness were prevalent among 61.9%, 38.7%, 26.0%, and 21.1% of HIV-positive children, respectively. They also had poor feeding practices: 88.1% were fed at a frequency below the recommendations, and 62.3% had a low level of dietary diversity. Lower feeding frequency was associated with stunting (β = 0.11, p = 0.016; underweight (β = 0.12, p = 0.029; and thinness (β = 0.11, p = 0.026. Lower feeding frequency was associated with low wealth index (β = 0.06, p<0.001, food insecurity (β =  -0.05, p<0.001, and caregiver's education. In the FGDs, participants discussed the causal relationships among the key associations; undernutrition was mainly due to low feeding frequency and dietary diversity. Such poor feeding practices resulted from poor nutrition knowledge, food insecurity, low income, and poverty. CONCLUSION: Feeding practices and nutrition status were poor among HIV-positive children even in food rich areas. Improving feeding frequency may help to ameliorate undernutrition. To improve it, tailored interventions should target children of poor households, the food insecure, and caregivers who have received only a low level of education.

  6. The Impact of Irrigation on the Nutritional Status of Children in the Sissala West District of Ghana

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    A.K. Anderson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2006 the most sustainable way to reduce hunger effectively is to improve agriculture and rural development simultaneously. The study investigated the impact of irrigation dam projects on child nutritional status. A total of 397 mother-child pair from three communities (control, 1 year and 2 year intervention with introduction of irrigation dam with and without irrigation dams participated in the study. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indicators (height/length, weight and MUAC and haemoglobin levels. For haemoglobin assessment a sub-sample of 200 children was used. Twenty four h dietary recall was used to assess dietary intake. The results showed significant differences (p<0.001 in wasting rates of 11.0, 21.2 and 12.3%, respectively among children in the control, 1 year intervention and 2 year intervention communities respectively. Haemoglobin assessment revealed that a greater proportion of children (70.1% were anaemic. The 1 year intervention had a significantly higher number of children (p<0.001 who had haemoglobin in the normal range. Most (95.9% of the children did not meet their energy needs according to their dietary intake records. Child feeding practices continue to be a challenge in these communities. Currently, the impact of the irrigation dam on the livelihoods and nutritional status of the children is not obvious but more time is needed to realize the full potential. Nutrition education should target the incorporation of fish from the dam into young child feeding in these communities.

  7. NUTRITIONAL ESTIMATES OF SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS: STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF VARANASI

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    M K Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the adoption of western lifestyle the problem of overweight and obesity is gradually increasing in children, while problem of malnutrition is persisting continuously in the country. With this background a school based cross sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of school going children in a rural area: Chiraigaon block of Varanasi. Study period: July 2010 to September 2010 Methods: A school-based study with cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 1448 school children were examined from 3 middle-schools that were selected by simple random sampling method. Height and weight of the children were measured, and BMI and other parameters were assessed. Results: On applying the BMI-for-age criteria, twelve percent of the children (12.4% boys and 11.1% girls were found underweight while 5.4% were overweight or obese (5.71% of the boys and 4.63% of the girls. But when the previous WHO’s BMI classification was used, 86.5% children had BMI <18.5 (88.4% of total boys and 81.9% of all girls. Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going children based on WHO criteria of BMI for age has been satisfactory. However, this approach needs scientific validation by undertaking a multi-centric study.

  8. Graduate level training in nutrition: an integrated model for capacity building- a national report.

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    Robabeh Sheikholeslam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran has been active in human nutrition training for the past five decades, but the existing curricular programs do not equip the graduates with the knowledge and skills required for solving food security and nutritional problems of the country. Given this, the Nutrition Department (ND of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME initiated a curricular reform to develop responsive graduate programs in key areas of nutrition that fill the existing gaps in nutrition training with the goal of improving nutrition policy-making and program development, implementation and evaluation. ND called for a request for proposals for a project entitled "Graduate Level Training in Nutrition". Specifically, with technical assistance from leading academic institutions in Asia, North America and UK, seven new graduate programs were housed in three separate institutions, but coordinated so that together they form a broad multidisciplinary resource for graduate education and research. These seven-degree programs are MSc and PhD in Molecular/Cellular Nutrition, MSc and PhD in Nutritional Epidemiology, MSc and PhD in Food Policy and Nutrition Intervention, and MSc in Community Nutrition. The programs were prepared in collaboration and active participation of selected faculty members of the three Iranian universities, International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the University of Philippines at Los Baños. The development of these programs was made possible through a loan from the World Bank, under the Second Primary Health and Nutrition Project in the MOHME.

  9. The Use of IT to Increase Nutritional Awareness in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, N; Kent, S; Rai, SS

    2004-01-01

    It has been well documented that obesity amongst young children is on the increase. By the age of 5 the level of obesity is alarming and is much greater than expected in comparison to the national standards. To address this problem, an overall health programme is required encompassing healthy eating and physical activity. However, a radical change of this nature has not shown any long-term benefits and can result in a negative attitude from the child. Therefore, more subtleways of increasing ...

  10. Maternal Characteristics Determine Stunting in Children of Less than Five Years of Age Results from a National Probabilistic Survey

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    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition and some variables are the main determining factors of birthweight and delayed intrauterine growth of children.Objective: To explore the association between the mothers’ biological and sociodemographic characteristics, and the anthropometry status in children under five years of age.Design: The population consisted of a sub-sample of 1,047 mother-and-child selected pairs from the probabilistic National Nutrition Survey, carried out in Mexico. Mother-and-child pairs included mothers aged 12 to 49 years, with children under five years of age. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history, 24-hour recall dietary intake, and the women and children’s anthropometry were collected. The association between maternal characteristics and children’s anthropometry status was assessed using multiple logistic regression models.Result: Nearly 16.7% of the children 2y. The height/age of the children was severely affected by maternal height and birth order. In addition, the interaction between socioeconomic level and maternal schooling had a marginal effect (p = 0.09 in the ≤2y group. On the other hand, whether the family received social services and the interaction between maternal height and a dichotomy urbanism variable were significant ( p = 0.05 and (p 2y group.Conclusion: Some biological and socioeconomic characteristics among mothers have a negative effect on their children’s attained size, especially in the period between 2 and 5 years of age.

  11. MedlinePlus: Toddler Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler Nutrition -- see more articles Reference Desk Toddler Nutrition and Health Resource List (Department of Agriculture) - PDF Find an ... Related Health Topics Child Nutrition Infant and Newborn Nutrition National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Toddler ...

  12. MedlinePlus: Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity in children Related Health Topics Body Weight Child Nutrition Obesity Weight Control National Institutes of Health The primary ... Nation Growing Challenge of "Diabesity" Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Reducing Childhood Obesity Reducing Childhood Obesity: We Can! Wanted: Active Role ...

  13. Nutritional status, socio-economic and hygienic condition of school aged children of a village of Pune District, Maharashtra

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    Puranik SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutritional and health problems of the village. Method: Anthropometric reference data of 100 children between 7-14 years of age from a small village situated 30 km from Pune. Using this data BMI i.e. Body Mass Index was calculated which helps in determining whether an individual is overweight or underweight. Result: The overall study helped us to find out the socioeconomic condition, hygienic condition as well as nutritional status of children. All the anthropometric measurements of the girls and boys in 7-14 years age group was found to be significantly normal. Conclusion: The hygienic condition of the village was good enough and in turn BMI data shows that the socioeconomic condition of the village was also good.

  14. [Nutritional deficit in children in a major city of the interior of the state of Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Gilmar Mercês; Castelão, Elizia Simões; Vieira, Tatiana de Oliveira; Gomes, Daiene Rosa; Vieira, Graciete Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    The study sought to analyze the nutritional deficit of children and associated environmental factors and maternal and infant characteristics in a major city in the interior of the state of Bahia. Information from mother/child-under-four duos of a birth cohort was assessed. Malnutrition was defined by the height-for-age (H/A) anthropometric index, at a cutoff of -1 z-score relative to the benchmark of the 2006 Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The variables studied were: the characteristics of children (birth weight and multiple births) and mothers (age at the time of birth, education level, parity and performing prenatal exams) and environmental factors (floor and roof material of residence, source of water consumed, indoor plumbing, water used for consumption and ownership of a refrigerator). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with nutritional deficit. Nutritional deficit occurred in 24.6% of children. Underweight at birth, inadequate prenatal care, precarious nature of the floor of the home and no indoor plumbing were predictors of malnutrition among children in the study. Factors associated with malnutrition confirm the contribution of social issues in the genesis of malnutrition. PMID:24897223

  15. Effectiveness of nutrition training of health workers toward improving caregivers’ feeding practices for children aged six months to two years: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B; Shakya, Prakash; Urassa, David P.; Jimba, Masamine; Yasuoka, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutrition training of health workers can help to reduce child undernutrition. Specifically, trained health workers might contribute to this end through frequent nutrition counseling of caregivers. This may improve child-feeding practices and thus reduce the risk of undernutrition among children of counseled caregivers. Although studies have shown varied impacts of health workers’ nutrition training on child feeding practices, no systematic review of the effectiveness of such interv...

  16. A study on the role of parental involvement in control of nutritional anemia among children of free primary schools in a rural area of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Dibakar Haldar; Tutul Chatterjee; Aditya Prasad Sarkar; Sankar Kumar Das; Sarmila Mallik

    2011-01-01

    An intervention study was conducted among students of three randomly selected free primary schools in rural West Bengal to assess the effect of health-nutrition education for behavior modification of parents on nutritional anemia of children. Clinically anemic students were school-wise randomized into ′groups of two′ and intervened with anthelminthic, iron-folic acid (IFA) pediatric tablet and health-nutrition education by reoriented teachers. Parents of study group were involved in behavior ...

  17. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

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    Yongqing Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01, although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education.

  18. Evaluation of Fast Food Behavior in Pre-School Children and Parents Following a One-Year Intervention with Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Yuee; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Feng, Cindy Xin; Liu, Tingting; Li, Changwei; Lin, DongDong; Mu, Yongping; Tarver, Siobhan L.; Wang, Mao; Sun, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    A community-based intervention study was conducted to assess a nutrition education intervention on western style fast food consumption among Chinese children and parents. Eight kindergartens from three district areas of Hefei City (a total of 1252 children aged 4–6 years and their parents) were randomly selected. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were used to evaluate the baseline, midterm, and final western style fast food knowledge, attitude, and practice in both parents and children were used to identify and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice in the parents and children. Parents and children were divided into “intervention” and “control” groups based on nutrition education status. Consumption of western style fast food at breakfast in Chinese children and parents is not high. The main reasons for this in children is that consumption of western style fast food is not viewed as “food”, but rather as a “gift” or “interesting”. The time of children’s consumption of western style fast food is mostly likely to be in the weekends. The nutrition education modified the parents’ western style fast food behavior (p < 0.01), although it did not change significantly in children. The healthy nutrition concept should be built up among Chinese, especially in children. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the nutrition education. PMID:24983391

  19. Women's work in farming, child feeding practices and nutritional status among under-five children in rural Rukwa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta

    2015-11-28

    Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-scorepractices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status. PMID:26435007

  20. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Fraser, Drora; Friger, Michael; Geva, Dikla; Bilenko, Natalya; Vardi, Hillel; Elhadad, Naama; Mor, Karen; Feine, Zvi; Shahar, Danit R.

    2016-01-01

    Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES) school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years) and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm) included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA) classes for children; the control (CArm) received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6%) completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p water drinking increased (p = 0.02), and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05). A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches. PMID:27110817

  1. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Nutritional Knowledge and Habits of Low-Socioeconomic School Children in Israel: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Kaufman-Shriqui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4–7 years and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA classes for children; the control (CArm received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6% completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all, habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02, and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05. A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches.

  2. Effects of nutritional status on academic performance of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    Numerous factors are known to affect the academic performance of students. These include prenatal conditions, birth conditions, postnatal events, nutritional, socio-economic factors and environmental factors. This paper examines the nutritional status and its relationship with academic performance of 9-10 years old primary school children recruited randomly in Selangor, Malaysia. A standard self-administered questionnaire was utilized to obtain pertinent information and a face-to-face interview was also conducted with the parents. Results of the academic performances were extracted from the students' report cards. The intellectual performance was assessed using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Physical examination was also conducted on these students by doctors. Overall 1,405 students and 1,317 parents responded to the survey. Of these 83.6% were Malays, 11.6% Indians, and 4.2% Chinese. The majority of them (82.9%) were from urban areas. The female: male ratio was 51:49; mean age was 9.71 years. The mean height and weight were 32.3 kg and 135.2 cm respectively. Their mean BMI was 17.42 kg/cm2, with 0.9% underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight, and 6.3% obese. Academic performance was significantly correlated with breast feeding, income and educational level of their parents, BMI, and whether they have been taking breakfast. There was a weak correlation between presence of anaemia and intellectual performance. Improving the socio-economic status of the parents will lend a helping hand in the academic performance of the students. Since breast feeding is associated with better academic and intellectual performance it must be emphasized, particularly to expectant mothers in the antenatal clinics. PMID:16425650

  3. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged...

  4. The association between nutritional status and malaria in children from a rural community in the Amazonian region: a longitudinal study.

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    Márcia Almeida Araújo Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between malaria and undernutrition is controversial and complex. Synergistic associations between malnutrition and malaria morbidity and mortality have been suggested, as well as undernutrition being protective against infection, while other studies found no association. We sought to evaluate the relationship between the number of malaria episodes and nutritional statuses in a cohort of children below 15 years of age living in a rural community in the Brazilian Amazon.Following a baseline survey of clinical, malaria and nutritional assessment including anthropometry measurements and hemoglobin concentration, 202 children ranging from 1 month to 14 years of age were followed for one year through passive case detection for malaria episodes. After follow-up, all children were assessed again in order to detect changes in nutritional indicators associated with malaria infection. We also examined the risk of presenting malaria episodes during follow-up according to presence of stunting at baseline. Children who suffered malaria episodes during follow-up presented worse anthropometric parameters values during this period. The main change was a reduction of the linear growth velocity, associated with both the number of episodes and how close the last or only malaria episode and the second anthropometric assessment were. Changes were also observed for indices associated with chronic changes, such as weight-for-age and BMI-for-age, which conversely, were more frequently observed in children with the last or only episode occurring between 6 and 12 months preceding the second nutritional assessment survey. Children with inadequate height-for-age at baseline (Z-score < -2 presented lower risk of suffering malaria episodes during follow-up as assessed by both the log-rank test (p =0.057 and the multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression (Hazard Ratio = 0.31, 95%CI [0.10; 0.99] p=0.049.Malaria was associated with impaired nutritional

  5. Environment and Obesity in the National Children's Study Ambiente e obesidade no National Children's Study

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    Leonardo Trasande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the approach taken by the National Children's Study (NCS to understanding the role of environmental factors in the development of obesity. We review the literature with regard to the two core hypotheses in the NCS that relate to environmental origins of obesity and describe strategies that will be used to test each hypothesis. Although it is clear that obesity in an individual results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, control of the obesity epidemic will require understanding of factors in the modern built environment and chemical exposures that may have the capacity to disrupt the link between energy intake and expenditure. Through its embrace of the life-course approach to epidemiology, the NCS will be able to study the origins of obesity from preconception through late adolescence, including factors ranging from genetic inheritance to individual behaviors to the social, built, and natural environment and chemical exposures. It will have sufficient statistical power to examine interactions among these multiple influences, including geneenvironment and geneobesity interactions. A major secondary benefit will derive from the banking of specimens for future analysis.Descrevemos a abordagem do National Children's Study (NCS para entender o papel dos fatores ambientais no desenvolvimento da obesidade. Revisamos a literatura a respeito de duas hipóteses principais no NCS que se relacionam a origens ambientais da obesidade e descrevem estratégias que serão utilizadas para testar cada hipótese. Apesar de estar claro que a obesidade em um indivíduo é resultado de um desequilíbrio entre consumo e gasto de energia, o controle da epidemia de obesidade requer o entendimento de fatores no ambiente moderno e exposições químicas que podem ter a capacidade de interromper a ligação entre o consumo e gasto de energia. Através da aceitação da abordagem do curso de vida a epidemiologia, o NCS será capaz de estudar

  6. Effect of titrated parenteral nutrition on body composition after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter trial123

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Tanvi S.; Bechard, Lori J.; Feldman, Henry A.; Venick, Robert; Gura, Kathleen; Gordon, Catherine M; Sonis, Andrew; Guinan, Eva C.; Duggan, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) often require parenteral nutrition (PN) to optimize caloric intake. Standard approaches to nutritional supplementation provide 130–150% of estimated energy expenditure, but resting energy expenditure (REE) may be lower than expected after HSCT. Provision of PN exceeding energy needs may lead to overfeeding and associated complications.

  7. Nutritional zinc deficiency, immune capacity and malaria : a study on mediators of immunity to malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbugi, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aimed at investigating the role of genetic and nutritional factors that affect the immune response to malaria in Tanzanian children. The introductory chapter (Chapter 1) reviews the importance of nutritional deficiencies, particularly of zinc, and presents the hypothesis that such defici

  8. ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition Position Paper. Intravenous lipid emulsions and risk of hepatotoxicity in infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Colomb, Virginie; Braegger, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of available scientific evidence regarding the role of different intravenous lipid emulsions (ILE) in the pathogenesis of cholestasis and parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD).A systematic review of the...... literature (up to March 2015) identified 23 randomized controlled trials (RCT). Of these, 17 were performed in preterm infants or critically ill neonates with a short duration of intervention, 2 in older children with short term use (following surgery or bone marrow transplantation), 1 in neonates with long...... term use and 3 in infants and children receiving long term parenteral nutrition (PN).Meta-analysis showed no differences in the rate of cholestasis or bilirubin levels associated with short term use of different ILEs. Due to high heterogeneity of the long-term studies no meta-analysis could be...

  9. Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Metodología de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Resano-Pérez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99 is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years, and women of childbearing age (12-49 years. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin levels, morbidity and its determinants, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. In addition, data on diet and micronutrients intakes (iron, zinc, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin C, and iodine were obtained in a sub-sample of subjects. RESULTS: The response rate for the NNS-99 was 82.3%; the non-response rate was 5.9% and the remaining did not participate due to uninhabited houses. CONCLUSIONS: This survey updates the information on nutritional status in Mexico and should serve as the basis for food and nutrition policy-making and priority program design.OBJETIVO: Describir la metodología y análisis de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La ENN-99 es probabilística, con representatividad nacional de cuatro regiones y estratos urbano/rural. Las unidades últimas de muestras son los hogares seleccionados por muestreo estratificado y por conglomerados. La población de estudio fueron los niños menores de cinco años de edad, los niños 6-11 años (escolares y las mujeres de 12-49 años, en quienes se obtuvieron mediciones antropométricas, niveles de hemoglobina, información sobre morbilidad y sus determinantes, datos socieconómicos y demográficos, y en una submuestra se determinaron micronutrimentos (hierro, zinc, vitamina A, ácido fólico, vitamina C, yoduria y se obtuvo información sobre dieta. RESULTADOS: La Encuesta

  10. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Other Foods in the First Six Months of Life: Effects on Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Brazilian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Taís C. A.; Vieira, Sarah A.; Priore, Silvia E.; Ribeiro, Andréia Q.; Joel A. Lamounier; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Sant'Ana, Luciana F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of other foods in the first six months of life in the nutritional status and body composition of children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study with 185 children aged from 4 to 7 years was monitored during the first months of life in a program of support to breastfeeding. We evaluated weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition by using DEXA. The nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age index. Th...

  11. Relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection to the nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea and abdominal pain from three different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. pylori infection has been considered a public health problem, since the highest incidence occurs during the first ten years of life, a period in which children are under a critical growth and development stage. The infection with H. pylori during early infancy could be the initial step of a chain reaction, which facilitates the enteric infection in childhood leading to recurrent diarrhoea, malnutrition and growth failure. Particularly, general micronutrients deficiencies can facilitate malnutrition, immunological dysfunction and the persistence of infection. Objective: This study explored the association among H. pylori infection and the nutritional status of symptomatic and non-symptomatic Mexican children from three different environments, accounting for other nutrition related variables, such as diet, parasitic infection and family socioeconomic status. Methods: Diagnosis of H. pylori infection was performed according to a revised IAEA CRP protocol (June, 2000), using the 13C-Urea Breath Test method. Using weight, height and age, nutritional indicators of weight/age, height/age, and weight/height were obtained. Z scores were calculated using Epi-Infor 1.1.1a, and classification of nutritional status used as reference standards those published by WHO. Two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls were used to collect children's dietary data. A detailed interview was applied to the children and their mother or tutor. Faeces were collected of each child by triplicate for the detection of protozoaries and worm eggs. Multiple regression analysis was used to compare the nutritional status (W/H, W/A, H/A) of children and the presence of H. pylori infection, adjusting to confounding variables such as symptoms, diet, parasitic infection and socio-economic status. Results: Total prevalence of infection in Mexican children was 43.3%. The highest prevalence of infection was for migrant children (66.9%), followed by children from Oaxaca (47.9%) and then from Hermosillo (27

  12. Dimensions of nutritional vulnerability: Assessment of women and children in Sahariya tribal community of Madhya Pradesh in India

    OpenAIRE

    Suparna Ghosh-Jerath; Anita Singh; Aruna Bhattacharya; Shomik Ray; Shariqua Yunus; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tribal communities are "at risk" of undernutrition due to geographical isolation and suboptimal utilization of health services. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of Sahariya tribes of Madhya Pradesh (MP), India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in villages inhabited by Sahariya tribal community (specifically women in reproductive age group and children under 5 years) in three districts of MP. Dietary surveys, a...

  13. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 5 Years in Children Exposed Prenatally to Maternal Dental Amalgam: The Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Gene E.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M. T.; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S.; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Strain, J.J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M. W.; Myers, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg0) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children’s neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of pr...

  14. Maternal Education and Micro-Geographic Disparities in Nutritional Status among School-Aged Children in Rural Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L.; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nu...

  15. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (Pcaregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); Pcaregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (Pcaregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (Pchild nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions. PMID:26560016

  16. Interrelation of Cadmium, Smoking, and Cardiovascular Disease (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eric M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Lee, David J; Hennekens, Charles H; Hlaing, WayWay M

    2016-07-15

    Cadmium biomarker levels are associated with both cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease. In this cross-sectional survey, we explore whether the association between cadmium and cardiovascular disease differs between cigarette smoking states. A cross-sectional analysis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2003 to 2012 was performed accounting for the nationally representative complex sampling design. All participants 45 to 79 years old with blood and urinary cadmium levels were included (n = 12,511). We explored the inter-relationships of blood and urine cadmium levels with cigarette smoking and a composite cardiovascular outcome that included self-reported myocardial infarction or stroke or both. We used multivariable logistic regressing models to further adjust for age, income, gender, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, diabetes, smoking intensity, and time period of smoking cessation. Of the 12,511 participants, 1,330 (8.5%) had previous myocardial infarction or stroke or both. The crude prevalence ratio (PR) comparing those in the lowest tertile of blood cadmium with those in the highest tertile for the composite outcome was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49 to 2.01). After adjustment for age, gender, income, self-reported diabetes, self-reported hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, and smoking status, the PR was 1.54 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.84). The adjusted PRs for each smoking subgroup were 1.54 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.18) for never-smokers, 1.57 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.23) for current smokers, and 1.31 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.78) for former smokers. These descriptive data from a nationally representative sample suggest that cadmium is related to cardiovascular outcomes even after adjustment for smoking status. PMID:27316775

  17. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim; Sk Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed u...

  18. Snacking for a Cause: Nutritional Insufficiencies and Excesses of U.S. Children, a Critical Review of Food Consumption Patterns and Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake of U.S. Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to identify dietary insufficiencies and excesses in children aged two to 11 in the United States (U.S. and eating habits that merit concern in terms of nutrient and energy density to improve overall diet quality. Data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA tables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were examined as well as survey data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA. Analysis of survey data revealed that children consume insufficient Vitamin D, calcium, and potassium and excess energy, carbohydrates, and sodium. Dietary modifications are necessary to prevent serious deficiencies and the development of chronic illness. Snacking has steadily increased in this population since the 1970s, and snacks provide necessary nutrients. However, carbohydrates and added sugars tend to be over-consumed at snacking occasions. Replacement of current snack choices with nutrient-dense foods could lower the risks of nutrient deficiencies and help lower excess nutrient consumption. Increased consumption of low sugar dairy foods, especially yogurt, at snack times could increase intake of important micronutrients without contributing to dietary excesses.

  19. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  20. A comparison of nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dairy consumption of school children according to age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colić Barić

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides traditional nutrients, milk and dairy products contain some health promoting components. The aim of this study was to detect the frequency and preferences among dairy products in school children according to age and gender. The subjects were 234 healthy children at age 10-11 years and 14-15 years from two primary schools in Zagreb. Number of participants was well balanced according to age and gender. Dietary data were collected using specially designed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. By additional questionnaire some anthropometric parameters as well as food preferences, attitudes and nutrition knowledge on milk and dairy products were collected. According to the results the intake of milk is significantly different (p< 0.05 to gender but not to age. 91 % children consume milk, 2.3 cups/day in average. Soft drinks, fruit juices, beverages and similar drinks are consumed more often than milk. Pudding and ice cream had the highest frequency among dairy products consumed. Milk and dairy frequency intake according to age and gender are still not significantly different. Children mostly consume fresh milk (68.7%. Girls at age 14-15 years consume light milk ( ≤1.6 % fat more than younger children and boys at the same age. 86 % of children is well informed about nutritional facts linked to milk and dairy products and they are mostly educate by parents. Among anthropometric parameters a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in height with regard to gender, only among older children, and for both height and, weight and body mass indeks (BMI with regard to age.

  1. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  2. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 μg/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 μg/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hee Ahn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.

  4. [Healthcare of children and adolescents in national strategy for action for children for 2012-2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R

    2013-01-01

    The National Strategy defines the main directions and objectives of public policy in the interests of children and the key mechanisms for its implementation. The strategy is based on the universally recognized principles and norms of international law. Implementation of the National Strategy will be realized in the following areas: Family Child Welfare Policy, availability to quality education and training, cultural development, and information security of children, child-friendly health care, and healthy lifestyle; equal opportunities for children in need of special care of the State, the creation of protection and safeguarding the rights and interests of children and child-friendly justice, and children - members of the realization of National Strategy. School health care is intended to be actively involved in two directions: availability to quality education and training, cultural development, and information security of children, health care, child-friendly and healthy lifestyle. The main tasks in the part of hygiene and children's health are: state support for the construction of new preschool educational institutions and the development of all forms of safe preschool education, including non-state sector, providing for every upperclassman safe choice of training profile corresponding to his inclinations and life plans, as well as the functional possibilities and health state; providing quality psychological, correctional and pedagogical aid to children in educational institutions; renewal of forms and methods of control of child neglect, drug addiction, alcoholism, crime, prostitution; the development of effective mechanisms in prevention of deviant behavior in childhood; the creation and implementation of training programs for children and adolescents on rules of safety behavior in the World Wide Web, prevention of Internet addiction; the introduction of the system for monitoring of the educational environment; the creation of portals and sites accumulating

  5. The National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs. Review of Research: Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kathryn, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of a review of research pertaining to federally subsidized school nutrition programs are presented in this report. The aim of the review of research is to provide guidance for the design of the subsequent parts of the evaluation by describing the school nutrition programs and their operations and by providing baseline information on…

  6. Maternal education and micro-geographic disparities in nutritional status among school-aged children in rural northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuili Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas in a Chinese minority area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ. Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. RESULTS: Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002 and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009. The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005. Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056 in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094 or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055. CONCLUSIONS: Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least

  7. Nutritive orifice and nutritive channel in the long bones of the extremities of newborn children - roentgenanatomical and roentgenometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A roentgenoanatomic and roentgenometric study was performed on 1239 bones from the limbs of dead newborn children from both sexes. Frontally made roentgenographies were used of the following kinds of bones: shoulder bones (210), cubit (222), radius (223), thigh bone (201), big tibia (192), and small tibia (191). The characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract for those bones are described, and measure the distance of its opening from the proximal and distal end along the bone, according to Pyle's method. The author offers the usage of the results as a norm for characterising the newborn children in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. The establishment of deviations in the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract and its opening in the long bones, will enable the early diagnostic of congenital systematic diseases of the skeleton, as well as in forensic medicine in view of identification. (author)

  8. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  9. Mortality, length of hospital stay, and nutritional status improvement in severely malnourished children with HIV infection in a tertiary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Devaera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Severe malnutrition contributes to child mortality rates, especially in children under five years of age. Concomitant HIV infection further increases the risk of death. Objective To evaluate the impact of HIV infection on mortality, length of hospital stay and improvement of nutritional status in severely malnourished inpatients under five years of age. Methods This retrospective study included children aged less than 5 years and admitted to a tertiary hospital for severe malnutrition. We excluded those with incomplete data, as well as those transferred to other hospitals or discharged against medical advice. Outcome measures were live/death status, length of hospital stay and improvement of nutritional status (weight gain and improved weight-for-height Z score. Results Of 104 eligible patients, 97 were included as study subjects. Their mean ages were 25.8 (SD 17.3 months for HIV-infected children and 16.3 (SD 15.3 months for HIV-uninfected children. Death occurred in 31.8% and 18.7% of HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, respectively. Median length of hospital stay was 14.5 (range 5-51 days and 11 (range 1-99 days, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in death rates or length of hospital stay between the two groups. Weight-for-height Z scores (WHZ on admission and discharge in HIV-infected children were lower than those of uninfected children, but the weight gain (median weight gain of 0.45 (-0.26 to 1.9 kg vs 0.38 (-0.81 to 2.2 kg in HIV-infected and uninfected children, respectively and improvement of WHZ [1 (SD 1.1 vs 0.9 (SD 1, respectively] were similar. Conclusion Severely malnourished children with HIV infection had higher mortality rate, and longer hospitalizations than the uninfected group, although the differences were not statistically significant. They also had lower mean WHZ scores at admission and discharge, but nutritional improvement was similar to those who were HIV-negative.

  10. Trends and risk factors of hyperglycemia and diabetes among Kuwaiti adults: National Nutrition Surveillance Data from 2002 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Faruk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current prevalence estimates for diabetes in Arabian Gulf countries are some of the world’s highest, yet regional trends and contributing factors are poorly documented. The present study was designed to determine temporal changes in the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and diabetes and associated factors in Kuwaiti adults. Methods Data analysis from the nationally representative cross-sectional Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance System. 2745 males and 3611 females, aged 20–69 years, attending registration for employment or pensions and Hajj Pilgrimage health check-ups or accompanying children for immunizations from 2002 through 2009 were participated. Socio-demographic and lifestyle information, height and weight, and blood samples were collected. Results During the 8 years (2002–09, prevalences of IFG in males and females decreased by 7.4% and 6.8% and of diabetes by 9.8% and 8.9% in males and females, respectively. Linear regression for blood glucose level with time, adjusted for age, BMI, blood cholesterol and education level, showed a greater decrease in males than females (1.12 vs 0.93 mmol/L; males also showed an increase in 2002–2003 followed by a marked decrease in 2006–2007 while females showed a significant decrease in 2008–2009. Both males and females showed the largest decrease in the 2nd half of the study accounting for the majority of the overall decrease (1.13 mmol/L for males and 0.87 mmol/l for females for the 4 years. Compared with 2002–03, the OR for IFG in males decreased with time, and becoming significantly lower (OR=0.32; 95% CI: 0.21-0.49 for 2008–09. In females, the OR for IFG decreased significantly with time, except in 2006–07. Similarly, the OR for diabetes in males decreased to 0.34 (95% CI: 0.24-0.49 and in females to 0.33 (95% CI: 0.22-0.50 in 2008–09. For both genders, age and BMI were independently positively associated with IFG and diabetes, while education

  11. Formative Assessment Using Social Marketing Principles to Identify Health and Nutrition Perspectives of Native American Women Living within the Chickasaw Nation Boundaries in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. Methods: The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and…

  12. Maternal Factors Associated with Nutritional Status of 1-5 years Children Residing in Field Practice Area of Rural Health Training Centre Naila, Jaipur (Rajasthan India

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    Lokesh Sonkaria, Afifa Zafer, Kusum Lata Gaur, Ravindra Kumar Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Nutrition status of children was associated with maternal age, maternal education and spacing between children whereas it was not associated with maternal BMI, maternal occupation, maternal age at marriage, maternal age at consummation, maternal age at 1st child birth and maternal anemia.

  13. Nutritional status of indigenous children younger than five years of age in Mexico: results of a national probabilistic survey Estado nutricio de los niños indígenas menores de cinco años de edad en México: resultados de una encuesta nacional probabilística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Rivera

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of undernutrition and anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children 0.05. The prevalence of anemia in indigenous children was one third greater than in non-indigenous children at the national level (p0.05 in rural areas. These differences were reduced to about half when adjusting for SES but remained significantly higher in indigenous children (pOBJETIVO: Comparar las prevalencias de desnutrición y anemia en niños indígenas y no indígenas menores de cinco años de edad en el ámbito nacional, por región, por zonas urbanas y rurales, y evaluar en qué medida la condición socioeconómica de la familia predice las diferencias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta nacional probabilística en 1999 en México. Las familias indígenas fueron identificadas como aquellas en las cuales al menos una mujer entre 12 y 49 años de edad en el hogar hablara una lengua indígena. Las prevalencias de desnutrición (baja talla, emaciación y bajo peso y anemia fueron comparadas entre niños indígenas y no indígenas. Se utilizaron razones de probabilidad para comparar prevalencias ajustando por las condiciones socioeconómicas de la familia y por otras variables. RESULTADOS: Las prevalencias de baja talla y de bajo peso fueron mayores en indígenas que en no indígenas. En el ámbito nacional y en zonas urbanas las prevalencias fueron casi tres veces mayores, mientras que en zonas rurales fueron ~2 veces mayores (p0.05. La prevalencia de anemia en indígenas fue un tercio mayor que en no indígenas en el ámbito nacional (p 0.05. Estas diferencias se redujeron aproximadamente a la mitad al ajustar por las condiciones socioeconómicas, pero continuaron siendo significativamente superiores en niños indígenas (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONES: Los niños indígenas tienen mayor probabilidad de presentar baja talla y bajo peso que los no indígenas. Las diferencias son mayores en áreas urbanas y en las regiones geogr

  14. Health Scenario of Major Tribals of Northern Orissa in Relation to Human Growth, Development and Nutrition and the Role of Genetic Factors in Smell and Tasting Abilities in Children

    OpenAIRE

    RS Balgir

    2011-01-01

    The nature of physical growth and development of children depends primarily upon the genetic endowments, nutritional status, psychosocial attitude and surrounding physical environmental conditions. School going children are the most important segment of the society who are affected by under- and mal-nutrition. Good nutrition is an indispensable component of healthy life. Tribal children studying in Ashram schools can be taken as representatives of the predominant tribes of the area. This stud...

  15. A televideo exercise and nutrition program for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in maintenance therapy: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson CA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl A Gibson,1 Keith J August,2 Jerry L Greene,3 Stephen D Herrmann,4 Jaehoon Lee,5 Susan P Harvey,6 Kate Lambourne,3 Debra K Sullivan7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General and Geriatric Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA; 2Children's Mercy Hospital, MO, USA; 3Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 4Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, SD, USA; 5Institute for Measurement, Methodology, Analysis and Policy, Texas Tech University, TX, USA; 6Center for Research on Learning, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 7Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA Abstract: Changes in nutrient intake and decreased exercise resulting from cancer therapies as well as their side effects may be contributing factors in the increased body weight and differences in physical fitness observed in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. This article will describe the study protocol for an intervention program designed to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of ALL survivors. Twenty-four children aged between 4 years and 12 years with ALL will be randomized to a 6-month technology-based exercise and nutrition program (TLC4ALLKids or to enhanced usual care (eUC. The participants randomized to the TLC4ALLKids will participate in weekly, 1-hour coaching sessions on nutrition and physical activity and 1-hour physical activity classes delivered by group video conferencing. Participants will be provided with iPad tablets loaded with video conferencing software and the Healthy Lifestyle Tracking calendar to track daily nutrition and physical activity goals and weight. Both groups will be provided with Fitbit™ Zip to monitor physical activity. To assess feasibility, participant recruitment (achievement of proposed sample size, attendance (per weekly online sessions/assessment sessions, and adherence (number of

  16. Availability of irrigation water for domestic use in Pakistan: its impact on prevalence of diarrhoea and nutritional status of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Konradsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed whether availability of water for domestic use had any impact on nutritional status of children in an area where people depend on irrigation water for all their domestic water needs. During May 1998-April 1999, data on the occurrence of diarrhoea among 167 children aged less......, hygiene, and socioeconomic status. Height-for-age and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea were used as outcome measures. Quantity of water available in households was a strong predictor of height-for-age and prevalence of diarrhoea. Children from households with a large storage capacity for water in the...... than five years were collected from 10 villages in the command area of the Hakra 6R canal in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the end of the study period. Additional surveys were conducted to collect information on the availability of water, sanitary facilities...

  17. Association between Parity and Blood Pressure in Korean Women: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Miae; Lee, Yeonji; Choi, Jiho; Kim, Beomseok; Kang, Jayeon; Kim, Yongchae; Cho, Sewook

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy considerably alters cardiovascular dynamics, and thereby affects the transition of blood pressure after delivery in women. We aimed to analyze the association between parity and blood pressure in Korean adult women. Methods We included 8,890 women who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2012. We divided the population according to the menopause status and analyzed the association between parity and blood pressure by usi...

  18. The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, ChunHoo; Oh, So-Mi; Jang, Soobin; Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status. Methods We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Qualit...

  19. The Relationship between Injury and Socioeconomic Status in Reference to the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Kyung; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk; Kang, Hee-Tae; Oh, Sung-Soo; Ko, Sang Baek

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship between the total injury experience rate and socioeconomic status based on the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods By analyzing data from the fourth KNHANES conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the injury experience rate according to socioeconomic status, including the occupational characteristics of 11,837 subjects. Setting the injury experience rate as a dependent variable and socioe...

  20. Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Adults, China National Nutrition and Health Survey, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Shuqian Liu, MD; Wenyu Wang, PhD; Jian Zhang, PhD; Yuna He, MS; Chonghua Yao, MD; Zhechun Zeng, MD; Jianhua Piao; Barbara V. Howard, PhD; Richard R. Fabsitz, PhD; Lyle Best, PhD; Xiaoguang Yang, MD, PhD; Elisa T. Lee, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Introduction As a result of rapid economic development in China, the lifestyles and dietary habits of its people have been changing, and the rates of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic conditions have increased substantially. We report the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and the association between diabetes and overweight and obesity in Chinese adults. We also compare the results with those from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2...

  1. Depression, anxiety, and telomere length in young adults: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Needham, Belinda; Mezuk, Briana; Bareis, Natalie; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length has been hypothesized to be a marker of cumulative exposure to stress, and stress is an established cause of depression and anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between depression, anxiety and telomere length, and to assess whether this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, gender, and/or antidepressant use. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. Telomere length was assessed using the quantita...

  2. Cataract subtype risk factors identified from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2008–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Rim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Kim, Min-hyung; Kim, Woon Cho; Kim, Tae-im; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the socio-demographic and health-related risk factors associated with cataract subtypes in Korea. Methods A total of 11,591 participants (aged ≥40 years) were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2010. The Korean Ophthalmologic Society conducted detailed ophthalmologic examinations on these participants based on the Lens Opacity Classification System III. Risk factors for developing any type of cataract, and its subtyp...

  3. Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alissa; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Cathleen; Armour, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among people with disabilities is not well understood. We combined data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to obtain estimates of hypertension prevalence by disability status and type (cognitive, hearing, vision, or mobility limitation) and assess the association between disability and hypertension. Overall, 34% of adults with disabilities had hypertension compared with 27% of adults without disabilities; adults with mobility lim...

  4. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were inc...

  5. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    OpenAIRE

    Preethi Srikanthan; Hevener, Andrea L.; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals. METHODOLOGY: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or ...

  6. Actinic Skin Damage and Mortality - the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wei; Zhu, Fei; Ma, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Xinyu; Min ZHENG; Chen, Zhao; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Zhu, Shankuan

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to sunlight may decrease the risk of several diseases through the synthesis of vitamin D, whereas solar radiation is the main cause of some skin and eye diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the association of sun-induced skin damage with mortality remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were 8472 white participants aged 25–74 years in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Cardiovascular diseas...

  7. Suicidal Ideation in Underweight Adults Who Attempt to Lose Weight: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinho; Shin, Jinyoung; Kim, Yun A; Lee, Jungkwon

    2015-01-01

    Background Being underweight has been related to health risks. However, little is known about the relationship between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight. This study was conducted to examine if there is an association between suicidal ideation and attempting to lose weight among underweight adults. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,122 underweight adults (range, 19 to 69 years) was conducted based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012. We exa...

  8. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Korean Woman Based on the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyoung-Joon; Ha, Yong-Chan; Park, Hyoung-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Background The criteria for defining sarcopenia vary among studies and confusion has arisen when defining the cutoff value. As a result, the prevalence of sarcopenia differs markedly depending on the definition. This study used the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V. We used the AWG...

  9. Sarcopenia and Hearing Loss in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Jieun Lee; Kyungdo Han; Jae Jun Song; Gi Jung Im; Sung Won Chae

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is becoming a more significant issue as geriatric population increases. Sarcopenia in older people is known to have a diverse health problem in various circumstances in recent studies. We assessed whether the decrease in muscle mass is related to ARHI. We used the 2010 data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to examine the associations between sarcopenia and ARHI. A total number of participants was 1,622 including 746 ...

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-11-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. PMID:21061737

  11. Do sack lunches provided by parents meet the nutritional needs of young children who attend child care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Robert-Gray, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in Texas state regulations of child-care foodservice have resulted in more centers halting meal and snack preparation and requiring parents to provide food from home for their children. In the spring of 2006, sack lunches prepared at home for children attending licensed child-care centers were evaluated based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) standards. The study included 3- to 5-year-old children attending full-time child-care centers that required parents to provide lunches. Lunch contents were observed and recorded for 3 consecutive days. A 3-day mean nutrient content was used to determine whether the lunches provided a minimum of 33% of the DRI. The following nutrients were evaluated: energy, carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin A, calcium, iron, zinc, and sodium. Food items were summarized and compared with CACFP standards. More than 50% of the 3-day means provided less than 33% of the DRIs for energy (n=58), carbohydrate (n=59), vitamin A (n=58), calcium (n=49), iron (n=44), and zinc (n=38). Seventy-one of the 74 children (96%) received less than 33% of the DRI for dietary fiber, yet the mean amount of sodium in observed lunches was 114% of the DRI. The observed lunches did not meet the CACFP standards for servings of fruits and vegetables for 157 (71%) or for servings of milk in 178 (80%). Sack lunches sent from home may not regularly provide adequate nutrients for the growth and development of young children. Nutrition education should be provided to parents to ensure that sack lunches sent from home meet children's nutritional needs. PMID:19103336

  12. Comparative Study on Supplementation of Potato Flour Biscuits on the Nutritional and Cognitive Profile of the Selected Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Pradeepa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nutrition of the early childhood is of paramount importance because the foundation for life time strength and intellectual vitality is laid during this period. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of weaning biscuits supplementation of the nutritional parameters and cognitive performance of the selected children. Methods: Three Balwadies situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 40 school children in Grade II malnutrition, 15 from Balwadi I, 14 from Balwadi II and 11 from Balwadi III comprised the study sample. All the 40 were selected for the experimental study. Home diet without any supplementation was followed by Group I (n=10, control group, potato flour biscuit was supplemented to Group II (n=10, Maize biscuits were given to Group III (n=10 and Green gram biscuits were given to Group IV (n=10 for the period of 3 months. Parameters like anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin content and clinical picture were analyzed before and after supplementation, cognitive performance of the supplemented children was assessed at the end of the study period. Findings: There was significant difference in height, weight, blood hemoglobin and clinical picture after three months on their home diet in group I. In groups II, III and IV significant increase in all the above parameters was noticed. More increase was found in group II children supplemented with potato flour biscuits for a period of 3 months. About cognitive performance better results were obtained in Group II followed by group IV (supplemented with green gram biscuits and group III (supplemented with maize biscuits. Least was obtained by control group children who were in their home diet. Conclusion:All these observations evidence that if such weaning biscuits made with potato flour, maize and green gram can form a daily ingredient in their diets, it will bring out better all round development of the children.

  13. Condições de moradia como preditores de riscos nutricionais em crianças de Pernambuco, Brasil Housing conditions as nutrition risk predictors among children in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Rissin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as características da moradia (tipos de piso, parede, teto, número de pessoas por cômodo, abastecimento d'água e esgotamento sanitário, como marcadores de risco de desnutrição segundo a relação altura/idade (OBJECTIVES: to analyze housing features (types of floor, walls, ceiling, number of persons per room, water supply and sewage facilities as malnutrition risk markers according to height/age ratio (<-2 scores-z of the National Center for Health Statistics standard (NCHS in the metropolitan area of Recife (712 children, of the urban interior (684 children and in the rural environment (644 children from the database of the II Health and Nutrition Survey of the State of Pernambuco (1997. METHODS: bivariate analysis was used to establish associations of various housing features and nutritional status as well as multiple logistic regression analysis to discard confusing variables, to internally adjust association effects and to identify factors remaining in the final multivariate analysis. RESULTS: bivariate analysis demonstrate risk markers in the identification in the three sample spaces. In the logistic regression analysis, only the ratio of "number of persons per room" remained as a malnutrition risk factor in the different geographical spaces analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: these results demonstrate situations that should be focused by the health sector to achieve a better understanding of the nutritional issue, as well as other citizenship related aspects.

  14. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  15. How to Protect and Promote the Nutrition of Mothers and Children

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The nutrition cluster is a very important entity to coordinate actions during emergencies. It is important that the nutrition cluster know in advance which institutions work where and what kind of inputs are pre-positioned. Risk management plans need to be ready at the local level in advance of emergencies. Although emergencies occur every year in Guatemala, the emergency response often fa...

  16. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  17. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite

  18. Application of radiochemical neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry methods for the study of nutrition-pollution interactions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is expected to aid in understanding and evaluating the effects of environmental pollution on the nutritional status of children already exposed to marginal malnutrition. Samples of placenta, of low-weight and control newborns groups, were collected for determination of nutritional elements and pollutants. The mean ratios of pollutants and nutrients such as Cd/Zn, Hg/Se and Pb/Ca were evaluated for both groups. All these ratios in the placenta of the low-weight newborns are higher than that of the healthy group. The degree of the nutrient-pollutant interaction is evaluated by quantity R, with mercury considered as the most active pollutant while calcium the most active nutrient among the involved elements in process of the interaction. (author)

  19. Successful management of chylous ascites with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effects of total parenteral nutrition and octreotide on pediatric patients with chylous ascites post-operative. Methods: Four patients were diagnosed with chylous ascites from nov 2009 to nov 2012. Total parenteral nutrition and octreotide was administered to 2 patients, while the other two only received fasting and total parenteral nutrition. All patients had persistent peritoneal drainage, with the quantity and quality of drainage fluid observed daily. Results: Two patients who received somatostatin therapy completely recovered within 7d without any recurrence while on a normal diet. The other two patients who only received fasting and total parenteral nutrition was cured 24-30d after therapy. Conclusion: Total parenteral nutrition along with octreotide can relieve the symptoms and close the chyle leakage in patients with chylous ascites rapidly. It seems to be an effective therapy available for the treatment of chylous ascites.

  20. Investigation and Analysis of Nutritional Status of Children Under 5 Years of Age in Shangdu County Rural%商都县农村5岁以下儿童营养状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤智; 陈贵智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand shangdu county children's nutritional status in poverty-stricken areas,in order to further develop targeted nutrition intervention work.Methods According to the Chinese center for disease control and prevention"to establish the nutrition and health condition of poor areas children under 6 years of age related risk factors work manual monitoring and data information system unified method for monitoring and evaluation analysis.Results Two groups of low birth weight rate is 6%,anemia prevalence was 23%and 23%respectively,malnutrition rates were 33%and 18%,far higher than the national average rural children.Conclusion Shangdu county rural poor areas and the serious problem of children's nutritional status should take comprehensive measures to control and prevention.%目的:为了了解商都县农村贫困地区儿童营养状况,以便进一步开展有针对性的营养干预工作。方法按照中国疾控中心《建立贫困地区6岁以下儿童营养健康状况相关危险因素监测及数据信息系统工作手册》统一方法进行监测及评价分析。结果两组低出生体重率皆为6%,贫血患病率分别为23%和4%,营养不良发生率分别为33%和18%,远高于全国农村儿童平均水平。结论商都县贫困地区农村儿童营养状况问题严重,应采取综合措施加以防控。