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Sample records for children methodological aspects

  1. Diuresis renography in children: methodological aspects; Nephrogramme isotopique avec epreuve d`hyperdiurese chez l`enfant: aspects methodologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, F.; Le Stanc, E. [Hopital Beaujon, 92 - Clichy (France); Busquet, G.; Saidi, L. [Hopital Mignot, 78 - Versailles (France); Lyonnet, F. [Hopital Lapeyronie, 34 -Montpellier (France)

    1995-12-31

    In paediatrics, diuresis renography is used as a method to guide clinical management of hydronephrosis or hydro-uretero-nephrosis. Various pitfalls in the technique and other errors exist and may lead to a misinterpretation of the test. The methodology for performing and interpreting the diuresis renography is discussed. (authors). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Non-allergic rhinitis in children: Epidemiological aspects, pathological features, diagnostic methodology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Gelardi, Matteo; Licari, Amelia; Del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-12-26

    Chronic rhinitis is a very common disease, as the prevalence in the general population resulted to be 40%. Allergic rhinitis has been considered to be the most frequent form of chronic rhinitis, as non-allergic rhinitis has been estimated to account for 25%. However, several evidences suggested that non-allergic rhinitis have been underrated, especially in children. In pediatrics, the diagnostic definition of non-allergic rhinitis has been often limited to the exclusion of an allergic sensitization. Actually, local allergic rhinitis has been often misdiagnosed as well as mixed rhinitis has not been recognized in most cases. Nasal cytology is a diagnostic procedure being suitable for routine clinical practice with children and could be a very useful tool to characterize and diagnose non-allergic rhinitis, providing important clues for epidemiological analysis and clinical management.

  3. Methodological Aspects of Architectural Documentation

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    Arivaldo Amorim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodological approach that is being developed in the state of Bahia in Brazil since 2003, in architectural and urban sites documentation, using extensive digital technologies. Bahia has a vast territory with important architectural ensembles ranging from the sixteenth century to present day. As part of this heritage is constructed of raw earth and wood, it is very sensitive to various deleterious agents. It is therefore critical document this collection that is under threats. To conduct those activities diverse digital technologies that could be used in documentation process are being experimented. The task is being developed as an academic research, with few financial resources, by scholarship students and some volunteers. Several technologies are tested ranging from the simplest to the more sophisticated ones, used in the main stages of the documentation project, as follows: work overall planning, data acquisition, processing and management and ultimately, to control and evaluate the work. The activities that motivated this paper are being conducted in the cities of Rio de Contas and Lençóis in the Chapada Diamantina, located at 420 km and 750 km from Salvador respectively, in Cachoeira city at Recôncavo Baiano area, 120 km from Salvador, the capital of Bahia state, and at Pelourinho neighbourhood, located in the historic capital. Part of the material produced can be consulted in the website: < www.lcad.ufba.br>.

  4. State debt dynamics: the methodological aspect

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    Crijanovschi Stela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development

  5. Services Competitiveness: Some Conceptual and Methodological Aspects

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    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend towards services offshoring during the last decade and its wide-ranging consequences for the international division of labour placed services globalisation and the associated topic of competitiveness into the forefront of debates on international trade. Despite focusing widely the interest of economists and politicians alike, knowledge about the complex issues related to services competitiveness is still scarce. Both theoretical and empirical research on this topic continues to be hampered by the great heterogeneity of services and the lack of adequate statistical data and instruments as well as measurement problems deriving from it. The absence of international consensus on what competitiveness in general and in services in particular really means is adding to these difficulties. While there is large agreement on the economic and social importance of competitiveness, it is less clear what this notion actually denotes, nor is there a common understanding of the main determinants of competitiveness or the most proper instruments for measuring it. Hence, the very notion of competitiveness remains rather vague and subject to different interpretations, and it becomes even more ambiguous when transposed to services. Drawing on current literature that deals with services competitiveness and its determinants, the present paper addresses some conceptual and methodological aspects related to this topic. It highlights the increasing importance of individual countries’ competitiveness in trade in services and tries to distinguish the main characteristics of the concept of competitiveness when applied to trade in services. It also sheds light on the complex nature of the relationship between services and competitiveness due to the peculiarities of services internationalisation and concludes by discussing the main determinants of services competitiveness.

  6. PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF THE QUALIMETRIC METHODOLOGY

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    V. V. Savtseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical meaning of the category "quality" is defined, the role of quality control in the evaluation of quality is justified, ontological, axiological, phenomenological aspects of quality control are characterized.

  7. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

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    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  8. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

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    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  9. An aspect-oriented methodology for designing secure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georg, Geri; Ray, Indrakshi; Anastasakis, Kyriakos; Bordbar, Behzad; Toahchoodee, Manachai; Houmb, Siv Hilde

    2009-01-01

    We propose a methodology, based on aspect-oriented modeling (AOM), for incorporating security mechanisms in an application. The functionality of the application is described using the primary model and the attacks are specified using aspects. The attack aspect is composed with the primary model to o

  10. An aspect-oriented methodology for designing secure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georg, Geri; Ray, Indrakshi; Anastasakis, Kyriakos; Bordbar, Behzad; Toahchoodee, Manachai; Houmb, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a methodology, based on aspect-oriented modeling (AOM), for incorporating security mechanisms in an application. The functionality of the application is described using the primary model and the attacks are specified using aspects. The attack aspect is composed with the primary model to o

  11. Methodological Aspects Regarding The Organizational Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimie, Sabina; Pricope (Muntean), Luminiţa Doina; Pricope, Sorin; Irimie, Sabin Ioan

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a research of methodology in occupational stress analyse in the educational field, as a part of a larger study. The objectives of the work are in finding accents in existence of significant relations between stressors and effects, meaning the differences between the indicators of occupational stress to teaching staff in primary and gymnasium school, taking notice of each specific condition: the institution as an entity, the working community, the discipline he/she is teaching others, the geographic and administrative district (urban/rural) and the quantification of stress level.

  12. [Hepatic cell transplantation. Technical and methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Martínez, Amparo; Cortés, Miriam; Bonora, Ana; Moya, Angel; Sanjuán, Fernando; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Mir, José

    2010-03-01

    Hepatic cell transplantation consists of grafting already differentiated cells such as hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes are viable and functionally active. Liver cell transplantation is carried out by means of a 3-step method: isolation of hepatocytes from donor liver rejected for orthotopic transplantation, preparing a cell suspension for infusion and, finally, hepatocytes are implanted into the recipient. There are established protocols for the isolation of human hepatocytes from unused segments of donor livers, based on collagenase digestion of cannulated liver tissue at 37 degrees C. The hepatocytes can be used fresh or cryopreserved. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes would then be available for planned use. In cell transplant, the important aspects are: infusion route, number of cells, number of infusions and viability of the cells. The cells are infused into the patient through a catheter inserted via portal vein or splenic artery. Liver cell transplantation allows liver tissue to be used that would, otherwise, be discarded, enabling multiple patients to be treated with hepatocytes from a single tissue donor. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Methodological Aspects of Prognostic Classifications: Applications in Testicular Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Dijk (Merel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPatients with similar characteristics can be grouped together in a prognostic classification to estimate a patient’s prognosis and guide treatment decisions. The topic of this thesis is methodological aspects of defining prognosis classifications. We specifically looked at patients wi

  14. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM FORMATION

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    Larisa I. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological aspects of the internal control system formation are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the problems of financial statements misrepresentation. The basic principles and structure of the internal control system are discussed in this article.

  15. Aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children

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    P.P. Forget

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aimed at investigating some aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children. In the introduction general aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism are presented. Chapter 1 reviews recent litterature data on the intravenous fat tolerance test and on plasma postheparin li

  16. The structuralist tradition in economics: methodological and macroeconomics aspects

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    FABRÍCIO MISSIO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the structuralist tradition in economics, emphasizing the role that structures play in the economic growth of developing countries. Since the subject at hand is evidently too large to cover in a single article, an emphasis has been brought to bear upon the macroeconomic elements of such a tradition, while also exploring its methodological aspects. It begins by analysing some general aspects of structuralism in economics (its evolution and origins associated with ECLAC thought, in this instance focusing on the dynamics of the center-periphery relationship. Thereafter, the macroeconomic structuralism derived from the works of Taylor (1983, 1991 is presented, followed by a presentation of neo-structuralism. Centred on the concept of systemic competitiveness, this approach defines a strategy to achieve the high road of globalization, understood here as an inevitable process in spite of its engagement being dependent on the policies adopted. The conclusions show the genuine contributions of this tradition to economic theory.

  17. Aspects of Children's Mathematics Anxiety.

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    Newstead, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on mathematics anxiety in 9- to 11-year-old children. Compares the mathematics anxiety of pupils taught in a traditional manner with that of pupils whose teachers adopted an alternative teaching approach that emphasizes problem solving and discussion of the pupil's own informal strategies. Concludes that pupils exposed to the traditional…

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GIFTED CHILDREN

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    Gordana Nikola Stankovska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giftedness is a multidimensional phenomenon that despite numerous studies and different approaches remains underexplored. It is known that there is different views about gifted children in psychological theory and practice. Giftedness represents general intellectual ability, general creative ability, productive and creative ability, the sum of specific skills, the ability of thinking, specific area of intelligence and creativity.Gifted child is a child who has above average skills and specific characteristics, which play an important role in the growth, development and education of these children. Researchers confirm the importance of early socialization, family and the primary teachers in the continually development of the gifted child on intellectual, social, emotional and somatic plan.It is known that e gifted child has specific characteristics and properties, such as originality, individuality, emotional stability, a high degree of intellectual capacity, independence, verbal fluency, perfectionism.Development and manifestation of creativity in gifted children depends of their cognitive component, personality traits, motivation. Gifted child early showed a specific interest in a particular area.This kind of child has a positive self-image, high self-esteem, self-confidence, high goals, a sense of self-worth, greater independence which manifests across the non-conformism and initiative.Every child deserves the special attention of parents, school and society, especially a gifted child which is a child with special needs about their average ability and special educational needs.

  19. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  20. Adherence evaluation of endocrine treatment in breast cancer: methodological aspects

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    Oberguggenberger Anne S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current studies on adherence to endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients suffer from methodological limitations due to a lack of well-validated methods for assessing adherence. There is no gold standard for measuring adherence. The aim of our study was to compare four different approaches for evaluating adherence to anastrozole therapy for breast cancer with regard to concordance between methods. Methods Outpatients with early breast cancer treated with anastrozole completed the multi-method assessment of adherence. We implemented a self-report scale (the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire, physician- ratings, refill records and determination of anastrozole serum concentration. Results Comparison of the four approaches using Spearman rank correlation revealed poor concordance across all methods reflecting weak correlations of 0.2-0.4. Considering this data incomparability across methods, we still observed high adherence rates of 78%-98% across measures. Conclusion Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge on the impact that methodological aspects exert on the results of adherence measurement in breast cancer patients receiving endocrine treatment. Our findings suggest that the development and validation of instruments specific to patients receiving endocrine agents is imperative in order to arrive at a more accurate assessment and to subsequently obtain more precise estimates of adherence rates in this patient population.

  1. Methodological Reflections on Working with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...

  2. Methodological Aspects in Studies Based on Clinical Routine Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, Lieven Nils

    2017-09-12

    Randomized controlled clinical trials are regarded as the gold standard for comparing different clinical interventions, but generally their conduct is operationally cumbersome, time-consuming, and expensive. Studies and investigations based on clinical routine data on the contrary utilize existing data acquired under real-life conditions and are increasingly popular among practitioners. In this paper, methodological aspects of studies based on clinical routine data are discussed. Important limitations and considerations as well as unique strengths of these types of studies are indicated and exemplarily demonstrated in a recent real-case study based on clinical routine data. In addition two simulation studies reveal the impact of bias in studies based on clinical routine data on the type I error rate and false decision rate in favor of the inferior intervention. It is concluded that correctly analyzing clinical routine data yields a valuable addition to clinical research; however, as a result of a lack of statistical foundation, internal validity, and comparability, generalizing results and inferring properties derived from clinical routine data to all patients of interest has to be considered with extreme caution. Grünenthal GmbH.

  3. Shoulder-to-Shoulder Research "with" Children: Methodological and Ethical Considerations

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    Griffin, Krista M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.; Opitz, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological study with children where two different interview methods were utilized: the "walk-around" (a form of mobile interview) and the "shoulder-to-shoulder." The paper reviews the methodological aspects of the study then provides a brief review of the history of methods employed in research with…

  4. Methodological aspects of "West-East” system studies

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    Igor A. Zaharenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to methodological approach to studying the East. Russian orientalism can successfully develop basing on the its national culture and active cooperation with the world orientalism.

  5. The Impact of Explicit Teaching of Methodological Aspects of Physics on Scientistic Beliefs and Interest

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    Korte, Stefan; Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the impact of teaching methodological aspects of physics on students' scientistic beliefs and subject interest in physics in a repeated-measurement design with a total of 142 students of upper secondary physics classes. Students gained knowledge of methodological aspects from the pre-test to the post-test and reported reduced…

  6. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

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    H.Ya. Hlukha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine exogenous and endogenous factors have been analyzed; - reflexive and elastic economic growth factors have been determined; - economic policy was given the role of reflective element within the system to ensure economic growth. The system of factors should be considered within the system that ensures economic growth. It comprises two important elements which enlist the economic growth factors system, economic growth rates system and two reflexive elements – the state economic policy and economic growth models system. While analyzing the economic growth factors, their quality and impact upon the economy should be considered. Economic growth depends on the factors, consideration of which is one of the most important aspects of the economic growth theory. Economic growth reasons are the factors that cause this growth. These are phenomena and processes that can increase the production output, improve efficiency and quality. Factors classification completeness and their diversity do not necessarily mean the dead end of the study. Any classification has the sense only if it fulfills the certain function. If we take into account economic growth modeling, factors diversification and their characteristics classification it implies that models are becoming more complex, the range of their parameters expands, however it does not necessarily lead to more accurate prognosis. All the factors have different impact upon the economic development. Their first type is elastic ones

  7. Methodological aspects of systemic designing of foundry plants

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    R. Wrona

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An approach is attempted to systematise the systemic research. A set of hypotheses are formulated, defining how a conceptual design of afoundry plant should be developed and improved when it is investigated as a system. The methodology aims to eliminate the particular approach to design to be replaced by integral design. The need of integral design seems a logical consequence of a transition from taskoriented design to situational design. The methodology outlined here offers an innovative and modern approach to engineering design, particularly in foundry plant design.

  8. [The theory of functional systems in medicine: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrutskiĭ, K S

    2009-01-01

    P.K. Anokhin's theory of functional systems (TFS) is a unique scientific development extending an original field of biomedical research initiated in this country by I.M. Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, and A.A. Ukhtomsky. Unique methodology of TFS is based on the integrated approach to the study of human vital activity including psychic and somatic processes. The main results of the studies in the framework of TFS methodology and prospects for its further development are reviewed with special reference to the key mechanisms of eitiopathogenesis of chronic non-infectious diseases.

  9. Methodological Aspects of Study of the Literature and Art Cooperation

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    Olga Shikirinskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The theory of intermediality presupposes study or interaction of different types of art in the text of an artistic work. The article deals with the formation of theoretical understanding of the peculiarities of methodology of intermedial analysis as a part of comparative literary criticism. The terminology, characteristics of literary and art connections from antiquity to postmodern, types of interactionism are considered.

  10. SEMANTIC NETWORKS: THEORETICAL, TECHNICAL, METHODOLOGIC AND ANALYTICAL ASPECTS

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    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of the methodological procedures and cares for the measurement of the connotative meanings which will be used in the elaboration of instruments with ethnic validity. Beginning from the techniques originally proposed by Figueroa et al. (1981 and later described by Lagunes (1993, the intention is to offer a didactic panorama to carry out the measurement by semantic networks introducing some recommendations derived from the studies performed with this method.

  11. Methodological Aspects of Project Techniques Selection for Innovation Project Management

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    Anna Yakovleva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Project Management offers a variety of methodologies which provides managers with different techniques and tools to use during project planning and implementation. At the same time there is a substantial lack of systematized approaches to the management of innovation projects. In this article key factors in the selection of appropriate techniques in innovation project management will first be identified. Theoretical analysis of different project management standards and possibility of their use will then be discussed. In addition how the techniques can be applied will be investigated through academic paper analysis. . This research makes a theoretical contribution to the field of project management by selecting and determining which project management techniques can be adapted and applied to innovation projects. Recommendations for practical application are based on theoretical findings of the research. These include two main factors, which are: influencing the choice of project management techniques and the structure of project selection process. The significance of the results obtained is confirmed by creation of theoretical knowledge, which permits to thoroughly understand and capture issues which may emerge during innovation project planning and implementation, through the use of established project management methodology. Keywords: Project management, Innovation, Project management standard, innovation project, PMBoK, PRINCE2, ICB.

  12. Methodological aspects of EEG and Body dynamics measurements during motion.

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    Pedro eReis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available EEG involves recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp originating from brain grey matter. EEG is one of the favorite methods to study and understand processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements, that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions of how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determination of real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks.

  13. Urban Agglomerations in Regional Development: Theoretical, Methodological and Applied Aspects

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    Andrey Vladimirovich Shmidt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the major process of modern socio-economic development, such as the functioning of urban agglomerations. A short background of the economic literature on this phenomenon is given. There are the traditional (the concentration of urban types of activities, the grouping of urban settlements by the intensive production and labour communications and modern (cluster theories, theories of network society conceptions. Two methodological principles of studying the agglomeration are emphasized: the principle of the unity of the spatial concentration of economic activity and the principle of compact living of the population. The positive and negative effects of agglomeration in the economic and social spheres are studied. Therefore, it is concluded that the agglomeration is helpful in the case when it brings the agglomerative economy (the positive benefits from it exceed the additional costs. A methodology for examination the urban agglomeration and its role in the regional development is offered. The approbation of this methodology on the example of Chelyabinsk and Chelyabinsk region has allowed to carry out the comparative analysis of the regional centre and the whole region by the main socio-economic indexes under static and dynamic conditions, to draw the conclusions on a position of the city and the region based on such socio-economic indexes as an average monthly nominal accrued wage, the cost of fixed assets, the investments into fixed capital, new housing supply, a retail turnover, the volume of self-produced shipped goods, the works and services performed in the region. In the study, the analysis of a launching site of the Chelyabinsk agglomeration is carried out. It has revealed the following main characteristics of the core of the agglomeration in Chelyabinsk (structure feature, population, level of centralization of the core as well as the Chelyabinsk agglomeration in general (coefficient of agglomeration

  14. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LOGISTIC SYSTEMS OF THE COMPANY

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    Lăpăduşi Mihaela Loredana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremely complex issues including large scale logistics issue, whose solving depends on many sets of circumstances and political, economic, technical, cultural and environment factors can be approached by calling big systems theory. In the present stage of the development of new international economical activities of the scientific research, in the conceptualization plan it is impossible that when we call an inter and multidisciplinary approach of a complex technical-economical issue – and the logistics’ issue in the most general sense of the meaning is one of these - to build the appropriate theoretical structure other than starting from the system concept. Global economy, integrated as it currently works confronts itself more and more with complex problems (that have simultaneous technical, economical, ecological and social aspects and of broad dimensions drawing a large number of people, organisms and organizations.

  15. Methodological Aspects in Using Pearson Coefficient in Analyzing Social & Economical Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Danacica; Ana-Gabriela Babucea

    2007-01-01

    The authors illustrate in this paper a series of methodological aspects generated by the use of Pearson correlation coefficient in analyzing social and economical phenomena. Pearson correlation coefficient is largely used in economics and social sciences; however, the diversified nature and subtle nuances of this concept raises significant methodological issues. This article deals with aspects concerning the factors that impact on the size and interpretation of Pearson correlation coefficient...

  16. Theoretical Aspects and Methodological Approaches to Sales Services Quality Assessment

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    Tarasova EE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article defines trade service quality and proposes an object-oriented approach for its essence interpretation, according to which such components as product offering and goods quality, service forms and goods selling methods, merchandising, services and staff are singled out; a model of managing retail outlets trading service, which covers levels of strategic, tactical and operational management and is aimed at ensuring customers’ perception expectations, achieving sustainable competitive positions and increasing customers’ loyalty is worked out; a methodology of trade services quality estimation that allows to carry out a comparative assessment of cooperative retailing both in terms of general indicators and their individual components, regulate the factors affecting trade services quality and have a positive administrative action is developed and tested; the results of evaluation of the customers’ service quality in the consumer cooperative retailers, dynamics of overall and comprehensive indicators of measurement of trade service quality for selected components are given; the main directions and measures for improving trade services quality basing on quantitative values of individual indicators for each of the five selected components (product offering and goods quality, service forms and sale methods, merchandising, services, staff are stated.

  17. Taking a Distributed Perspective: Epistemological and Methodological Tradeoffs in Operationalizing the Leader-Plus Aspect

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    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pustejovsky, James; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Lewis, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is concerned with the epistemological and methodological challenges involved in studying the distribution of leadership across people within the school--the leader-plus aspect of a distributed perspective, which it aims to investigate. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the entailments of the distributed…

  18. Taking a Distributed Perspective: Epistemological and Methodological Tradeoffs in Operationalizing the Leader-Plus Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pustejovsky, James; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Lewis, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is concerned with the epistemological and methodological challenges involved in studying the distribution of leadership across people within the school--the leader-plus aspect of a distributed perspective, which it aims to investigate. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the entailments of the distributed…

  19. Key aspects about education for refugee children

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    Mª Jesús Vega Pascual

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation entitled «Key Aspects about Education for Refugee Children:Refugee Camp Situation», is based on the 2003 UNHCR Guidelines on Education and highlights the relevance of the education even in situations of emergency and crisis, interms of protection and psychosocial well-being of children. It also mentions key issues to consider when working with refugees, internally displaced people, asylum-seekers,stateless and other populations of concen to UNHCR. Aspects such as refugee children’s rights, UNHCR policy commitments to education, participation of refugees and their communities in the design, establishement and implementation of education programmes, specially in emergencies, will be dealt with in this presentation. It will alsomentions topics such as the school drop out, education for vulnerable groups and the need for promoting a gender sentitive approach, bearing in mind that the hard experience of exile, the changes of family structure, the ethnic, cultural, religious and legal differences are key when working with this populationEsta presentación titulada "Consideraciones esenciales sobre la educación de los niños refugiados: la situación en los campos de refugiados", está basada en las Directrices del ACNUR sobre Eduación de 2003, y pretende resaltar la importancia de la educación en las situaciones de refugiados, incluso en situaciones de emergencia o crisis, y cómo ésta juega en favor de la protección y del bienestar psicosocial de los niños. Se mencionan las peculiaridades más relevantes que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se trabaja con refugiados, desplazados internos, solicitantes de asilo, apátridas y otras poblaciones de las que se ocupa el ACNUR. Se verán aspectos como los derechos de los niños refugiados, los compromisos del Alto Comisionado en materia de Educación, la participación de los refugiados y sus comunidades para diseñar, establecer e impartir programas de educación especialmente

  20. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  1. Women, children and advertising - legal and ethical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Stejskalová, Radka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis titled "Women, children and advertising - legal and ethical aspects" deals with the portrayal of women and children in advertising. The aim of the thesis is to analyze advertising with a focus on the portrayal of women and children present to Arbitration Committee in the reporting period and propose recommendations for the future. The work also deals with the importance of legal and ethical rules that regulate advertising and focuses on content regulation of women and children.

  2. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss.

  3. Lung transplantation in children. Specific aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Solé Montserrat, Juan; Roman Broto, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Lung transplantation has become in recent years a therapeutic option for infantswith terminal lung disease with similar results to transplantation in adults.In Spain, since 1996 114 children lung transplants have been performed; this corresponds to3.9% of the total transplant number.The most common indication in children is cystic fibrosis, which represents between 70-80% of the transplants performed in adolescents. In infants common indications areinterstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.In most children a sequential double lung transplant is performed, generally with the help ofextracorporeal circulation. Lung transplantation in children presents special challenges in monitoring and follow-up, especially in infants, given the difficulty in assessing lung function and performing transbronchial biopsies.There are some more specific complications in children like postransplant lymphoproliferative syndrome or a greater severity of respiratory virus infections .After lung transplantation children usually experiment a very important improvement in their quality of life. Eighty eight per cent of children have no limitations in their activity after 3 years of transplantation.According to the registry of the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) survival at 5 years of transplantation is 54% and at 10 years is around 35%. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE CATEGORIES OF LAW, MORALITY AND POLITICS IN SOCIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Krasilnikova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the category of law, morality and politics in the sociological knowledge in the context of theoretical and methodological aspects. We give a detailed and incomplete, structural and content characteristics of these categories in the interpretation of their manifestation in thepolitical and social dimension of society.

  5. Aspects of methodology in assessing inflammation and damage in rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro Compan, Maria Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is two-fold focused on rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis. It covers outstanding aspects of research methodology in the assessment of inflammation and damage in patients with these diseases. The studies pertaining to the first part of the thesis focus on rheumatoid arthrit

  6. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility meaurements in ponies fed different grass hays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Wartena, F.C.; Zoon, van M.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements of feedstuffs for equines were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming four grass-hay diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Diets contained either a low (L), medium (M), high (H), or very high (VH) ADF content (264, 314, 375, or 396 g·kg-1 D

  7. The Development of the Foundations of Modern Pedagogy: Paradigmal and Methodological Aspects of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ТamaraА. Dmitrenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the various fields of knowledge influenced the pedagogical science. The article explains the structure of the foundations of modern pedagogy through paradigmal and methodological aspects. Bases of modern pedagogy include complex of paradigms, object and subject of science, general and specific principles, methods and technologies. Paradigmal analysis of bases of modern pedagogy showed that paradigms performed informational, instrumental and technological functions through connections with factors, approaches and principles accordingly.The research of methodological aspect of bases of modern pedagogics allowed to define the structure of the methodological system and main characteristics of the pedagogical system. In the article considers specific principles of optimality, optimization, adaptation and rules of their use in a pedagogical theory and practice.

  8. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portell M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mariona Portell,1 M Teresa Anguera,2 Antonio Hernández-Mendo,3 Gudberg K Jonsson4 1Department of Psychobiology and Methodology of Health Sciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain; 2Department of Methodology of Behavioral Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department Social Psychology, Social Anthropology, Social Work and Social Services, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain; 4Human Behavior Laboratory, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland Abstract: Contextual factors are crucial for evaluative research in psychology, as they provide insights into what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects, and why. Studying behavior in context, however, poses numerous methodological challenges. Although a comprehensive framework for classifying methods seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts was recently proposed, this framework does not contemplate contributions from observational methodology. The aim of this paper is to justify and propose a more general framework that includes observational methodology approaches. Our analysis is rooted in two general concepts: ecological validity and methodological complementarity. We performed a narrative review of the literature on research methods and techniques for studying daily life and describe their shared properties and requirements (collection of data in real time, on repeated occasions, and in natural settings and classification criteria (eg, variables of interest and level of participant involvement in the data collection process. We provide several examples that illustrate why, despite their higher costs, studies of behavior and experience in everyday contexts offer insights that complement findings provided by other methodological approaches. We urge that observational methodology be included in classifications of research methods and techniques for studying everyday behavior and advocate a renewed

  9. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portell, Mariona; Anguera, M Teresa; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Jonsson, Gudberg K

    2015-01-01

    Contextual factors are crucial for evaluative research in psychology, as they provide insights into what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects, and why. Studying behavior in context, however, poses numerous methodological challenges. Although a comprehensive framework for classifying methods seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts was recently proposed, this framework does not contemplate contributions from observational methodology. The aim of this paper is to justify and propose a more general framework that includes observational methodology approaches. Our analysis is rooted in two general concepts: ecological validity and methodological complementarity. We performed a narrative review of the literature on research methods and techniques for studying daily life and describe their shared properties and requirements (collection of data in real time, on repeated occasions, and in natural settings) and classification criteria (eg, variables of interest and level of participant involvement in the data collection process). We provide several examples that illustrate why, despite their higher costs, studies of behavior and experience in everyday contexts offer insights that complement findings provided by other methodological approaches. We urge that observational methodology be included in classifications of research methods and techniques for studying everyday behavior and advocate a renewed commitment to prioritizing ecological validity in behavioral research seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects. PMID:26089708

  10. Clinical aspects of hypertension in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, Aida

    2010-01-01

    The importance of measuring blood pressure routinely in children over 3 years, and in specific circumstances in younger children, is increasingly recognized. The incidence of pediatric hypertension is relatively high, its prevalence increasing, and high blood pressure tends to track into adulthood. Interpretation of a blood pressure measurement requires knowledge of sex-, age-, and height-specific normative values. Blood pressure is classified as normal if 95th percentile, and as prehypertension if 90-95th percentile. The methods available to measure blood pressure together with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as pitfalls in measurement, are discussed. Also discussed is Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring which may define if there is "dipping", i.e. a decrease in blood pressure by > 10% during sleep, a novel parameter that may help identify children at risk of sustained hypertension or its complications. Signs, symptoms and physical findings of the child with hypertension are reviewed.

  11. Thorough tuning of the aspect ratio of gold nanorods using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Hormozi-Nezhad, M., E-mail: hormozi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Robatjazi, Hossein; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We are finely controlling the aspect ratio of gold nanorods. •We study the effect of variables on aspect ratio (AR) of gold nanorods simultaneously. •We use response surface methodology to make the relation among parameters affect on AR. -- Abstract: In the present work a central composite design based on response surface methodology (RSM) is employed for fine tuning of the aspect ratios of seed-mediated synthesized gold nanorods (GNRs). The relations between the affecting parameters, including ratio of l-ascorbic acid to Au{sup 3+} ions, concentrations of silver nitrate, CTAB, and CTAB-capped gold seeds, were explored using a RSM model. It is observed that the effect of each parameter on the aspect ratio of developing nanorods highly depends on the value of the other parameters. The concentrations of silver ions, ascorbic acid and seeds are found to have a high contribution in controlling the aspect ratios of NRs. The optimized parameters led to a high yield synthesis of gold nanorods with an ideal aspect ratio ranging from 1 (spherical particle) to 4.9. In addition, corresponding tunable surface Plasmon absorption band has been extended to 880 nm. The resulted nanorods were characterized by UV–visible spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy.

  12. [Special aspects of food allergy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B

    2012-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions to foods represent the earliest and most important manifestation of allergic diseases in childhood. Sensitization to foods may happen very early in life. Basic options for alimentary allergy prevention are breast-feeding of at least 4 months and in case nursing is impossible, use of an alternative hypoallergenic formula. The most common food allergens in childhood are cow's milk, hen's egg, peanuts, tree nuts and wheat. The prevalence of food allergies in childhood is 2 to 6%. In up to 50% of infants and children with atopic eczema, food allergies play a role; vice versa 95% of children with an IgE-mediated food allergy have atopic eczema as an underlying disease. Diagnostic reliability in suspected allergic reactions to food is only achieved in most cases by performing controlled oral food challenges. The long-term prognosis is good for cow's milk and hen's egg allergy, while peanut and tree nut allergies often last life-long. The most important therapeutic option is a specific elimination diet; especially in infancy, a nutritionally adequate substitution diet has to be considered. Children who might inadvertently get into contact with their potentially life threatening food allergen, should be provided with an epinephrine autoinjector.

  13. Life cycle sustainability of solid oxide fuel cells: From methodological aspects to system implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Andi; McPhail, Stephen J.; Pumiglia, Davide; Carlini, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    This study reviews the status of life cycle assessment (LCA) of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and methodological aspects, communicates SOFC environmental performance, and compares the environmental performance with competing power production technologies using a life cycle perspective. Results indicate that power generation using SOFCs can make a significant contribution to the aspired-to greener energy future. Despite superior environmental performance, empirical studies indicate that economic performance is predominantly the highest-ranked criterion in the decision making process. Future LCA studies should attempt to employ comprehensive dynamic multi-criteria environmental impact analysis coupled with economic aspects, to allow a robust comparison of results. A methodology framework is proposed to achieve simultaneously ambitious socio-economic and environmental objectives considering all life cycle stages and their impacts.

  14. The Impact of Explicit Teaching of Methodological Aspects of Physics on Scientistic Beliefs and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Stefan; Berger, Roland; Hänze, Martin

    2017-05-01

    We assessed the impact of teaching methodological aspects of physics on students' scientistic beliefs and subject interest in physics in a repeated-measurement design with a total of 142 students of upper secondary physics classes. Students gained knowledge of methodological aspects from the pre-test to the post-test and reported reduced scientistic beliefs, both from their own views and from their presumed prototypical physicists' views. We found no direct impact of teaching on students' subject interest in physics. As path analysis indicates, this result can be traced back to opposing paths: Lower scientistic beliefs of students attenuate subject interest while lower presumed scientistic beliefs that they hold of physicists foster subject interest. This finding is in accordance with the self-to-prototype matching theory that predicts an impact of the overlap between students' self-image and their prototypical image on subject interest in physics.

  15. Methodological Aspects of Trend Studies and Development of the HBSC Study in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Erik; Baďura, Petr; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Csémy, Ladislav; Kalman, Michal

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to present the theoretical background of trend studies in general, to characterize the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study and to describe its methodology and changes of the Czech HBSC study between 1994 and 2014. The first part describes various types of trend research studies including their advantages and disadvantages. The second part summarizes the history of the HBSC study in an international context and particularly in the Czech Republic. The final part presents the basic methodological data from six surveys conducted in the Czech Republic between 1994 and 2014. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017.

  16. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  17. Revealing Children's Experiences and Emotions through Q Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ingunn T. Ellingsen; Arlene Arstad Thorsen; Ingunn Størksen

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a greater readiness to view children as competent contributors to our understanding of children’s lives and experiences. As a consequence of this, we have witnessed an increased focus on including children in research. When research aims at revealing children’s perspectives, experiences, and emotions, we need to employ methods that are easy-to-use means for obtaining their stories. In this paper, we argue that Q methodology is particularly suitable fo...

  18. Immunological aspects on IDDM in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, J

    1989-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus in childhood is connected to several immunological phenomena which per se do not prove that immunological mechanisms do cause the beta cell destruction, as such mechanisms could be just secondary. However, there is now evidence which strongly supports the autoimmune hypothesis, like the beta-cell destruction in the transplant given from a healthy twin to the diabetic monozygotic co-twin, the effect in newly-diagnosed diabetes of immunosuppression, the passive transfer in experimental animals of an immune process creating diabetes etc. Several facts such as presence of activated T-cells in the insulitis indicate that the cell-mediated immunity is important, while it is still debatable whether humoral factors, and if so which, alone could be responsible for the beta cell destruction. Recently interleukins and other lymphokines have shown to be of great interest as well as the release of free radicals. This knowledge opens new views on the possibility to put an end to or even prevent the beta cell destruction. Rough immunosuppression with cytostatics or cyclosporin has such severe side-effects that such therapy is contra-indicated at least in children. Until more specific therapies are discovered e.g. vaccination with lymphoblasts or blocking the autoantigens with monoclonal antibodies, supportive measures to protect the beta cells may be one practical way.

  19. The Evaluation of Innovation in the IT Service Sector: Methodological and Empirical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Kazlauskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — Nowadays services are comprehended as the key factor for economic activity, growth and employment. Developed economies are service-dominated though little is known about the innovation details in the service sector and this study field has been neglected for a while. The innovation in service sector activities needs to be thoroughly evaluated because innovation is an interconnected process and cannot be defined using one or few indicators. IT services are an integral part of contemporary life, particularly for business. It can be introduced and implemented in all fields, especially when the world is becoming more multidimensional. Innovation performance in the IT sector has been under-researched, despite the fact that IT service sector plays the innovation disseminator role in other sectors by appliance of IT products. Design/methodology/approach — Based on scientific literature and methodological aspects analyses, an empirical research methodology was designed and the qualitative research on innovation in information technology service sector was accomplished. Findings — The article presents methodological aspects of innovation evaluation in service sector and empirical aspects on innovation implementation and development in the IT service companies in Lithuania. Research limitations/implications — For more comprehensive understanding of innovation in service sector, especially in IT services, the theory of service innovation is necessary. Deeper understanding and perspectives on how innovation benefits the information technology sector should be revealed in further researches and the multi-country analysis is needed. Practical implications — The finding of the paper can be used to improve the development of innovation in information technology service companies and create a model for more exhaustive multi-country empirical researches. Originality/value — The impact of innovation and its development in information

  20. Research with Children: Methodological Issues and Innovative Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargas-Malet, Montserrat; McSherry, Dominic; Larkin, Emma; Robinson, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades, a growing body of literature examining children's perspectives on their own lives has developed within a variety of disciplines, such as sociology, psychology, anthropology and geography. This article provides a brief up-to-date examination of methodological and ethical issues that researchers may need to consider when…

  1. Performance Evaluation and Measurement of the Organization in Strategic Analysis and Control: Methodological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živan Ristić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Information acquired by measuring and evaluation are a necessary condition for good decision-making in strategic management. This work deals with : (a Methodological aspects of evaluation (kinds of evaluation, metaevaluation and measurement (supposition of isomorphism in measurement, kinds and levels of measurement, errors in measurement and the basic characteristics of measurement (b Evaluation and measurement of potential and accomplishments of the organization in Kaplan-Norton perspectives (in the perspectives of learning and development, perspectives of internal processes, perspectives of the consumer/user, and in financial perspectives (c Systems and IT solutions of evaluation and measuring performances of the organization in strategic analysis and control.

  2. Revealing Children's Experiences and Emotions through Q Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn T. Ellingsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, there has been a greater readiness to view children as competent contributors to our understanding of children’s lives and experiences. As a consequence of this, we have witnessed an increased focus on including children in research. When research aims at revealing children’s perspectives, experiences, and emotions, we need to employ methods that are easy-to-use means for obtaining their stories. In this paper, we argue that Q methodology is particularly suitable for facilitating children’s participation in research. We will give a brief presentation of the methodology and demonstrate its relevance for research with children. We do so by presenting two research examples aiming at revealing children’s experiences and emotions in challenging life circumstances. In the first example, Q methodology was used with five-year-old children where the research topic was divorce. The second example is a study on family perceptions among adolescents in foster home care.

  3. Numerical Simulation Study on the Scientific and Methodological Aspects of the Brazilian Proposal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guoquan; DAI Xiaosu; Greg BODEKER; Andy REISINGER

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, by using a simple climate model (SCM), a numerical simulation study has been conducted on the scientific and methodological aspects of Brazilian Proposal. First the initial check of simple climate model has been done, then we do some sensitivity studies on timeframes (attribution start and end dates,and evaluation date), and three attribution methods (marginal attribution method, proportional attribution method, and time-sliced attribution method), at last we get the main conclusions as follows: The simple climate model can represent the results of more complex climate model (e.g., HadCM3), and it is thus used to study the scientific and methodological aspects of the Brazilian Proposal. Because of the limited knowledge of science and data, although attributing a part of temperature increase to different GHG (greenhouse gas)emission source, there is considerable temperature increase unattributed to regional emissions. Therefore it is uncertain to make Brazilian Proposal as the method for the responsibility share of future GHG decrease emission. The choices of different timeframes (attribution start and end dates, and evaluation date)and future emission SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) make great influence on the regional contributions to global climate changes, but different attribution methods have only a little influence.

  4. RETARDED AND GIFTED CHILDREN (SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova Anastasya Vladimirovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main idea of ​​this study was to determine the influence of social and biological factors on the abilities and inclinations of abnormal children. Methodology: Study analyzes problem of the «phenomenon of giftedness» from the point of view of the cultural and historical development. Results: The study showed the dependence of the formation of giftedness in children from possible use in the activities of cultural practices and operations. Practical implications: Psychology & Education. Findings: Abnormal children have the ability and inclination to different activities. Their specific activity caused by a decline of motivation and inability to use the "cultural practices" to improve the final result of the activity.

  5. Neuropsychological aspects of 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Ellen; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-01-01

    To characterize neuropsychological aspects of 10-year-old children. Out of 30 children, 26 cognitively normal 10-year-old public school students answered tests extracted from Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: Children's Revision. The study was transversal. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were carried out. Most of the 10-year-old children retold a story (69.2%), understood it making correct inference (84.6%) and reproduced it adequately in writing (76.9%)--14.9% was the average number of incorrectly written words and 0.179 was the errors per written word coefficient. Besides, 53.8% showed logical thought process and 73.1% had a correct notion of "x more than...". They got five out of eight in the visuo-spatial test, an intermediary result. These results show that the tertiary areas of units II and III are developed in most 10-year-old children. The most frequent types of written mistakes were: oral influence (26.3%), multiple representation (22.5%) and omission (18.4%). As to coding principles, the mostly uncomplied with rule was vowel nasalization at end of syllable (23,53%). Ten-year-old children in the studied population understood and reproduced a story orally and in writing with a low coefficient error/word. The majority completed the visuospatial tests and presented logical thought process. When "x more than..." notion is absent it may be an indicator that all is not well in the reading/writing process.

  6. Methodological aspects of values for determining the physical load in sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernozub A.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the control system of training in sport and identified two methodological concepts determine the amount of physical activity during the training sessions. It is established that the physical training and sports activities in the course of employment estimate the value of physical activity mainly due to the reaction rates of the functional systems of the body to an external stimulus. Such an assessment, especially in a narrow range of controllable parameters (for the reaction of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, is more theoretical in nature and does not allow to clearly define the critical load levels for a particular organism. This problem highlights the need to use a single, integrated, suitable for precise mathematical analysis of the universal, possibly conditional, indicator or criteria for evaluating physical activity. Development of this criterion will optimize the training process at different stages of training opportunities tailored to individual athletes.

  7. Kids'Cam: An Objective Methodology to Study the World in Which Children Live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Louise N; Smith, Moira B; Barr, Michelle; Stanley, James; Chambers, Tim J; Zhou, Jiang; Duane, Aaron; Jenkin, Gabrielle L S; Pearson, Amber L; Gurrin, Cathal; Smeaton, Alan F; Hoek, Janet; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on a new methodology to objectively study the world in which children live. The primary research study (Kids'Cam Food Marketing) illustrates the method; numerous ancillary studies include exploration of children's exposure to alcohol, smoking, "blue" space and gambling, and their use of "green" space, transport, and sun protection. One hundred sixty-eight randomly selected children (aged 11-13 years) recruited from 16 randomly selected schools in Wellington, New Zealand used wearable cameras and GPS units for 4 days, recording imagery every 7 seconds and longitude/latitude locations every 5 seconds. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015. Analysis commenced in 2015 and is ongoing. Bespoke software was used to manually code images for variables of interest including setting, marketing media, and product category to produce variables for statistical analysis. GPS data were extracted and cleaned in ArcGIS, version 10.3 for exposure spatial analysis. Approximately 1.4 million images and 2.2 million GPS coordinates were generated (most were usable) from many settings including the difficult to measure aspects of exposures in the home, at school, and during leisure time. The method is ethical, legal, and acceptable to children and the wider community. This methodology enabled objective analysis of the world in which children live. The main arm examined the frequency and nature of children's exposure to food and beverage marketing and provided data on difficult to measure settings. The methodology will likely generate robust evidence facilitating more effective policymaking to address numerous public health concerns. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Occupational therapists intervention methodologies in schools with children with Special Educational Needs in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Sofia Nabiço Maia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students with special educational needs should be inserted in regular classes, receiving all appropriate educational services allowing the development of skills and capabilities. The success of the school inclusion depends on the partnership between the various professionals in the school context. The insertion and occupational therapist’s contribution in the area of education is the subject of many studies. The importance of a professional team in school context is already recognized and valued by the community. Objectives: the aim is to identify the intervention methodologies used by occupational therapists in school with children with special educational needs. In order to determine the most common methodologies as well as relevant aspects of the therapeutic process. Method: this is a non-experimental research with descriptive and cross-sectional basis. A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared initially, quantitative in nature that was taught to occupational therapists that work or have worked for less than 3 years in school context. Results: the sample is composed of 40 occupational therapists, 37 are female and 3 are male. The majority of individuals (77.5% currently works in school context. The occupational therapists involved mainly with children, aged between 6 and 18 years. Conclusion: the methodologies used by the occupational therapists are playful activity/play therapy and the training activities of daily living. Riding for therapeutic purposes and the hippotherapy represent less widely used methodologies in school context, in that each was selected by 10% of therapists.

  9. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography: a review of methodological and instrumental innovations focusing on practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This review article addresses recent methodological and instrumental innovations in MEKC with emphasis on practical aspects. Like its predecessors, this review is intended to provide an updated overview covering work on the most salient methodological contributions to enhancing sensitivity and resolution in MEKC-based determinations published over the past two years. The most widespread approaches to enhancing sensitivity, which include improving "classical" online sample concentration techniques, combinations of on- and off-line sample concentration protocols and recent developments are discussed, and so are modifications of existing MEKC systems with various micellar phases, the use of BGE additives (organic modifiers, chiral selectors, gold nanoparticles) and coated capillaries, and the implementation of 2D separations and chemometric methods to enhance resolution. Instrumental approaches such as MS and LIF are also discussed, and proposals for overcoming the problems typically encountered in directly coupling MEKC with MS, and the recent inception of quantum dots with a great potential for LIF detection in MEKC, are also dealt with. Finally, foreseeable developments on potential future directions are also expressed.

  10. The glycemic index: methodological aspects related to the interpretation of health effects and to regulatory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is an experimental system that classifies carbohydrates (CHO) and CHO-containing foods according to their blood glucose-raising potential. It is based on the glycemic response following the ingestion of a test food containing a defined amount of available CHO relative to that of an equi-carbohydrate portion of either white bread or glucose. The concept has been extended to mixed meals and whole diets where the GI of the meal/diet is expressed as the weighted average of the GI of each food, based on the percentage of the total mealldiet CHO provided by each food. Over the last few decades, a substantial number of epidemiological and interventional studies have reported beneficial associationsleffects of lower GI diets across a wide spectrum of pathophysiological conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and certain forms of cancer. This has prompted proponents of the GI to recommend its use for dietary planning and labeling purposes. However, the currently recommended GI methodology is not well standardized and has several flaws, which brings into question the strength of evidence attributed to the health effects of low-GI diets. This review focuses exclusively on the methodological aspects of the GI, how they might impact the interpretation of data related to the purported health benefits of low GI diets, and the considerations for the use of the GI in food labeling. In addition, alternative systems for classifying the glycemic effects of CHO-containing foods are briefly discussed.

  11. Methodological Aspects in Forecasting Innovation Development of Dairy Cattle Breeding in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Medvedeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that Russia is now a member of the World Trade Organization, long-term forecasting becomes an objectively necessary condition that helps choose an effective science-based long-term strategy for development of dairy cattle breeding that would take into consideration intellectual and innovative characteristics. Current structure of available statistical information does not meet modern challenges of innovation development and does not reflect adequately the trends of ongoing changes. The paper suggests a system of indicators to analyze the status, development and prospects of dairy cattle breeding in the region; this system provides timely identification of emerging risks and threats of deviation from the specified parameters. The system included indicators contained in the current statistical reporting and new indicators of innovation development of the industry, the quality of human capital and the level of government support. When designing the system of indicators, we used several methodological aspects of the Oslo Manual, which the Federal State Statistics Service considers to be an official methodological document concerning the collection of information about innovation activities. A structured system of indicators shifts the emphasis in the analysis of the final results to the conditions and prerequisites that help achieve forecast performance indicators in the functioning of Russia’s economy under WTO rules and make substantiated management decisions

  12. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible.

  13. Holistic aspects of children's ways of understanding in making sense of genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ju

    The study examined the nature of how children make sense of phenomena in the area of genetics and inheritance. I proposed the phrase, way of understanding to capture a unified entity which children use to make sense of phenomena. The methodology was semi-structured probing interviews with six sixth grade students. Seven specific ways of understanding were discussed in the results section. Overall, the study described and discovered children's ways of understanding in terms of five aspects: cognitive aspects, affective aspects, social aspects, playfulness, and mode of awareness. Students' propositional knowledge, a holistic view of looking at how people resemble each other, syntactic knowledge, and an extension of rational explanations belonged to the cognitive aspects. Four categories of affective expressions were: an enjoyment of thinking and learning, a special feeling about the instructional activity, a deep personal involvement, and an anxiety in finding correct answers. Two types of social context were identified, one had somewhat of a connection to the science world, and the other did not have much of an scientific tie. The playfulness and the mode of awareness were two emerging aspects through the study. The playfulness represented the spontaneity, freedom, and sense of fun associated with the social interaction activity, such as the playfulness in expressing ideas to others. The modes of awareness included two types of metacognition, one was a conscious reflection on one's cognitive abilities, and the other was a continuous process of monitoring knowledge. In addition, the importance of considering language aspect in science learning was an emerging issue. Students' talking about genetics was embedded in the larger framework of social relationships and social institutions. Their social identify might influence the development of concepts, ways of talking and science learning. The study reflects the richness of children's sense-making processes

  14. Aspects of sleep disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stores, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children and adolescents is a topic that has been, and remains, neglected in both public health education and professional training. Although much knowledge has been accumulated in recent times, it has been poorly disseminated and, therefore, relatively little is put into practice. Only some general issues can be discussed in this article. The aspects chosen relate mainly to clinical practice, but they also have relevance for research. They concern various differences between sleep disorders in children and those in adults, the occurrence of such disorders in young people, their effects on psychological and physical development, the essential (but often ignored) distinction between sleep problems and their underlying causes (i.e., sleep disorders), types of sleep disturbance encountered at different ages during development, and the differential diagnosis of certain parasomnias that are at particular risk of being confused.

  15. Epidemiological Aspects of Blastocystis Colonization in Children in Ilero, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Casper S; Efunshile, Akinwale M; Nelson, Jenna A; Stensvold, Christen R

    2016-07-06

    This study aimed to elucidate aspects of the epidemiology of Blastocystis in Nigerian school children, including the distribution of subtypes (STs) and ST alleles. A total of 199 genomic DNAs extracted from fecal samples from 199 Nigerian children aged 2-14 years were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for Blastocystis Positive DNAs were submitted to barcoding by PCR and sequencing to obtain information on STs and ST alleles. A total of 167 (84%) samples were positive for Blastocystis, with prevalence increasing by age. No association between Blastocystis colonization and gender (P = 0.51) or type/presence of toilet facilities (P = 0.21) was observed. Blastocystis carriers were more prone to using water collected from wells than from sachets (P = 0.0044). Moreover, Blastocystis positivity was associated with positivity for fecal-orally transmitted protozoa (P = 0.018) and helminths (P Blastocystis colonization and malaria infection was observed (P Blastocystis colonization. ST data were available for 127/167 (76%) samples. Fifty-one children were positive for ST1, while 42 and 33 children were colonized with ST2 and ST3, respectively; a single case of ST7 was observed. By and large, the ST alleles identified for ST1 and ST2 did not differ from those observed in humans in other regions of the world; meanwhile, the distribution of ST3 alleles was remarkably distinct and potentially specific to humans in sub-Saharan Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Foreign body aspiration in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and bronchoscopic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Andrea de Melo Alexandre; Reis, Marcelo Conrado dos; Zambon, Mariana Porto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Pediatric Emergency Room]. E-mail: andreafrag@gmail.com; Toro, Ivan Contrera [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Pediatric Pulmonology

    2008-02-15

    Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and bronchoscopic treatment of foreign body aspiration in children under 14 years of age, correlating the clinical aspects with the bronchoscopic findings. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive study analyzing data related to children under 14 years of age undergoing bronchoscopy due to clinical suspicion of foreign body aspiration at the State University at Campinas Hospital das Clinicas from January of 2000 to December of 2005. Results: The sample consisted of 69 patients, ranging in age from 8 months to 12 years/7 months (75.4% under 3 years of age), 62.3% of whom were male. The principal complaint was sudden-onset cough (75.4%), auscultation was abnormal in 74%, and dyspnea was observed in 29%. Radiological abnormalities were seen in 88% of the cases. Aspirations were primarily into the right lung (54.8%), and 30.7% of the foreign bodies were of vegetal origin (principally beans and peanuts). In the follow-up period, 29% presented complications (most commonly pneumonia), which were found to be associated with longer aspiration time (p = 0.03). Mechanical ventilation was required in 7 children (10.1%), and multiple bronchoscopies were performed in 5 (7.2%). Conclusions: A history of sudden-onset choking and cough, plus abnormal auscultation and radiological findings, characterizes the profile of foreign body aspiration. In such cases, bronchoscopy is indicated. Longer aspiration time translates to a higher risk of complications. The high prevalence of foreign bodies of vegetal origin underscores the relevance of prevention at children younger than three years of age. (author)

  17. Methodological aspects of SEMG recordings for force estimation--a tutorial and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmann, Didier; Roeleveld, Karin; Stegeman, Dick F; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2010-06-01

    Insight into the magnitude of muscle forces is important in biomechanics research, for example because muscle forces are the main determinants of joint loading. Unfortunately muscle forces cannot be calculated directly and can only be measured using invasive procedures. Therefore, estimates of muscle force based on surface EMG measurements are frequently used. This review discusses the problems associated with surface EMG in muscle force estimation and the solutions that novel methodological developments provide to this problem. First, some basic aspects of muscle activity and EMG are reviewed and related to EMG amplitude estimation. The main methodological issues in EMG amplitude estimation are precision and representativeness. Lack of precision arises directly from the stochastic nature of the EMG signal as the summation of a series of randomly occurring polyphasic motor unit potentials and the resulting random constructive and destructive (phase cancellation) superimpositions. Representativeness is an issue due the structural and functional heterogeneity of muscles. Novel methods, i.e. multi-channel monopolar EMG and high-pass filtering or whitening of conventional bipolar EMG allow substantially less variable estimates of the EMG amplitude and yield better estimates of muscle force by (1) reducing effects of phase cancellation, and (2) adequate representation of the heterogeneous activity of motor units within a muscle. With such methods, highly accurate predictions of force, even of the minute force fluctuations that occur during an isometric and isotonic contraction have been achieved. For dynamic contractions, EMG-based force estimates are confounded by the effects of muscle length and contraction velocity on force producing capacity. These contractions require EMG amplitude estimates to be combined with modeling of muscle contraction dynamics to achieve valid force predictions.

  18. Cluster-randomized Studies in Educational Research: Principles and Methodological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyhaupt, Jens; Mayer, Benjamin; Keis, Oliver; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Muche, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are being performed in educational research to evaluate new teaching methods and approaches. These studies could be performed more efficiently and deliver more convincing results if they more strictly applied and complied with recognized standards of scientific studies. Such an approach could substantially increase the quality in particular of prospective, two-arm (intervention) studies that aim to compare two different teaching methods. A key standard in such studies is randomization, which can minimize systematic bias in study findings; such bias may result if the two study arms are not structurally equivalent. If possible, educational research studies should also achieve this standard, although this is not yet generally the case. Some difficulties and concerns exist, particularly regarding organizational and methodological aspects. An important point to consider in educational research studies is that usually individuals cannot be randomized, because of the teaching situation, and instead whole groups have to be randomized (so-called "cluster randomization"). Compared with studies with individual randomization, studies with cluster randomization normally require (significantly) larger sample sizes and more complex methods for calculating sample size. Furthermore, cluster-randomized studies require more complex methods for statistical analysis. The consequence of the above is that a competent expert with respective special knowledge needs to be involved in all phases of cluster-randomized studies. Studies to evaluate new teaching methods need to make greater use of randomization in order to achieve scientifically convincing results. Therefore, in this article we describe the general principles of cluster randomization and how to implement these principles, and we also outline practical aspects of using cluster randomization in prospective, two-arm comparative educational research studies.

  19. Cluster-randomized Studies in Educational Research: Principles and Methodological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyhaupt, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are being performed in educational research to evaluate new teaching methods and approaches. These studies could be performed more efficiently and deliver more convincing results if they more strictly applied and complied with recognized standards of scientific studies. Such an approach could substantially increase the quality in particular of prospective, two-arm (intervention studies that aim to compare two different teaching methods. A key standard in such studies is randomization, which can minimize systematic bias in study findings; such bias may result if the two study arms are not structurally equivalent. If possible, educational research studies should also achieve this standard, although this is not yet generally the case. Some difficulties and concerns exist, particularly regarding organizational and methodological aspects. An important point to consider in educational research studies is that usually individuals cannot be randomized, because of the teaching situation, and instead whole groups have to be randomized (so-called “cluster randomization”. Compared with studies with individual randomization, studies with cluster randomization normally require (significantly larger sample sizes and more complex methods for calculating sample size. Furthermore, cluster-randomized studies require more complex methods for statistical analysis. The consequence of the above is that a competent expert with respective special knowledge needs to be involved in all phases of cluster-randomized studies.Studies to evaluate new teaching methods need to make greater use of randomization in order to achieve scientifically convincing results. Therefore, in this article we describe the general principles of cluster randomization and how to implement these principles, and we also outline practical aspects of using cluster randomization in prospective, two-arm comparative educational research studies.

  20. QUALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL WORK WITH FAMILY AND CHILDREN: THEORETICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артем Сергеевич Дудкин

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the differences between categories of quality and efficiency in relation to the practice of social work with families and children. Building on the qualimetry, political economy and theory of social work, the authors propose their research findings with the specific social protection of families and children. There have conceptual problems of qualimetric measurements and assessments of the quality of social work in addition to the definition of efficiency.GoalIdentification of key theoretical aspects of the categories of quality and efficiency of social assistance to children and families in difficult situations.Method or the methodology of the workThe comparative method, classification, analysis and synthesis, their qualitative methods.FindingsThe theoretical description of the essential features of categories of quality and efficiency in relation to social work with families and children. The conceptualization of a scientific approach to the measurement of quality and benchmarking. The conclusions of the theoretical foundations of benchmarking of case management and social support for children.Field of application of the results.Pedagogy, social work, social support, social partnership, social mediation, social patronage, protection of human participants in the educational process, case management.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-10

  1. QUALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL WORK WITH FAMILY AND CHILDREN: THEORETICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugarov Alexander Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the differences between categories of quality and efficiency in relation to the practice of social work with families and children. Building on the qualimetry, political economy and theory of social work, the authors propose their research findings with the specific social protection of families and children. There have conceptual problems of qualimetric measurements and assessments of the quality of social work in addition to the definition of efficiency. Goal Identification of key theoretical aspects of the categories of quality and efficiency of social assistance to children and families in difficult situations. Method or the methodology of the work The comparative method, classification, analysis and synthesis, their qualitative methods. Findings The theoretical description of the essential features of categories of quality and efficiency in relation to social work with families and children. The conceptualization of a scientific approach to the measurement of quality and benchmarking. The conclusions of the theoretical foundations of benchmarking of case management and social support for children. Field of application of the results. Pedagogy, social work, social support, social partnership, social mediation, social patronage, protection of human participants in the educational process, case management.

  2. Efficacy and effectiveness as aspects of cluster randomized trials with nursing home residents: Methodological insights from a pneumonia prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Peduzzi, Peter N.; Quagliarello, Vincent J.

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses how methodological aspects of study efficacy and effectiveness combine in cluster randomized trials in nursing homes. Discussion focuses on the relationships between these study aspects in the Pneumonia Reduction in Institutionalized Disabled Elders (PRIDE) trial, an ongoing cluster randomized clinical trial of pneumonia prevention among nursing home residents launched in October 2009 in Greater New Haven, Connecticut. This clinical trial has enrolled long-term care nurs...

  3. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) by chlorpyrifos at sublethal concentrations: Methodological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Wel, H.; Welling, W.

    1989-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity is a potential biochemical indicator of toxic stress in fish and a sensitive parameter for testing water for the presence of organophosphates. A number of methodological aspects regarding the determination of the in vivo effect of chlorpyrifos on acetylcholinesterase in guppies have been investigated. It was found that with acetylthiocholine as a substrate, the contribution of pseudocholinesterase to the total cholinesterase activity can be neglected. Protection of acetylcholinesterase of guppies exposed to chlorpyrifos from additional, artifactual in vitro enzyme inhibition during homogenization is necessary. Very low concentrations of acetone in the exposure medium, resulting from dilution of the stock solution of chlorpyrifos in acetone, can result in large decreases in the oxygen content of this medium. This may affect the uptake rate of the toxic compound and, thereby, cholinesterase inhibition. Very low, sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos result in high inhibition levels of acetylcholinesterase (80-90%) in guppies within 2 weeks of continuous exposure. Recovery of the enzyme activity occurs after the exposed animals are kept in clean medium for 4 days, but the rate of recovery is considerably lower than the rate of inhibition.

  4. Integration of FDG-PET/CT into external beam radiation therapy planning Technical aspects and recommendations on methodological approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorwarth, D.; Beyer, T.; Boellaard, R.; De Ruysscher, D.; Grgic, A.; Lee, J. A.; Pietrzyk, U.; Sattler, B.; Schaefer, A.; van Elmpt, W.; Vogel, W.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Nestle, U.

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the clinical adoption of FDG-PET/CT for image-guided radiation therapy planning (RIP). As such, important technical and methodological aspects of PET/CT-based RIP are reviewed and practical recommendations are given for routine patient management and clinical studies. First, rece

  5. Integration of FDG-PET/CT into external beam radiation therapy planning. Technical aspects and recommendations on methodological approaches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorwarth, D.; Beyer, T.; Boellaard, R.; Ruysscher, D. de; Grgic, A.; Lee, J.A.; Pietrzyk, U.; Sattler, B.; Schaefer, A.; Elmpt, W. van; Vogel, W.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Nestle, U.

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the clinical adoption of FDG-PET/CT for image-guided radiation therapy planning (RTP). As such, important technical and methodological aspects of PET/CT-based RTP are reviewed and practical recommendations are given for routine patient management and clinical studies. First, rece

  6. Terminological and methodological aspects in investigating the preservation of rare library materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Hasenay

    2008-07-01

    efficient management and good organization of preservation presupposes a systematic and comprehensive approach applicable independent of the type of institution or type of material. The management and organization issues concerning the preservation of rare library materials is shown as an overview of their most important elements, with a critical evaluation of the most important achievements in theory in practice. The methodological aspect is also very important in investigating the preservation of rare library materials.The special emphasis is placed on the systematic investigation of the status of library holdings and the possibilities offered by the qualitative and quantitative description of holdings on the one hand, and the possibilities offered by the methods of interview and/or questionnaire on the other. Several practical examples that may serve as test models in the approach to this issue have been analyzed.The existing organization of the collection of historical newspapers from the city of Osijek area, and the organization of the collection of old books in the library of the Franciscan monastery in Mostar in relation to their status and protection activities have also been discussed. By comparing these models a significant difference in the material and content characteristics of the analyzed rare library holdings have been identified. This difference calls for the use of different methodologies for investigating the condition of the holdings. The information on the condition of the library holdings and approaches to their preservation serve as a starting point for planning further steps for the efficient preservation of rare library materials. The insights into the problem of preservation presented in this paper should be understood as a foundation for further implementation on similar examples.Key words : preservation of library materials, rare library materials, rare books, historical newspapers, organization and management of preservation, description of the

  7. A large-scale study of epilepsy in Ecuador: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia, M; Suarez, J; Crespo, F; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D; Ellison, R H; Cascante, S M

    1992-01-01

    The methodology is presented of a large-scale study of epilepsy carried out in a highland area in northern Ecuador, South America, covering a population of 72,121 people; The study was carried out in two phases, the first, a cross-sectional phase, consisted of a house-to-house survey of all persons in this population, screening for epileptic seizures using a specially designed questionnaire. Possible cases identified in screening were assessed in a cascade diagnostic procedure applied by general doctors and neurologists. Its objectives were: to establish a comprehensive epidemiological profile of epileptic seizures; to describe the clinical phenomenology of this condition in the community; to validate methods for diagnosis and classification of epileptic seizures by a non-specialised team; and to ascertain the community's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding epilepsy. A sample was selected in this phase in order to study the social aspects of epilepsy in this community. The second phase, which was longitudinal, assessed the ability of non-specialist care in the treatment of epilepsy. It consisted of a prospective clinical trial of antiepileptic therapy in untreated patients using two standard anti-epileptic drugs. Patients were followed for 12 months by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a primary health worker, rural doctor, neurologist, anthropologist, and psychologist. Standardised, reproducible instruments and methods were used. This study was carried out through co-operation between the medical profession, political agencies and the pharmaceutical industry, at an international level. We consider this a model for further large-scale studies of this type.

  8. [Methodological Aspects of the Sampling Design for the 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Nelcy; Rodríguez, Viviana Alejandra; Ramírez, Eugenia; Cediel, Sandra; Gil, Fabián; Rondón, Martín Alonso

    2016-12-01

    The WHO has encouraged the development, implementation and evaluation of policies related to mental health all over the world. In Colombia, within this framework and promoted by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, as well as being supported by Colciencias, the fourth National Mental Health Survey (NMHST) was conducted using a observational cross sectional study. According to the context and following the guidelines and sampling design, a summary of the methodology used for this sampling process is presented. The fourth NMHST used the Homes Master Sample for Studies in Health from the National System of Studies and Population Surveys for Health to calculate its sample. This Master Sample was developed and implemented in the year 2013 by the Ministry of Social Protection. This study included non-institutionalised civilian population divided into four age groups: children 7-11 years, adolescent 12-17 years, 18-44 years and 44 years old or older. The sample size calculation was based on the reported prevalences in other studies for the outcomes of mental disorders, depression, suicide, associated morbidity, and alcohol use. A probabilistic, cluster, stratified and multistage selection process was used. Expansions factors to the total population were calculated. A total of 15,351 completed surveys were collected and were distributed according to the age groups: 2727, 7-11 years, 1754, 12-17 years, 5889, 18-44 years, and 4981, ≥45 years. All the surveys were distributed in five regions: Atlantic, Oriental, Bogotá, Central and Pacific. A sufficient number of surveys were collected in this study to obtain a more precise approximation of the mental problems and disorders at the regional and national level. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  10. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  11. Methodological Aspects of Building Science-based Sports Training System for Taekwondo Sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananchenko Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have solved topical scientific problems in the article: 1 the research base in the construction of theoretical and methodological foundations of sports training, based on taekwondo has been analysed; 2 the organization and methodological requirements for the training sessions of taekwondo have been researched; 3 the necessity of interaction processes of natural development and adaptation to physical activity of young taekwondo sportsmen has been grounded; 4 the necessity of scientific evidence of building young fighters training loads in microcycles, based on their individualization has been proved.

  12. Didactic Aspects of the Academic Discipline "History and Methodology of Mathematics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai; Varankina, Vera I.; Sadovaya, Victoriya V.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop the content and methods, as well as the analysis of the approbation of the program of the academic discipline "History and methodology of mathematics" for graduate students of the Master's program of mathematical program tracks. The leading method in the study of this problem was the method of…

  13. Theoretical-methodological aspects of systemic geographical investigation into landscape degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Plut

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The following methodological approaches have been developed in the systemically planned investigation into the degradation of geographical environment: the physico-geographical, the ecosystemic, the socio-ecological, the landscape-ecological, and the functional regional-geographical ones.

  14. Key Methodological Aspects of Translators' Training in Ukraine and in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of international relations in the globalized world has influenced the role of a translator that is becoming more and more important. Translators' training institutions today are to work out and to implement the best teaching methodology taking into consideration the new challenges of modern multinational and multicultural society.…

  15. Methodological Aspects Regarding the Process of Estimating the Reserve for the Un-cleared Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2007-07-01

    The analyzed theoretical aspects are accompanied by empirical examples meant to give the researcher (reader the opportunity of a clearer understanding the mechanism in discussion. The examples are of a scholastic nature to the extent they are aiming a more explicit approach of the used mechanism only, without representing elements of a case analysis.

  16. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  17. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  18. The associations between psychosocial aspects and TMD-pain related aspects in children and adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Khotani, Amal; Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Gjelset, Mattias; Albadawi, Emad; Bello, Lanre; Hedenberg-Magnusson, Britt; Christidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents is prevalent with pain as a common component, and has a comorbidity with psychosocial problems such as stress, depression, anxiety as well as somatic complaints...

  19. Children with Asperger syndrome: specific aspects of their drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita

    2002-01-01

    Free drawings of children with AS, aged 7-16 years, were analysed in relation to the clinical picture comprising their difficulties in communication, social behaviour and cognition. All children showed good abilities in drawing. Pictures had some common traits and were distinctly original, reflecting peculiarities of the syndrome features. Analysis of free drawings was found to be a helpful tool in understanding the inner world and the dynamic changes during the therapy process of these children.

  20. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology.

  1. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE BETWEEN UKRAINIAN GAAP AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kuzina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the global business environment the need to strengthen the accounting and financial re-porting. At the stage of attracting investment in the country there is a need in the preparation of financial statements generally accepted basic prin-ciples of which are based on common international financial reporting standards (IFRS . Relevant is the assessment of convergence of national standards and International Financial Reporting Standards. However, before you conduct content analysis necessary to determine compliance with standards of methodological approaches to the selection of key indicators for the assessment of convergence. The article is to define the methodo-logical approaches to the selection and development of indicators IFRSs list of key elements for further evaluation convergence of national and international standards. To assess the convergence was allocated 187 basic key elements measuring the level of convergence to IFRS. Sampling was carried out based on the professional judgment of the author, the key indicators of the standard, based on the evaluation of the usefulness of accounting information. These figures make it possible to calculate the specific level of convergence of international and national standards and determine how statements prepared by domestic standards corresponding to IFRS. In other words, can with some certainty assert that Ukraine has made (“good practices in IFRS implementation” or not? This calculation will assess the regulatory efforts of government agencies (Ministry of Finance on the approximation of Ukrainian standards and IFRS.

  2. Lower limb deficient children in The Netherlands: epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnders, L J; Boonstra, A M; Groothoff, J W; Cornel, M C; Eisma, W H

    2000-04-01

    Information on the characteristics of children with limb deficiencies and amputations in The Netherlands is largely lacking. The present study aimed to collect data about the prevalence of congenital deficiencies, the ratio of congenital to acquired limb deficiencies, types of lower leg deficiency or amputation and male/female ratios. Data were obtained from a regional birth defects registry for the northern part of The Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL) and from a national survey. Inclusion criteria for the selection of the EUROCAT data were: children/foetuses with lower leg deficiencies born in 1981-1986. Inclusion criteria for the survey data were: children aged 1-18 years with congenital deficiencies or acquired amputations of the leg, excluding toe deficiencies/amputations. Both the regional birth defects registry and the national survey only yielded small numbers of children, which limits the validity of the authors' findings. The Eurocat data show a prevalence of lower leg deficiencies at birth of 2.07/10,000. Fifty-five (55) children/foetuses were included in the present study. The male/female ratio was 1:1. Of the live-born children, 30% also had defects of the upper limbs, while 38% had bilateral lower limb deficiencies. The national survey included 89 children, of whom 73% had congenital deficiencies, while the others had undergone amputations: of which 37% were due to malignancies, 29% to traumata, 13% to infections and 21% to other pathology. The male/female ratio was 7:3 for the children with congenital deficiencies versus 6:4 for the children with acquired amputations. In the group of congenital deficiencies, fibula deficiency was most frequently seen (36%), while in the group with acquired amputations trans-femoral amputation, knee disarticulation and trans-tibial amputation were seen with equal frequency (21%). In 40% of the children with congenital deficiency and in 8% of the children with acquired amputations the arm was also affected. Both legs were

  3. Education for children with disabilities: a statistical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Oksana Kuchmaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the development of the education system for children with disabilities in Russia in recent years. The work is based on the analysis implemented in the country programme documents for persons with disabilities, the data of statistical observation in the sphere of education and situation of children with disabilities – to assess the situation in the field of accessibility of educational services for children with disabilities, the author used the data of official statistical reporting, as well as representative surveys conducted by the Rosstat (Federal State Statistics Service. The study allows to conclude that, despite the implementation of the principle of inclusive education and measures of availability of education for children with disabilities, some children with disabilities remain excluded from the education system, primarily due to their condition. There remains a need in educational services so-called correctional institutions. The reform of the education system for children with disabilities requires consideration of the needs of persons with different disabilities. The actual problem is getting the professional education for children with disabilities. There is the extremely small number of institutions that provide the opportunity for the persons with severe disabilities to receive higher education.

  4. Children with developmental problems and disorders : selected aspects of motor and multidisciplinary assessment and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to apply a multidisciplinary approach to selected clinical aspects of children with developmental problems and disorders, in order to contribute to the development of assessment and intervention strategies. Motor coordination difficulties were particularly focused. The following aspects were investigated in the separate studies: - Behaviour, cognitive, linguistic and motor skills were assessed in 6-year old children considered at risk with regard to...

  5. Concept Maps: An Alternative Methodology to Assess Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Dominique-Maikell, Nikole; McKean, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the utility and efficacy of using concepts maps as a research tool to assess young children. Pre- and post- concept maps have been used as an assessment and evaluation tool with teachers and with older students, typically children who can read and write; this article summarizes an investigation into the utility of using…

  6. Methodological aspects of environmental assessment of livestock production by LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    to include, the stages of the livestock system to comprise and the effects on adjoining systems like energy and fertilizer production to account for. Further, it explains the comparative nature of environmental assessment and how to use reference systems as the basis of comparison of alternative techniques......This paper illustrates the necessity to use a holistic perspective when striving to assess the environmental performance of a livestock production system. It elaborates on the methodological dimension of livestock- related LCAs, i.e. it describes the essential environmental impacts categories....... It illustrates a Danish example of establishing data of such reference systems. Finally, it provides an overview of approaches used to estimate emissions based on knowledge of manure composition throughout the stages of the livestock production system....

  7. The Developmental Aspects and Origins of Competitive Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles W.

    The literature on competitive behavior in children is examined. Sections of the review concern the socializing process of competitiveness, evolutionary foundations, early developmental processes, the relationship between competition and aggression, gender differences, competition and cooperation, anthropological perspectives, effects of…

  8. Important Aspects of Nutrition in Children with Cancer1

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jacqueline; Jürgens, Heribert; Frühwald, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during cancer plays a decisive role in several clinical outcome measures, such as treatment response, quality of life, and cost of care. However, the importance of nutrition in children and young adults with malignancies is still an underestimated topic within pediatric oncology. The importance of our work is to reinforce and indicate that malnutrition in children with cancer should not be accepted at any stage of the disease or tolerated as an inevitable process. Unique to...

  9. Children with Asperger syndrome: specific aspects of their drawings

    OpenAIRE

    Lesinskiene, Sigita

    2002-01-01

    Free drawings of children with AS, aged 7-16 years, were analysed in relation to the clinical picture comprising their difficulties in communication, social behaviour and cognition. All children showed good abilities in drawing. Pictures had some common traits and were distinctly original, reflecting peculiarities of the syndrome features. Analysis of free drawings was found to be a helpful tool in understanding the inner world and the dynamic changes during the therapy process of these child...

  10. The Beliefs of Teachers and Daycare Staff regarding Children of Divorce: A Q Methodological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Klara; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Storksen, Ingunn

    2012-01-01

    This Q methodological study explores beliefs of daycare staff and teachers regarding young children's reactions related to divorce. The Q factor analysis resulted in two viewpoints. Participants on the viewpoint "Child problems" believe that children show various emotional and behavioral problems related to divorce, while those on the "Structure…

  11. Behavioral Observation Scales for Measuring Children's Distress: The Effects of Increased Methodological Rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of increased methodological rigor on the validity of the Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress and on findings concerning whether children habituate to painful procedures. Data were scored with and without refinements. Results indicated that children do habituate but that refinements had little effect on validity. (BH)

  12. ASPECTS OF BIODETERIORATION OF LAPIDEOUS SUBMERGED ARTEFACTS: 3D METHODOLOGIES APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ricci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Submerged stone archaeological artefacts are bioeroded by endolithic microbiota (cyanobacteria, algae and fungi and macroborers (Porifera, Bivalvia and Sipuncula. Optical microscope and SEM observations permit to analyse the bioerosion traces and to identify bioeroders. Data obtained with these techniques cannot be used to estimate volumes of material bioeroded. This aspect require the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from artefact. In this work we illustrate two 3D imaging techniques used to study bioerosion phenomena of underwater Cultural Heritage. In particular Digital Video Microscope permit the elaboration of 3D images, which are widely employed for close-range acquisitions. Underwater Laser Scanner documents the in situ degradation of submerged artefacts. This research aims to sensitize specialist figures in the study 3D offering a starting point for future collaborations that could lead to interesting results.

  13. Aspects of Biodeterioration of Lapideous Submerged Artefacts: 3d Methodologies Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, S.; Antonelli, F.; Sacco Perasso, C.

    2015-04-01

    Submerged stone archaeological artefacts are bioeroded by endolithic microbiota (cyanobacteria, algae and fungi) and macroborers (Porifera, Bivalvia and Sipuncula). Optical microscope and SEM observations permit to analyse the bioerosion traces and to identify bioeroders. Data obtained with these techniques cannot be used to estimate volumes of material bioeroded. This aspect require the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from artefact. In this work we illustrate two 3D imaging techniques used to study bioerosion phenomena of underwater Cultural Heritage. In particular Digital Video Microscope permit the elaboration of 3D images, which are widely employed for close-range acquisitions. Underwater Laser Scanner documents the in situ degradation of submerged artefacts. This research aims to sensitize specialist figures in the study 3D offering a starting point for future collaborations that could lead to interesting results.

  14. Comparative study of languages of different structures: linguistic and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiryanov K. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of two languages of different structures has both theoretical and practical significance, enables somebody to identify similar and distinctive features, find universals (general points and unique (specific events, helps to penetrate deeper into the inner workings of each of the compared languages and understand their national identity. The subject of our comparative study are languages of different structures - Russian and Bashkir languages - the first refers to a group of inflected, the second - to the group of agglutinative languages. Comparative research of languages of different structures can be carried out in two aspects: theoretical and linguistic. In the first case, the analysis of language material is subjected without restriction at all levels of the language system. Data from these studies can be used in the creation of comparative descriptive grammars in lexicographical work and in the translation business. In the second case only microlanguage is matched (learning language, which is represented in the lexical and grammatical minimum of studied second language. Materials of such a compressed comparative analysis used in the practice of language teaching, mainly in teaching a second, non-native language. When a comparative study of languages in linguistic aspect is important direction of comparisons - what language is elected as the original one. Since the formation of national-Russian bilingualism is the subject of study of Russian language, as the source, it is desirable to choose Russian language. In this case, the reference point is the absorption of funds Russian as a second language. Materials of comparative study of two languages gives a clear idea of what linguistic phenomena and their symptoms are identical in them, what is only partially overlap, what is completely different. This knowledge will help to consciously manage the impact of native language on the studied non-native Russian language. In the

  15. Efficacy and effectiveness as aspects of cluster randomized trials with nursing home residents: methodological insights from a pneumonia prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ness, Peter H; Peduzzi, Peter N; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2012-11-01

    This report discusses how methodological aspects of study efficacy and effectiveness combine in cluster randomized trials in nursing homes. Discussion focuses on the relationships between these study aspects in the Pneumonia Reduction in Institutionalized Disabled Elders (PRIDE) trial, an ongoing cluster randomized clinical trial of pneumonia prevention among nursing home residents launched in October 2009 in Greater New Haven, Connecticut. This clinical trial has enrolled long-term care nursing home residents, over 65years in age, who have either inadequate oral care or swallowing difficulty, previously identified risk factors for pneumonia. It has used a multicomponent intervention consisting of manual tooth/gum brushing, 0.12% chlorhexidine oral rinse administered twice daily by nurses, and upright feeding positioning at meals to reduce rates of radiographically documented pneumonia. Cluster randomization is attractive for nursing home intervention studies because physical proximity and administrative arrangements make it difficult to deliver different interventions to residents of the same nursing home. Implementing an intervention in an entire home requires integration into the daily life of residents and into the administrative procedures of the nursing home. This characteristic of nursing home cluster randomized trials makes them approximate "real-world" research contexts, but implementation can be challenging. The PRIDE trial of pneumonia prevention utilized specific methodological choices that include both efficacy and effectiveness elements. Cluster randomized trials in nursing homes having elements of both efficacy and effectiveness (i.e., hybrid designs) can address some of the methodological challenges of conducting clinical research in nursing homes; they have distinctive advantages and some limitations.

  16. Psychological aspects of traumatic injury in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Ernesto; Belaise, Carlotta

    2003-07-01

    Each year millions of children are exposed to some form of extreme traumatic stressor. These traumatic events include natural disasters (e.g., tornadoes, floods, hurricanes), motor vehicle accidents, life-threatening illnesses and associated painful medical procedures (e.g., severe burns, cancer, limb amputations), physical abuse, sexual assault, witnessing domestic or community violence, kidnapping, and sudden death of a parent. During times of war, violent and nonviolent trauma (e.g., lack of fuel and food) may have terrible effects on children's adjustment. The events of September 11, 2001 and the unceasing suicidal attacks in the Middle East underscore the importance of understanding how children and adolescents react to disasters and terrorism. The body of literature related to children and their responses to disasters and trauma is growing. Mental health professionals are increasing their understanding about what factors are associated with increased risk (vulnerability) and affect how children cope with traumatic events. Researchers recognize that children's responses to major stress are similar to adults' (reexperiencing the event, avoidance, and arousal) and that these responses are not transient. A review of the literature indicates that PTSD is the most common psychiatric disorder after traumatic experiences, including physical injuries. There is also evidence for other comorbid conditions, including mood, anxiety, sleep, conduct, learning, and attention problems. In terms of providing treatment, CBT emerges as the best validated therapeutic approach for children and adolescents who experienced trauma-related symptoms, particularly symptoms associated with anxiety or mood disorders. The best approach to the injured child requires injury and pain assessment followed by specific interventions, such as pain management, brief consultation, and crisis intervention immediately after the specific traumatic event. Family support also may be necessary to help the

  17. ABOUT THE RELEVANCE AND METHODOLOGY ASPECTS OF TEACHING THE MATHEMATICAL MODELING TO PEDAGOGICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Perminov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the need for profile training in mathematical modeling for pedagogical students, caused by the total penetration of mathematics into different sciences, including the humanities; fast development of the information communications technologies; and growing importance of mathematical modeling, combining the informal scientific and formal mathematical languages with the unique opportunities of computer programming. The author singles out the reasons for mastering and using the mathematical apparatus by teaches in every discipline. Indeed, among all the modern mathematical methods and ideas, mathematical modeling retains its priority in all professional spheres. Therefore, the discipline of “Mathematical Modeling” can play an important role in integrating different components of specialists training in various profiles. By mastering the basics of mathematical modeling, students acquire skills of methodological thinking; learn the principles of analysis, synthesis, generalization of ideas and methods in different disciplines and scientific spheres; and achieve general culture competences. In conclusion, the author recommends incorporating the “Methods of Profile Training in Mathematical Modeling” into the pedagogical magistracy curricula. 

  18. [Organizational-methodological aspects in optimization of training of future military physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, V M; Korshever, H G; Lobachev, I V

    2007-11-01

    There was an effort to create a universal organization-administrative workbench, which, on the one hand, execute the function of primary and dynamical valuation of this process, revelation of difficult situations and, on the other hand, permits identify the causes of theirs rise and the ways of resolving these situations. At that the optimization of training military-medicine personnel is organized by the way of realization it's principles, in the network of correct normatively - juridicial field, on the base of modern agents, forms and methods of professional military education, as well as the realization of peculiarities of system of military-medical education, of multi-criterion diagnostics of activity of military-medicine academy and of teaching of several subjects, of predicting of success of professional education of hearer, of efficient restructuring of educational-methodological complex with the aim of method of branches and frontiers for the purpose of ground and choice such administrative solutions, that are the beast from the point of view of efficiency of result of functioning.

  19. Methodological aspects of the molecular and histological study of prostate cancer: focus on PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde-Olano, Aitziber; Egia, Ainara; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Zuñiga-García, Patricia; Garcia, Stephane; Royo, Félix; Lacasa-Viscasillas, Isabel; Castro, Erika; Cortazar, Ana R; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Martín-Martín, Natalia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Torrano-Moya, Verónica; Valcárcel-Jiménez, Lorea; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; González-Tampan, Jorge; Cachi-Fuentes, Guido; Bilbao, Elena; Montero, Rocío; Fernández, Sara; Arrieta, Edurne; Zorroza, Kerman; Castillo-Martín, Mireia; Serra, Violeta; Salazar, Eider; Macías-Cámara, Nuria; Tabernero, Jose; Baselga, Jose; Cordón-Cardo, Carlos; Aransay, Ana M; Villar, Amaia Del; Iovanna, Juan L; Falcón-Pérez, Juan M; Unda, Miguel; Bilbao, Roberto; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most frequent cancers in men, and despite its high rate of cure, the high number of cases results in an elevated mortality worldwide. Importantly, prostate cancer incidence is dramatically increasing in western societies in the past decades, suggesting that this type of tumor is exquisitely sensitive to lifestyle changes. Prostate cancer frequently exhibits alterations in the PTEN gene (inactivating mutations or gene deletions) or at the protein level (reduced protein expression or altered sub-cellular compartmentalization). The relevance of PTEN in this type of cancer is further supported by the fact that the sole deletion of PTEN in the murine prostate epithelium recapitulates many of the features of the human disease. In order to study the molecular alterations in prostate cancer, we need to overcome the methodological challenges that this tissue imposes. In this review we present protocols and methods, using PTEN as proof of concept, to study different molecular characteristics of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Adaptation Potential of Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesina Iryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of theoretical and methodological recommendations with respect to assessment of the adaptation potential of employees as an important prerequisite of development of employees and ensuring competitiveness of an enterprise. It contains the author’s interpretation of the adaptation potential as a possibility of adjusting to the environment with the aim of achieving socio-economic goals of an enterprise. Adaptation potential is a property of a person as a performer of labour functions and ability to master new methods of work, adjustment to new labour conditions, processing of information and also a communicative property. At the same time adaptation potential is an aggregate of motivational, professional, information and integration components of a person. For assessing the adaptation potential it is proposed to combine 360 degrees method and method of paired comparison, which facilitates increase of trustworthiness of results. The author marks out some criteria of assessment of the adaptation potential: ratio of professional experience, ratio of official experience, ratio of efficiency of work, independence in mastering new methods of work, fast adjustment to new labour conditions, ability to quickly process big volumes of information, mobility, high level of productivity under different labour conditions, sharpness of wit in different production situations, ability to form interpersonal relations in a collective and psychological features.

  1. Multiple Aspects of Preschool Children's Social Cognition: Relations with Peer Acceptance and Peer Interaction Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Three aspects of young children's social cognition--accurate encoding of social cues, hostile attributions and response access/generation--were assessed among 128 children (64 girls) attending three-, four-, and five-year-old classrooms (ages ranged from 36 to 73 months). Hostile attributions and the quality of strategy generation were both…

  2. Children with congenital deficiencies or acquired amputations of the lower limbs : functional aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, AM; Rijnders, LJM; Groothoff, J W; Eisma, W H

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of prostheses, some secondary complications and functional aspects among children who had a congenital leg deficiency or an acquired leg amputation. Rehabilitation physicians were asked to refer children, aged 1-18 years, with a leg deficiency or amputati

  3. EpiFloripa Health Survey: the methodological and operational aspects behind the scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Peres, Karen Glazer; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Hallal, Pedro C; Silva, Nilza Nunes; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at describing the sampling plan, operational aspects and strategies used to optimize the field work of a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in a southern capital of Brazil. For this purpose, the sample design, data collection instrument, selection of interviewers, pilot study, data collection, field logistics, quality control, consistency control, costs, and divulgation of results are herein described. The study's response rate was 85.3%. We found that the comparison of frequency measurements with and without self-assessment had no significant impact on the estimates, and that the design effect, estimated at 2, was sufficient for most calculations. The reproducibility of the questionnaire was satisfactory, with Kappa values and intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. The strategies used to overcome operational problems, such as counting of households, use of maps, questionnaire structuring, rigorous organization of the field work and monitoring of the estimates were fundamental in conducting the study.

  4. EpiFloripa Health Survey: the methodological and operational aspects behind the scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crispim Boing

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at describing the sampling plan, operational aspects and strategies used to optimize the field work of a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in a southern capital of Brazil. For this purpose, the sample design, data collection instrument, selection of interviewers, pilot study, data collection, field logistics, quality control, consistency control, costs, and divulgation of results are herein described. The study's response rate was 85.3%. We found that the comparison of frequency measurements with and without self-assessment had no significant impact on the estimates, and that the design effect, estimated at 2, was sufficient for most calculations. The reproducibility of the questionnaire was satisfactory, with Kappa values and intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. The strategies used to overcome operational problems, such as counting of households, use of maps, questionnaire structuring, rigorous organization of the field work and monitoring of the estimates were fundamental in conducting the study.

  5. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MOLASSES SAMPLE PREPARATION IN SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTENT DETERMINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Molasses is characterized as sugar production by-product from primary or secondary sacchariferous raw materials. The features of the appearance, the chemical composition, molasses and exit directions of its use, depending on the type of production, in which it is formed. The value of molasses is demonstrated according to its total composition as well as its use directions. Statistics on beet molasses amounts in Russia is presented. Described consumer market molasses in Russia and abroad with its exports. Shown regulations contain requirements for the quality and safety of molasses, including sulfur dioxide. The data on sulfur allergenic properties are presented. Showing source of the sulfur dioxide in the residual molasses number of processing aids and the impact of its level in the value of raw molasses for use in biotechnological processes and fodder production. The necessity to develop methodology for determining the sulfur dioxide content in the molasses to control its security. The iodometric method, which is used in practice for determination of sulphur dioxide in foods are characterized. Differences molasses and sugar as objects of iodometric determination of sulfur dioxide, which leads to the inability to ascertain the equivalence point. The variants eliminate interfering background of dark-colored foods common in analytical chemistry. Advantages and disadvantages of the background masking and stripping the determination of sulfur dioxide in the darkcolored products. It was characterized by clarifying sugar solutions in optical control methods. The hypothesis about preferability of its use in sample molasses preparation for equivalence point fixation in iodometric titration is suggested. The tasks of experimental research for the development of sample preparation algorithm molasses in determining the content of sulphurous acid.

  6. Aspects of Travel and Movement in Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the theme of travel as represented in recent children's literature, specifically realistic fiction, with a focus on common patterns through which child protagonists in the narratives become involved in spatial movement. Considers how selected social factors--namely gender, kinship, and socio-economics--affect such movement. (SG)

  7. Aspects of Television Content and Children's Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. Andrew; And Others

    Three studies examine the impact of different types of television content on the social behavior of children at various ages. The studies represent research into the interrelated problem of the processes involved in media effects and age-related differences. In the first study an action-adventure program, in which a character's reputation and…

  8. Aspects of Travel and Movement in Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the theme of travel as represented in recent children's literature, specifically realistic fiction, with a focus on common patterns through which child protagonists in the narratives become involved in spatial movement. Considers how selected social factors--namely gender, kinship, and socio-economics--affect such movement. (SG)

  9. Extraordinary Aspects of Ordinary People and Everyday Places. Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a geographically based overview of children's literature highlighting the extraordinary experience of ordinary people. Recommended books cover subjects as diverse as the U.S. West and economically developing countries. A special effort has been made to include a multicultural perspective. (MJP)

  10. Lower limb deficient children in the Netherlands : epidemiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, LJM; Boonstra, AM; Groothoff, JW; Cornel, MC; Eisma, WH

    2000-01-01

    information on the characteristics of children with limb deficiencies and amputations in the Netherlands is largely lacking. The present study aimed to collect data about the prevalence of congenital deficiencies, the ratio of congenital to acquired limb deficiencies, types of lower leg deficiency o

  11. Exploring Some Aspects Associated with Dentine Hypersensitivity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Shitsuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The etiology of dentine hypersensitivity (DH is still inconclusive and there are few studies concerning it in children. Aim. To evaluate clinical, dietary, and salivary variables in children with DH complaints. Design. Forty-eight children were asked about DH. Data regarding dietary habits were collected from the children’s parents and an examination was performed to determine dental erosion. Dental biofilm was estimated by oral hygiene status, according to Greene and Vermillion’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S. Whole saliva was collected under mechanical stimulation and evaluated salivary flow rate, initial pH, buffer capacity, and calcium and phosphate concentrations. The temperature of soft drinks, drinking method, sense of bitter taste, and other variables were also determined. Possible factors associated with DH were analyzed by univariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses. The prevalence ratio (PR values and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results. DH was associated with the presence of dental erosion (PR; 95% CI = 2.23; 1.05 to 4.71 and salivary flow rate (2.49; 1.05 to 5.91. When the presence of erosion was not included, other variables were retained as follows: bitter taste (2.36; 1.38 to 4.03, OHI-S (0.47; 0.23 to 0.97. Conclusion. DH in children is associated with factors related to dental erosion.

  12. Platform development for merging various information sources for water management: methodological, technical and operational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Diogo

    2013-04-01

    As a result of various economic, social and environmental factors, we can all experience the increase in importance of water resources at a global scale. As a consequence, we can also notice the increasing need of methods and systems capable of efficiently managing and combining the rich and heterogeneous data available that concerns, directly or indirectly, these water resources, such as in-situ monitoring station data, Earth Observation images and measurements, Meteorological modeling forecasts and Hydrological modeling. Under the scope of the MyWater project, we developed a water management system capable of satisfying just such needs, under a flexible platform capable of accommodating future challenges, not only in terms of sources of data but also on applicable models to extract information from it. From a methodological point of view, the MyWater platform obtains data from distinct sources, and in distinct formats, be they Satellite images or meteorological model forecasts, transforms and combines them in ways that allow them to be fed to a variety of hydrological models (such as MOHID Land, SIMGRO, etc…), which themselves can also be combined, using such approaches as those advocated by the OpenMI standard, to extract information in an automated and time efficient manner. Such an approach brings its own deal of challenges, and further research was developed under this project on the best ways to combine such data and on novel approaches to hydrological modeling (like the PriceXD model). From a technical point of view, the MyWater platform is structured according to a classical SOA architecture, with a flexible object oriented modular backend service responsible for all the model process management and data treatment, while the information extracted can be interacted with using a variety of frontends, from a web portal, including also a desktop client, down to mobile phone and tablet applications. From an operational point of view, a user can not only see

  13. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Castoldi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  14. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  15. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system

  16. Neurological aspects at children with a perinatal HIV-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fomina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the given research results of inspection of children with a HIV-infection are analyzed at perinatal ways. 550 children from a birth till 10 years are surveyed. The neurological status of patients, the data immunological and virologic inspection of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid is studied. It is spent neuroimaging and psychometric testing. It is shown that defeat of nervous system is HIV-infection display at children’s age. A HIV-induced defeat of the central and peripheral nervous system is presented, first of all, to specific HIV-encephalitis with sharp and sub acute a current. Are revealed clinical and immunological correlations at various stages of infectious process, influence antiretroviral therapies on dynamics of neurological infringements is analyzed.

  17. Lower limb deficient children in the Netherlands: epidemiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rijnders, LJM; Boonstra, AM; Groothoff, JW; Cornel, MC; Eisma, WH

    2000-01-01

    information on the characteristics of children with limb deficiencies and amputations in the Netherlands is largely lacking. The present study aimed to collect data about the prevalence of congenital deficiencies, the ratio of congenital to acquired limb deficiencies, types of lower leg deficiency or amputation and male/female ratios. Data were obtained from a regional birth defects registry for the northern parr. of the Netherlands (EUROCAT-NNL) and from a national survey, inclusion criteria...

  18. Usability and Children's Software: A User-Centered Design Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jenifer Wals

    1994-01-01

    Addresses usability issues pertaining to the purpose of educational software, followed by suggestions for ways in which educational software can meet the language, physical, social, and cognitive needs of children. Guidelines and recommendations are provided for adapting usability engineering and testing procedures to educational software to…

  19. Quasi 3D Geoelectrical Imaging as a new application for permafrost investigations: Some methodological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, A.; Kneisel, C.

    2009-04-01

    packages, mainly Res2Dinv, Res3Dinv (both Geotomo Software) and Slicer Dicer (Pixotec). The processing software Res2Dinv and Res3Dinv perform a smoothness-constrained inversion using finite difference forward modeling and quasi-Newton inversion techniques to model the subsurface conditions, whereas the Slicer Dicer software is used for visualization of the three-dimensional data. The first model consists of 22 merged two-dimensional surveys, 10 along the x-axes and 12 along the y-axes. 36 electrodes were involved in each survey-line, the spacing between the electrodes is 5m, the geometric configuration is the Wenner array. The distance between each survey-line in the x- and y-plain is 15m (triple electrode spacing). So a grid of 175m x 175m was built up, with 792 electrode positions and 4356 data points. The second image consists of 17 combined surveys, 10 along the x-axes and 7 along the y-axes. The spacing between the 36 electrodes is 2m, the geometric configuration is the Wenner Schlumberger array. The distance between each survey-line in the x-plain is 8m (quadruple electrode spacing) and range in the y-plain between 24m and 8m, the result is a higher resolution in the central part of the 72m x 72m grid with 612 electrode positions and 4896 data points. Data acquisition, data processing and problems to generate the quasi 3D images as well as the positive and negative aspects of this new approach in geophysical modeling of the subsurface in mountainous periglacial environments will be the main focus of this contribution.

  20. Danish children's acquisition of noun plurals: the role of methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi-naturalistic/s......In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi...... expect the amount of correctly produced PL forms in the experimental data to be sensitive to the specific items selected. Furthermore, we will discuss how a multi-method approach can reveal interactions between different factors in the acquisition of morphology that in the past could not be revealed...

  1. Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

  2. Type 2 diabetes in children: Clinical aspects and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P V

    2015-04-01

    A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM). T2DM patients generally have increased C-peptide levels (may be normal at time of diagnosis), usually no auto-antibodies, strong family history of diabetes, obese and show signs of insulin resistance (hypertension, acanthosis, PCOS). The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends lifestyle modifications ± metformin when blood glucose is 126-200 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 200 mg/dL and HbA1c >8.5, with or without ketosis. Metformin is not recommended if the patient is ketotic, because this increases the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin is currently the only oral hypoglycemic that has been approved for use in children. Knowing these subtle differences in mechanism, and knowing how to test patients for which mechanism (s) are causing their diabetes mellitus, may help us eventually tailor treatment programs on an individual basis.

  3. Type 2 diabetes in children: Clinical aspects and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM. T2DM patients generally have increased C-peptide levels (may be normal at time of diagnosis, usually no auto-antibodies, strong family history of diabetes, obese and show signs of insulin resistance (hypertension, acanthosis, PCOS. The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends lifestyle modifications ± metformin when blood glucose is 126-200 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c 200 mg/dL and HbA1c >8.5, with or without ketosis. Metformin is not recommended if the patient is ketotic, because this increases the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin is currently the only oral hypoglycemic that has been approved for use in children. Knowing these subtle differences in mechanism, and knowing how to test patients for which mechanism (s are causing their diabetes mellitus, may help us eventually tailor treatment programs on an individual basis.

  4. Cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functions in children born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated whether children aged between 8 and 12 years born very preterm (VPT) and/or at very low birth weight (VLBW) performed lower than same-aged term-born controls in cognitive and behavioral aspects of three executive functions: inhibition, working memory, and shifting. Special attention was given to sex differences. Fifty-two VPT/VLBW children (26 girls, 50%) born in the cohort of 1998-2003 and 36 same-aged term-born children (18 girls, 50%) were recruited. As cognitive measures, children completed tasks of inhibition (Color-Word Interference Test, D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001), working memory (digit span backwards, HAWIK-IV; Petermann & Petermann, 2008), and shifting (Trail Making Test, number-letter-switching, D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001). As behavioral measures, mothers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000). Scales of interest were inhibit, working memory, and shift. Analyses of the cognitive aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children performed significantly lower than controls in the shifting task but not in the working memory and inhibition tasks. Analyses of behavioral aspects of executive functions revealed that VPT/VLBW children displayed more problems than the controls in working memory in everyday life but not in inhibition and shifting. No sex differences could be detected either in cognitive or behavioral aspects of executive functions. To conclude, cognitive and behavioral measures of executive functions were not congruent in VPT/VLBW children. In clinical practice, the combination of cognitive and behavioral instruments is required to disclose children's executive difficulties.

  5. Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Children's Fears and Phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Morris, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the conceptual and methodological considerations in assessment and treatment of children's fears and phobias is presented. Areas discussed include the definitional problems in the field, analogue and clinical research, experimental research methods, and criteria for the evaluation of outcome in fear and phobia research. (Author/DWH)

  6. Daycare Staff Emotions and Coping Related to Children of Divorce: A Q Methodological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, Klara; Størksen, Ingunn; Bru, Edvin; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad

    2014-01-01

    This Q methodological study explores emotional experiences and coping of daycare staff when working with children of divorce and their families. Two main coping strategies among daycare staff were identified: 1) Confident copers, and 2) Non-confident copers. Interviews exemplify the two main experiences. Both groups may struggle with coping in…

  7. [Heidelberger study on psychoanalytic therapy of children and adolescents: methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, H

    1999-11-01

    In the representative studies published so far on the outcome of analytic child psychotherapy (Dührssen 1964; Fonagy and Target 1996) no techniques of treatment were mentioned. The following paper describes in detail the technique of treatment on which the Heidelberg Study "On the Therapeutic Outcome in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy" is based, as it developed from 1975 to 1993 at the Heidelberg Institute for Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Starting from Piaget's findings that the cognitive faculties of a child up to the age of 11 completely differ from those of an adult and taking into consideration the cerebral information processing and "the intellect pervadet sensory" (Schopenhauer) it is demonstrated that children take their intrapsychic and interpersonal conflicts into analytic play therapy or into role play on analogous levels. Protected by a safe distance from being aware of their conflicts they will on the analogous levels understand, work through, partially solve their conflicts and make use of it in reality without conscious recognition. The term "analogous level" is defined and the manifold possibilities of therapeutic intervention on this level are demonstrated. The efficacy of therapeutic treatment on analogous levels is discussed.

  8. Grammatical Aspect Is a Strength in the Language Comprehension of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Andrea T.; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The comprehension of tense/aspect morphology by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was assessed via Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL) to determine whether this population's difficulties with producing these morphemes extended to their comprehension. Method: Four-year-old participants were assessed twice, 4 months apart. They…

  9. The Psychosocial Aspects of Children Exposed to War: Practice and Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenbaum, Joshua; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2004-01-01

    The atrocities of war have detrimental effects on the development and mental health of children that have been documented since World War II. To date, a considerable amount of knowledge about various aspects of this problem has been accumulated, including the ways in which trauma impacts child mental health and development, as well as intervention…

  10. The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of loss-of-function cardiac sodium channelopathies in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Priya; Clur, Sally-Ann B.; Breur, Johannes M. P. J.; Kriebel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Rammeloo, Lukas A.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Blom, Nico A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Loss-of-function sodium channelopathies manifest as a spectrum of diseases including Brugada syndrome (BrS) and cardiac conduction disease. OBJECTIVE To analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these disorders in children. METHODS Patients aged 98th percentile for age). RESULTS:

  11. [Methodology and didactics of training children and adolescents in topical treatment of atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, J; Dimopulos, U; Hübscher, W

    1998-11-01

    There are increasing numbers of education programmes for children and young people with atopic dermatitis. These also include directions for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. However, the methods to be followed and the treatment to be applied are usually not clearly defined or explained. Presented are the key aspects of the local treatment of atopic dermatitis to be taught to children. The introduction of a basic therapeutic concept helps sort out which are the best preparations to use, some with and others without active ingredients. The interactions between basic care, active ingredients and skin conditions are explained in such a way that children can understand them.

  12. Aspects of grammar sensitive to procedural memory deficits in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengottuvel, Kuppuraj; Rao, Prema K S

    2013-10-01

    Procedural deficit hypothesis claims that language deficit in children with specific language impairment is affiliated to sequence learning problems. However, studies did not explore on aspects of grammar vulnerable to sequence learning deficits. The present study makes predictions for aspects of grammar that could be sensitive to procedural deficits based on core ideas of procedural deficit hypothesis. The hypothesis for the present study was that the grammatical operations that require greater sequencing abilities (such as inflectional operations) would be more affected in children with language impairment. Further, the influence of sequencing difficulties would be even greater in agglutinating inflectional languages. An adapted serial reaction time task for sequence learning measurements along with grammatical tasks on derivation, inflection, and sentence complexity were examined on typically developing and language impaired children. Results were in favor of procedural deficit hypothesis and its close relation to non-adjacent grammatical operations. The findings were discussed using procedural deficits, declarative compensatory mechanism, and statistical learning deficits.

  13. Methodological Aspects of Strategic Development of Regional Socio-Economic System (Following the Example of Radio-Electronic Industry Enterprises in the Republic of Tatarstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraev, Nikolay N.; Mingaleev, Gaziz F.; Kushimov, Aleksandr T.; Kolesov, Nikolay A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the methodological aspects of forming a development strategy for the regional socioeconomic system (by the example of radio-electronic enterprises in the Republic of Tatarstan). The paper suggests a conceptual scheme of the macro- and micro-factors' influence on the regional socioeconomic system. This scheme is based on the…

  14. Development of the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC): a method for assessing qualitative aspects of communicative impairment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V

    1998-09-01

    The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) was developed to assess aspects of communicative impairment that are not adequately evaluated by contemporary standardised language tests. These are predominantly pragmatic abnormalities seen in social communication, although other qualitative aspects of speech and language were also included. Some items covering social relationships and restricted interests were incorporated, so that the relationship between pragmatic difficulties and other characteristics of pervasive developmental disorders could be explored. Checklist ratings were obtained for 76 children aged 7 to 9 years, all of whom had received special education for language impairment. In 71 cases, 2 raters (usually a teacher and speech-language therapist) independently completed the checklist, making it possible to establish inter-rater reliability. From an initial pool of 93 items, 70 items, grouped into 9 scales, were retained. Five of the subscales were concerned with pragmatic aspects of communication. A composite pragmatic impairment scale formed from these subscales had inter-rater reliability and internal consistency of around .80. This composite discriminated between children with a school diagnosis of semantic-pragmatic disorder and those with other types of specific language impairment (SLI). The majority of children with pragmatic language impairments did not have any evidence of restricted interests or significant difficulties in the domains of social relationships.

  15. Methodological Aspects and Relevance of the Study of Vegetable Oil, Fat and Lipoprotein Oxidation Using Pancreatic Lipase and Arylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Nus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils as major dietary components are involved in the development of chronic diseases. In this paper the physiological relevance and some methodological aspects related to the determination of two enzymes enrolled in metabolism of fat – pancreatic lipase and arylesterase – are discussed. Pancreatic lipase has been extensively used to study the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition and the in vitro digestion of oils and fats. The action of this enzyme may be coupled to analytical methods as GC, HPLC, HPSEC, TLC- -FID, etc. as a useful tool for understanding the composition and digestion of thermal oxidized oils. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis occurs in the water/oil interface, and it presents a behaviour that seems to be Michaelian, in which the apparent Km and the apparent Vmax of the enzymatic process depend more on the type of oil tested than on the degree of alteration. The kinetic behaviour of pancreatic lipase towards thermally oxidized oils also depends on the presence of natural tensioactive compounds present in the oil and surfactants formed during the frying. Arylesterase is an HDL binding enzyme that inhibits LDL oxidation. Low serum concentration of this enzyme has been related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. In this paper the most widely used methods for the determination of arylesterase activity are commented on. The importance of intrinsic factors (e.g. substrates, cofactors participating in the enzyme reaction is also discussed. Moreover, several suggestions about further researches on the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. diet, oxidative stress upon the enzyme activity are proposed.

  16. [Forensic risk calculation: basic methodological aspects for the evaluation of the applicability and validity of diverse methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniok, F; Rinne, T; Held, L; Rossegger, A; Endrass, J

    2008-08-01

    Risk assessment instruments have been the subject of a number of validation studies which have mainly examined the psychometric properties known primarily from psychological test development (objectivity, reliability and validity). Hardly any attention was paid to the fact that validation of forensic risk assessment instruments is confronted with a whole row of methodical challenges. Risk assessments include a quantitative and a qualitative component in that they state the probability (quantitative) of a particular offense (qualitative) to occur. To disregard the probabilistic nature of risk calculations leads to methodically faulty assumptions on the predictive validity of an instrument and what represents a suitable statistical method to test it. For example, ROC analyses are considered to be state of the art in the validation of risk assessment instruments. This method does however not take into account the probabilistic nature of prognoses and its results can be interpreted only to a limited degree. ROC analyses for example disregard certain aspects of an instrument's calibration which might lead in an instrument's validation to high ROC values while demonstrating only low validity. Further shortcomings of validation studies are that they ignore changes of risk dispositions or that they don't differentiate between offense specific risks (e. g. any recidivism vs. violent or sexual recidivism). The paper discusses and reviews different quality criteria of risk assessment instruments in view of methodological as well as practical issues. Many of these criteria have been ignored so far in the scientific discourse even though they are essential to the evaluation of the validity and the scope of indication of an instrument.

  17. Listening to Children as a Way to Reconstruct Knowledge about Children: Some Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosinho, Julia; Araujo, Sara Barros

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have been turning to children's views as a way to better construct knowledge about children and childhood issues. This article presents, firstly, a brief reflection on the image of child underlying this new perspective in research with children, an image that assumes, first and above all, a strong belief in…

  18. Ethical aspects of judging the alternative treatment of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enskär, K

    1995-03-01

    In recent decades the improved treatment of childhood cancer has increased the proportion of children being cured. However, the intensive treatment required also implies a heavy burden for the children and their families. The purpose of this article is to judge the ethical aspects of different treatment regimens used for children with cancer by means of a case study. The analysis is based on the ethical model by Beauchamp and Childress. The assessment is based on every person, or group of persons, involved and is on the principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. The analysis shows that intensification of treatment of children with cancer is ethically justified from a deontological point of view. The consequences are more difficult to anticipate from a utilitarian perspective.

  19. Phenotypic aspects of oral strains of Candida albicans in children with down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the biological aspects of oral strains of C. albicans in children with Down's syndrome. These yeasts were analyzed as to their macromorphological and enzymatic aspects and were tested as to their in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs using broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The morphotyping revealed that all oral C. albicans isolates from children with Down's syndrome promoted the formation of fringes regardless of size, while the control group presented smaller fringes. All oral C. albicans strains produced proteinase, but those with phospholipolytic activity showed greater enzyme capacity in the test group. In vitro susceptibility showed that all oral C. albicans isolates were sensitive to the drugs used.

  20. [The spa-health resort and touristic-recreational facilities of the region: the methodological aspects of their development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilina, V M; Kolesnikova, N V; Kolesnikov, N G

    2016-01-01

    The correction and optimization of the motor activity of the patients are currently the main priorities of all rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities. The forms of such activities include walking tours and excursion trips. In other words, the excursion potential is one of the very important attributes of the recreational recourses. Under the current conditions characterized by the rapid socio-economic changes, the studies concerning the structural and functional transformation of spa and health resorts, recreational and tourist facilities acquire special importance, both from the humanitarian and economic points of view. The results of these studies may greatly contribute to the organization and the further development of rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities, recreational and tourist centers taking into consideration their evolution. The objective of the present article is to analyze the structure and functions of the recreation and tourist centres as well as the modes of their cooperation with the spa and health resort facilities. In other words, these structures and their functions are both the object and the subject of the present study. The methodology of the study is based on the logical analysis of the development of the recreational and tourist systems in the framework of the evolutionary approach. (1) the notions of «tourist destination» and «recreation» have been substantiated; (2) the results of the studies carried out at the Institute of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Petrozavodsk State University have been used to elaborate the affiliate international Master Degree program «Project management in the tourism industry». The main emphasis in this program is placed on the necessity and methods of the improvement of recreational activities and more efficacious utilization of the climatic factors and the health resort infrastructure as

  1. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, K E; Jakobson, L S; Saunders, D R; Troje, N F

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children--a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = -.36, p children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools.

  2. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    citizens' centers and/or in the home of the elderly. The results presented in this thesis suggest that strict control of time-of-day is an important methodological aspect when evaluating postural balance in older adults, and an assessment protocol using the Nintendo Wii-Balance Board is reproducible......The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables...... in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall...

  3. Estudo MONISA: características e aspectos metodológicos MONISA study: characteristics and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira de Sousa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é apresentar as características e os procedimentos metodológicos adotados no Estudo Monitoramento dos Indicadores de Saúde e Qualidade de Vida de Acadêmicos (MONISA. Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, do tipo painel, com inquéritos bianuais em amostras representativas de estudantes de uma universidade pública do Estado da Bahia. Este estudo realizará cinco inquéritos, perfazendo 10 anos de monitoramento (2010 a 2018. A amostra é estratificada e proporcional aos cursos de graduação presenciais, período de estudo (noturno e diurno e ano de ingresso na universidade. Por fim, os estudantes universitários são selecionados em cada estrato, por meio da lista de matrícula em ordem alfabética. Para obtenção das informações é utilizado um questionário estruturado, com as seguintes seções: indicadores sociodemográficos; indicadores do estilo de vida e saúde; hábitos alimentares e controle do peso corporal; atividades físicas e opções de lazer; comportamentos preventivos; e, indicadores do ambiente e condições de aprendizagem. O pioneirismo do Estudo MONISA poderá auxiliar no esclarecimento de possíveis tendências relacionadas à saúde de estudantes universitários brasileiros e subsidiar informações para propor programas ou projetos de promoção da saúde e qualidade de vida em nível organizacional local.The objective is to present the characteristics and methodological procedures adopted in the MONISA Study (Surveillance of health and quality of life indicators of college students. This is a prospective, panel type study, with biannual surveys of representative samples of undergraduate students at a public university in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This study carried out five surveys, totaling 10 years of monitoring (2010-2018. The sample is stratified and proportional to the courses, study period (day and night and year of attending university. Finally, college students are selected at each stratum

  4. Medea or the mother who kills her children: Some aspects regarding family murder

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    Maria C. Marchetti

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the phenomenon of the killing of children within the context of family murder. An analysis of the case studies in the Human Sciences Research Council Report on family murder published in 1991 suggests that the parent who carries out the family murder is usually the 'mother’ figure of the family. This is also the case when the father is the perpetrator, who is then the parent most emotionally involved with the children. This phenomenon is examined against the background of other theories regarding the killing of one’s children. The case of the mythological figure Medea, a mother who also took the life of her children, is also analysed. It is suggested that the underlying cause of a parent killing his or her children is a distorted perception of motherhood. This perception causes the 'mother' to take the nurturing aspects associated with motherhood to an absurd extreme which is totally out of touch with reality and could be termed as a kind of ‘deluded motherhood’. This phenomenon is discussed within the context of disturbed family relationships indicating how different interacting factors lead to the destruction of the family system.

  5. Children's Avoidance of Interrupting Others' Activities in Requesting Help: Cultural Aspects of Considerateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba, Omar; Rogoff, Barbara; López, Angélica; Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Gutiérrez, Kris

    2015-01-01

    To be able to collaborate skillfully, people need to coordinate well with others, taking into account how their actions fit with those of their partners. This is a key aspect of an approach to learning called Learning by Observing and Pitching In, hypothesized to be common in many Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. This chapter considers cultural values that emphasize considerateness and awareness of how one's actions impact others such as the Mexican cultural value of respeto and cultural differences in children's efforts to avoid interrupting others' activity. US Mexican-heritage children showed more evidence of avoiding interrupting the ongoing activity of an adult when they requested help, compared with European American children from families with extensive schooling experience. Most of the Mexican-heritage children's requests for help that gave evidence of avoiding interruption were made nonverbally, which may facilitate unobtrusive requests. There were no significant differences among children from two US Mexican-heritage backgrounds varying in experience with Western schooling and likely experience with Indigenous-American practices, suggesting that the Mexican cultural value of respeto and associated considerateness is widespread even among US Mexican-heritage families with extensive experience with Western schooling and life in the United States.

  6. Somatosensory-evoked spikes on electroencephalography (EEG): longitudinal clinical and EEG aspects in 313 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Lineu Corrêa; Tedrus, Gloria M A S

    2012-01-01

    Somatosensory-evoked spikes (ESp) are high-voltage potentials registered on the EEG, which accompany each of the percussions on the feet or hands. The objective of this research was to study the longitudinal clinical and EEG aspects of children with ESp. A total of 313 children, 53.7% male, showing ESp on the EEG and with an average initial age of 6.82 (range from 2 to 14 years) were followed for a mean period of 35.7 months. In the initial evaluation, 118 (37.7%) had a history of nonfebrile epileptic seizures (ES). Epileptiform activity (EA) was observed on the EEG in 61% and showed a significantly greater occurrence in children with ES than in those without (P = .000). Of the 118 showing seizures from the start, 53 (44.9%) continued to have seizures; of the 195 without seizures at the start, only 13 (6.67%) developed them. Thus, only 66 (21.1%) children showed ES during the follow-up. ESp disappeared in 237 (75.7%) cases and EA in 221 (70.6%). In the children with ES, it was found that the presence of EA on the first EEG did not indicate continuation of the ES throughout the remaining period, while the 13 children who presented their first ES in a later period showed a greater occurrence of EA on the initial EEG than those who did not develop ES (P = .001). Evidence of brain injury was observed in 43 (13.7%) children and was associated with a greater continuity of the ES during the study (P = .018). ESp, EA, and ES tend to disappear, suggesting an age-dependent phenomenon. The finding of ESp, particularly in the absence of any evidence of brain injury, indicates a low association with ES and benign outcome.

  7. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  8. Empirically Based Analysis of Methodological and Ethical Challenges in Research with Children as Participants: The Case of Bullying in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingrid; Helgeland, Anne; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2016-01-01

    When conducting research with children it is essential to consider not only the data, which have been produced as a result of the research, but also the research process itself. This article represents an attempt to contribute the accumulation of knowledge regarding methodological and ethical issues concerning research with children. The data in…

  9. Children sold for transplants: medical and legal aspects. Amnesty International--Danish Working Group for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, U; Christensen, J; Glending, S

    1998-11-01

    Over the last few decades there has been a substantially higher percentage of successful organ transplants but also a significant imbalance between the demand for and the supply of organs, creating the basis for a highly profitable black market trade in human organs. Sometimes there are reports that children have been kidnapped, only to reappear later lacking one kidney, or that they simply disappear and are subsequently killed to have all their transplantable organs removed for profit. The European Union feels that there is a need for action and that it has a duty to act in this field, especially for ethical reasons. There is now established close co-operation between the various European transplant organizations. The legal protection of children with regard to organ transplantation is not specifically mentioned in the existing conventions because this issue was not foreseen at the time of their preparation. However, the issue is covered in a broader sense by more general provisions. There are endless rumours surrounding this area. Members of various organizations who travel in the suspected countries say that the trafficking in children who are sold for transplantation is well known, but it is too difficult and very dangerous to catch the people involved. We have to conclude that it has been impossible to prove or disprove the rumours, but they are consistent and we all, especially in the health care professions, have an obligation to be keenly aware of how and where organs are obtained.

  10. Some Aspects of Teaching Media Literacy to Preschool Children in Slovenia from a Perception Standpoint of Teachers and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivec, Jurka Lepicnik

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with media literacy as a multidimensional skill that parents and teachers possess. In this context we warn of the media-technical aspect of this skill and, within this aspect, of parents' and teachers' opinion on the presence of media in children's lives. Following that, the paper explores teachers' media-didactic competence as a…

  11. Practical aspects of the methodological apparatus of the innovation process’ rational organization as an example of machine-building enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Karpishchenko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The practical application of a methodological approach to the innovation process in the enterprise rational organization by the harmonization of market, production and innovation components is considered. Two alternative ways to transfer the company to the equilibrium state are proposed.

  12. Key-Aspects of Scientific Modeling Exemplified by School Science Models: Some Units for Teaching Contextualized Scientific Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Models and modeling are core elements of scientific methods and consequently also are of key importance for the conception and teaching of scientific methodology. The epistemology of models and its transfer and adaption to nature of science education are not, however, simple themes. We present some conceptual units in which school science models…

  13. Methodological aspect of research of the process of socialization in media-cultural space of information society

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    N. Y. Hirlina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated within the social and philosophical discourse interdisciplinary methodology, based on the classic philosophical methodology for the analysis of socio-cultural phenomena enables a holistic understanding of the studied phenomenon. From a methodological point of view it is important to determine the social and philosophical understanding of the impact medіa cultural space of personality in conditions of dynamically changing socio-cultural environment. important social and philosophical methodological guideline should be considered on a thesis constant presence in the media culture of human space as being due to the fact that man is a social being, and the information society without media culture as its attribute exists. Philosophical «core» study of the spiritual culture of youth is humanism in its broadest sense, that is, understanding of the studied phenomenon primarily as a multi-dimensional culturing of human values. Submission materialistic determinant factors medіa cultural spiritual space is only possible under the dominance of humanistic values. With all the variety to understanding the spiritual dimension of the relationship of the individual with the socio-cultural environment common dominant philosophical idea of guidelines is the recognition of the spiritual and cultural autonomy rights. Globalization and its associated civilization and processes are seen as foreign in relation to social rights, while the internal spiritual content is cultural processes. Anthropological oriented cultural space of socialization based on interpersonal cultural interaction that produces unique and distinctive personality.

  14. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome

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    Amanda Tragueta FERREIRA-VASQUES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009. The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG, these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG, matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal

  15. Performance of Short Food Questions to Assess Aspects of the Dietary Intake of Australian Children

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    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Single dietary questions are used as a rapid method of monitoring diet. The aim of this investigation was to assess the performance of questions to measure population group intake compared to the mean of two 24-h recalls. Data from the Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 was used (n = 4487. Children reported their intake on three questions relating to usual serves of fruit, vegetables and type of milk. Age, gender and body weight status were assessed as modifiers of the relationship between methods. There was a stepwise increase in fruit and vegetable intake (p < 0.001 measured by recall when grouped by response category of the short question. By recall, fruit consumption decreased with age (F = 12.92, p < 0.001 but this trend was not detectable from the short question (F = 2.31, p = 0.075. The difference in fruit intake between methods was greatest for obese children. Almost 85% of children who consumed whole milk by short question consumed mainly whole fat milk by recall, but agreement was lower for other milk types. Saturated fat and volume of milk was highest in whole milk consumers. Ease of administration suggests that short questions, at least for some aspects of diet, are a useful method to monitor population intakes for children.

  16. Improving operating room efficiency in academic children's hospital using Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, Edward P; Thirumoorthi, Arul S; Lenart, John; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mitchell, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology that utilizes a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically identifying root causes of problems. Our objective was to determine whether application of LSS could improve efficiency when applied simultaneously to all services of an academic children's hospital. In our tertiary academic medical center, a multidisciplinary committee was formed, and the entire perioperative process was mapped, using fishbone diagrams, Pareto analysis, and other process improvement tools. Results for Children's Hospital scheduled main operating room (OR) cases were analyzed, where the surgical attending followed themselves. Six hundred twelve cases were included in the seven Children's Hospital operating rooms (OR) over a 6-month period. Turnover Time (interval between patient OR departure and arrival of the subsequent patient) decreased from a median 41min in the baseline period to 32min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). Turnaround Time (interval between surgical dressing application and subsequent surgical incision) decreased from a median 81.5min in the baseline period to 71min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that a coordinated multidisciplinary process improvement redesign can significantly improve efficiency in an academic Children's Hospital without preselecting specific services, removing surgical residents, or incorporating new personnel or technology. Prospective comparative study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Strategy for technical evaluation in radiation oncology: methodological and ethical aspects, the French society for radiation oncology's opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, B; Mornex, F; Mahé, M-A

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based medicine is a paradigm founded on a hierarchy of research design, accepted as a dogma. Applied to radiation oncology, and specifically to radiotherapy technical comparisons, evidence-based medicine implies methodological and ethical problems. The concept of "incremental" evolution and the dosimetric evidence are proposed as an acceptable alternative to comparative clinical trials if total dose, time, fractionation, and target volumes are not modified. For other situations, either randomized comparative trials or observational studies are needed. When randomized comparative trials are not possible, observational studies, whose validity can be enhanced by appropriate methodology, must be considered as a valid method. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Light ion facility projects in Europe: methodological aspects for the calculation of the treatment cost per protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Pascal; Zucca, Luciano; Näslund, Ingemar; Auberger, Thomas; Combs, Stephanie E; François, Guy; Heeren, Germaine; Rochat, Joël; Perrier, Lionel

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of the European Network for Research in Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT), the health economics group develops a methodology for assessing important investment and operating costs of this innovative treatment against its expected benefits. The main task is to estimate the cost per treated patient. The cost analysis is restricted to the therapeutic phase from the hospital point of view. An original methodology for cost assessment per treatment protocol is developed based on standard costs. Costs related to direct medical activity are based on the production process analysis, whereas indirect and non direct medical costs are allocated to each protocol using relevant cost-drivers. The resulting cost model will take into account the specificities of each therapeutic protocol as well as the particularities of each of the European projects.

  19. Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Childhood Narcolepsy-Cataplexy: A Retrospective Study of 51 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Adi; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Plazzi, Guiseppe; Nishino, Seiji; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    reports on the clinical features of childhood narcolepsy and documents the safe use of treatments commonly used in adults in young children. Citation: Aran A; Einen M; Lin L; Plazzi G; Nishino S; Mignot E. Clinical and therapeutic aspects of childhood narcolepsy-cataplexy: a retrospective study of 51 children. SLEEP 2010;33(11):1457-1464. PMID:21102987

  20. Iatrogenic retractile quadriceps fibrosis within children in Benin: Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutical aspects

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    A S Gbenou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In tropical countries, iatrogenic retractile quadriceps fibrosis (IRQF, the cause of walking handicap in children, is often the result of intraquadricipital injection of quinine salts. The aim of this review was to analyse the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic aspects and outcome of IRQF in children admitted in three hospitals in Benin Republic. Patients and Methods: It was a 10-year retrospective, descriptive and analytic survey of IRQF, involving 81 children aged from 8 months to 15 years. Iterative mobilization of the knee (IMK or modified distal quadriceps plasty by Thompson-Payr′s technique (MDQTPT, with a POP on the knee in flexion position, was performed with additional functional rehabilitation. The results were evaluated on knee flexion gain and walking quality. Data were processed using Epi Info 3.2 software. Results: Patients′ average age was 7.60 years. Children of 6-10 years were most affected; sex ratio was 1.02. Lesions were unilateral (71.6% and bilateral (28.4%. The knees′ stiffness was in flexion (10.57%, rectitude (64.42% and recurvatum (25%. The amyotrophy of the thigh was found in 79.42 %. The IMK was successful in eight cases (7.69 % and the MDQTPT was done in 98 cases (94.23% associated with femoral osteotomy in 13 cases (12.50%. In post-surgical period, skin necrosis and fractures occurred respectively in 15.31% and 5.10%. Results were good in 92.31% of cases. Conclusions: IRQF in children do exist in our settings. The treatment that is based on MDQTPT associated to rehabilitation leads to acceptable outcome.

  1. DECOMPOSING THE GAP IN SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN FINLAND AND ROMANIA – SOME METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    Botezat Alina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the advantages and shortcomings of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. Using PISA data for Finland and Romania, we focus on the drawbacks of the detailed decomposition, when the explanatory variables are categorial. From the best of our knowledge, this kind of analysis is performed for the first time using PISA data. We show that, using covariates which are categorial, the partial characteristics effects can be different when we use different reference categories of the respective variable. However, the overall characteristics effect of a categorical variable does not depend on the omitted category. The more critical aspect of the interpretation of detailed decomposition, when explanatory variables are categorical, regards the unexplained part of the gap. As we empirically show, the both components of the unexplained part are sensitive to choices of the reference category. These aspects should be taken into account when we perform detailed decompositions with categorial variables.

  2. Safe and effective pharmacotherapy in infants and preschool children: importance of formulation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Vromans, Herman; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2016-07-01

    Safe and effective paediatric pharmacotherapy requires careful evaluation of the type of drug substance, the necessary dose and the age-appropriateness of the formulation. Generally, the younger the child, the more the attention that is required. For decades, there has been a general lack of (authorised) formulations that children are able to and willing to take. Moreover, little was known on the impact of pharmaceutical aspects on the age-appropriateness of a paediatric medicine. As a result of legislative incentives, such knowledge is increasingly becoming available. It has become evident that rapidly dissolving tablets with a diameter of 2 mm (mini-tablets) can be used in preterm neonates and non-rapidly dissolving 2 mm mini-tablets in infants from 6 months of age. In addition, uncoated 4 mm mini-tablets can be used in infants from the age of 1 year. Also, there is some evidence that children prefer mini-tablets over a powder, suspension or syrup. Other novel types of age-appropriate oral formulations such as orodispersible films may further add to the treatment possibilities. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on oral formulations for infants and preschool children, the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of dosage forms and the age groups by which these can likely be used.

  3. Moving to Capture Children's Attention: Developing a Methodology for Measuring Visuomotor Attention.

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    Liam J B Hill

    Full Text Available Attention underpins many activities integral to a child's development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children's attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of 'Visual Motor Attention' (VMA-a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour. Experiment 1 established the method's core features (ability to track stimuli moving on a tablet-computer screen with a hand-held stylus and demonstrated its sensitivity to principled manipulations in adults' attentional load. Experiment 2 standardised a format suitable for use with children and showed construct validity by capturing developmental changes in executive attention processes. Experiment 3 tested the hypothesis that children with and without coordination difficulties would show qualitatively different response patterns, finding an interaction between the cognitive and motor factors underpinning responses. Experiment 4 identified associations between VMA performance and existing standardised attention assessments and thereby confirmed convergent validity. These results establish a novel approach to measuring childhood attention that can produce meaningful functional assessments that capture how attention operates in an ecologically valid context (i.e. attention's specific contribution to visuomanual action.

  4. Moving to Capture Children's Attention: Developing a Methodology for Measuring Visuomotor Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Liam J B; Coats, Rachel O; Mushtaq, Faisal; Williams, Justin H G; Aucott, Lorna S; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Attention underpins many activities integral to a child's development. However, methodological limitations currently make large-scale assessment of children's attentional skill impractical, costly and lacking in ecological validity. Consequently we developed a measure of 'Visual Motor Attention' (VMA)-a construct defined as the ability to sustain and adapt visuomotor behaviour in response to task-relevant visual information. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the capability of our method to measure attentional processes and their contributions in guiding visuomotor behaviour. Experiment 1 established the method's core features (ability to track stimuli moving on a tablet-computer screen with a hand-held stylus) and demonstrated its sensitivity to principled manipulations in adults' attentional load. Experiment 2 standardised a format suitable for use with children and showed construct validity by capturing developmental changes in executive attention processes. Experiment 3 tested the hypothesis that children with and without coordination difficulties would show qualitatively different response patterns, finding an interaction between the cognitive and motor factors underpinning responses. Experiment 4 identified associations between VMA performance and existing standardised attention assessments and thereby confirmed convergent validity. These results establish a novel approach to measuring childhood attention that can produce meaningful functional assessments that capture how attention operates in an ecologically valid context (i.e. attention's specific contribution to visuomanual action).

  5. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support.

  6. Pharmacological and methodological aspects of the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenink, Lucianne; Verdouw, P Monika; Bakker, Brenda; Wever, Kimberley E

    2015-04-15

    The separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups is one of many that has been used to screen for anxiolytic-like properties of drugs. The test is based on the cross-species phenomenon that infants emit distress calls when placed in social isolation. Here we report a systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacological intervention in the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pig pups. Electronic databases were searched for original research articles, yielding 32 studies that met inclusion criteria. We extracted data on pharmacological intervention, animal and methodological characteristics, and study quality indicators. Meta-analysis showed that the different drug classes in clinical use for the treatment of anxiety disorders, have comparable effects on vocalization behaviour, irrespective of their mechanism of action. Of the experimental drugs, nociception (NOP) receptor agonists proved very effective in this test. Analysis further indicated that the commonly used read-outs total number and total duration of vocalizations are equally valid. With regard to methodological characteristics, repeated testing of pups as well as selecting pups with moderate or high levels of vocalization were associated with larger treatment effects. Finally, reporting of study methodology, randomization and blinding was poor and Egger's test for small study effects showed that publication bias likely occurred. This review illustrates the value of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in improving translational value and methodological aspects of animal models. It further shows the urgent need to implement existing publication guidelines to maximize the output and impact of experimental animal studies.

  7. Late Cardiac Events after Childhood Cancer: Methodological Aspects of the Pan-European Study PanCareSurFup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Elizabeth A. M.; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; van Dalen, Elvira C.; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Winter, David L.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Haupt, Riccardo; Alessi, Daniela; Byrne, Julianne; Bardi, Edit; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Grabow, Desiree; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Jankovic, Momcilo; Levitt, Gill A.; Skinner, Roderick; Zadravec Zaletel, Lorna; Hjorth, Lars; Tissing, Wim J. E.; de Vathaire, Florent; Hawkins, Mike M.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of long-term adverse effects of cancer and its treatment, including cardiac events. The pan-European PanCareSurFup study determined the incidence and risk factors for cardiac events among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of the cardiac cohort and nested case-control study within PanCareSurFup. Methods Eight data providers in Europe participating in PanCareSurFup identified and validated symptomatic cardiac events in their cohorts of childhood cancer survivors. Data on symptomatic heart failure, ischemia, pericarditis, valvular disease and arrhythmia were collected and graded according to the Criteria for Adverse Events. Detailed treatment data, data on potential confounders, lifestyle related risk factors and general health problems were collected. Results The PanCareSurFup cardiac cohort consisted of 59,915 5-year childhood cancer survivors with malignancies diagnosed between 1940 and 2009 and classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer 3. Different strategies were used to identify cardiac events such as record linkage to population/ hospital or regional based databases, and patient- and general practitioner-based questionnaires. Conclusion The cardiac study of the European collaborative research project PanCareSurFup will provide the largest cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors with systematically ascertained and validated data on symptomatic cardiac events. The result of this study can provide information to minimize the burden of cardiac events in childhood cancer survivors by tailoring the follow-up of childhood cancer survivors at high risk of cardiac adverse events, transferring this knowledge into evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and providing a platform for future research studies in childhood cancer patients.  PMID:27643694

  8. Removal of BCG artifacts from EEG recordings inside the MR scanner: a comparison of methodological and validation-related aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; De Vos, Maarten; Ramautar, Jennifer R; Novitskiy, Nikolay; Mennes, Maarten; Assecondi, Sara; Vanrumste, Bart; Stiers, Peter; Van den Bergh, Bea R H; Wagemans, Johan; Lagae, Lieven; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2010-04-15

    Multimodal approaches are of growing interest in the study of neural processes. To this end much attention has been paid to the integration of electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data because of their complementary properties. However, the simultaneous acquisition of both types of data causes serious artifacts in the EEG, with amplitudes that may be much larger than those of EEG signals themselves. The most challenging of these artifacts is the ballistocardiogram (BCG) artifact, caused by pulse-related electrode movements inside the magnetic field. Despite numerous efforts to find a suitable approach to remove this artifact, still a considerable discrepancy exists between current EEG-fMRI studies. This paper attempts to clarify several methodological issues regarding the different approaches with an extensive validation based on event-related potentials (ERPs). More specifically, Optimal Basis Set (OBS) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based methods were investigated. Their validation was not only performed with measures known from previous studies on the average ERPs, but most attention was focused on task-related measures, including their use on trial-to-trial information. These more detailed validation criteria enabled us to find a clearer distinction between the most widely used cleaning methods. Both OBS and ICA proved to be able to yield equally good results. However, ICA methods needed more parameter tuning, thereby making OBS more robust and easy to use. Moreover, applying OBS prior to ICA can optimize the data quality even more, but caution is recommended since the effect of the additional ICA step may be strongly subject-dependent.

  9. Methodological Aspects of Subjective Life Expectancy: Effects of Culture-Specific Reporting Heterogeneity Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-05-01

    Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been suggested as a predictor of mortality and mortality-related behaviors. Although critical for culturally diverse societies, these findings do not consider cross-cultural methodological comparability. Culture-specific reporting heterogeneity is a well-known phenomenon introducing biases, and research on this issue with SLE is not established. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined reporting heterogeneity in SLE focusing on item nonresponse, focal points, and reports over time for five ethnic-cultural groups: non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic other races, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. On item nonresponse, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics said, "I don't know," to SLE significantly more than any other groups. Nearly half of the respondents chose 0, 50, or 100, making them focal points. However, the focal points differed: 50 for Whites, 100 for Blacks, and 0 for Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. The relationship of SLE measured at two time points was higher for Whites than minorities. Moreover, those who said "I don't know" to SLE showed higher subsequent mortality than those who gave an answer. SLE was not a significant mortality predictor for Hispanics. Overall, SLE is not free from culture-specific reporting heterogeneity. This warrants further research about its culture-relevant measurement mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Methodological Aspects of Analyzing and Assessing the Per Capita Consumption of Fish and Seafood in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mikhailovich Selin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and increased competition leads to the need to strengthen the functions of the Russian government to ensure food security of the country and, accordingly, the consolidation of mechanisms of state regulation of agricultural economy and food markets. The importance of solving the problems of information security, a high degree of reliability of the information provided by the Government of the relevant statistical authorities is growing. The relevance of obtaining high-quality statistical information for the adoption of timely and informed decisions by the government on the management of the national economy has increased significantly during the period of political and economic confrontation between Russia and the West in terms of sanctions and counter-sanctions. Taking fishing industry and its product – the water biological resources – as an example, the author of the present study carried out a structural analysis of the methodology for composing the balance of fish and fish products to determine the per capita level of consumption, described the different approaches to assessing the level of consumption of water biological resources, structured export indicators of water biological resources gathered from various official sources, on the basis of which the author revealed significant differences in the assessment of the situation. The subject of statistics as the problem was raised at the Presidium of the State Council from October 19, 2015 devoted to the development of the fishing industry of the Russian Federation and was reflected as a separate item in the Order of the President following the results of the State Council. Established by the Order of the Federal State Statistics Service dated October 21, 2013 No. 419, the new method of determining the level of per capita consumption of fish and fish products, based on the compilation of the balance of water biological resources, and composed after the

  11. Methodological aspects of the integration of technological processing aids in the process stream of beet sugar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Belyaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern trends in the application of technological processing aids in the domestic beet sugar technology were considered. It is shown that the means used are characterized by a high technological effect, prolonged action, target application of means is technologically and economically feasible, local technologies are fixed in scientific and technical documentation, control of residual compounds in the finished product is carried out at their expense, methods for determining the active substances in white sugar, pulp, molasses are not available, the bulk of foreign-made means. It is noted that each agent efficiency and safety is considered as extremely specialized orientation on the local area of application, but not in a consistent manner – the entire production flow. The necessity of integrating application technology of processing aids in technological stream. We outlined a range of research areas to create a system of integrated process application of technological processing aids in the sugar production, focused on stability augmentation of technological flow functioning, safety of the finished product. Initial requirements for this system, providing integration of processing aids with the process stream were developed. Methodical approaches to the assessment of collective effect of means, based on the identification of synergistic or antagonistic effects were formed. Methodical aspects of formation of structures scheme of the system of integrated technologies, including technological decomposition with the release of area of collective effect of specific means, identification of synergism and antagonism, deep analysis of the causes of manifestation of the latter, its leveling or minimization based on the integration of technology or technical solutions were listed. The formation of the block diagram of integrated technology by the example of an area of the process stream from purified juice condensation to the I crystallisation

  12. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  13. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables...... (familiarization) period is necessary for the Wii Agility test to avoid a systematic learning effect between successive test sessions. Study III investigated the effect of ten weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on static postural balance, mechanical lower limb muscle function, and functional...... performance in 58 community-dwelling older adults. Additionally, the study investigated the participant motivation for this type of training (Exergaming). Marked improvements in maximal leg muscle strength, rapid force capacity and functional performance were observed following the period of biofeedback...

  14. Some Methodological Aspects Concerning the Use of Satellite Images and Maps in the Physico-Geographical Regional Determination of the Romania Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE LOGHIN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some methodological aspects concerning the use of satellite images and maps in the physico-geographical region determination of Romania's territory, as well as some results that can be obtained using this method. In order to determine the physico-geographical units and sub-units using satellite maps (Bucharest page, 1:1.500.000 and satellite images (Landsat, IRS we have analyzed, from the geographical point of view, some samples of such documents. The resulting maps were compared with the already existing physico-geographical region determination maps. Our results show that the method under consideration has both advantages and disadvantages. One conclusion is sure: satellite images and maps can be used for this purpose together with traditional maps.

  15. New methodological aspects of using dendrochronological analysis for dating strong paleoearthquakes (by the example of SE Altai, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepop, Roman; Agatova, Anna; Myglan, Vladimir; Barinov, Valentin; Nazarov, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Dendroseismology has a great potential in a paleoseismological investigation due to utmost precision of dating. Rings of trees - witnesses of seismic events contain both the evidence for the earthquake and its age. These evidences can be created by surface ruptures (sheared off tree roots and trunks, tilted and fallen trees etc.) or by earthquake induced geomorphic processes and/or seismic shaking (tree death or slower growth caused by lost of their crowns, tilted or buried trees caused by landsliding, as well as trees germination on bared surfaces) (McCalpin, 2009). Dendrogeomorphology (Stoffel, 2010) is another young and promising approach which among others studies different aspects of rock fall activity on the basis of wood penetrating injuries of trees. It should be underscored that both techniques are used most efficiently just on times that cover the life span of the last forest stand (about 300-500 years). The main idea of our approach of using dendrochronological analysis for timing strong paleoearthquakes is analyzing of tree-ring anomalies caused by specifically seismically triggered rock falls during the prolonged time interval. SE part of Russian Altai, in this case, is a unique place: 1) seismically induced slope processes intrude into forest stand zone in an immediate vicinity with the modern upper timber limit (which is favorable for carrying out the dendrochronological analysis); 2) arid climate promotes good preservation of wood (up to two thousand years on stone surfaces); 3) 2367-years absolute tree-ring chronology "Mongun" has been developed for SE Altai and Tuva regions (Myglan et al., 2012). We tested this approach during our paleoseismological investigations at the previously unknown complex of earthquake triggered landslides on the northern part of the Chagan-Uzun massif. The south fault boundary of this block was reactivated at the time of the 2003 Chuya earthquake (?s=7.3). We developed 1153 years (856 -2009 AD) local tree ring chronology

  16. Apheresis therapy in children: an overview of key technical aspects and a review of experience in pediatric renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Elizabeth A K; Jain, Namrata G; Somers, Michael J G

    2013-02-01

    Although there is less experience with its use in children than adults, apheresis can be a life-saving treatment modality in certain pediatric diseases. With attention to specific technical aspects of the treatment, especially circuit volume, apheresis can be safely performed in children of any age or size. Even in pediatric diseases where it is recognized as an important part of therapy, apheresis is unfortunately still underutilized in North America and there needs to be increased awareness of its role and its availability within the pediatric community. Apheresis has been used particularly in children with certain renal diseases, notably ANCA-associated nephritis, anti-GBM disease, and atypical HUS. In addition, it can improve outcomes in transplantation of children with FSGS and can be part of a pre-transplant strategy for children who are highly sensitized and at high risk for graft failure.

  17. The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of loss-of-function cardiac sodium channelopathies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Priya; Clur, Sally-Ann B; Breur, Johannes M P J; Kriebel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Rammeloo, Lukas A; Wilde, Arthur A M; Blom, Nico A

    2012-12-01

    Loss-of-function sodium channelopathies manifest as a spectrum of diseases including Brugada syndrome (BrS) and cardiac conduction disease. To analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these disorders in children. Patients aged ≤ 16 years with genetically confirmed loss-of-function sodium channelopathies (SCN5A mutation), presenting with cardiac symptoms, positive family history, and/or abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG), were included. Abnormal ECG consisted of type 1 BrS ECG and/or prolonged conduction intervals (PR interval/QRS duration > 98th percentile for age). Among the cohort (n = 33, age 6 ± 5 years, 58% male subjects, 30% probands), 14 (42%) patients were symptomatic, presenting with syncope (n = 5), palpitations (n = 1), supraventricular arrhythmias (n = 3), aborted cardiac arrest (n = 3), and sudden cardiac death (n = 2). Heart rate was 91 ± 26 beats/min, PR interval 168 ± 35 ms, QRS duration 112 ± 20 ms, and heart-rate corrected QT interval 409 ± 26 ms. Conduction intervals were prolonged in 28 (85%) patients; 6 of these patients also had spontaneous type 1 BrS ECG. Eight fever-associated events occurred in 6 patients; 2 of these were vaccination-related fever episodes. Treatment included aggressive antipyretics during fever in all patients; antiarrhythmic treatment included implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (n = 4), pacemaker (n = 2), and beta-blockers, either alone (n = 3) or in combination with device (n = 2). During follow-up (4 ± 4 years), 2 previously symptomatic patients had monomorphic ventricular tachycardia; there were no deaths. Diagnosis of loss-of-function sodium channelopathies in children relies on cardiac symptoms, family history, and ECG. Fever and vaccination are potential arrhythmia triggers; conduction delay is the commonest finding on ECG. Beta-blockers have a role in preventing tachycardia-induced arrhythmias; implantable cardioverter-defibrillator should probably be reserved for severe cases. Copyright © 2012

  18. Positive aspects of the coping of mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability in the Bedouin community in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2014-06-01

    This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities.

  19. Investigating the Place and Meaning of "Physical Education" to Preschool Children: Methodological Lessons from a Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2015-01-01

    Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and…

  20. The effect of video games on development and health among children and youth - Psychological and somatic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rykkvin, Rikard

    2005-01-01

    Video games are one of the most popular pasttimes of children and youth alike. The research on effects of playing video games reaches back only two decades, and is marred by suboptimal methodologies and conflicting evidence. Still, some cautious conclusions can be drawn from current research. Violent video games increase aggression, but the effect is significantly lower than with tv violence. More recent studies show a larger effect than older ones, suggesting that newer video games with ...

  1. 76 FR 9233 - Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Allotment Methodology and States' Fiscal Years 2009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), as amended by the Children's Health Insurance Program.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background A. The Children's Health Insurance Program Title XXI of the Social... Commonwealths and Territories to initiate and expand health insurance coverage to uninsured, low-income children...

  2. Telling the story of childhood cancer: an evaluation of the Discovery Interview methodology conducted within the Queensland Children's Cancer Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater PJ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelope J Slater,1 Shoni P Philpot2 1Queensland Children's Cancer Centre, Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Children's Health Queensland, 2Queensland Cancer Control Analysis Team, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: This paper evaluates the process and impact of the Discovery Interview methodology developed in the National Health Service and applied in the Queensland Children's Cancer Centre. It shows how this methodology supports the family-centered care philosophy of the organization and gives staff insight into the experience of the families they care for. In total, 17 Discovery Interviews recorded during 2012–2014 were transcribed, deidentified, condensed, and read back to 222 staff in 20 different meetings. Families and staff involved in the process provided positive feedback. Over 53% of staff found these sessions extremely valuable, and 46% rated them as valuable. Discovery Interviews were shown to be a powerful tool to engage with families and staff to improve the experience of families in the Queensland Children's Cancer Centre. The sessions where Discovery Interviews were read to clinical teams raised their awareness of the perspectives of families and impacted on the way they delivered care and interacted with families. Staff described the stories as insightful and valued hearing them and discussing ways to improve service, including individual clinical practice, service processes, and family supports. Keywords: family experience, family-centered care, consumer engagement, service improvement, narratives

  3. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  4. Methylphenidate Improves Aspects of Executive Function in African American Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of African American children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen African American children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…

  5. Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of daily maximum and minimum temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.

    2014-01-01

    A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. daily maximum surface temperature, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface temperature, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of daily temperature extremes (Tmax and Tmin). The methodological aspects of the CPSM explored in this study include (1) investigation of the advantage

  6. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: methodological developments and current tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, C; Freeman, J; Samdal, O

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodological development of the HBSC survey since its inception and explore methodological tensions that need to be addressed in the ongoing work on this and other large-scale cross-national surveys. METHODS: Using archival data and conversations with members of the ...... in working through such challenges renders it likely that HBSC can provide a model of other similar studies facing these tensions.......OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodological development of the HBSC survey since its inception and explore methodological tensions that need to be addressed in the ongoing work on this and other large-scale cross-national surveys. METHODS: Using archival data and conversations with members...... of the network, we collaboratively analysed our joint understandings of the survey's methodology. RESULTS: We identified four tensions that are likely to be present in upcoming survey cycles: (1) maintaining quality standards against a background of rapid growth, (2) continuous improvement with limited financial...

  7. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    2014-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall significant time-of-day effect was observed for all selected COP variables. The greatest change in all COP variables was observed (on average ~15%) between midday (12:30) and the afternoon (16:00), indicating that a systematic time-of-day influence on static postural balance exists in community-dwelling older adults. Consequently, longitudinal (i.e. pre-to-post training) comparisons of postural balance in in older adults with repeated assessments should be conducted at the same time-of-day. In Study II a novel approach for measuring postural balance (using the Nintendo Wii Stillness and Agility tests) was examined for reproducibility and concurrent validity in 30 community-dwelling older adults. While the Nintendo Wii Stillness test showed a high reproducibility, a systematic learning effect between successive sessions was observed for the Agility test. Moderate-to-excellent concurrent validity was seen for the Stillness test. In contrast, the Agility test revealed a poor concurrent validity. In conclusion, the Wii Stillness test seems to represent a low-cost objective reproducible test of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults and appears feasible in various clinical settings. A habituation (familiarization) period is necessary for the Wii Agility test to avoid a systematic learning effect between successive test sessions. Study III investigated the effect of ten

  8. The Situated Aspect of Creativity in Communicative Events: How Do Children Design Web Pages Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cardenas, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the collaborative construction of web pages in History by a Year-4 group of children in a primary school in the UK. The aim of this paper is to find out: (a) How did children interpret their involvement in this literacy practice? (b) How the construction of web pages was interactionally accomplished? and (c) How can creativity…

  9. Empathy in Children with Autism and Conduct Disorder: Group-Specific Profiles and Developmental Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Mergenthaler, Julia; Keller, Katharina; Zech, Julie; Salehi, Sarah; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Schecklmann, Martin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Warnke, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A deficit in empathy is discussed to underlie difficulties in social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD). To date, no study has compared children with ASD and different subtypes of CD to describe disorder-specific empathy profiles in clinical samples. Furthermore, little is known about…

  10. IMPROVING PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN USING TEACHING METHODOLOGIES BASED ON MIRROR NEURONS ACTIVATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gáll Zs. Sz; Balint L

    2015-01-01

    .... Using this as a starting point, the study aims to work out and apply a methodology in keeping with the content of the psychomotor expression activities curriculum for preschool education, resorting...

  11. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...... quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques....

  12. A new calibration methodology for thorax and upper limbs motion capture in children using magneto and inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Luca; Formica, Domenico; Sparaci, Laura; Lasorsa, Francesca Romana; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2014-01-09

    Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies for motion capture have produced devices, mainly based on magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU), that are now suitable for out-of-the-lab use with children. In fact, the reduced size, weight and the wireless connectivity meet the requirement of minimum obtrusivity and give scientists the possibility to analyze children's motion in daily life contexts. Typical use of magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU) motion capture systems is based on attaching a sensing unit to each body segment of interest. The correct use of this setup requires a specific calibration methodology that allows mapping measurements from the sensors' frames of reference into useful kinematic information in the human limbs' frames of reference. The present work addresses this specific issue, presenting a calibration protocol to capture the kinematics of the upper limbs and thorax in typically developing (TD) children. The proposed method allows the construction, on each body segment, of a meaningful system of coordinates that are representative of real physiological motions and that are referred to as functional frames (FFs). We will also present a novel cost function for the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, to retrieve the rotation matrices between each sensor frame (SF) and the corresponding FF. Reported results on a group of 40 children suggest that the method is repeatable and reliable, opening the way to the extensive use of this technology for out-of-the-lab motion capture in children.

  13. Parent and teacher report of pragmatic aspects of communication: use of the children's communication checklist in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V; Baird, G

    2001-12-01

    The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) was developed to provide an objective assessment of pragmatic aspects of children's communication difficulties. We aimed to (1) see whether the checklist provided valid and reliable information when completed by parents, and (2) consider its usefulness in a clinical context. Checklists were completed by parents and a professional who knew the child well for all 5 to 17-year-old referrals to a tertiary developmental paediatrics centre over a 31-month period. Children who were not yet speaking in sentences were excluded. From a sample of 151 children (81% male; mean age 8.7 years) with pervasive or specific developmental disorders, valid checklists were completed by 119 parents and 93 professionals. Reliability, as measured by internal consistency, was 0.7 or higher for most scales. Correlations between ratings for parents and professionals were in the range of 0.30 to 0.58 for individual pragmatic scales, with a correlation of 0.46 (n=82) for the pragmatic composite. For both parents and professionals, the pragmatic composite was lowest for children with a diagnosis of autism; intermediate for those with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified or attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and highest for those with a diagnosis of specific learning disability. The strongest relation between the pragmatic composite and diagnosis was seen when ratings from parents and professionals were combined. Differences between diagnostic groups were not explicable in terms of age or verbal IQ.

  14. Information and methodological support of the cluster of children wellness recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Svetlana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the instrument of transfer of pedagogical experience of the staff at children's health camps, which can be used as one of the components of the cluster to ensure the functioning of the health-educational system children's health camps. The transformation of the notion "cluster" from economic category in social and pedagogical is shown

  15. [New methodological approach to hygienic audit of learning and upbringing environment for children in educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Shumkova, T V; Sedova, A S; Zvezdina, I V; Moldovanov, V V; Safonkina, S G

    2014-01-01

    A methodical approach to the hygienic assessment of the educational environment in children's educational institutions was developed and tested for the objective determination of the level ofsanitary and epidemiological welfare and effective planning of preventive measures with bearing in mind environmental factors which have the most negative impact on children's health.

  16. [Requirements and risk profile of soccer-playing children. Orthopedic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, M; Klimt, F

    1992-12-01

    Although the rate of injuries in soccer is high, this sport puts children only at moderate risk of getting injured. In younger children this risk is very low but the number and severity of injuries increases with puberty. The most common cause for injuries is a collision with another player, the most common injury is distortion of the talocrural joint. Playing soccer indoors is more dangerous than playing outdoors. The danger of accidents and injuries can be reduced by preventive measures, such as weight categories in children leagues.

  17. Psychosocial aspects and mental health in children after permanent pacemaker implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C; Hørder, K; Kristensen, L

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the psychosocial status and the mental health of children receiving a permanent pacemaker during childhood. Nineteen children under the age of 19 years had a permanent pacemaker implanted. Contact was established to 15 of these patients, 7 girls and 8 boys......, and they were given a child-psychiatric evaluation consisting of a semi-structured and a child-psychiatric interview. The psychological interview used intelligence tests and the Draw-A-Person test as well as the Rorschach test. The patients had had their pacemakers during an average of 6.7 years (range 3......-14). Generally the psychological condition was strained in 7 families, in which psychiatric and social therapy had been necessary. The children's intelligence was within normal ranges, average IQ being 110 (range 80-135). The children had abnormal body image related to the pacemaker. Adults virtually incorporate...

  18. [ASPECTS OF HEALTH-SAVING MOTIVATION IN CHILDREN OF THE PRESCHOOL GROUP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosheva, E S; Kartysheva, S I; Popova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The problem of education of culture of health in children ofpreschool age is actual and sufficiently complicated. It is important at this age stage to create in children the first knowledge and practical skills of a healthy lifestyle. The example of parents has considerable impact on adoption of health saving behavior of a child. For identification of motivations of parents in the sphere of protection and strengthening of health of their children there was performed questionnaire survey of parents of preschool children according to specially developed questionnaire. A half of parents are established to be unable to devote sufficient time to health of the child due to engrossment. A considerable portion of parents doesn't keep a healthy lifestyle, differs in low medical and sports activity. The main motivation of parents is the motivation on recovery of the child after the disease, but not on preservation, strengthening and development of health.

  19. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD....

  20. Psychosocial aspects and mental health in children after permanent pacemaker implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C; Hørder, K; Kristensen, L

    1994-01-01

    -14). Generally the psychological condition was strained in 7 families, in which psychiatric and social therapy had been necessary. The children's intelligence was within normal ranges, average IQ being 110 (range 80-135). The children had abnormal body image related to the pacemaker. Adults virtually incorporate......The present study was designed to evaluate the psychosocial status and the mental health of children receiving a permanent pacemaker during childhood. Nineteen children under the age of 19 years had a permanent pacemaker implanted. Contact was established to 15 of these patients, 7 girls and 8 boys......, and they were given a child-psychiatric evaluation consisting of a semi-structured and a child-psychiatric interview. The psychological interview used intelligence tests and the Draw-A-Person test as well as the Rorschach test. The patients had had their pacemakers during an average of 6.7 years (range 3...

  1. Comparative study on clinical and evolutionary aspects of children with abdominal trauma in intensive therapy unity

    OpenAIRE

    Sapolnik, Roberto; Vieira, Camilo; Rocha, Isa; Mota, Larissa; Chaves,Marta; Torreão,Lara de Araújo; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    p. 139-145 Abdominal trauma by accidents may induce life risk, because of the bleeding of solid organs or the development of sepsis due to perforation of empty viscera. Spleen and liver lesions in children are more frequent. The aim was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children with abdominal trauma. A retrospective study was conducted in a general hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. This retrospective profile study with collected data describes the...

  2. Oral aspects in celiac disease children: clinical and dental enamel chemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Bezerra da Silva, Raquel Assed; Sawamura, Regina; Bachmann, Luciano; Bezerra da Silva, Léa Assed; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral manifestations of celiac disease (CD), the chemical composition of dental enamel, and the occurrence of CD in children with dental enamel defects (DEDs). In the study, 52 children with CD and 52 controls were examined for DEDs, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), dental caries experience, and salivary parameters. In addition, 10 exfoliated primary enamel molars from each group were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fifty children with DEDs were submitted to CD diagnosis. Among the children with CD, a higher prevalence of DEDs (P = .00001) and RAS (P = .0052), lower caries experience (P = .0024), and reduction of salivary flow (P = .0060) were observed. Dental enamel from the children with CD demonstrated a lower calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (P = .0136), but no difference in the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio (P = .5862) was observed. In the multivariate analysis, CD was a protective factor for caries (OR = 0.74) and a risk factor for RAS (OR3.23). The children with CD presented with more RAS, DEDs, reduction of salivary flow, and chemical alterations in the enamel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Current state of knowledge: outcomes research in children with mild to severe hearing impairment--approaches and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, Bruce; Hebbeler, Kathleen

    2007-12-01

    This paper will provide a backdrop to the others in this section on outcomes of children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Our objective here is to provide an overview of the research approaches used to study the outcomes of these children to provide guidance for future studies of children with mild to severe sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). During the past 20 yr there has been a gradual coalescence of research practices concerned with examining outcomes. Those who have done this work have come from different disciplines and in many cases were motivated by different circumstances. As a result, terminology and perspectives on outcomes research often still bears the features of these different disciplines and objectives of this research. This paper is an effort to provide the reader with an overview of this research endeavor that will highlight the diversity of the work being conducted on outcomes but also emphasizes the common properties. This overview will emphasize the kinds of research questions that are asked in this area of research and the associated evidence obtained to address these research questions. After this initial section there will be a consideration of the methodological issues that need to be considered, particularly for outcome research in children with HI.

  4. A New Calibration Methodology for Thorax and Upper Limbs Motion Capture in Children Using Magneto and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies for motion capture have produced devices, mainly based on magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU, that are now suitable for out-of-the-lab use with children. In fact, the reduced size, weight and the wireless connectivity meet the requirement of minimum obtrusivity and give scientists the possibility to analyze children’s motion in daily life contexts. Typical use of magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU motion capture systems is based on attaching a sensing unit to each body segment of interest. The correct use of this setup requires a specific calibration methodology that allows mapping measurements from the sensors’ frames of reference into useful kinematic information in the human limbs’ frames of reference. The present work addresses this specific issue, presenting a calibration protocol to capture the kinematics of the upper limbs and thorax in typically developing (TD children. The proposed method allows the construction, on each body segment, of a meaningful system of coordinates that are representative of real physiological motions and that are referred to as functional frames (FFs. We will also present a novel cost function for the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, to retrieve the rotation matrices between each sensor frame (SF and the corresponding FF. Reported results on a group of 40 children suggest that the method is repeatable and reliable, opening the way to the extensive use of this technology for out-of-the-lab motion capture in children.

  5. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita; Friis, Henrik; Kurpad, Anura; Wells, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique. We refined procedures for administration of isotope doses and collection of saliva. Furthermore, we established that equilibration time in local context is 3 h. These findings and the resulting standard operating procedures are important to improve data quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques.

  6. Ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing critically ill and injured children: A difficult aspect of ambulance nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén, Charlotte; Hult, Karin; Engström, Åsa

    2014-04-01

    Ambulance nurses work daily in both emergency and non-emergency situations that can be demanding. One emotionally demanding situation for ambulance nurses is to nurse children who are ill. The aim of this study was to describe ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing critically ill or injured children. Eight specialist ambulance nurses were interviewed and the interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in one theme, a difficult aspect of ambulance nursing care, with five categories. The security of both child and parents was considered to be paramount. Ambulance nurses felt relieved when they handed over the responsibility and the child to the receiving unit. The ambulance nurses felt that more training, education and follow-up was desirable in order to increase their security when nursing children. Ambulance nurses are subject to stressful feelings while nursing children. As providing reassurance to the child and its parents is a cornerstone of the treatment, it is important for the ambulance nurses to take the time to build up a trusting relationship in such an encounter. Skill development in the area might lead to increased security and reduce the mental burden resulting from negative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Aspectos metodológicos da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 em Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gomes Victora

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city's hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings.Descrever aspectos metodológicos do estudo da coorte de crianças que podem ser relevantes para pesquisadores que estejam planejando investigações semelhantes. Em 1993, uma coorte de base populacional foi recrutada em Pelotas, RS. Os 5.249 recém-nascidos nos hospitais da cidade foram acompanhados com um, três e seis meses, e com um e quatro anos de idade. Subestudos estão sendo realizados sobre saúde bucal, desenvolvimento psicológico e saúde mental, composição corporal e aspectos etnográficos. Em 2004-5 foi possível entrevistar 87,5% da coorte inicial, com a idade de 10-12 anos. Estudos de coortes de nascimentos são essenciais para investigar os determinantes precoces da morbidade e estado nutricional de adultos. No entanto, há poucos estudos com esta metodologia em países de renda média e baixa, e alguns dos determinantes da situação de saúde podem ser distintos daqueles observados em países ricos.

  8. ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN IN THE AGE ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Rovny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of laboratory-confirmed acute respiratory syncytial virus infection (ARSVI are described in 221 children of the age from 1 month to 5 years. Febrile fever has been recorded in 76% of patients with ARSVI, and significantly more often in children in the second year of life (92%, but the difference in the temerature or duration has not been found. 98% of children have had symptoms of the lower respiratory tract lesions. The most common ARSVI manifestations in the patients of the first year of life were obstructive diseases of the lower respiratory tract (obstructive bronchitis in 53% and bronchiolitis in 11% of children, in the patients of the second year of life — pneumonia (28%, p < 0,05 and catarrhal otitis (26%; p < 0,05. Bronchial obstruction syndrome in children of the first year of life was characterized by the significantly higher frequency (73% and the maximal duration (9,7 ± 1,08 days. The largest number of cases of the severe respiratory failure has been recorded among patients of the second year of life (3 degree of respiratory failure in 22% of patients, p < 0,05.

  9. Investigating the Substantive Aspect of Construct Validity for the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children: A Focus on Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the substantive aspect of construct validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C; Gadermann et al. in Soc Indic Res 96:229-247, "2010"). Specifically, the study examined the cognitive processes of children when responding to the items of the SWLS-C to find out how they…

  10. Socio-Psychological Aspects of Animal Therapy in Treating Children Suffering from Forms of Dysontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolskaya, Anastasia V.

    2012-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of animal therapy using are discussed. Research of 30 case studies is displayed that pet therapy is a good therapeutic tool in approximately 60% of cases. To diagnose possible problems in families which have got a dog as a "therapist" for the child suffering from some or other form of dysontogenesis, the…

  11. Measurement of Aspects of Classroom Environment Considered Likely to Influence Children's Prosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes procedures used to measure aspects of a classroom environment in which the development of prosocial characteristics is emphasized. Explains observation procedures, a teacher questionnaire, a child interview, and a child questionnaire. Finds observation to be the most useful means of assessment, with the other three procedures…

  12. Children's Understanding of Social-Cognitive and Social-Communicative Aspects of Discourse Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Eva; Astington, Janet Wilde

    2010-01-01

    To bridge the social-reasoning focus of developmental research on irony understanding and the pragmatic focus of research with adult populations, this cross-sectional study examines 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds' (n = 72) developing understanding of both social-cognitive and social-communicative aspects of discourse irony, when compared with adults (n =…

  13. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  14. The methodological involvement of the emotional design and cognitive ergonomics as a tool in the development of children products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Walter; Rodrigues, Laís; Campos, Fábio; Soares, Marcelo; Barros, Marina

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between design and emotional development for kids, this article offers an initial approach about the definition and historical aspects of emotion in product development, citing the main authors of this issue. Based the field research conducted with children from 2 to 6 years of age, was also describes the basic ideas of Piaget in the child psychology and pre-operational stage (age group studied) and the significance of children's toys from the perspective of Vigostsky. Using this theoretical framework and results of field research, we can infer some emotional design as advocated by the producers of positive affect on humans and its relationship with the child's development and choices of their toys.

  15. Using drawing tests to explore the multidimensional psychological aspects of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yutaka; Yamada, Miwa; Nakagawa, Kanae; Nanri, Hiromi; Kawase, Masatoshi; Fukui, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    In seeking to understand how life-threatening illness affects children psychologically, projective testing may be beneficial, particularly when attempting to identify psychological problems in younger adolescents. The advantages of projective testing are that it does not depend on patients' verbal ability and is not invasive. Three cancer inpatients from Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, aged between 10 and 16 years old, participated in the study. Projective testing was used to measure the depth of participants' distress and included a tree-drawing test, a person-drawing test and a free drawing test. Results from the tree- and person-drawing tests indicated energy loss, anxiety and a sense of emptiness. However, results from the free drawing test suggested that the children had hope and a desire to recover from their illness. The combination of drawing tests in this study may increase the understanding of the internal psychological difficulties faced by children hospitalized with cancer.

  16. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues.

  17. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Bellissimo, Nick; Lawton, Clare L; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Dye, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically. Key methodological challenges and considerations include study design and location, sampling and sample section, choice of objective cognitive tests, choice of objective and subjective appetite measures, merits of providing a fixed breakfast compared with ad libitum, assessment and definition of habitual breakfast consumption, transparency of treatment condition, difficulty of isolating the direct effects of breakfast consumption, untangling acute and chronic effects, and influence of confounding variables. These methodological challenges have hampered a clear substantiation of the potential positive effects of breakfast on cognition and appetite control and contributed to the debate questioning the notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day.

  18. Anxiety and Emotional Aspect of Bronchial Asthma in School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Burbela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An examination of 121 children with bronchial asthma (BA and 226 healthy adolescents aged 12.98 ± 2.80 and 12.36 ± 2.80 years, respectively, was conducted. The aim of the study: to explore the personal and psychological component of BA in schoolchildren. All children were observed to determine the psychological type of personality and emotional stability condition by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI, to evaluate anxiety in the structure of personality by Spielberger test adapted by B. Hanin, and to assess anxiety at school by Phillips’s questionnaire.BA in children was accompanied by severe anxiety reactions with layering on features of mostly disturbing personality, cau­sing emotional discomfort that intensified with increasing seve­rity of the disease and decreased with increased control of the disease. One of the biggest sources of anxiety is the school environment. In all age groups of BA patients, symptoms of general school anxiety were detected, with dominance of two types of temperament: melancholics (32.23 %, n = 39 — emotionally unstable introverts, and cholerics (31.40 %, n = 38 — emotio­nally unstable extroverts in contrast to the control group, where the largest part was represented by emotionally stable extroverts — sanguine persons. Thus, high anxiety and emotional instability in children with BA determine the need of psychocorrention work among this category of pupils to successfully treat them.

  19. Aspects of protein metabolism in children in acute and chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In critically ill children, a negative protein balance is associated with an increased incidence of infections, fewer ventilator-free days, and increased length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Additionally, a malnourished state due to chronic illness increases the risk of respiratory i

  20. Positive Aspects of Fathering and Mothering, and Children's Attachment in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa R. W.; Cummings, Edward Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research suggests that maternal and paternal parenting processes differentially contribute to children's adjustment. However, the contribution of paternal warmth and responsiveness, to childhood attachment security is less understood, especially beyond the preschool years. The current study examined relations between parenting and attachment…

  1. Lexical Aspect and the Use of Verb Morphology by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia; Kurtz, Robert; Chorev, Laurie Krantz; Owen, Amanda; Polite, Elgustus; Elam, Diana; Finneran, Denise

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many typically developing children first use inflections such as "-ed" with verb predicates whose meanings are compatible with the functions of the inflection (e.g., using "-ed" when describing events of brief duration with clear end points, such as "dropped"). This tendency is assumed to be beneficial for development. In this study, the…

  2. ASPECTS OF SOCIALIZATION OF BILINGUAL CHILDREN AT NON- EQUAL SOCIAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina KOLEVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available There are specific problems connecting the relationship between the people of different ethoses in every country.Mixing the categories of different social status which is reason for retardation of physical development of individual to fatal practical actions in every directions.In the report will be presented patterns for socialization of preschool bilingual children.

  3. Aspects of protein metabolism in children in acute and chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In critically ill children, a negative protein balance is associated with an increased incidence of infections, fewer ventilator-free days, and increased length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Additionally, a malnourished state due to chronic illness increases the risk of respiratory i

  4. Psycho-Social Aspects of Educating Epileptic Children: Roles for School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Brenda B.

    1985-01-01

    Epileptic children may have physical and emotional needs which can interfere with learning and socialization. Current prevalence estimates, definitions, and classifications of epilepsy are surveyed. Factors affecting the epileptic child's school performance and specific learning problems are addressed. Specific roles are presented for school…

  5. Using practice development methodology to develop children's centre teams: ideas for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ann; Cowdell, Fiona

    2009-09-01

    The Children's Centre Programme is a recent development in the UK and brings together multi-agency teams to work with disadvantaged families. Practice development methods enable teams to work together in new ways. Although the term practice development remains relatively poorly defined, its key properties suggest that it embraces engagement, empowerment, evaluation and evolution. This paper introduces the Children's Centre Programme and practice development methods and aims to discuss the relevance of using this method to develop teams in children's centres through considering the findings from an evaluation of a two-year project to develop inter-agency public health teams. The evaluation showed that practice development methods can enable successful team development and showed that through effective facilitation, teams can change their practice to focus on areas of local need. The team came up with their own process to develop a strategy for their locality.

  6. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Koh, Yun-Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young-Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun-Chung; Park, Jee In

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Materials and Methods Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6–12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Results Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. Conclusion K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created. PMID:28120577

  7. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  8. THEORETICAL - METHODOLOGICAL BASES FOR THE FORMATION OF NATIONAL IDENTITY IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrovna Galkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the modern approaches to organization of education of preschool children in multicultural environment, states some basic principles and conditions for the formation of national identity, socialization of children in modern multicultural society, where multicultural education is based on the attitude of children to their homeland, family and immediate environment, to cultures of neighboring nations, from the expression of interest and sympathy towards people of other nationalities to learning their traditions and customs, developing knowledge about them, friendly relationship and respect to them. The article presents scientific positions in the context of philosophical, ethnographic, sociological researches, which reconsider the understanding and interpretation of the concept of "multicultural education" in the context of such categories as "internationality", "nationality", "humaneness". It defines and explains the most effective means of the formation of spiritual and moral character of a growing person, such as literature and theatre. The article presents the project enhancing the formation of national identity among preschool children, reflecting the multicultural traditions of Irkutsk region by fiction writers of the Angara region and Siberia.

  9. Growth curves for school children from Kuching, Sarawak: a methodological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Yii Bonn; Shariff, Asma Ahmad; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Merican, Amir Feisal

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the authors propose reference curves for height and weight for school children in the Kuching area, Sarawak. The school children were from primary to secondary schools (aged 6.5 to 17 years old) and comprised both genders. Anthropometric measurements and demographic information for 3081 school-aged children were collected (1440 boys and 1641 girls). Fitted line plots and percentiles for height and weight (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles) were obtained. The height of school boys and school girls were almost similar at the start of their school-going age. For school girls, height and weight values stabilized when they reached 16 or 17 years old but kept increasing for school boys. School boys were taller than school girls as they entered adolescence. Height differences between school boys and school girls became significantly wider as they grew older. Chinese school children were taller and heavier than those of other ethnic groups. © 2012 APJPH.

  10. Some Methodological Issues with "Draw a Scientist Tests" among Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Susan C.; Wilke, Ryan; Pop, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Children's stereotypes about scientists have been postulated to affect student science identity and interest in science. Findings from prior studies using "Draw a Scientist Test" methods suggest that students see scientists as largely white, often unattractive, men; one consequence may be that girls and minority students feel a science career is…

  11. [The acoustic aspect of the speech development in children during the third year of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakso, E E; Gromova, A D; Frolova, O V; Romanova, O D

    2004-01-01

    The current part of a Russian language acquisition longitudinal study based on auditory, phonetic and instrumental analysis is devoted to the third year of child's life. We examined the development of supplementary acoustic and phonetic features of the child's speech providing for the possibility for the speech to be recognized. The instrumental analysis and statistical processing of vowel formant dynamics as well as stress, palatalization and VOT development, has been performed for the first time in Russian children. We showed that the high probability of children words recognition by auditors was due to establishment of a system of acoustically stable features which, in combination with each other, provide for the informative sufficiency of a message.

  12. PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE IMPACT OF SOCIO-CULTURAL ANIMATION ON COLLECTIVISM DEVELOPING FOR CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrieva A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Collectivism is a sense of solidarity with a group, self-awareness a part of it, the willingness to act in favor of the group and society. Fostering collectivism in childhood and adolescence teams achieved in various ways and means: the organization of cooperation and mutual aid in study, work, social work; joint participation of children and adolescents in cultural and sporting events; bringing perspectives of the guys in front of prospects (performance targets and joint participation in their implementation; the revitalization of children's and youth public organizations. Some of these ways and means may be combined under one name, socio-cultural animation. Socio-cultural animation is an effective teaching method in the education of the younger generation, its focus on individuality, free environment , discovery and development of personal qualities and skills, the formation of worldview can be traced in pedagogy. The article discusses the pedagogical aspect of the impact of socio-cultural animation, organized in conditions of free communication, encourages meaningful exchange of cultural wealth, forming esthetic attitude towards reality, mastering wide range of special knowledge, expertise and skills. These activities contribute to the emotional development of children and adolescents, causing a feeling of collective empathy, compassion, sharing feelings of emotional and moral atmosphere and its cocreation

  13. Predictors of outcome and methodological issues in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Miguel; Gupta, Sumit; Vasquez, Roberto; Fuentes, Soad L; deReyes, Gladis; Ribeiro, Raul; Sung, Lillian

    2010-12-01

    Most children with cancer live in low-income countries (LICs) where risk factors in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) developed in high-income countries may not apply. We describe predictors of survival for children in El Salvador with ALL. We included patients El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras II protocol. Demographic, disease-related, socioeconomic and nutritional variables were examined as potential predictors of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). 260/443 patients (58.7%) were classified as standard risk. Standard- and high-risk 5-year EFS were 56.3 ± 4.5% and 48.6 ± 5.5%; 5-year OS were 77.7 ± 3.8% and 61.9 ± 5.8%, respectively. Among standard-risk children, socioeconomic variables such as higher monthly income (hazard ratio [HR] per $100 = 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.99; P=0.04]) and parental secondary education (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.84; P = 0.01) were associated with better EFS. Among high-risk children, higher initial white blood cell (HR per 10×10(9)/L = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05; P<0.001) predicted worse EFS; socioeconomic variables were not predictive. The difference in EFS and OS appeared related to overestimating OS secondary to poor follow-up after abandonment/relapse. Socioeconomic variables predicted worse EFS in standard-risk children while disease-related variables were predictive in high-risk patients. Further studies should delineate pathways through which socioeconomic status affects EFS in order to design effective interventions. EFS should be the primary outcome in LIC studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychomotor education, an aspect of general formation of pre-school children

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    Ardian Shingjergji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current developments of scientific thinking in the field of education are increasingly demanding in various disciplines for young people as a matter of urgency. It is already known that child development is conditioned by ancestry, socio-cultural environment, including interaction with peers and adults. Albanian institutions (kindergarten compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries have to deal with issues such as: (1 The development of a run or optimal acceleration enrichment motor for kindergarten children, seen as an important element of the formation of the human personality and its preparation to cope with various situations of life ; (2 The role of infrastructure in the natural development of the personality of children and the educational process as a whole; (3 Parental community involvement as a fundamental prerequisite of real development of the child; (4The qualification level of the teaching staff in the elementary education system and the preparation of students teacher. I hope to add my contribution through this paper, not only by identifying the problems above, but also in presenting alternatives of a development model of kindergarten children motors skills progress, compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries. Keywords: ; ; ; ;

  15. Epidemiological aspects of Pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary-school children in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovali-Emami, Mohammad; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Fekri, Alireza; Yazdi, Mahbobeh

    2008-01-15

    This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of and epidemiological factors associated with, head lice infections in Iranian primary schools in 2006 and evaluate data on the therapeutic efficacy of lindane shampoo. A total of 40586 children (19774 boys (48.72%) and 20812 girls (51.28%)] from 198 Governmentprimary schools in Kerman, were screened for head lice between March and June 2006. The diagnosis of head lice infestation was confirmed by clinical inspection of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice nymphal stage, or eggs (nit) by line-toothed head lice comb. All children infested with lice were treated with lindane shampoo (1% gamma benzene hexachloride). The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 1.8%. The prevalence of infestation was significantly higher in girls (2.9%) than in boys (0.6%) (p = 0.000). The infestation rate was greater among pupils who were living in rural areas (4.6%) than in urban areas (1.5%). Of the 721 children with a positive examination result, 424 pupils (58.8%) were reported as having been infested with head lice in the previous 6 months. Mother's education level was a significant risk factor in this model (p safe, novel insecticides for proved efficacy.

  16. [The microbiological aspects of orthodontic treatment of children with dental maxillary anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, V A; Chesnokova, M G; Leontiev, V K; Mironov, A Yu; Lomiashvili, L M; Kriga, A S

    2015-03-01

    The issues of pre-nosologic diagnostic and effectiveness of treatment of diseases of oral cavity is an actual issue in dentistry. The long- duration orthodontic treatment of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies using non-removable devices is followed by such negative consequences as development demineralization of enamel and caries registered during treatment and after remove ofdevices. The level of quantitative content of oral streptococci was analyzed and dental status in children with dentoalveolar anomalies was evaluated during treatment with non-removable devices was evaluated. The caries and inflammation of periodontium of oral cavity were most often detected in children with high level of content of streptococci. In different periods of study the firm tendency of increasing of concentration of Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguis of dental plaque of oral cavity is established. The established index indicators of dental status of patients testify intensity of caries damage, level of poor hygiene of oral cavity, development of average degree of severity of inflammation process of periodontium. The obtained results substantiate involvement ofstreptococci, associates of microbiota of dental plaque of oral cavity in children, in process of development of caries. The characteristics of micro-ecology of dental plaque to evaluate cariesgenic situation that can be used as a basis for constructing diagnostic algorithm under monitoring of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies with purpose of forthcoming planning and implementation of effective orthodontic treatment.

  17. [Noma in children in a hospital environment in Bobo-Dioulasso: epidemiologic, clinical and management aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, F; Ki-Zerbo, G; Ouedraogo, I; Guigma, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study covering ten years (1987-1996) was conducted to assess the epidemiology, clinical features and management of cancrum oris (noma) in children from Burkina Faso. Fifty nine (59) children were admitted with cancrum oris at the paediatrics and maxillo-facial surgery units of Bobo-Dioulasso, the second town of Burkina Faso. The hospital prevalence of noma is 1.5/1000. 81% of the cases were in the 1 to 5 years age group and 58% were females. Predisposing factors include poverty, lack of immunization, malnutrition, bad oral hygiene, measles and parasitic diseases. The cheek was involved in 31% of the cases. Cure was obtained in 80% of patients after medical and surgical treatment. However, many sequels were observed. Post operative outcome is complicated by the children's growth and often results in retractions, recurrence of ulcers or constriction. Psychological and social problems are associated. Management is difficult in our setting because of the lack of information, cost of the treatment and the absence of well-equipped plastic surgery units.

  18. How to Reduce Head CT Orders in Children with Hydrocephalus Using the Lean Six Sigma Methodology: Experience at a Major Quaternary Care Academic Children's Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, A; Jackson, E M; Ogborn, J; Liang, S; Bledsoe, M; Durand, D J; Jallo, G; Huisman, T A G M

    2016-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma methodology is increasingly used to drive improvement in patient safety, quality of care, and cost-effectiveness throughout the US health care delivery system. To demonstrate our value as specialists, radiologists can combine lean methodologies along with imaging expertise to optimize imaging elements-of-care pathways. In this article, we describe a Lean Six Sigma project with the goal of reducing the relative use of pediatric head CTs in our population of patients with hydrocephalus by 50% within 6 months. We applied a Lean Six Sigma methodology using a multidisciplinary team at a quaternary care academic children's center. The existing baseline imaging practice for hydrocephalus was outlined in a Kaizen session, and potential interventions were discussed. An improved radiation-free workflow with ultrafast MR imaging was created. Baseline data were collected for 3 months by using the departmental radiology information system. Data collection continued postintervention and during the control phase (each for 3 months). The percentage of neuroimaging per technique (head CT, head ultrasound, ultrafast brain MR imaging, and routine brain MR imaging) was recorded during each phase. The improved workflow resulted in a 75% relative reduction in the percentage of hydrocephalus imaging performed by CT between the pre- and postintervention/control phases (Z-test, P = .0001). Our lean interventions in the pediatric hydrocephalus care pathway resulted in a significant reduction in head CT orders and increased use of ultrafast brain MR imaging. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of generalized meningococcal infections in children and adolescents of Saint-Petersburg

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    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized meningococcal infection belongs to the group of diseases with a high risk of initiation of life-threatening conditions and death outcomes. There was carried out a retrospective analysis of clinical and epidemiological features of generalized meningococcal infections in children and adolescents of Saint Petersburg in 1995–2014 on the basis of the analysis of 884 medical records of the patients hospitalized at Scientific Research Institute of Children’s Infections. With general prevalence of the children of the first years of life among the patients, there has been revealed the tendency to reduction in the portion of children of the first year of life from 41,4% in 1995 to 22,2% by 2014, and the increase in the number of patients of 1–3 years old from 19,3–30,5% in 1995–1996 to 46,4–46,4% in 2013–2014. Among the number of etiologically identified cases (59,4% the majority of them has been caused by serogroup B meningococcus (58,5%, in 24,2% – by serogroup C meningococcus, in 11,2% – by serogroup A meningococcus, and in 6,1% – by rare (W135/Y and unspecified strains N.meningitidis. Within the recent years there has been identified the tendency of rate growth concerning the diseases caused by serogroup C meningococci, remarkable for a severe course and high rate of death cases. Total death indicator for the investigated period has averaged 4,2%, with the variability from 0 to 12,5% for different years.

  20. SOME PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF HYPERTHROPHY AND INFLAMMATION OF PHARYNGEAL TONSILS IN CHILDREN

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    V. N. Zorina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have measured total levels of alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2-MG, its immune complexes with IgG (α2-MG-IgG, along with IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα, lactoferrin (LF and alpha-1-antitrypsin (AT contents in blood sera of children with verified chronic adenoiditis (ChA, pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy (PhTH, and in sera of healthy children. It was shown, that α2-MG, α2-MG-IgG, AT, IL-10 serum concentrations in ChA and PhTH were significantly increased in comparison with appropriate values in healthy children. Moreover, we have detected significant increase in LF, and slight decrease of IL-6 and IL-8 contents in sera of ChA patients. All general trends of detected changes were similar for both diseases, but some changes proved to be differently expressed. In ChA, however, we found higher levels of circulating α2-MG molecules in circulation, some deficiency in IL-6 and IL-8, and significant abundance of IL-10 and LF at the beginning of ChA, thus resulting into a chronic disorder. In PhTH patients, there was no such remarkable abundance of α2-MG and LF in circulation, and no deficiency in IL-6 and IL-8, but higher levels of damaged α2-MG molecules complexing with IgG, total α2-MG, AT and IL-10 excess may provoke distinct metabolic changes and compensatory proliferation of tissues in this disorder.

  1. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in very young children. Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of 43 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leverger, G.; Bancillon, A.; Schaison, G.; Alby, N.; Boiron, M.

    Between 1974 and 1982, 43 children less than 2 years of age were treated in the hematology department of Hospital Saint-Louis for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Of the patients who presented before 18 months of age, 80% had a WBC greater than 100,000 microliter and/or a great tumor bulk. As a result of our experience, treatment regimens have been changed here from conventional chemotherapy to a very intensive program with a heavy induction (vincristine, daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and L-asparaginase) and monthly reinductions with the same drugs plus ArA-C, without maintenance. Prophylaxis included CNS irradiation (16-24 Gy) after 12 months of age, plus intrathecal methotrexate. Complete remission (CR) occurred in 78% before 18 months and in 100% between 18 and 24 months of age at diagnosis. In this report the probability of a prolonged CR (33% at 2 years) was the same before and after 12 months of age. However, younger patients were more intensively treated. The prognosis for children less than 1 year of age who received very intensive chemotherapy has greatly improved, with a significantly higher probability of long CR (p less than 0.02). Presently, 10 of 43 children are in CR 27 months to 8 years after diagnosis. Of 18 patients aged less than 1 year at diagnosis, four are in CR. No relapse occurred after 23 months. None of these patients presented with important sequellae, with the exception of one child who suffered from severe bacterial meningitis. An aggressive chemotherapy program is indicated in patients less than 2 years of age. The feasibility of this mode of treatment in young patients is possible only with the help of specific supportive care.

  2. Epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute bacterial diarrhea in children from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Daniel R. Diniz-Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In the few cases of acute childhood diarrhea that require antimicrobial therapy, the correct choice of the drug depends on detailed previous knowledge of local strains. In order to establish such parameters in our city, we reviewed the results of all 260 positive stool cultures of children between 0 and 15 years of age during two years at a pediatric tertiary care facility in Salvador, Brazil. Bacterial strains had been presumptively identified by culturing in selective media and by biochemical testing, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were automatically detected by the MicroScan Walkaway System. Data about patients' sex and age, monthly distribution of the cases, pathogens isolated and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were recorded. Males corresponded to 55.4% of our sample, and most of our patients (42.7% were between one and four years of age. Shigella was the commonest pathogen, being found in 141 (54.3% cultures, while Salmonella was found in 100 (38.4% cultures and Enteropathogenic E. coli in 19 (7.3%. Salmonella was the main causal agent of diarrhea in children younger than five years old, whereas Shigella was the most frequent pathogen isolated from the stools of children between five and 15 years old. The peaks of incidence correspond to the periods of school vacations. Shigella specimens presented a very high resistance rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90.1% and to ampicillin (22.0%, while Salmonella presented very low resistance rates to all drugs tested. These data are useful for practitioners and they reinforce the need for continuous microbiological surveillance.

  3. USING THE METHODOLOGY OF "LOGOTRAMPOLINE" IN PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES

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    Victoria Leonidovna Efimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the experience of studying the central processing of visual, vestibular and proprioceptive information by children having learning disorders. The study of oculomotor activities was carried out using the "Eyegaze Analysis System" (USA software "NYAN 2.0", "Interactive Minds" Company (Germany. The status of sensory integration, needed for maintaining the balance, was studied with "Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance", "Balance Master®" "NeuroCom International, Inc" (USA. It was revealed that most children with learning disorder had deficit functioning of the segments of the nervous system, which ensure integration of different sensory modalities, such as visual, proprioceptive and vestibular senses. It was observed that vestibular stimulation creates optimal conditions for the formation of many learning skills. The authors have developed and tested the method "Logo-trampoline", combining training of reading skills with intense vestibular and proprioceptive stimulation. The training takes into account the multilevel principle of skills formation proposed by N. Bernstein. Training "Logo-trampoline" is aimed at enhancing the B level according to N. Bernstein. The lessons can be recommended to children with dyslexia and difficulties in reading skills. The pilot experiment had very encouraging results.

  4. [Present aspects of bacterial endocarditis in infants and children. Observation during the years 1969-1976 (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liersch, R; Nessler, L; Bourgeois, M; Meyer, H; Breuer, A

    1977-09-01

    21 infants and children with proven bacterial endocarditis were observed at the Unviersity Children Hospital of Düsseldorf from January 1969 to December 1976. There was high incidence of cases in the infant group and again among the 6 to 8 years old children. Some important aspects of the disease were characteristic for the infant group (N=5): No congenital cardiac abnormality was present, but a surgical cerebro-atrial connection in two cases of hydrocephalus and a prolonged artifical respiration in a third patient could have been predisposing factors. Staphylococci were the pathologic organisms in three infants. The course of the disease consistently resembled that of septicemia and the outcome was always lethal. The diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis was disclosed only by the post mortem examination. The mitral and the tricuspid valves were affected twice respectively, the pulmonary cusps only once. In the children group (N=16) fifteen patients had a congenital malformation of the heart confirmed by previous catheterization. 8 were cyanotic and 5 of them had a tetralogy of Fallot with previous aorto-pulmonary shunting procedure (Waterston). Unlike the spectrum of micro-organisms presently found in adults, the streptococcus viridans prevailed as before, it was isolated in 11 of the 13 blood cultures which yielded positive results. The disease displayed a subacute course and mortality remained with 3 deaths relatively low. In 3 other cases a valve lesion subsisted, in two instances severe enough to necessitate surgery (aortic valve prosthesis, mitral annular narrowing). No relapse was observed during the mean follow up period of 2;8 years.

  5. [Ecological-anthropological aspects of individual morphotype variability of children in Tyumen north].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvavyĭ, N F; Koĭnosov, P G; Orlov, S A; Koĭnosov, A P

    2011-01-01

    The complex study of the physical development of boys and girls aged 11-18 years of native and newly come population of Khanty-Mansiysk-Ugra Autonomous Region was performed. It was found that the native population had higher mass of fat component in all the age groups as compared to that of the newly come population. The data obtained reflect the regional peculiarities of the growth processes of the children of native and newly come population. These data help to reveal the mechanisms providing adaptive character of development at the pubertal stage the ontogenesis.

  6. [Infections in Senegalese children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia: epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, I; Soares, G M; Gueye, A; Diagne-Gueye, N R; Fall, L; N'Diaye, O; Camara, B; Diouf, S; Fall, M

    2000-01-01

    Infection is the main factor of morbidity and mortality in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The objective of this study is to determine it's epidemiologic outline in senegalese children and adolescents with SCD. We retrospectively studied infection data in all the charts of a cohort of 323 patients with SCD (307 SS, 13 SC and 3 s beta + thalassemia) followed at Albert Royer children hospital from january 1991 to december 1997. Serum sampling was systematically made for HIV and antigen HBs serology in all patients we received in the last 3 months (october to december 1997). Patients were aged from 5 months to 22 years (medium age = 8 years). 813 infection episodes were diagnosed, concerning 184 patients (56 per cent). SS patients were more affected (59 per cent) than the others (23 per cent, p = 0.04). ENT and broncho-pulmonary onsets were more frequent but had a generally benign course. Menigitidis, septicemia and osteomyelitis were exclusively diagnosed in SS patients. Their prevalences in this group were respectively: 1.0 per cent, 4.9 per cent and 9.8 per cent. HIV serology was determined in 155 patients, including 41 per cent with blood transfusion antecedents. All tests were negative. HBs antigen was determined in 104 patients and seroprevalence was 7.7 per cent in the whole group and 6.0 per cent in patients with transfusion antecedents and 7.7 per cent for the others. Plasmodium falciparum malaria onset was observed in 9.6 per cent of our patients and there was no case of cerebral malaria. Infection was involved in 9 of the 11 cases of death. Then infection constitute the major problem in children and adolescents with SCD in Dakar. However prevalences of severe onsets are comparable to data in Europe despite our poor follow up conditions. Senegal haplotype may lead to a good tolerance of SCD. Negative HIV serology and low HBs antigen seroprevalence in transfused patients are attributed to a relatively low level of HIV prevalence in the general

  7. Text comprehension in children: comparing different classes of inferences by using on-line methodology / Compreensão de texto em crianças: comparações entre diferentes classes de inferência a partir de uma metodologia on-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Galvão Spinillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, by means of using an on-line methodology, examined 7 and 9-year-old children's text comprehension in relation to different types of inferences constructed during a story reading task: causal inferences, state inferences and inferences of prediction (what happens next in the story. The on-line methodology consists of making inferential questions to the child during text comprehension immediately after the subject has read a passage. Due to the fact that inferences of prediction involve extratextual information and require to raise hypothesis about the continuity of the narrative, children had difficulties in predicting events that had not occurred yet in the story. It was concluded that the ability to make inferences during text comprehension varies according to the type of inferential question presented and that this ability develops with age. The inovative aspect of the on-line methodology and its relevance to the research on text comprehension are discussed.

  8. The global burden of headache in children and adolescents – developing a questionnaire and methodology for a global study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Burden of headache has been assessed in adults in countries worldwide, and is high, but data for children and adolescents are sparse. The objectives of this study were o develop a questionnaire and methodology for the global estimation of burden of headache in children and adolescents, to test these in use and to present preliminary data. Methods We designed structured questionnaires for mediated-group self-administration in schools by children aged 6-11 years and adolescents aged 12-17 years. In two pilot studies, we offered the questionnaires to pupils in Vienna and Istanbul. We performed face-to-face interviews in a randomly selected subsample of 199 pupils to validate the headache diagnostic questions. Results Data were collected from 1,202 pupils (mean 13.9 ± 2.4 years; 621 female, 581 male). The participation rate was 81.1% in Istanbul, 67.2% in Vienna. The questionnaire proved acceptable: ≤5% of participants disagreed partially or totally with its length, comprehensibility or simplicity. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged between 0.71 and 0.76 for migraine and between 0.61 and 0.85 for tension-type headache (TTH). Cronbach’s alpha was 0.83. The 1-year prevalence of headache was 89.3%, of migraine 39.3% and of TTH 37.9%. The prevalence of headache on ≥15 days/month was 4.5%. One fifth (20.7%) of pupils with headache lost ≥1 day of school during the preceding 4 weeks and nearly half (48.8%) reported ≥1 day when they could not do activities they had wanted to. The vast majority of pupils with headache experienced difficulties in coping with headache and in concentrating during headache. Quality of life was poorer in pupils with headache than in those without. Conclusion These pilot studies demonstrate the usefulness of the questionnaires and feasibility of the methodology for assessing the global burden of headache in children and adolescents, and predict substantial impact of headache in these

  9. The global burden of headache in children and adolescents - developing a questionnaire and methodology for a global study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöber-Bingöl, Çiçek; Wöber, Christian; Uluduz, Derya; Uygunoğlu, Uğur; Aslan, Tuna Stefan; Kernmayer, Martin; Zesch, Heidi-Elisabeth; Gerges, Nancy T A; Wagner, Gudrun; Siva, Aksel; Steiner, Timothy J

    2014-12-11

    Burden of headache has been assessed in adults in countries worldwide, and is high, but data for children and adolescents are sparse. The objectives of this study were o develop a questionnaire and methodology for the global estimation of burden of headache in children and adolescents, to test these in use and to present preliminary data. We designed structured questionnaires for mediated-group self-administration in schools by children aged 6-11 years and adolescents aged 12-17 years. In two pilot studies, we offered the questionnaires to pupils in Vienna and Istanbul. We performed face-to-face interviews in a randomly selected subsample of 199 pupils to validate the headache diagnostic questions. Data were collected from 1,202 pupils (mean 13.9 ± 2.4 years; 621 female, 581 male). The participation rate was 81.1% in Istanbul, 67.2% in Vienna. The questionnaire proved acceptable: ≤5% of participants disagreed partially or totally with its length, comprehensibility or simplicity. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values ranged between 0.71 and 0.76 for migraine and between 0.61 and 0.85 for tension-type headache (TTH). Cronbach's alpha was 0.83. The 1-year prevalence of headache was 89.3%, of migraine 39.3% and of TTH 37.9%. The prevalence of headache on ≥15 days/month was 4.5%. One fifth (20.7%) of pupils with headache lost ≥1 day of school during the preceding 4 weeks and nearly half (48.8%) reported ≥1 day when they could not do activities they had wanted to. The vast majority of pupils with headache experienced difficulties in coping with headache and in concentrating during headache. Quality of life was poorer in pupils with headache than in those without. These pilot studies demonstrate the usefulness of the questionnaires and feasibility of the methodology for assessing the global burden of headache in children and adolescents, and predict substantial impact of headache in these age groups.

  10. Gingival Condition in Children Aged From 6 to 12 Years Old: Clinical and Microbiological Aspects

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    Ane Stella Salgado XAVIER

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival condition and the occurrence of periodontopathogens in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years old in Araçatuba, Brazil. Method: Clinical examination was performed in accordance to Schour and Massler (1947 while the subgingival plaque samples were obtained though sterilized paper point that were placed into health and inflamed gingival crevice of tooth 54 or 14, 61 or 11, 26, 75 or 35, 82 or 42 and 46, where they were kept for 60 seconds and tranferred to tubes containing 5 ml of thioglicolate broth. Microorganisms were isolated on blood agar and CVE an agar after incubation under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC, for 10 days. The identification of the isolates was based on their morphological, cellular and biochemical features. Results: 91.40% shows gingivitis while 70.97% presented mild gingivitis. Only 8.6% didn’t presented gingivitis. It was verified that the most of children presented mild gengivitis and was had some periodontopathogens. Conclusion: The gingivitis deteriored with age and only F. nucleatum was related with the deterioration of gengival status.

  11. Primary hypertension and special aspects of hypertension in older children and adolescents

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    Ellis D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Demetrius Ellis, Yosuke MiyashitaChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USAAbstract: The prevalence of hypertension has increased at an accelerated rate in older children and adolescents. This has raised great concern about premature development of cardiovascular disease, which has major long-term health and financial implications. While obesity and sedentary habits largely explain this phenomenon, there are other social and cultural influences that may unmask genetic susceptibility to hypertension in the pediatric population. While it is essential to exclude numerous causes of secondary hypertension in every child, these disorders are not discussed in this review. Rather, the aim of this review is to familiarize pediatricians with casual and ambulatory blood pressure measurement, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of several common conditions that play a role in the development of hypertension in children and adolescents. Besides primary hypertension and obesity-related hypertension, emphasis is given to epidemiology, measurement of blood pressure, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, hypertension associated with drug use, teenage pregnancy, and video and computer games. Lastly, because pediatricians are increasingly confronted with special issues concerning the management of the hypertensive athlete, this topic is also addressed.Keywords: hypertension, adolescents, obesity, drugs, pregnancy, athletes

  12. Design and pilot testing of a dietary assessment methodology for children at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Laursen, Rikke; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    , the Danish Dietary Recommendations, and inspired by other successful studies, a self-administered questionnaire investigating children’s eating habits was designed. After testing by an Expert Evaluation Panel and Think Aloud Interviews adjustments were integrated. Conclusion: If special attention is given...... to literacy skills and cognitive development, children in Danish 6th grade classes can be used as respondents in studies of the relation between food procurement policies and eating practice. The study suggests that a Cross-Sectional design is a satisfactory method to investigate the association between...

  13. Psychological aspects in children affected by Duchenne de Boulogne muscular dystrophy

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    Michele Roccella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease.

  14. [When sports no longer is a game ... the clinical aspects of competitive sports in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, G; de Graeff-Meeder, E R; Keessen, W

    1990-08-01

    Physical and psychic vulnerability in children performing competitive sports may turn an accidental injury into a starting-point for chronic pain. This pain may give rise to serious physical and social restraints. The case histories of two fourteen years old girls are presented. Both patients suffered from overburdening. This phenomenon had not been recognized, or was not explicitly stated at least. Probably, too high expectations from medical help by parents and child played a crucial role. Expectations were twofold: the chronic pain should fit a specific defect caused by the injury, or it should be due to a (serious) disease. Both types of expectations led to disappointments, repeated diagnostic procedures and ineffective therapies. A comprehensive assessment without delay by a multidisciplinary pediatric team is recommended.

  15. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in children. Clinical aspects and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Augello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO is a rare mixed odontogenic tumor. Clinically AFO presents as a hamartoma or immature odontoma. The AFO is a well-encapsulated, painless, slow-growing and expanding tumor in young patients. Histologically, it has been classified as an ameloblastic fibroma or odontoma. Despite numerous efforts, there is still considerable confusion concerning the nature, the histology and the surgical therapy of this lesion. However, it can present with progressive growth causing bone destruction and significant deformity. The transformation of AFO in sarcoma is also known and extremely rare. Therefore a long term follow up is recommended. Enucleation still remains the gold standard. We are discussing our experience with AFO focused on children in clinical and surgical features and reviewing the relevant literature.

  16. Aspects of the built environment associated with obesity in children and adolescents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nappi Corrêa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a narrative literature review to describe the availability of food retailers (groceries and eateries and their association with obesity in schoolchildren and adolescents. METHODS: The review included studies published from 2003 to 2013 listed in three databases with data on the child's school and/or home surroundings. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of fast foods near the schools, especially high schools, public schools, or schools located in low-income regions. Moreover, children and adolescents living in areas further from convenience stores had better diets. CONCLUSION: Acknowledging the relationship between built environment and obesity by establishing scientific evidence is necessary for developing specific strategies that help to control the spread of obesity in this age group, aiming to construct healthier spaces.

  17. [New aspects of assessment of physical development of children and adolescents by preventive examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, H; Greil, H; Johnson, D; Sommer, K; Voigt, M

    1990-01-01

    The results of the examinations of a representative cross-section were used as the basis for bringing up to date the standard values and ranges of variability of the body measurements of newborns according to gestational age, of head circumference up to the 3rd year and of body height and weight from 0-18 years. Tables and somatograms were also drawn up for the evaluation of body weight in relation to specific types of build, and standard values for skinfold thickness and total body fat were worked out in order to permit a biologically meaningful assessment of the physical development and nutritional status of children and adolescents. Alongside the description of the individual stages in the development of selected characteristics of maturation used in assessing sexual maturity, percentiles for the average age on reaching each of these stages of development will be available, together with a new series of photographs of breast, pubes and genital development.

  18. Rhinosurgery in children: developmental and surgical aspects of the growing nose

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    Verwoerd, Carel D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the nasal skeleton in newborns and adults are not alike. The complete cartilaginous framework of the neonatal nose becomes partly and gradually ossified during the years of growth and is more vulnerable to trauma in that period. Injury in early youth may have large consequences for development and may result in a nasal deformity which will increase during growth and reach its peak during and after the adolescent growth spurt. To understand more of the underlying problems of nasal malformations and their surgical treatment (septorhinoplasty these items became the focus of multiple animal studies in the last 40 years. The effects of surgery on the nasal septum varied considerably, seemingly depending on which experimental animal was used. In review, however, the very different techniques of the experimental surgery might be even more influential in this respect. Study of one of the larger series of experiments in young rabbits comprised skeletal measurements with statistical analysis, and microscopic observations of the tissues. The behaviour of hyaline cartilage of the human nose appeared to be comparable to that of other mammals. Cartilage, although resilient, can be easily fractured whereas its tendency to integrated healing is very low, even when the perichondrium has been saved. Also surgical procedures – like in septoplasty – may result in growth disturbances of the nasal skeleton like recurrent deviations or duplicature. Loss of cartilage, as might occur after a septum abscess, is never completely restored despite some cartilage regeneration. In this article experimental studies are reviewed and compared. Still there remains a lack of consensus in the literature concerning the developmental effects of rhinosurgry in children. Based on their observations in animals and a few clinical studies, mostly with small numbers of patients but with a long follow-up, the authors have compiled a list of guidelines to be considered

  19. Some Aspects of International Children Abduction - Theoretical and Practical Approach from the Perspective of the European Law and Judicial Practice

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    Gabriela Lupşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyday life revealed even in the media by presenting cases of international abduction of minors, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the existence of cases increasingly complex from the national/ EU practice, to which we should add the insufficient analysis in the doctrine of the topic in representing some evidence to support the elaboration of this paper. Through its international and / or European regulations (Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is supplemented by Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, (prevailing the latter and national ones (Law no. 63/2014 amending and supplementing Law no. 369/2004 on the application of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction which Romania adhered to by the Law no. 100/199, the legislator sought to ensure the prompt return of children abducted in the Member State of origin, the objective being the same: discouraging underage child abduction by a parent or by third parties, usually relatives and, in case of committing an act of international abduction of minors, ensuring the best interests of the child through the cooperation of the competent authorities in the field. The structure includes sections that address theoretical issues (e.g. the notion of international abduction of minors, regulations, procedure for solving the request, the competent authorities and practical aspects, without neglecting the interpretation given by the Court of Justice of the European Union of some texts from the Regulation.

  20. Screening for Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: Methodology and Current Practice Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michaela N.; Shatat, Ibrahim F.; Phillips, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) requires urgent, uniform, and consistent attention across all frontiers of pediatric health care not only because of established links between the onset of HTN during one’s youth and its sustenance throughout adulthood but also because of the sequelae associated with the disease’s trajectory, such as cardiovascular disease, end organ damage, and decreased quality of life. Although national guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pediatric HTN have been available for nearly 40 years, knowledge and recognition of the problem by clinicians remain poor due to a host of influencing factors. The purpose of this article is to explicate key issues contributing to the inaccurate measurement of blood pressure and misclassification of HTN among children and to present strategies to address these issues.

  1. Emotion knowledge in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a new methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, Marie Moore; Conners, Frances A; Barth, Joan M

    2014-09-01

    Emotion knowledge was examined in 19 youth with Down syndrome (DS) and compared to typically developing (TD) children of similar developmental levels. This project expanded upon prior research on emotion knowledge in DS by utilizing a measure that minimized the need for linguistic skills, presented emotion expressions dynamically, and included social context cues. In Study 1, participants with DS were as accurate as TD participants when judging emotions from static or dynamic expression stimuli and from facial or contextual cues. In Study 2, participants with DS and TD participants showed similar cross-sectional developmental trajectories of emotion knowledge across mental age. This project highlights the importance of measure selection when examining emotion knowledge in samples with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

  2. Physiologic artifacts in resting state oscillations in young children: methodological considerations for noisy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Kevin; Hasenstab, Kyle; Senturk, Damla; Sanders, Andrew; Jeste, Shafali S

    2015-03-01

    We quantified the potential effects of physiologic artifact on the estimation of EEG band power in a cohort of typically developing children in order to guide artifact rejection methods in quantitative EEG data analysis in developmental populations. High density EEG was recorded for 2 min while children, ages 2-6, watched a video of bubbles. Segments of data were categorized as blinks, saccades, EMG or artifact-free, and both absolute and relative power in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (35-45 Hz) bands were calculated in 9 regions for each category. Using a linear mixed model approach with artifact type, region and their interaction as predictors, we compared mean band power between clean data and each type of artifact. We found significant differences in mean relative and absolute power between artifacts and artifact-free segments in all frequency bands. The magnitude and direction of the differences varied based on power type, region, and frequency band. The most significant differences in mean band power were found in the gamma band for EMG artifact and the theta band for ocular artifacts. Artifact detection strategies need to be sensitive to the oscillations of interest for a given analysis, with the most conservative approach being the removal of all EMG and ocular artifact from EEG data. Quantitative EEG holds considerable promise as a clinical biomarker of both typical and atypical development. However, there needs to be transparency in the choice of power type, regions of interest, and frequency band, as each of these variables are differentially vulnerable to noise, and therefore, their interpretation depends on the methods used to identify and remove artifacts.

  3. Safety of children in cars: A review of biomechanical aspects and human body models

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    Karin Brolin

    2015-03-01

    To study how children interact with restraints during on-road driving and during pre- and in-crash events, numerical child models implementing age-specific anthropometric features will be essential. The review of human whole body models covers multi body models (age 1.5 to 15 years and finite element models (ages 3, 6, and 10 years. All reviewed child models are developed for crash scenarios. The only finite element models to implement age dependent anthropometry details for the spine and pelvis were a 3 year-old model and an upcoming 10 year-old model. One ongoing project is implementing active muscles response in a 6 year-old multi body model to study pre-crash scenarios. These active models are suitable for the next important step in providing the automotive industry with adequate tools for development and assessment of future restraint systems in the full sequence of events from pre- to in-crash.

  4. IMPROVING PSYCHOMOTRICITY COMPONENTS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN USING TEACHING METHODOLOGIES BASED ON MIRROR NEURONS ACTIVATION

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    Gáll Zs. Sz.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The scientific substrate of the study relies upon the concept of mirror neurons. Unlike other neurons, these are characterized by an imitation feature. They play an important role in learning processes – especially during childhood, enabling the imitation of motions and determining the primary acquirement thereof. Using this as a starting point, the study aims to work out and apply a methodology in keeping with the content of the psychomotor expression activities curriculum for preschool education, resorting to the demonstration procedures as a main teaching-learning method. Thus, we deem that mirror neurons reactivity will be determined more thoroughly, with a view to enhance the subject's psychomotor development according to body scheme, self-image and performance of basic postures and motions. For the research progress, an experimental group and a control group has been set up and the children’s psychomotor development level has been assessed both before the application of the independent variable and after the effects of the same upon the experimental group. As soon as the planned procedure was completed, the experimental group members showed a significant evolution in terms of the investigated psychomotor fields as compared to the control group.

  5. Overlapping and disease specific aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Rydkjær, Jacob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    Objectives: To identify disease specific and overlapping aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders or ADHD. Methods: Motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task), reflection impulsivity (Information Sampling Task), and trait impulsivity (Barratt...... Impulsiveness Scale) are compared between three groups of children and adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age: patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N=29), patients with ADHD (N=29), and healthy controls (N=45). Results: Preliminary results: Reflection impulsivity is significantly...

  6. THE AGILE METHODOLOGY

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    Charul Deewan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technologies are numerous and Software is the one whichis most widely used. Some companies have their owncustomized methodology for developing their software but themajority speaks about two kinds of methodologies: Traditionaland Agile methodologies. In this paper, we will discuss someof the aspects of what Agile methodology is, how it can beused to get the best result from a project, how do we get it towork in an organization.

  7. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed.

  8. The methodological bases of comparative evaluation of sci¬entific and technological potential of Russia and the EU: regional and international aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshenko Ksenya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses approaches to the definition of such categories as “scientific and technological potential” and “innovative potential” in view of their resource, structural, procedural and resultant components. The author gives a more accurate definition of the scientific and technological potential through identifying its resources and orientation towards transforming abilities. On the basis of the existing methods of comparative analysis used in Russia and abroad, the author proposes a methodology for evaluating scientific and technological potential in the context of regional and international comparison. The integral index is calculated on the basis of a customised information and statistical database of normalised indicators through the identification and convolution of subindices that characterise individual components of potential. These subindices include pecific indicators applied in different statistical systems, in particular, those used in Russia and the EU, which made it possible to compar the data. The article presents the result of the application of this methodology based on a comparative evaluation of the scientific and technological potential of Russia (Northwestern federal district and EU states of the Baltic region. The experimental check suggests that the methodology be further improved for future clustering of Russian and EU regions according to the level of their innovative development.

  9. Global trends in the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents : a systematic review and evaluation of methodological approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, S; van der Aa, M P; van der Vorst, M M J; Knibbe, C A J; de Boer, A

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to systematically review what has been reported on the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, to scrutinise the methodological issues observed in the included studies and to prepare recommendations for future research and surveillan

  10. Tolerability of a fully maturated cheese in cow's milk allergic children: biochemical, immunochemical, and clinical aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From patients' reports and our preliminary observations, a fully maturated cheese (Parmigiano-Reggiano; PR seems to be well tolerated by a subset of cow's milk (CM allergic patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To biochemically and immunologically characterize PR samples at different maturation stage and to verify PR tolerability in CM allergic children. Seventy patients, with suspected CM allergy, were enrolled. IgE to CM, α-lactalbumin (ALA, β-lactoglobulin (BLG and caseins (CAS were tested using ImmunoCAP, ISAC103 and skin prick test. Patients underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with CM, and an open food challenge with 36 months-maturated PR. Extracts obtained from PR samples were biochemically analyzed in order to determine protein and peptide contents. Pepsin and trypsin-chymotrypsin-pepsin simulated digestions were applied to PR extracts. Each PR extract was investigated by IgE Single Point Highest Inhibition Achievable assay (SPHIAa. The efficiency analysis was carried out using CM and PR oral challenges as gold standards. RESULTS: The IgE binding to milk allergens was 100% inhibited by almost all PR preparations; the only difference was for CAS, mainly α(S1-CAS. Sixteen patients sensitized to CM tolerated both CM and PR; 29 patients tolerated PR only; 21 patients, reacted to both CM and PR, whereas 4 patients reactive to CM refused to ingest PR. ROC analysis showed that the absence of IgE to BLG measured by ISAC could be a good marker of PR tolerance. The SPHIAa using digested PR preparations showed a marked effect on IgE binding to CAS and almost none on ALA and BLG. CONCLUSIONS: 58% of patients clinically reactive to CM tolerated fully maturated PR. The preliminary digestion of CAS induced by PR maturation process, facilitating a further loss of allergenic reactivity during gut digestion, might explain the tolerance. This hypothesis seems to work when no IgE sensitization to ISAC BLG is detected.

  11. Methodological aspects of the operational reliability of the equipment of oil production. Information component of the methodology and formulation of the problem by the construction of an information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Antoniadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for determining the reliability of the factors of oil production equipment, a study of reliability characteristics of the system "well - setting electric centrifugal pumps", shows the factors of reliability in terms of production complications. The preliminary generalizations on the classification of oil drilling equipment reliability factors leading to such practically relevant provisions of durability, forecasting and optimization of accident repairs. The principles of classification of the factors of reliability of equipment in the aspect of the efficiency of oil production

  12. A Multi-Methodological MR Resting State Network Analysis to Assess the Changes in Brain Physiology of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Celis Alonso, Benito; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; García Flores, Julio; de Celis Carrillo, Benito; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to highlight the neurological differences between the MR resting state networks of a group of children with ADHD (pre-treatment) and an age-matched healthy group. Results were obtained using different image analysis techniques. A sample of n = 46 children with ages between 6 and 12 years were included in this study (23 per cohort). Resting state image analysis was performed using ReHo, ALFF and ICA techniques. ReHo and ICA represent connectivity analyses calculated with different mathematical approaches. ALFF represents an indirect measurement of brain activity. The ReHo and ICA analyses suggested differences between the two groups, while the ALFF analysis did not. The ReHo and ALFF analyses presented differences with respect to the results previously reported in the literature. ICA analysis showed that the same resting state networks that appear in healthy volunteers of adult age were obtained for both groups. In contrast, these networks were not identical when comparing the healthy and ADHD groups. These differences affected areas for all the networks except the Right Memory Function network. All techniques employed in this study were used to monitor different cerebral regions which participate in the phenomenological characterization of ADHD patients when compared to healthy controls. Results from our three analyses indicated that the cerebellum and mid-frontal lobe bilaterally for ReHo, the executive function regions in ICA, and the precuneus, cuneus and the clacarine fissure for ALFF, were the “hubs” in which the main inter-group differences were found. These results do not just help to explain the physiology underlying the disorder but open the door to future uses of these methodologies to monitor and evaluate patients with ADHD. PMID:24945408

  13. Development and results of a new methodology to perform focus group with preschool children on their beliefs and attitudes on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisa, Maria; Montrone, Rosa; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test a method to perform focus groups (FGs) and to elicit the subjective views of preschool-age children on physical activity and perceived kindergarten barriers to practice it. FGs have been held in three different kindergarten classes with 49 children who were 4-5 years old. Children were asked to draw themselves in their preferred way of playing and were asked few questions about their drawings to understand their behaviours and ideas. In class A and B, 67% and 75% of the children, respectively, drew sedentary plays (table and impersonation games). Children referred that the main obstacle to perform active games outside home/kindergarten was the parents' and teachers' perceived risk that they could be hurt or catch a cold. The children would like to have more table games in the kindergarten. 81% of children in class C drew active group games. All these children were well satisfied with their kindergarten environment and did not refer to any adults' fear regarding active play. This class teacher spent a lot of time to develop children's motor abilities through active games and often used the garden to let the children to play freely. The use of drawings to understand children's habits on physical activity has turned out to be a reliable and easy tool in preschool children. The different results obtained in the two children groups show the need to change the beliefs and the behaviours of teachers and parents who seem to be non-architectural "invisible" barriers to be knocked down. This protocol has been developed by ASL Brindisi within the framework of PERISCOPE's objective to develop new methodologies.

  14. Recommendations for the organization of mental health services for children and adolescents in Belgium: use of the soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroeck, Philippe; Dechenne, Rachel; Becher, Kim; Eyssen, Marijke; Van den Heede, Koen

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents in Western countries is high. Belgium, like many other Western countries, struggles with the set-up of a coherent and effective strategy for dealing with this complex societal problem. This paper describes the development of a policy scenario for the organization of child and adolescent mental health care services (CAMHS) in Belgium. The development process relied on Soft Systems Methodology including a participatory process with 66 stakeholders and a review of the existing (inter-)national evidence. A diagnostic analysis illustrated that the Belgian CAMHS is a system in serious trouble characterized by fragmentation and compartmentalization. A set of 10 strategic recommendations was formulated to lay down the contours of a future, more effective CAMHS system. They focus on mastering the demands made on scarce and expensive specialized mental health services; strengthening the range of services - in particular for those with serious, complex and multiple mental health problems - and strengthening the adaptive capacity of and the ethical guidance within the future CAMHS system.

  15. Endocrine problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: special review on associated genetic aspects and early growth hormone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a complex multisystem genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. The main clinical features include neonatal hypotonia, distinctive facial features, overall developmental delay, and poor growth in infancy, followed by overeating with severe obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism later in development. This paper reviews recent updates regarding the genetic aspects of this disorder. Three mechanisms (paternal deletion, maternal disomy, and deficient imprinting are recognized. Maternal disomy can arise because of 4 possible mechanisms: trisomy rescue (TR, gamete complementation (GC, monosomy rescue (MR, and postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (Mit. Recently, TR/GC caused by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 has been identified increasingly, as a result of advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea. We verified that the d3 allele increases the responsiveness of the growth hormone (GH receptor to endogenous GH. This paper also provides an overview of endocrine dysfunctions in children with PWS, including GH deficiency, obesity, sexual development, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency, as well as the effects of GH treatment. GH treatment coupled with a strictly controlled diet during early childhood may help to reduce obesity, improve neurodevelopment, and increase muscle mass. A more active approach to correct these hormone deficiencies would benefit patients with PWS.

  16. Comparison between Clinical Aspects and Salivary Microbial Profile of Children with and without Early Childhood Caries: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, A B; Lobo, L A; Pinto, K C; Pires, E S; Requejo, Mep; Maia, L C; Antonio, A G

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical aspects and microbial profile of children with and without early childhood caries (ECC). 14 patients (7 without caries and 7 with ECC) were submitted to anamnesis, clinical exam and saliva collection for microbiological analyses. Counts of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus spp. Candida spp., and total microorganisms were performed by culture methods. Microbial diversity was characterized by PCR-DGGE. Demographic/clinical data and salivary microbial counts were compared between groups. Habits of hygiene and breastfeeding presented no association with ECC. Use of pacifiers was associated with absence of caries (p=0.035). Counts of total microorganisms and Candida spp. did not differ between the groups. The ECC group presented larger quantity of S. mutans (p=0.026) and Lactobacillus spp. (p=0.002). There was no correlation between microorganisms and breastfeeding and pacifier use. The dmf-t of ECC Group was 10.5 ± 1.9 and the modified dmf-t was 11.3 ± 3.6. The DGGE demonstrated difference in the pattern of bands between the groups. Pacifiers usage was associated with the absence of ECC and microorganism number was higher in the caries group. The PCR-DGGE revealed a characteristic microbial diversity in the ECC Group, being an excellent tool for observing the dynamics of the salivary microbial community in these patients.

  17. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis on How Methodological Quality May Influence Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie; Keller, Amélie; Laure Depeyre, Jocelyne; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-04-01

    In the context of a worldwide high prevalence of childhood obesity, the role of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a cause of excess weight gain remains controversial. Conflicting results may be due to methodological issues in original studies and in reviews. The aim of this review was to systematically analyze the methodology of studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents, and the studies' ability to answer this research question. A systematic review of cohort and experimental studies published until December 2013 in peer-reviewed journals was performed on Medline, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents were included, and methodological quality to answer this question was assessed independently by two investigators using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist. Among the 32 identified studies, nine had positive quality ratings and 23 studies had at least one major methodological issue. Main methodological issues included SSB definition and inadequate measurement of exposure. Studies with positive quality ratings found an association between SSB consumption and risk of obesity or obesity (n=5) (ie, when SSB consumption increased so did obesity) or mixed results (n=4). Studies with a neutral quality rating found a positive association (n=7), mixed results (n=9), or no association (n=7). The present review shows that the majority of studies with strong methodology indicated a positive association between SSB consumption and risk of obesity or obesity, especially among overweight children. In addition, study findings highlight the need for the careful and precise measurement of the consumption of SSBs and of important confounders. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapała, Szymon; Adamski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis. PMID:26325062

  19. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapała, Szymon; Adamski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  20. A new condition specific quality of life measure for the blind and the partially sighted in Sub-Saharan Africa, the IOTAQOL: methodological aspects of the development procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leplège, Alain; Schemann, Jean François; Diakité, Bah; Touré, Ousmane; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Jaffré, Yannick; Dumestre, Gérard

    2006-10-01

    In Mali, blind and partially sighted people represent 1.2% of the population. Good quality and low cost ophthalmologic care is available, but, unfortunately, is insufficiently taken advantage of. In order to contribute to the analysis of this situation a valid and reliable questionnaire was needed to take the patient's perspective into account. Because of face validity concerns, it was not possible to merely translate an existing questionnaire. Thus we decided to develop a new questionnaire directly in one of the main languages of Mali: Bambara. This involved the setting of a study team composed of social and health science specialists, the majority of whom were native Bambara speakers. The overall project consisted in the iteration of three main steps (1) Conceptual clarification and operationalization of this concept. (2) Qualitative steps: qualitative interviews, focus groups and content analysis. (3) Quantitative steps: statistical analysis of an initial try-out survey (143 participants) and a validation survey (420 participants). This approach yields satisfying results. Indeed, the final version of the IOTAQOL has good psychometric properties. Thus, this interviewer administered instrument can be used to measure health-related quality-of-life in Mali and the methodology that we used could serve as a basis for similar projects.

  1. Portal hypertension in children: expert pediatric opinion on the report of the Baveno v Consensus Workshop on Methodology of Diagnosis and Therapy in Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Benjamin L; Bosch, Jaime; de Franchis, Roberto; Emre, Sukru H; Groszmann, Roberto J; Ling, Simon C; Lorenz, Jonathan M; Squires, Robert H; Superina, Riccardo A; Thompson, Ann E; Mazariegos, George V

    2012-08-01

    Complications of portal hypertension in children lead to significant morbidity and are a leading indication for consideration of liver transplantation. Approaches to the management of sequelae of portal hypertension are well described for adults and evidence-based approaches have been summarized in numerous meta-analyses and conferences. In contrast, there is a paucity of data to guide the management of complications of portal hypertension in children. An international panel of experts was convened on April 8, 2011 at The Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC to review and adapt the recent report of the Baveno V Consensus Workshop on the Methodology of Diagnosis and Therapy in Portal Hypertension to the care of children. The opinions of that expert panel are reported.

  2. Influence of Software Tool and Methodological Aspects of Total Metabolic Tumor Volume Calculation on Baseline [18F]FDG PET to Predict Survival in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Kanoun

    Full Text Available To investigate the respective influence of software tool and total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV0 calculation method on prognostic stratification of baseline 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL.59 patients with newly diagnosed HL were retrospectively included. [18F]FDG-PET was performed before any treatment. Four sets of TMTV0 were calculated with Beth Israel (BI software: based on an absolute threshold selecting voxel with standardized uptake value (SUV >2.5 (TMTV02.5, applying a per-lesion threshold of 41% of the SUV max (TMTV041 and using a per-patient adapted threshold based on SUV max of the liver (>125% and >140% of SUV max of the liver background; TMTV0125 and TMTV0140. TMTV041 was also determined with commercial software for comparison of software tools. ROC curves were used to determine the optimal threshold for each TMTV0 to predict treatment failure.Median follow-up was 39 months. There was an excellent correlation between TMTV041 determined with BI and with the commercial software (r = 0.96, p<0.0001. The median TMTV0 value for TMTV041, TMTV02.5, TMTV0125 and TMTV0140 were respectively 160 (used as reference, 210 ([28;154] p = 0.005, 183 ([-4;114] p = 0.06 and 143 ml ([-58;64] p = 0.9. The respective optimal TMTV0 threshold and area under curve (AUC for prediction of progression free survival (PFS were respectively: 313 ml and 0.70, 432 ml and 0.68, 450 ml and 0.68, 330 ml and 0.68. There was no significant difference between ROC curves. High TMTV0 value was predictive of poor PFS in all methodologies: 4-years PFS was 83% vs 42% (p = 0.006 for TMTV02.5, 83% vs 41% (p = 0.003 for TMTV041, 85% vs 40% (p<0.001 for TMTV0125 and 83% vs 42% (p = 0.004 for TMTV0140.In newly diagnosed HL, baseline metabolic tumor volume values were significantly influenced by the choice of the method used for determination of volume. However, no significant differences were found

  3. Methodology for determining whether an increase in a state's child poverty rate is the result of the TANF program--Administration for Children and Families, HHS. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-23

    The Administration for Children and Families is proposing a methodology to determine the child poverty rate in each State. If a State experiences an increase in its child poverty rate of 5 percent or more as a result of its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, the State must submit and implement a corrective action plan. This requirement is a part of the new welfare reform block grant program enacted in 1996.

  4. Methodological Approaches for Estimating Gross Regional Product after Taking into Account Depletion of Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution and Human Capital Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A key indicator of the System of National Accounts of Russia at a regional scale is Gross Regional Product characterizing the value of goods and services produced in all sectors of the economy in a country and intended for final consumption, capital formation and net exports (excluding imports. From a sustainability perspective, the most weakness of GRP is that it ignores depreciation of man-made assets, natural resource depletion, environmental pollution and degradation, and potential social costs such as poorer health due to exposure to occupational hazards. Several types of alternative approaches to measuring socio-economic progress are considering for six administrative units of the Ural Federal District for the period 2006–2014. Proposed alternatives to GRP as a measure of social progress are focused on natural resource depletion, environmental externalities and some human development aspects. The most promising is the use of corrected macroeconomic indicators similar to the “genuine savings” compiled by the World Bank. Genuine savings are defined in this paper as net savings (net gross savings minus consumption of fixed capital minus the consumption of natural non-renewable resources and the monetary evaluations of damages resulting from air pollution, water pollution and waste disposal. Two main groups of non renewable resources are considered: energy resources (uranium ore, oil and natural gas and mineral resources (iron ore, copper, and aluminum. In spite of various shortcomings, this indicator represents a considerable improvement over GRP information. For example, while GRP demonstrates steady growth between 2006 and 2014 for the main Russian oil- and gas-producing regions — Hanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, genuine savings for these regions decreased over all period. It means that their resource-based economy could not be considered as being on a sustainable path even in the framework of

  5. Cultural aspects in family care for children with malnutrition/ Aspectos culturais no cuidado familiar a crianca com desnutricao

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frota, Mirna Albuquerque; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; de Albuquerque, Conceicao de Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the cultural factor that interferes with the care of undernourished children and to propose actions of Popular Health Education in the assistance of undernourished children...

  6. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability.

  7. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    micromorphological level. Layer 1 included mineral, bone, plant and soil-like fragments, with leaf and woody tissue, including vascular parts and seeds. Layer 9 included plant tissue, hair, seeds and some fly puparia. Comments Layering of the burial matrix in the Yemeni burials was unexpected and the burial matrix in one case was very clearly not the result of natural soil forming processes within the rock crevice. In Burial Site A the hard upper capping contained uric acid-rich deposits embedding organic tissue. This sample could possibly represent an intentional ‘plaster layer' including plant, hair and seed fragments. The abundant cholesterol confirms an animal/human origin within the matrix of Layers 10 and 22, and the stanol and bile acid distributions unequivocally confirm a human origin, despite the lack of any physical human remains. Microprobe analysis indicated that the hard cup of Burial 1 contained K, Si, Al, Cu, Mg, S, Fe and Na with amounts fluctuating relatively to depth. No special significance can be placed on the differences. This study calls attention to a neglected aspect of burial archaeology: grave infillings can no longer be assumed to be simply the return of material removed for the burial, but may be influenced by other factors. Through micromorphology, decomposed wood, shroud or other textiles or skins and hair can be detected and, if local rituals influenced the way materials were returned into the grave, then this also deserves investigation. A new ERC-funded project (Title: "Interred with their bones", acronym: "InterArChive") tackles these issues (please see separate poster). Acknowledgments We thank Allan Hall, Brendan Keely, Trevor Dransfield, Andrea Vacca and Cagliari University

  8. Estudo Pró-Saúde: características gerais e aspectos metodológicos The Pro-Saude Study: general characteristics and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Faerstein

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, relatamos as motivações e características do Estudo Pró-Saúde enfatizando aspectos temáticos e metodológicos. Estudos longitudinais de populações "saudáveis" em idade laboral nas grandes metrópoles brasileiras são ainda escassos. Nessas metrópoles, a vida contemporânea pode modificar características de várias exposições e possivelmente seus efeitos; por outro lado, as condições vigentes de vida e trabalho de seus habitantes impõem dificuldades especiais à condução de estudos de coorte, com previsão de longo período de acompanhamento, em amostras da população geral. Populações de funcionários públicos apresentam patamar de escolaridade que permite a utilização de métodos eficientes de coleta de dados (por exemplo, autopreenchimento de questionários, heterogeneidade socioeconômica, e estabilidade do vínculo de trabalho que facilita o seguimento. Serão acompanhados 3.253 funcionários de uma universidade pública no Rio de Janeiro, que participaram da coleta de dados de base (fases 1 e 2, 1999-2001. Foram aplicados questionários autopreenchíveis e aferidos peso, altura, circunferência da cintura e pressão arterial. O estudo tem como foco principal a investigação de determinantes sociais da saúde. São detalhadamente investigados marcadores de posição socioeconômica, raça/etnia, religião, história conjugal e de migração. Enfatiza-se a aferição de indicadores relativos, como desigualdade e trajetórias sociais, e efeitos contextuais das áreas de residência e setores de trabalho. Finalmente, busca-se abordar temas ainda pouco explorados em nosso meio, como rede e apoio social, estresse no trabalho e experiência de discriminação.In his paper, we report the motivations and characteristics of the Pro-Saude Study with emphasis on its scope and methods. Longitudinal studies of "healthy" populations of working age in Brazilian large cities are still scarse. In these settings, aspects

  9. An Innovative Methodology for Capturing Young Children's Curiosity, Imagination and Voices Using a Free App: Our Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie; Payler, Jane; Horsley, Karen; Gomez, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study explores children's narratives of their curiosity and imagination through innovative use of an information technology app--Our Story. Novel use of the app allowed children to express and record their opinions they considered significant to them. The research captured children's approaches to everyday situations through their play.…

  10. Value of Children in Urban and Rural Indonesia : Socio-Demographic Indicators, Cultural Aspects, and Empirical Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Isabelle; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Mayer, Boris; Schwarz, Beate

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to present the initial findings of the Indonesian sample of the interdisciplinary cross-cultural project "Value of Children and intergenerational Relations" (Nauck & Trommsdorff, 2001; Trommsdorff & Nauck, 2001). This study as a whole has the aim to examine the importance of value of children for parentchild relations over the life-span in different cultures and is an extension and modification of the original "Value of Children (VOC)" study of the 1970s which mainl...

  11. ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN — MODERN CLINICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF DISEASES AND APPROACH TO THE TOPICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Toropova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis in children is widespread disease and difficult medical and social problem. The article presents a literature data and authors’ own experience on scientific studies and treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis during 50 years. The analysis of pathogenesis and treatment of children with atopic dermatitis was performed, and data on safety of modern medications for topical use, containing glucocorticoids, in children from early age were presented in this article.Key words: children, atopic dermatitis, perinatal pathology, serum IgE, external treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(5:98-105

  12. Structural and Functional Aspects of Social Support for Mothers of Children with and without Cognitive Delays in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Glidden, Laraine M.; Shin, Jin Y.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study reports development of a social support scale appropriate to the Vietnamese culture and the impact of social support on mothers of children with cognitive delays by using the developing scale. Method: Interview surveys were conducted with 225 mothers of children with and without cognitive delays in Vietnam. The structural…

  13. The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the treatment of social and behavioral aspects of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortimer R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Mortimer, Melinda Privopoulos, Saravana Kumar International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are increasing in prevalence. Children with ASDs present with impairments in social interactions; communication; restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, or activities; as well as motor delays. Hydrotherapy is used as a treatment for children with disabilities and motor delays. There have been no systematic reviews conducted on the effectiveness of hydrotherapy in children with ASDs. Aim: We aimed to examine the effectiveness of hydrotherapy on social interactions and behaviors in the treatment of children with ASDs. Methods: A systematic search of Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, MEDLINE®, and Academic Search Premier was conducted. Studies of participants, aged 3–18 years, with ASDs at a high-functioning level were included if they utilized outcome measures assessing social interactions and behaviors through questionnaire or observation. A critical appraisal, using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies, was performed to assess methodological quality. Results: Four studies of varying research design and quality met the inclusion criteria. The participants in these studies were aged between 3–12 years of age. The duration of the intervention ranged from 10–14 weeks, and each study used varied measures of outcome. Overall, all the studies showed some improvements in social interactions or behaviors following a Halliwick-based hydrotherapy intervention. Interpretation: Few studies have investigated the effect of hydrotherapy on the social interactions and behaviors of children with ASDs. While there is an increasing body of evidence for hydrotherapy for children with ASDs, this is constrained by small sample size, lack of comparator, crude sampling methods, and

  14. The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the treatment of social and behavioral aspects of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Rachel; Privopoulos, Melinda; Kumar, Saravana

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are increasing in prevalence. Children with ASDs present with impairments in social interactions; communication; restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, or activities; as well as motor delays. Hydrotherapy is used as a treatment for children with disabilities and motor delays. There have been no systematic reviews conducted on the effectiveness of hydrotherapy in children with ASDs. Aim We aimed to examine the effectiveness of hydrotherapy on social interactions and behaviors in the treatment of children with ASDs. Methods A systematic search of Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, MEDLINE®, and Academic Search Premier was conducted. Studies of participants, aged 3–18 years, with ASDs at a high-functioning level were included if they utilized outcome measures assessing social interactions and behaviors through questionnaire or observation. A critical appraisal, using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies, was performed to assess methodological quality. Results Four studies of varying research design and quality met the inclusion criteria. The participants in these studies were aged between 3–12 years of age. The duration of the intervention ranged from 10–14 weeks, and each study used varied measures of outcome. Overall, all the studies showed some improvements in social interactions or behaviors following a Halliwick-based hydrotherapy intervention. Interpretation Few studies have investigated the effect of hydrotherapy on the social interactions and behaviors of children with ASDs. While there is an increasing body of evidence for hydrotherapy for children with ASDs, this is constrained by small sample size, lack of comparator, crude sampling methods, and the lack of standardized outcome measures. Hydrotherapy shows potential as a treatment method for social interactions and behaviors in children with ASDs. PMID:24520196

  15. Aspects of activities and participation of 7-8 year-old children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaargaren, Els; Ahmed, Jasmyn; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen

    2011-07-01

    Children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) can experience problems in the performance of meaningful activities such as writing, bimanual activities, and participation in sports and leisure activities. To quantify the everyday functioning and participation of 7-8 year-old children with an OBPI, with special emphasis on writing, and to investigate associated characteristics. Parents of children with an OBPI were sent a self-report questionnaire regarding the school performance, writing abilities, bimanual hand use, and participation in sports and leisure activities of their child, assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS sub-scale writing), the ABILHAND-kids, and the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Furthermore, questions were asked about socio-demographic variables, medical history, pain, and the use of assistive devices. Fifty three questionnaires were filled in (response 61%). According to the parents, 66% of their children were almost completely recovered, and 58% had a near normal arm function. Most of the children preferred to use their non-involved hand. More than 45% of the children complained about pain, and 39.6% had difficulties with writing, which resulted in a mean developmental delay of 8 months on the VABS sub-scale. Children with writing problems significantly more often had neurosurgery, were living with a single parent, more often received assistance at school, and had a significantly lower ABILHAND-kids score, compared to children with no writing problems. Large percentages of 7-8 year-old children with an OBPI experience difficulties with writing and have musculoskeletal pain. Restrictions in participation were less pronounced. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Language development of bilingual children; The acquisition of tense and aspect in an Italian-Indonesian child: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Soriente

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of temporal expressions in a bilingual child acquiring two typologically distinct languages: Italian and Indonesian.  These languages differ from one another in the way tense and aspect are encoded and it is interesting to observe what kind of cross-linguistic influence one language system has on the other. Italian verbs are heavily inflected for person, number as well as for tense, aspect and mood, whereas, in Indonesian, the encoding of tense and aspect is lexical rather than morphological; moreover encoding is optional when the context is sufficiently clear. This means that tense and aspect in Indonesian is often marked pragmatically rather than grammatically. This paper considers the interference effects that result from simultaneously acquiring these two typologically distinct systems.

  17. THE RETIREMENT SYSTEM. FISCAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in most countries, but particularly in European and in the more developed world, heated discussions about reforming the current pension system. To address adequately the taxation of pension incomes in our country is very important to know and how this issue is regulated in different countries, but especially the European ones in the developed world. In terms of taxation of pensions, European countries are divided into three groups: 1. European countries where pension income is not taxed: Bulgaria, Slovakia and Lithuania. 2. European countries where pension income is subject to progressive taxation: Belgium, Cyprus, Greece, Finland, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, United Kingdom, Norway (not EU member, the Netherlands and Spain. 3. European countries where pension income is taxed based flat: Austria, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia and Hungary.

  18. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF QUANTITATIVE RECEPTOR ASSAYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMISTEROVA, J; ENSING, K; DEZEEUW, RA

    1994-01-01

    Receptor assays occupy a particular position in the methods used in bioanalysis, as they do not exploit the physico-chemical properties of the analyte. These assays make use of the property of the analyte to bind to the specific binding site (receptor) and to competitively replace a labelled ligand

  19. Analysis of Corporate Environmental Management: Methodological Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2001-01-01

    in business presents a challenge to management, however, since it implies a fundamental change in some of the ways of operating a company. This paper will briefly discuss how information on the actual extent of environmental management in Danish companies and the way it is applied has been collected based......Human activities cannot avoid influencing conditions in the natural environment one way or the other. This includes as well common activities in the business sector. But during the past few decades, environmental disasters in Seveso and Bhopal, and the Exxon Valdes oil spill in Alaska have...... contributed to an increasing awareness of the effect of business activities on the physical environment. To assist companies reduce, evaluate, monitor and control their environmental impact the concept of corporate environmental and resource management has been developed. Implementation of this concept...

  20. Destination image, image at destination. Methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Díaz-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the part played by the image in the development of tourism, and, specially, as a diffe- rentiation element of a destination area is widely acknowledged. This is reflected to a great extent in the literature that focuses its interest on identifying the variables that motivate the purchase or stimulate the decision process. However, the reference to feedback processes or image control mechanisms as well as their creation, is surprising. An approach model to these processes will be exposed in this article.

  1. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  2. Methodological aspects of EPR dosimetry with teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, S.; Chumak, V. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is known today as one of the most reliable and accurate methods of retrospective dosimetry. In the present study a comprehensive analysis of influence of the major confounding factors (solar UV exposure and dental X-ray diagnostic procedures) on the accuracy of accidental dose reconstruction is given. In this analysis, the facts known from literature as well as own authors' results were considered. Among the latter it is worth to mention study of doses in enamel caused by X-ray diagnostic procedures as well as investigation of dose profiles in front teeth, which are most affected to solar radiation. As a main result, the variant of dosimetric technique is proposed. It comprises the optimal combination of strongest sides of existing techniques which allows to conduct routine reconstruction of accidental doses as low as few tens of mGy with errors of the same order of magnitude. The proposed technique is primarily destined for dosimetry of Chernobyl liquidators, but could be used for reconstruction of doses of other over-exposed categories. (orig.)

  3. Strategy of International Economic Cooperation: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Silvestru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  4. Cancer diagnosis by infrared spectroscopy: methodological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael; Kim, Keith; Tetteh, John; Mansfield, James R.; Dolenko, Brion; Somorjai, Raymond L.; Orr, F. W.; Watson, Peter H.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1998-04-01

    IR spectroscopy is proving to be a powerful tool for the study and diagnosis of cancer. The application of IR spectroscopy to the analysis of cultured tumor cells and grading of breast cancer sections is outlined. Potential sources of error in spectral interpretation due to variations in sample histology and artifacts associated with sample storage and preparation are discussed. The application of statistical techniques to assess differences between spectra and to non-subjectively classify spectra is demonstrated.

  5. SOME ASPECTS OF TEACHING MEDIA LITERACY TO PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLOVENIA FROM A PERCEPTION STANDPOINT OF TEACHERS AND PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with media literacy as a multidimensional skill that parents and teachers possess. In this context we warn of the media-technical aspect of this skill and, within this aspect, of parents’ and teachers’ opinion on the presence of media in children’s lives. Following that, the paper explores teachers’ media-didactic competence as a component of educators’ media literacy. In the empiric part we used two aspects of fostering media literacy. One is the media-technical competence of parents and educators, while the other is the media-didactic competence of educators. We found that both parents and teachers believe that media have a strong presence in everyday lives of pre-school children and that they play an important role in teaching pre-school children. Teachers are aware of the importance of early teaching with media, for media and about media with the purpose of developing children’s media literacy, so they will not be afraid of media when they grow up.

  6. Methodology for assessing exposure and impacts of air pollutants in school children: Data collection, analysis and health effects - A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Jaime F.; Choy, Samantha Low; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morawska, Lidia

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this review is to explore the methodologies employed to assess the exposure of children to air pollutants, in particular traffic emissions, at school, and how these methodologies influence the assessment of the impact of this exposure on the children's health. This involves four main steps: the measurement of air quality at school level, the association between measured air quality and children's exposure, the association between children's exposure and health; and source identification. The comparative advantages and disadvantages of the methods used at each of these steps are discussed. Air quality in schools can be measured at three scales: broad scale, across several city blocks using remote monitors; school-based scale, through ground-level monitors installed within the schools or their immediate surroundings (i.e. only a few metres outside the school); and personal exposure scale using portable monitors attached to a sample of children. Although studies have reported high exposure to PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), submicrometre (school, no study has investigated the formation of new particles in school facilities and only a handful of studies have analysed children's exposure at school. Associating air quality measurements at the broad and medium scale with children's exposure is challenging: there is spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of air quality within a school, indoor measurements can often exceed outdoor measurements; and exposure in the classroom is affected by the penetration of outdoor pollutants, wall absorption, emissions from furniture and other materials, level and length of occupancy, and quality of ventilation. This is further exacerbated by the fact that children move around during their school day. Quantifying the contribution of school exposure with observed health symptoms presents further challenges. In addition to ascertaining the impact of non-school-based exposures and co-morbidities, the air

  7. Body composition in Nepalese children using isotope dilution: the production of ethnic-specific calibration equations and an exploration of methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delan Devakumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Body composition is important as a marker of both current and future health. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA is a simple and accurate method for estimating body composition, but requires population-specific calibration equations.Objectives. (1 To generate population specific calibration equations to predict lean mass (LM from BIA in Nepalese children aged 7–9 years. (2 To explore methodological changes that may extend the range and improve accuracy.Methods. BIA measurements were obtained from 102 Nepalese children (52 girls using the Tanita BC-418. Isotope dilution with deuterium oxide was used to measure total body water and to estimate LM. Prediction equations for estimating LM from BIA data were developed using linear regression, and estimates were compared with those obtained from the Tanita system. We assessed the effects of flexing the arms of children to extend the range of coverage towards lower weights. We also estimated potential error if the number of children included in the study was reduced.Findings. Prediction equations were generated, incorporating height, impedance index, weight and sex as predictors (R2 93%. The Tanita system tended to under-estimate LM, with a mean error of 2.2%, but extending up to 25.8%. Flexing the arms to 90° increased the lower weight range, but produced a small error that was not significant when applied to children <16 kg (p 0.42. Reducing the number of children increased the error at the tails of the weight distribution.Conclusions. Population-specific isotope calibration of BIA for Nepalese children has high accuracy. Arm position is important and can be used to extend the range of low weight covered. Smaller samples reduce resource requirements, but leads to large errors at the tails of the weight distribution.

  8. The Camera Is Not a Methodology: Towards a Framework for Understanding Young Children's Use of Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jo; Colliver, Yeshe; Edwards, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research methods argue that young children should be enabled to contribute their perspectives on research seeking to understand their worldviews. Visual research methods, including the use of still and video cameras with young children have been viewed as particularly suited to this aim because cameras have been considered easy and…

  9. Working memory and referential communication – multimodal aspects of interaction between children with sensorineural hearing impairment and normal hearing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the language development of children with sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI has repeatedly been shown to differ from that of peers with normal hearing (NH, few studies have used an experimental approach to investigate the consequences on everyday communicative interaction. This mini review gives an overview of a range of studies on children with SNHI and NH exploring intra- and inter-individual cognitive and linguistic systems during communication.Over the last decade, our research group has studied the conversational strategies of Swedish speaking children and adolescents with SNHI and NH using referential communication, an experimental analogue to problem-solving in the classroom. We have established verbal and nonverbal control and validation mechanisms, related to working memory capacity (WMC and phonological short term memory (PSTM. We present main findings and future directions relevant for the field of cognitive hearing science and for the clinical and school-based management of children and adolescents with SNHI.

  10. [Children and adolescents in Germany with a migration background. Methodical aspects in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, L; Ellert, U; Neuhauser, H

    2007-01-01

    A migration-specific approach was used in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and thus it was possible for the first time to include children with a migration background in a nationwide health survey in Germany in a number corresponding to their percentage of the population. This article presents the migration-specific approach used in KiGGS as well as a definition of the term "migrant" and its operationalisation. In addition, we analyse the representativity of the migrant subsample and present data on its composition. Altogether 2,590 children and adolescents with a migration background (both parents) took part in the study; in the weighted sample they account for 17.1% of all children and adolescents. Another 8.3% of the children and adolescents have one parent with a migration background. The two largest groups among the migrant children are Germans from Russia (29.9%) and children and adolescents of Turkish origin (28.2%). There are differences between migrants and non-migrants related to socio-economic status and place of living (rural/urban and East/West). Analyses of the representativity of the migrant sample show that children and adolescents with a lower level of education are under-represented, whereas there were no differences with regard to sex, the fathers' occupation or the mothers' smoking status. Non-respondents rate their children's health better than respondents. Since the successful integration of children and adolescents with a migration background into the KiGGS study brings with it a sufficiently large number of cases and since KiGGS covers a wide range of health-related topics, comprehensive migration-specific analyses can be performed. Thus, KiGGS will contribute to filling some of the current gaps in our knowledge of migrant children's health.

  11. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....

  12. Intensive diabetes management and goal setting are key aspects of improving metabolic control in children and young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astha; Soni; Sze; May; Ng

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes control in children remains poor in spite of advances in treatment for last 10 years. The aim of this review was to look at various aspects of intensive therapy in the management of type 1 diabetes such as insulin regimes, role of target setting, psycho-educational approaches and self-management. To achieve good metabolic control, clear goal setting with adequate support for self-management are essential. Psycho-educational and behavioural interventions aimed at specific areas of management have shown significant improvement in quality of life and diabetes control.

  13. Methodology for research I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The conduct of research requires a systematic approach involving diligent planning and its execution as planned. It comprises various essential predefined components such as aims, population, conduct/technique, outcome and statistical considerations. These need to be objective, reliable and in a repeatable format. Hence, the understanding of the basic aspects of methodology is essential for any researcher. This is a narrative review and focuses on various aspects of the methodology for conduct of a clinical research. The relevant keywords were used for literature search from various databases and from bibliographies of the articles.

  14. Discussion on Daniel Libeskind’s exploration way from the aspect of research methodology%从研究方法的视角谈里伯斯金的探索之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces architecture Daniel Libeskind’s life experience and achievements,stars from the aspect of research methodology, analyzes how Libeskind consciously and unconsciously applies typology method,observation method and experimental method accomplishes vari-ous exploration,with a view to provide certain theoretical basis and concept for current architecture in building design.%简述了建筑师丹尼尔·里伯斯金的生平与成就,从研究方法的视角出发,详细分析了里伯斯金如何有意识或无意识地运用类型学、观察法以及实验法等方法完成不同项目的大胆探索过程,以期为当代建筑师进行建筑设计提供一定的理论依据与思维方向。

  15. Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) - Methodology of the follow-up of the children at the age of 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Król, Anna; Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Stelmach, Iwona

    2016-11-18

    Effects of environmental exposures in utero and in the first years of life on early life health and development is a growing research area with major public health implications. The main aim of this work has been to provide an overview of the next step of the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) covering exposure, health and neurodevelopment assessments of children at 7 years of age. Details regarding methodology of the follow-up of the children are crucial for cross-cohort collaboration and a full understanding of the future research questions. Phase III of the REPRO_PL cohort covers a follow-up of 900 children at the age of 7 years old. The questionnaire filled in by the mothers is composed of: socio-demographic, child exposure and home environment information, nutritional status and health data. In the case of 400 children, environmental (including collection of urine, saliva and buccal cells), health status and psychomotor assessments are performed. Health and development check consists of physical measurements, child health status assessment (including lung function tests, skin prick testing, an interview/examination by an allergist) and psychomotor development tests (the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Intelligence and Development Scales). The results of the study will become available within the next few years. Extension of the REPRO_PL cohort with examinations of children at the age of 7 years old may provide a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and lifestyle-related factors and children's health and neurodevelopment; and may further strengthen scientific base for policies and interventions promoting healthy lifestyle. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):883-893.

  16. Relationship between Gender and Vocabulary Teaching Methodology among Iranian EFL Children: A Comparison of TPR and Direct Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeini, Nazgol Nekoui; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The present study intended to examine the impact of methodology on EFL vocabulary learning of elementary school boys and girls. To achieve this end, 40 elementary female and male students aged 9-10 were selected from among 60 students studying at a language institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students were selected based on the results of an overall…

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL ASPECT OF WORKING WITH CHILDREN WITH SEVERE SPEECH DISORDERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Phanaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern science, including special education, is characterized by a change of paradigms. Special education system has undergone many changes came as a result of the need to give children not only knowledge in various fields, but also to prepare them for independent life in society. One of the priority directions of education of children with severe speech disorders is their social integration, as reflected in the basic regulatory documents. Speech disorder prevents the full communication, the formation of psychological and social readiness to live and work in a new environment, meet unusual and complex situations, moral stability, assimilation of social norms and values, development of social behavior. In the article the problem of development of children with severe speech disorders under conditions of inclusive education. This concept describes the types of abnormalities of speech development.

  18. ‘Place’ as conceptual centre: a methodological focus on the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age in kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hognestad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how attention on ‘place’ can be productive in methodology concerning the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age who are enrolled in kindergarten. While research that has adopted a hermeneutic and phenomenological approach has contributed to important knowledge concerning young children, we propose re-thinking methodology that takes children’s bodily relations, movements and expressions into concern. Using ‘place’ as a lens, we show how power relations are interrupted and allow for alternative ways for the researcher to relate to data. Inspired by Somerville (2010, elements of place are situated at the centre of the research analysis. The three key elements of place that are put to work are as follows: our relationship to place is constituted in stories and other representations; place learning is local and embodied; and place is a contact zone for cultural contact. The paper is part of a research project which explores how place can be more explicit in educational practices to strengthen kindergarten as a learning arena. We seek to explore how place relations work and what they have the possibility of producing in the analyzing process.

  19. SOME ASPECTS ON PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES FOR PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION OF CHILDREN WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT AT PRE SCHOOL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir RISTESKI

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Play as occupational activity till the period of enrolling at school has special importance for working i.e. professional orientation of children with hearing impairment. Having this in mind the basic objectives are: adaptation of these children in their social environment, grounding to lip reading and sign language, to learn how to play, participate and cooperate , to obey the rules of the game, to enrich the concepts and develop thoughts, to form the feeling of responsibility and overcoming the difficulties etc. In that way special materials and ways for activity i.e. game are stressed.

  20. Inclusive and Exclusive Aspects of Diagnosed Children's Self-Concepts in Special Needs Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovlund, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Eight children between 7 and 11 years of age were interviewed about their understanding of their own diagnoses. The diagnoses in question were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and nonverbal learning disorder. They were from different special schools that are segregated from state schools. In addition to the interviews, a role play…

  1. Nominal aspect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1991-01-01

    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recently......, at least in the sense in which it is used here (Rijkhoff 1989b, 1990a, 1990b). After a brief look at the more familiar verbal aspects, each of the nominal aspects is discussed in some detail. Then the relevance of nominal aspect will be considered in connection with (i) certain 'number markers' (which...... will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  2. Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL – Methodology of the follow-up of the children at the age of 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of environmental exposures in utero and in the first years of life on early life health and development is a growing research area with major public health implications. The main aim of this work has been to provide an overview of the next step of the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL covering exposure, health and neurodevelopment assessments of children at 7 years of age. Details regarding methodology of the follow-up of the children are crucial for cross-cohort collaboration and a full understanding of the future research questions. Phase III of the REPRO_PL cohort covers a follow-up of 900 children at the age of 7 years old. The questionnaire filled in by the mothers is composed of: socio-demographic, child exposure and home environment information, nutritional status and health data. In the case of 400 children, environmental (including collection of urine, saliva and buccal cells, health status and psychomotor assessments are performed. Health and development check consists of physical measurements, child health status assessment (including lung function tests, skin prick testing, an interview/examination by an allergist and psychomotor development tests (the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Intelligence and Development Scales. The results of the study will become available within the next few years. Extension of the REPRO_PL cohort with examinations of children at the age of 7 years old may provide a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and lifestyle-related factors and children’s health and neurodevelopment; and may further strengthen scientific base for policies and interventions promoting healthy lifestyle. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:883-893

  3. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, K; Bellissimo, N; Lawton, CL; Ford, NA; Rains, TM; Totosy de Zepetnek, J; Dye, L

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This re...

  4. Aspectos metodologicos de la medición en el sitio de ocurrencia de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Híjar-Medina

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes de trânsito de veículos a motor representam problema de saúde pública, em nível mundial. No México, a pesquisa, nesse campo, é limitada e a metodologia para seu estudo é pouco desenvolvida. Na literatura científica internacional são escassos os artigos que discutem os aspectos metodológicos de pesquisa nesse campo. Assim, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de apresentar alguns aspectos metodológicos úteis para os interessados em pesquisar lesões por acidentes de trânsito. Foram discutidos aspectos sobre como medir, no local de ocorrência, as variáveis básicas para o estudo dessas lesões, tais como: se o motorista sofreu ou não lesões, uso de cinto de segurança, velocidade e consumo de álcool.Los accidentes de tráfico de vehículos de motor, representan un problema de Salud Pública a nivel mundial. En México la investigación en este campo es limitada y la metodología para su estudio está poco desarrollada. Por otro lado, son relativamente escasos los artículos publicados en revistas científicas internacionales que abunden, en la discusión sobre aspectos metodológicos de la investigación. El objetivo del trabajo es el presentar algunas consideraciones metodológicas que pueden ser de utilidad para los investigadores interesados en el tema de las lesiones por accidentes de tráfico. Se discuten aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se miden en el sitio de ocurrencia algunas variables fundamentales para el estudio de las lesiones, como son: Si el conductor está o no lesionado, uso de cinturón de seguridad, velocidad y consumo de alcohol.Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recentlly been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary

  5. Polish mother and child cohort study (REPRO_PL)--methodology of follow-up of the children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Jurewicz, Joanna; Sobala, Wojciech; Madsen, Christian; Nafstad, Per; Magnus, Per

    2011-12-01

    A prospective cohort study design gives the opportunity for identification, update of different exposures and their verification by biomarker measurements. The aim of The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) is to evaluate the impact of exposure to different environmental factors during pregnancy and, after birth, on the pregnancy outcome, children's health and neurodevelopment. REPRO_PL cohort was established in 2007. From the cohort of 1300 mother-child pairs, 300 children are followed-up until they are two years old to asses the exposure, health status and neurodevelopment. Children are examined twice: at one and two years of age by a pediatrician and a psychologist/child development specialist. During each visit, detailed questionnaire is conducted with the mothers and supplemented with the information from the medical charts to have appropriate recognition of the child's health and development. Additionally, the current health status of the child is checked and his/her biometry is performed. A urine sample is collected from each child for the verification of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure. Some children have a blood sample collected for the assessment of the lead and cadmium levels. Child's neurodevelopment is assessed based on Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III). The results of the study will become available within the next few years and will help to determine the impact of the environmental exposures on children's health and neurodevelopment. REPRO_PL cohort is a middle-sized cohort, very much focused on specific research questions with the potential for future extension and cooperation.

  6. Controlled trials in children: quantity, methodological quality and descriptive characteristics of pediatric controlled trials published 1948-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Thomson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to describe randomized controlled trials (RCTs and controlled clinical trials (CCTs in child health published between 1948 and 2006, in terms of quantity, methodological quality, and publication and trial characteristics. We used the Trials Register of the Cochrane Child Health Field for overall trends and a sample from this to explore trial characteristics in more detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We extracted descriptive data on a random sample of 578 trials. Ninety-six percent of the trials were published in English; the percentage of child-only trials was 90.5%. The most frequent diagnostic categories were infectious diseases (13.2%, behavioural and psychiatric disorders (11.6%, neonatal critical care (11.4%, respiratory disorders (8.9%, non-critical neonatology (7.9%, and anaesthesia (6.5%. There were significantly fewer child-only studies (i.e., more mixed child and adult studies over time (P = 0.0460. The proportion of RCTs to CCTs increased significantly over time (P<0.0001, as did the proportion of multicentre trials (P = 0.002. Significant increases over time were found in methodological quality (Jadad score (P<0.0001, the proportion of double-blind studies (P<0.0001, and studies with adequate allocation concealment (P<0.0001. Additionally, we found an improvement in reporting over time: adequate description of withdrawals and losses to follow-up (P<0.0001, sample size calculations (P<0.0001, and intention-to-treat analysis (P<0.0001. However, many trials still do not describe their level of blinding, and allocation concealment was inadequately reported in the majority of studies across the entire time period. The proportion of studies with industry funding decreased slightly over time (P = 0.003, and these studies were more likely to report positive conclusions (P = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The quantity and quality of pediatric controlled trials has increased over time; however

  7. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years) are a...

  8. Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2009-05-01

    Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth.

  9. Effects of therapeutic horse riding on gait cycle parameters and some aspects of behavior of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H; Kertesz, Zs

    2015-09-01

    We studied effects of therapeutic riding on the development of children with autism. Experiments in walking is appropriate for assessing the coordination of movement and for following the changes. We found that therapeutic riding should be considered as a new form of rehabilitation. Twenty-six pupils (12 boys and 14 girls) of a special needs school participated in therapeutic riding. We analyzed walking twice during a school-term: full body analyses each time before and after one-month therapy. The research included a non-riding control group. All together 104 analyses were performed. We measured mental skills using Pedagogical Analysis and Curriculum (PAC) test consisting of four parts being communication, self care, motor skills and socialization. The Gait Cycle Analysis consists of the time-series analysis, the analysis of part of the gait cycle and the measurement of joint angles in each plane. We found significant differences between before and after the therapy in the length of the gait cycle that became more stable in the sagital plane and concluded that our results proved that horse therapy may be successfully used as an additional therapy for children with autism, and it may be a form of rehabilitation in cases when other therapies are not successful.

  10. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY ASPECTS OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS B ON THE BACKGROUND OF REFRACTORY ANEMIA OF INFLAMMATION IN CHILDREN OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Inoyatova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 children with chronic hepatitis B (ChHB with a refractory variant of anemia of inflammation (AV course were examined, the pathogenetic manifestation of which was the development of iron overload syndrome (IOS. It was revealed that against the background of an increase in the severity of the IOS, the incidence of progressive forms of the disease with persistent prevalence of asthenovegetative, hemorrhagic syndromes and severe hepatosplenomegaly increased. At the same time, the leading biochemical syndromes were the presence of cytolysis with prolonged hyperfermentemia, endotoxemia and mesenchymal inflammatory syndrome. A directly proportional dependence of the hepcidin-25 peptide level on the degree of expression of the IOS, the higher the presentation of the IOS, the higher the level of suppression of peptide expression in hepatocytes. Diagnostically significant tests of severe forms of IOS in ChHB in children are the presence of hemosiderin in the urine and an increase in the level of sIL-6R in the serum.  

  11. [Organizational aspect of medical care rendered to children with abnormal refraction under the conditions of school education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsova, O B; Golovanova, T P

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the case study was to investigate the efficiency of different-method treatment of children with abnormal refraction. One hundred and fifty children were examined and shared between 3 experimental and one control groups. Routine ophthalmic examination methods were made use of; they are: visometry, autorefractometry, ophthalmobiometry, determination of the scope of relative accommodation, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy; additional examinations, like rheoencephalography and consultation by neurologist, were also used. It was for the first time that the efficiency of infrared pneumomassage and of color-pulse therapy in the treatment of abnormal refraction was dynamically studied under the conditions of school education (vision correction rooms). The amplitude of relative accommodation increased in 71.6% of cases and the acuity of vision--in 78.8% of cases after the main treatment course; the refraction stabilized in 25-30% of cases. The results declined in 25-30% of cases after 3-4 months, therefore, treatment courses need to be repeated 3 times per year. Besides, positive results were obtained in the treatment of abnormal refraction by punctate massage of biologically active points, by general exercise and exercise for eyes as well as by massage of the collar zone and by medicamental therapy. Indications and contraindications were defined for the complex treatment of accommodation cramp and of abnormal refraction.

  12. METHODOLOGICAL WAY TO ENSURE SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AND CAREGIVERS IN THE PROCESS OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Grushina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For example, the CRD MUNICIPAL budget preschool educational institution – kinder-center “Baby” the results of realization of noospheric educational technologies adapted to the specifics of children’s age. The methodological possibilities of creative tasks, technology use computer environment, heuristic learning, music education, narrative learning. The analysis of the importance of ensuring the professional competence of teachers. The efficiency bioadequate methods of teaching in practical operation the OED. Through psycho-pedagogical monitoring of creative development of a preschool child a study of the effectiveness of the noosphere theory; generalized educational experience from the standpoint of using environmentally friendly means and methods in the system of training and education. 

  13. Aspiração de corpo estranho em crianças: aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e tratamento broncoscópico Foreign body aspiration in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and bronchoscopic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Melo Alexandre Fraga

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever manifestações clínicas e tratamento broncoscópico da aspiração de corpo estranho em crianças menores de 14 anos de idade, correlacionando com achados broncoscópicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo analisando prontuários de todas as crianças menores de 14 anos de idade atendidas no Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2005, submetidas à broncoscopia por suspeita clínica de aspiração de corpo estranho. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 69 pacientes, com idade entre 8 meses e 12 anos/7 meses (75,4% abaixo de 3 anos, dos quais 62,3% eram do sexo masculino. A principal queixa foi tosse súbita (75,4%. Em 74% dos casos houve alteração de ausculta pulmonar e dispnéia foi observada em 20 crianças (29%. Um total de 88% apresentou alteração radiológica. A aspiração ocorreu predominantemente em pulmão direito (54,8%, com material de origem vegetal, destacando feijão e amendoim (30,7%. Complicações ocorreram em 29% dos pacientes, sendo pneumonia a mais comum, e foram associadas ao tempo maior de aspiração (p = 0,03. Um total de 7 pacientes (10,1% necessitaram ventilação mecânica, e 5 (7,2% foram submetidos a mais de uma broncoscopia. CONCLUSÃO: História clínica com início súbito de engasgo e tosse, anormalidades na ausculta pulmonar e na radiografia de tórax caracterizam o quadro clínico de aspiração e são indicativas de broncoscopia. Quanto maior o tempo de aspiração, maior o risco de complicações. A alta prevalência de corpos estranhos de origem vegetal alerta para a necessidade de programas preventivos dirigidos aos menores de 3 anos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations and bronchoscopic treatment of foreign body aspiration in children under 14 years of age, correlating the clinical aspects with the bronchoscopic findings. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study analyzing data related to children under 14

  14. Language aspects of children infected with hiv Aspectos da linguagem em crianças infectadas pelo HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Barroso Guedes Granzotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to assess the lexical proficiency and the incidence of phonologic disorders in the language of children infected with HIV. METHOD: the study population consisted of 31 children between three and seven year-old. For evaluation purposes the Test of Infantile Language - ABFW was applied in the areas of phonology and vocabulary. RESULTS: the results obtained were analyzed according to the clinical criteria for the classification of the disease proposed by the CDC and regarding the immunological profile and the viral burden using the Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. In the vocabulary evaluation, 100% of the children presented an inappropriate response for their age in at least two distinct conceptual fields. In the phonologic evaluation, 67.7% of the assessed children were considered to be affected by some phonologic disorder. When we compared adequate and inadequate results of phonologic evaluation to the clinical and immunological parameters of AIDS such as clinical classification (p=0,16, CD4 count (p=0,37 and viral burden (p=0,82, we did not detect a statistically significant relation between language alterations and disease severity. CONCLUSION: this research has shown that the studied group presents a high risk for language disorders and that constant phonoaudiological follow-up is essential to identify the alterations in early stage.OBJETIVO: avaliar a proficiência lexical e a incidência de distúrbios fonológicos na linguagem de crianças infectadas com HIV. MÉTODO: a população do estudo consistiu de 31 crianças com idades entre três e sete anos. Para avaliação foi utilizado o Teste de Linguagem Infantil - ABFW foi nas áreas de fonologia e vocabulário. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram analisados de acordo com os critérios clínicos para a classificação da doença, proposta pelo CDC e sobre o perfil imunológico e a carga viral através do teste de Mann-Whitney para análise estatística. Na avalia

  15. Methodology for the systematic reviews of occupational therapy for children and adolescents with difficulty processing and integrating sensory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Systematic reviews of literature relevant to children and adolescents with difficulty processing and integrating sensory information are important to the practice of occupational therapy in this area. This article explains the five questions that were developed and served as the focus for these reviews: neuronal plasticity, subtyping, sensory integration and non-sensory integration occupational therapy interventions, and occupational performance for this population. Presented are the background for the reviews; the process followed for each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. The final number of articles included in each systematic review, a summary of the results of the review, the strengths and limitations of the review, and implications for practice, education, and research are described.

  16. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  17. A new methodology of viewing extra-axial fluid and cortical abnormalities in children with autism via transcranial ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jeffrey Bradstreet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are developmental conditions of uncertain etiology which have now affected more than 1% of the school-age population of children in many developed nations. Transcranial ultrasonography (TUS via the temporal bone appeared to be a potential window of investigation to determine the presence of both cortical abnormalities and increased extra-axial fluid (EAF. Methods: TUS was accomplished using a linear probe (10-5 MHz. Parents volunteered ASD subjects (N = 23; males 18, females 5 for evaluations (mean = 7.46 years + 3.97 years, and 15 neurotypical siblings were also examined (mean = 7.15 years + 4.49 years. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS2® scores were obtained and the ASD score mean was 48.08 + 6.79 (Severe. Results: Comparisons of the extra-axial spaces indicated increases in the ASD subjects. For EAF we scored based on the gyral summit distances between the arachnoid membrane and the cortical pia layer (subarachnoid space: 1 0.10 cm. All of the neurotypical siblings scored 1, whereas the ASD mean score was 3.41 + 0.67. We also defined cortical dysplasia as the following: hypoechoic lesions within the substance of the cortex, or disturbed layering within the grey matter. For cortical dysplasia we scored: 1 none observed, 2 rare hypoechogenic lesions and/or mildly atypical cortical layering patterns, 3 more common, but separated areas of cortical hypoechogenic lesions, 4 very common or confluent areas of cortical hypoechogenicity. Again all of the neurotypical siblings scored 1, while the ASD subjects’ mean score was 2.79 + 0.93. Conclusions: TUS may be a useful screening technique for children at potential risk of ASDs which, if confirmed with repeated studies and high resolution MRI, provides rapid, noninvasive qualification of EAF and cortical lesions.

  18. Relationship between Gender and Vocabulary Teaching Methodology among Iranian EFL Children: A Comparison of TPR and Direct Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazgol Nekoui Naeini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to examine the impact of methodology on EFL vocabulary learning of elementary school boys and girls. To achieve this end, 40 elementary female and male students aged 9-10 were selected from among 60 students studying at a language institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students were selected based on the results of an overall language proficiency test as a placement test that had been prepared by the institute that identified students' level of proficiency. They were further divided into two experimental groups. Next, a pretest was used to identify the number of words students knew before treatment. The experimental group A learned vocabulary through Direct Method and in the experimental group B students learned vocabulary through Total Physical Response. After 12 weeks of instruction a post-test was administrated to measure and compare the results of vocabulary learning of two groups after treatment. The data collected were put to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results of t-test showed the positive effect of TPR on learners’ L2 vocabulary knowledge. With regard to the impact of gender on learners’ L2 vocabulary knowledge, findings revealed that there were not any statistically significant differences between the male and female learners’ vocabulary score. Keywords: Total physical response, direct method, gender, vocabulary, Iranian EFL learners

  19. Lente de contato em crianças: aspectos epidemiológicos Contact lens in children: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Alves Salame

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil epidemiológico de crianças encaminhadas para adaptação de lente de contato. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de pacientes registrados no Setor de lente de contato da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os pacientes com até 12 anos de idade foram avaliados quanto ao sexo, idade, diagnóstico, indicação e tipo de lente de contato testada na primeira consulta. RESULTADOS: Dos 73 prontuários avaliados, 34 (46,6% pertenciam a crianças do sexo masculino e 39 (53,4% a crianças do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 2 a 12 com média de 10,2 e desvio-padrão de 2,42 anos. O diagnóstico mais encontrado foi afacia em 16 (21,9% crianças, seguido de ceratocone em 14 (19,1%, leucoma em 11 (15%, anisometropia em 10 (13,7%, ametropia em 9 (12,3%, astigmatismo irregular em 7 (9,5% e ectopia lentis em 4 (5,4%. Uma criança era alta míope (1,3% e outra emétrope (1,3% que possuía desejo de usar lente de contato estética. Em relação às indicações, 52 (71,2% pacientes tinham indicação médica, 9 (12,3% indicação óptica e 12 (16,4% indicação cosmética. Foram testadas lentes em 103 olhos sendo as mais testadas a rígida gás permeável esférica em 43 (41,7%, a gelatinosa esférica em 41 (39,8% e a gelatinosa cosmética em 11 (10,6%. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil epidemiológico dos usuários de lente de contato nessa faixa etária tem como diagnóstico mais prevalente a afacia, a indicação mais freqüente a de ordem médica e a lente mais testada a rígida gás permeável esférica.PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of children submitted to contact lens fit. METHODS: Retrospective study of 73 children that had been submitted to contact lens fit at the "Universidade Federal de São Paulo". This study analyzed sex distribution, age, diagnosis, indications and contact lens fitted at first examination. RESULTS: 34 children (46.6% were male and 39 (53.4% female, aged between 2 and 12 years with mean of 10.2 and

  20. Electrochemical kinetics theoretical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Vetter, Klaus J

    1967-01-01

    Electrochemical Kinetics: Theoretical Aspects focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations in electrochemical kinetics. The book first offers information on electrochemical thermodynamics and the theory of overvoltage. Topics include equilibrium potentials, concepts and definitions, electrical double layer and electrocapillarity, and charge-transfer, diffusion, and reaction overvoltage. Crystallization overvoltage, total overvoltage, and resistance polarization are also discussed. The text then examines the methods of determining electrochemical reaction mechanisms

  1. Avaliação do impacto do Programa Nacional do Leite em Alagoas, através de métodos isotópicos: aspectos metodológicos e resultados preliminares Isotope methods for evaluating the impact of the National Nutritional Program in Alagoas: methodological aspects and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Petrucci Gigante

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever aspectos metodológicos e resultados preliminares de um estudo de intervenção planejado para medir o impacto de um programa de suplementação alimentar sobre a promoção do crescimento infantil de crianças desnutridas. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal, controlado, desenvolvido no estado de Alagoas, com grupos comparados antes e depois da intervenção. Vinte municípios foram selecionados através de um indicador de cobertura do programa de suplementação alimentar. Essa cobertura foi estimada pela diferença entre a proporção de crianças desnutridas e a proporção de crianças atendidas pelo programa. Os dez municípios com indicador de alta cobertura foram selecionados para o grupo intervenção e aqueles de menor cobertura para o grupo controle. Em cada município do grupo intervenção foram selecionadas 15 crianças ingressando no Programa. Em cada município do grupo controle foram incluídas 15 crianças elegíveis, mas que não conseguiram vaga no Programa. RESULTADOS: Foram aplicados 111 e 102 questionários em crianças dos municípios do grupo intervenção e controle, respectivamente. A comparação em relação às características de base mostra que a distribuição das variáveis demográficas e nutricionais foi semelhante entre as crianças dos grupos intervenção e controle. Por outro lado, as crianças do grupo intervenção são provenientes de famílias com menor renda familiar e seus pais apresentaram menor escolaridade quando comparadas às do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados preliminares mostram que os grupos são comparáveis em relação às variáveis demográficas e nutricionais e que as diferenças observadas quanto ao nível socioeconômico deverão ser consideradas na análise ajustada, na segunda fase do estudo.OBJECTIVE: To describe methodological aspects and preliminary results of an intervention designed to measure the impact on child growth of nutritional programs

  2. A pesquisa de intervenção na psicologia da educação matemática: aspectos conceituais e metodológicos Intervention research in the psychology of mathematics education: conceptual and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fávero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focamos um dos grandes desafios atuais da psicologia: a pesquisa de intervenção tomada como geradora de transformação e que, ao mesmo tempo, evidencia o processo a ela subjacente. Expomos nossa linha teórico-metodológica de investigação e relatamos uma pesquisa de intervenção no contexto da psicologia da educação matemática. Consideramos quatro aspectos teórico-conceituais articulados: 1. a evidência das interações entre as regulações cognitivas e as sociais; 2. o papel da mediação semiótica no desenvolvimento psicológico humano; 3. os efeitos dos sistemas de signos no desenvolvimento psicológico e nas comunicações individuais; 4. a tomada de consciência de que as ações humanas não são aleatórias: trata-se de práticas sociais com um conteúdo que lhes dão fundamento. Tais aspectos fundamentam a Psicologia do conhecimento e o método adotado, com um duplo desafio: desenvolver um procedimento visando à tomada de consciência de uma professora licenciada em matemática sobre o paradigma que sustentava sua prática e o reformulasse assumindo um trabalho sistematizado de articulação entre intervenção psicopedagógica e pesquisa, que possibilitasse: 1. o estudo das aquisições conceituais dos alunos; e 2. a análise dos processos mediacionais das interações interpessoais, considerando a natureza do material utilizado e das atividades propostas. Os resultados evidenciaram a pertinência do procedimento: as atividades propostas e a qualidade da atividade mediada engendraram a aquisição de novas competências conceituais nos alunos e o desenvolvimento de novas competências para a professora como mediadora do conhecimento.We focus on one of the great current challenges in psychology: interventional research aimed at generating transformation while demonstrating its underlying process. We detail our theoretical and methodological approach and describe an interventional study in the psychology of mathematics

  3. Organisational aspects of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  4. Grounded theory methodology--narrativity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.

  5. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  6. The Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina State (IFFSC: methodological and operational aspects Inventário florístico florestal de Santa Catarina (IFFSC: aspectos metodológicos e operacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Christian Vibrans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on regional and national forest inventories, aiming mainly on aspects of methodos and operational. The Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina State (IFFSC is an initiative of the state government and it was conceived in order to attend requirements of environmental laws. A pilot inventory took place in  2005; then the methodology was fitted to the proposal of the National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR in discussion at the time. IFFSC is carried out since 2007 in all natural forest formations all over the state’s territory, including floristic sampling (collection of fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings and survey of vascular epiphytes by specialized crews. The inventory applies a systematic sampling, with sample units containing clusters of four crosswise 1,000 m² plots (20 m x 50 m, distributed systematically at the intersections of a 10 km x 10 km grid all over the state’s territory (a 5 km x 5 km grid is applied on highly fragmentized Seasonal Deciduous Forests. Methodological details and some important operational issues are discussed beyond the four years experience of IFFSC. Major sampling intensity and lower diameter and height thresholds (in the arboreal and regeneration strata than in the nationwide inventory proposal (IFN-BR, as well as the execution of a floristic survey within and around the sample plots, showed to be important to record plant diversity of Santa Catarina’s forests.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.64.291

  1. [Health survey in Quilombola communities (descendants of Afro-Brazilian slaves who escaped from slave plantations that existed in Brazil until abolition in 1888) in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia (COMQUISTA Project), Brazil: methodological aspects and descriptive analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Souzas, Raquel; Giatti, Luana; Steffens, Ana Paula; Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Souza, Cláudio Lima; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Soares, Daniela Arruda; Santos, Luis Rogério Cosme Silva; Cardoso, Luiz Gustavo Vieira; Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Neves, Orlando Sílvio Caires; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article was to present the methodology, preliminary descriptive results and the reliability of the instruments used in the COMQUISTA Project. It involved a cross-sectional study with adults (>18 years) and children (up to 5 years old) of Quilombola communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Data collection consisted of individual and household interviews, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. A semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) was used and the interviews were conducted using handheld computers. 397 housing units were visited and 797 adults and 130 children were interviewed. The demographic profile of the Quilombolas was similar to the Brazilian population with respect to sex and age, however, they had precarious access to basic sanitation and a low socioeconomic status. The analysis of reliability revealed the adequacy of strategies adopted for quality assurance and control in the study. The methodology used was considered adequate to achieve the objectives and can be used in other populations. The results indicate the need for implementing strategies to improve the quality of life and reduce the degree of vulnerability of the Quilombolas.

  2. The Implementation of Project and Research Activities in Working with Gifted Children in Terms of School-University Network Cooperation (Regional Aspect)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrafikova, Albina R.; Akhmadullina, Rimma M.; Singatullova, Aliya A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with regional experience in using modern strategies in teaching gifted children. The value of project and research activity is actualized as one of the most effective educational technologies in work with gifted children. The article shows examples of organization of combined project and research activities of student-teachers…

  3. [Risk factors for impaired development in children attended at family health units at the end of the first year of life: socio-demographic aspects and maternal mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Débora Gerardo; Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Padovani, Flávia Helena Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate risk and protection factors for the development of 1-year-olds assisted at family health care units. It is a cross-sectional study involving 65 children of approximately 1 year of age and their mothers attended at two family health care units. The development was assessed using a developmental screening test (Denver II). The mothers filled out the SRQ-20 questionnaire to identify common mental disorder (CMD) indicators. After data collection, descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed. Global development was at risk in 43.1% of the children evaluated, and the most affected areas were language and fine motor development; 44.6% of mothers had results indicative of CMD when the child was 1 year of age. In bivariate analysis, reported depression, smoking, infections in pregnancy, CMD after birth and working outside the home were significantly associated with the children's development. After full statistical analysis, CMD was revealed as being a risk factor, and working away from home as being a protection factor. In order to increase the chances of success of programs targeted for children at health care units and avoiding the risk of impaired development, it is important to focus on two aspects: children's stimulation and maternal mental health.

  4. Current trends in Bayesian methodology with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Satyanshu K; Dey, Dipak K; Loganathan, Appaia

    2015-01-01

    Collecting Bayesian material scattered throughout the literature, Current Trends in Bayesian Methodology with Applications examines the latest methodological and applied aspects of Bayesian statistics. The book covers biostatistics, econometrics, reliability and risk analysis, spatial statistics, image analysis, shape analysis, Bayesian computation, clustering, uncertainty assessment, high-energy astrophysics, neural networking, fuzzy information, objective Bayesian methodologies, empirical Bayes methods, small area estimation, and many more topics.Each chapter is self-contained and focuses on

  5. [Adaptive clinical study methodologies in drug development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, János

    2015-11-29

    The evolution of drug development in human, clinical phase studies triggers the overview of those technologies and procedures which are labelled as adaptive clinical trials. The most relevant procedural and operational aspects will be discussed in this overview from points of view of clinico-methodological aspect.

  6. Curriculum, quantitative concepts and methodology of teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curriculum, quantitative concepts and methodology of teaching children with learning difficulties. ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  7. Epidemiological Aspects of Head Lice in Children Attending Day Care Centres, Urban and Rural Schools in Uberlândia, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Raquel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From November 1996 to March 2000, a total of 884 children between 0 and 15 years, from 11 institutions including day care centres, public urban and public rural schools in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, central Brazil, were examined for head louse infestation. Children's sex, race, age and some hairs characteristics were shown to be associated to parasite infestation. A prevalence rate of 35% was found and the highest rates were observed in black, female children, with long, dark, wavy hairs. Hairs density and thickness did not seem to influence significantly the distribution of this pediculosis in Uberlândia's schoolchildren. Differences observed between the prevalence rates of head lice in children from the urban institutions suggest there is a greater epidemiological heterogeneity in this group when compared to the rural schoolchildren.

  8. Speech outcome in children born with cleft lip and palate treated with one-stage palate repair : aspects of function and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and aims: This project focused on speech outcomes at 5 and 10 years of age after two different surgical protocols and on peer perceptions of speech in children born with cleft palate. The aim was to gain knowledge about speech outcome in children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) or cleft palate only (CPO), treated with one-stage palatoplasty at approximately 12 months of age, according to two different surgical protocols: minimal incision technique (MIT) and minim...

  9. Tourism Methodologies - New Perspectives, Practices and Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  10. Acoustic emission methodology and application

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarchuk, Zinoviy; Serhiyenko, Oleh

    2017-01-01

    This monograph analyses in detail the physical aspects of the elastic waves radiation during deformation or fracture of materials. I presents the  methodological bases for the practical use of acoustic emission device, and describes the results of theoretical and experimental researches of evaluation of the crack growth resistance of materials, selection of the useful AE signals. The efficiency of this methodology is shown through the diagnostics of various-purpose industrial objects. The authors obtain results of experimental researches with the help of the new methods and facilities.

  11. Compreensão de texto em crianças: comparações entre diferentes classes de inferência a partir de uma metodologia on-line Text comprehension in children: comparing different classes of inferences by using on-line methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Galvão Spinillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma metodologia on-line, examinou-se a compreensão de textos em crianças de 7 e 9 anos em relação a diferentes tipos de inferências estabelecidas durante a leitura de uma história: inferências causais, de estado e de previsão. A metodologia on-line consiste na leitura interrompida do texto, sendo feitas perguntas inferenciais sobre cada passagem lida e sobre o que o leitor acha que virá a seguir (previsão. Verificou-se que as inferências de previsão envolvem informações extratextuais e requerem a formulação de hipóteses sobre a continuidade da narrativa; gerando, nas crianças, certa dificuldade em prever eventos que estão por acontecer. Conclui-se que a capacidade de estabelecer inferências durante a leitura de um texto varia em função da natureza da informação inferencial solicitada, e que esta capacidade se desenvolve com a idade. Dicute-se o caráter inovador da metodologia on-line de investigação e sua relevância para a pesquisa na área.This study, by means of using an on-line methodology, examined 7 and 9-year-old children's text comprehension in relation to different types of inferences constructed during a story reading task: causal inferences, state inferences and inferences of prediction (what happens next in the story. The on-line methodology consists of making inferential questions to the child during text comprehension immediately after the subject has read a passage. Due to the fact that inferences of prediction involve extratextual information and require to raise hypothesis about the continuity of the narrative, children had difficulties in predicting events that had not occurred yet in the story. It was concluded that the ability to make inferences during text comprehension varies according to the type of inferential question presented and that this ability develops with age. The inovative aspect of the on-line methodology and its relevance to the research on text comprehension are

  12. Why Children with Severe Bacterial Infection Die: A Population–Based Study of Determinants and Consequences of Suboptimal Care with a Special Emphasis on Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Launay; Christèle Gras-Le Guen; Alain Martinot; Rémy Assathiany; Elise Martin; Thomas Blanchais; Catherine Deneux-Tharaux; Jean-Christophe Rozé; Martin Chalumeau

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal care is frequent in the management of severe bacterial infection. We aimed to evaluate the consequences of suboptimal care in the early management of severe bacterial infection in children and study the determinants. METHODS: A previously reported population-based confidential enquiry included all children (3 months- 16 years) who died of severe bacterial infection in a French area during a 7-year period. Here, we compared the optimality of the management of these cas...

  13. [The prevalence of anemia and its association with socio-demographic and anthropometric aspects in children living in Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula Della Nina; Pascoal, Mariana Nunes; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Justino, Liusani Elizia Honório; Petarli, Glenda Blaser; Kitoko, Pedro Makumbundu

    2013-11-01

    The high prevalence of iron deficiency in the population is widely acknowledged, but there are not yet sufficient studies that explain the reasons for this problem at local and national level. Thus, the scope of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia and its relation with socio-demographic and anthropometric aspects of children living in Vitoria, Espírito Santo. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 12- to 72-month-old children. Data were collected in Primary Healthcare Units and involved the hemoglobin dosage, height and weight measurement, in addition to the application of a semi-structured questionnaire to gather socio-demographic information. The evaluation included 980 children, 51.1% of which were female with a median age of 46.00 (95%CI: 45.52 - 48.09) months. Anemia was found in 37%, with a hemoglobin median of 11.4 (95%CI: 11.15 - 11.36) g/dL. The children's' height/age ratio (p = 0.049) and the number of people in the family (p demographic and anthropometric data suggest the need for more effective public policies than just food fortification and supplementation.

  14. Confidence/Confidentiality: A Comparison of Methodological Approaches Used in a Field Study of Children's Political Attitudes in Bogota, Colombia, and Educational Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Susan McGee; Hunter, William J.

    This paper examines how potential conflicts produced by ethical issues such as confidence and confidentiality can affect the research methodology of educational research and evaluation projects. Despite the differences in site selection, clientele, and relationship to treatment, both evaluators and researchers must make adjustments in method to…

  15. Qualidade de vida infantil: limites e possibilidades das questões teórico-metodológicas Children's quality of life: limits and possiblities of theorical - methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bazanelli Prebianchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas sobre QV infantil não têm sido sistemáticas, dificultando o equacionamento das questões teórico-metodológicas suscitadas quando se deseja aprimorar processos diagnósticos e a avaliação de resultados de tratamentos de saúde. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar os limites e possibilidades das principais questões teórico-metodológicas relativas ao conceito QV das crianças, mediante de uma pesquisa bibliográfica cobrindo o período 1995-2005. Os resultados encontrados foram semelhantes àqueles de trabalhos sobre o estado-da-arte. Concluiu-se que a proliferação de instrumentos de QV e de pesquisas na área ocorreu sem aprofundamento das questões conceituais e metodológicas e com falta de informação obtida das próprias crianças.The researches on child QV have not been systematic and this way it has been difficult to answer the theoretical-methodological questions when the goal is to improve the diagnosis processes and the systematic assessment of health care outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the limits and possibilities of the main theoretical-methodological questions related to the children's QV concept, through a bibliographic research, covering the period 1995-2005. The results were similar to those works on state-of-art. It was concluded that the proliferation of instruments of QV and researches in this area have occurred without deepening of the conceptual and methodological questions and without the information provided by the children themselves.

  16. Domain-General and Domain-Specific Aspects of Temporal Discounting in Children with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Proof of Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that delayed consumable rewards are discounted to a higher degree than money, which has been referred to as the "domain effect". Until now the effects of reward type on temporal discounting (TD) have mainly been studied in adults. Although there is evidence that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend…

  17. [Acute accidental poisoning in children: aspects of their epidemiology, aetiology, and outcome at the Charles de Gaulle Paediatric Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouéta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Yé, Diarra; Fayama, Zéinabou; Sawadogo, Alphonse

    2009-01-01

    Accidents are a daily concern in the paediatric ward because of their frequency, diversity and severity. Acute accidental poisoning (AAP) accounts for an important portion of these. To help improvement management of AAP, we conducted a retrospective study covering a period of 2 years from January 2005 to December 2006 at Charles de Gaulle Paediatric University Hospital in Ouagadougou. Of 9390 admissions during the study period, 123 children, or 1.3%, were admitted for poisoning. A cumulative average of 11 were admitted monthly, with a peak of 16 patients in April 2005 and 2006, together. AAP was most common among children aged 1 to 4 years. Their mean age was 3 years and ranged from 6 days to 12 years. Boys outnumbered girls, with a sex ratio of 1.2. Mothers of more than half (61%) of the children poisoned worked in the home. Household products accounted for 44.7% of AAPs, followed by drug (22.7%) and food (22%) poisoning. Kerosene and other petroleum products topped the list of household products, with 54.5%. Tranquilizers (46.4%) and dairy products (37%) dominated the drug and food poisoning categories. Immediate outcome was fatal in 3% of cases, and three quarters of these deaths occurred during drug poisoning of children aged 1 to 4 years. The mean hospital stay was 2 days, and ranged from 0 to 9 days. Health officials, the media, and community outreach must all help to increase awareness about the dangers of poisoning and of preventive measures.

  18. Domain-General and Domain-Specific Aspects of Temporal Discounting in Children with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Proof of Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that delayed consumable rewards are discounted to a higher degree than money, which has been referred to as the "domain effect". Until now the effects of reward type on temporal discounting (TD) have mainly been studied in adults. Although there is evidence that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend…

  19. Information processing and aspects of visual attention in children with the DSM-III-R diagnosis ''pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified'' (PDDNOS) .1. Focused and divided attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M; deSonneville, LMJ; Minderaa, RB; Hensen, LGN; Til, RB

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 8-to 12-year-old nonhyperactive children of normal intelligence with the DSM-III-R diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) completed two selective attention tasks. Following a linear stage model of information processing, it was demonstrated that th

  20. Community-Based Participatory Research and Gene-Environment Interaction Methodologies Addressing Environmental Justice among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Women and Children in Texas: "From Mother to Child Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Valero, María A; Herrera, Angelica P; Zahm, Sheila H; Jones, Lovell A

    2007-05-01

    The "From Mother to Child Project" is a molecular epidemiological study that employs a community- based participatory research (CBPR) approach and gene-environment interaction research to address environmental justice in migrant and seasonal farmworker (MSF) women and children of Mexican origin home-based in Baytown and La Joya, Texas. This paper presents the background and rationale for the study and describes the study design and methodology. Preliminary data showed that MSF women and children in Texas have measurable levels of pesticides in their blood and urine, some of which were banned in the United States decades ago and are possible human carcinogens. Polymorphisms in genes involved in chemical detoxification and DNA repair have been associated with susceptibility to genetic damage and cancer development in populations exposed to environmental toxins. The "From Mother to Child Project" is testing three hypotheses: (1) MSF women and children who are occupationally exposed to pesticides are at higher risk for DNA damage than are non-exposed women and children. (2) Both, the extent of pesticide exposure and type of polymorphisms in chemical detoxification and DNA repair genes contribute to the extent of DNA damage observed in study participants. (3) The mutagenic potency levels measured in the organic compounds extracted from the urine and serum of study participants will correlate with the total concentrations of pesticides and with the measured DNA damage in study participants. The study will enroll 800 participants: 200 MSF mother-child pairs; 200 children (one per family) whose parents have never worked in agriculture, matched with the MSF children by ethnicity, age ± 2 years, gender, and city of residence; and these children's mothers. Personal interviews with the mothers are used to gather data for both mothers and children on sociodemographic characteristics; pesticide exposure at work and home; medical and reproductive history; dietary assessment, and

  1. Statistical methodology for the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in a phase III multi-centre trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lievens Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

  2. Aspectos motores corporais e orais em um grupo de crianças com transtorno/atraso fonológico Body and oral motor aspects in a group of children with phonological delay/disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ramos de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desenvolvimento motor e aspectos orofaciais em crianças com transtorno e atraso fonológico. MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 80 crianças de cinco a 11 anos de idade pertencentes à rede escolar regular de um município da Grande Porto Alegre com alterações fonológicas. Foi realizada uma entrevista com os pais através de um questionário semi-estruturado. Em seguida, foram avaliados o sistema estomatognático e a fala das crianças, e o diagnóstico de transtorno ou atraso fonológico foi confirmado para cada sujeito. Para a análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Fisher e o Qui-quadrado com nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: To compare the motor development and orofacial aspects in children with phonological disorder and delay. METHODS: The participants were 80 children with phonological deficits and ages ranging from five to 11 years, who belonged to the regular school system of a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. An interview with their parents was conducted, using a semi-structured questionnaire. After that, it was carried out the assessment of the subjects' stomatognathic system and speech, and the diagnosis of phonological delay or disorder was confirmed. The Chi-square test and the Fisher test were used for statistical analysis, with significance level of 5% (p<0,05. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the group with phonological delay and the group with phonological disorder in all aspects examined. CONCLUSION: Phonological delay and disorder do not show significant distinction regarding motor, oral and infectious aspects, together with deleterious oral habits, as shown by the homogeneity between the groups.

  3. Creating "Buddy Partnerships" with 5- and 11-Year Old-Boys: A Methodological Approach to Conducting Participatory Research with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rachael; Thompson, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Building on literature concerning participatory research, this article explores the use of "buddy partnership" as a technique to access the voices of young children. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old boys were paired with 11- to 12-year-old boys, and each dyad was asked to contribute towards the creation of an information DVD that would…

  4. Leukemia and brain tumors among children after radiation exposure from CT scans : design and methodological opportunities of the Dutch Pediatric CT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, Johanna M.; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Jahnen, Andreas; Lee, Choonsik; Kieft, Mariette; Lameris, Johan S.; van Herk, Marcel; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Jeukens, Cecile R. L. P. N.; van Straten, Marcel; Visser, Otto; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hauptmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans are indispensable in modern medicine; however, the spectacular rise in global use coupled with relatively high doses of ionizing radiation per examination have raised radiation protection concerns. Children are of particular concern because they are more sensitive to r

  5. Guidelines on acute gastroenteritis in children : a critical appraisal of their quality and applicability in primary care Epidemiology and research methodology in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jose; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reasons for poor guideline adherence in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children in high-income countries are unclear, but may be due to inconsistency between guideline recommendations, lack of evidence, and lack of generalizability of the recommendations to general practice. The aim of t

  6. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using AspectJ...... as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  7. Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

  8. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  9. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  10. Epidemiological, clinical and developmental aspects of chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological, clinical and developmental aspects of chronic kidney ... Biologically , anemia was present in 100% of our patents. ... Conclusion : The prevalence of CKD in children in our study was 0.62 %. ... Keywords: Chronic kidney disease (chronic renal failure), Children, Glomerulopathy,Haemodialysis, Sénégal ...

  11. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend......KE*, and demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  12. Calf venous compliance measured by venous occlusion plethysmography: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Lindenberger, Marcus; Ekman, Mikael; Ewerman, Lea; Länne, Toste

    2015-02-01

    Calf venous compliance (C calf) is commonly evaluated with venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) during a standard cuff deflation protocol. However, the technique relies on two not previously validated assumptions concerning thigh cuff pressure (P cuff) transmission and the impact of net fluid filtration (F filt) on C calf. The aim was to validate VOP in the lower limb and to develop a model to correct for F filt during VOP. Strain-gauge technique was used to study calf volume changes in 15 women and 10 age-matched men. A thigh cuff was inflated to 60 mmHg for 4 and 8 min with a subsequent decrease of 1 mmHg s(-1). Intravenous pressure (P iv) was measured simultaneously. C calf was determined with the commonly used equation [Compliance = β 1 + 2β 2 × P cuff] describing the pressure-compliance relationship. A model was developed to identify and correct for F filt. Transmission of P cuff to P iv was 100 %. The decrease in P cuff correlated well with P iv reduction (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Overall, our model showed that C calf was underestimated when F filt was not accounted for (all P < 0.01). F filt was higher in women (P < 0.01) and showed a more pronounced effect on C calf compared to men (P < 0.05). The impact of F filt was similar during 4- and 8-min VOP. P cuff is an adequate substitute for P iv in the lower limb. F filt is associated with an underestimation of C calf and differences in the effect of F filt during VOP can be accounted for with the correction model. Thus, our model seems to be a valuable tool in future studies of venous wall function.

  13. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  14. Methodology Aspects of Quantifying Stochastic Climate Variability with Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuterman, Roman; Jochum, Markus; Solgaard, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The paleoclimatic records show that climate has changed dramatically through time. For the past few millions of years it has been oscillating between ice ages, with large parts of the continents covered with ice, and warm interglacial periods like the present one. It is commonly assumed that these glacial cycles are related to changes in insolation due to periodic changes in Earth's orbit around Sun (Milankovitch theory). However, this relationship is far from understood. The insolation changes are so small that enhancing feedbacks must be at play. It might even be that the external perturbation only plays a minor role in comparison to internal stochastic variations or internal oscillations. This claim is based on several shortcomings in the Milankovitch theory: Prior to one million years ago, the duration of the glacial cycles was indeed 41,000 years, in line with the obliquity cycle of Earth's orbit. This duration changed at the so-called Mid-Pleistocene transition to approximately 100,000 years. Moreover, according to Milankovitch's theory the interglacial of 400,000 years ago should not have happened. Thus, while prior to one million years ago the pacing of these glacial cycles may be tied to changes in Earth's orbit, we do not understand the current magnitude and phasing of the glacial cycles. In principle it is possible that the glacial/interglacial cycles are not due to variations in Earth's orbit, but due to stochastic forcing or internal modes of variability. We present a new method and preliminary results for a unified framework using a fully coupled Earth System Model (ESM), in which the leading three ice age hypotheses will be investigated together. Was the waxing and waning of ice sheets due to an internal mode of variability, due to variations in Earth's orbit, or simply due to a low-order auto-regressive process (i.e., noise integrated by system with memory)? The central idea is to use the Generalized Linear Models (GLM), which can handle both continuous and discrete weather/ climate variables and stochastic processes. GLM permits the inclusion of annual cycles as well as conditions the model on large-scale atmospheric or oceanic circulation. Such modeling framework will be built from large sets of ESM model integrations and paleoclimatic records and will represent synthetic climate time series of any length. It will be further used to force an ice sheet model and to create a synthetic time series of ice volume.

  15. Radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in human serum. Methodologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradalier, N.; Canal, P.; Pujol, A.; Fregevu, Y. (Groupe de Recherches du Centre Claudius-Regaud, Toulouse (France)); Soula, G. (Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Toulouse (France))

    1982-01-01

    We propose a double antibody radioimmunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum for diagnosis and management of prostatic adenocarcinoma under treatment. The antigen is purified from human prostatic fluid by a gel-filtration on Sephadex G 100 followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose. A specific antibody is raised in rabbits and purified by immunoadsorption with a female serum. The described technique offers both radioisotopic sensibility and immunologic specificity. Physiological values determined in the serum of 125 healthy males are below 2 ng/ml. No significative differences are observed with age. The proposed technique also shows significant differences between values evaluated for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  16. Assessment of prostatic size with computed tomography. Methodologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsen, H.; Ekman, P.; Ringertz, H. (Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1982-01-01

    The prostatic gland can be easily demonstrated on CT scans and its volume has been estimated using the ellipsoid formula. In 32 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia calculated volumes were compared with the weight of the adenomas resected at open surgery. A good correlation was found (r=0.89) with an average residual error of 12 g. The method is considered valuable for preoperative assessment of the prostatic size and useful as a non-invasive method to evaluate changes in prostatic volume following different types of non-surgical treatment.

  17. [Methodological aspects of a political-economic analysis of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisina, N V; Ruzavina, E I

    1988-01-01

    The authors examine the role of political and economic factors in the study of population issues, with a focus on the relationship between demographic factors and the standard of living of a society. Attention is paid to the division of the population into the economically active and the inactive.

  18. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STRATEGIC SALES MANAGEMENT OF ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Hurzhiy, N.

    2014-01-01

    In the article existing approaches to strategic management are analyzed, features and a concept of strategic sales management are defined. Also in the article there is encouraged to use processdesign approach in the implementation of strategic management. Also the principles which should be carried out by strategic management of sales activities are identified in relation to the elements of the systemsales activities, as consumers, state infrastructure software sales, competition and enterprise.

  19. Methodological aspects of accounting production cost of public sector entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Геннадіївна Ловінська

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of obtaining objective information about the activities of the public sector in various areas of the production is defined. It is proved an expediency of development the Project of «Guidelines for the structure of production costs» on the basis of the approved in the public sector NP(SAPS 135 "Costs". The need for accounting costs by type of activity (operational, financial and investment is marked. The composition of production costs is defined

  20. Methodological Aspects of Controlling Multilevel Man-Machine Organization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri GOLENKO-GINZBURG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical on-line control models for multilevel man-machine organization systems (production and project management systems are outlined. The models are based on the conception of emergency situations and risk averse on-line control. By using the idea that hierarchical levels can interact only in special situations, the so-called emergency points, one can decompose general and complex multi-level problems of optimal control into sequences of one-level control problems. A hierarchical on-line control model under chance constraint is presented. The model comprises a chance constraint at the upper level and enables at the lower level optimizing both the units' starting time and the resources to be hired. The objective is the average total expenses within the planning horizon while the chance constraint is the minimal permissible probability of meeting the due date on time.

  1. [Introduction of quality systems into laboratory medicine: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, G A; Émanuél', A V

    2011-05-01

    The paper considers the problems of introducing the quality management systems (QMS) according to GOST R ISO 9001-2001 in the health care facilities of different forms of property and departmental subordination. It gives examples of successfully putting QMS into practice in the companies that manufacture products for laboratory diagnosis in accordance with the Russian and international standardization principles. Methods are presented for training the staff of the facilities in the QMS principles and making a dialogue between laboratories and customers.

  2. [Food supplements in primary prevention--methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The terms "evidence" or "evidence-based medicine" (EBM) dominate the current biomedical debate. When asked about the usefulness of nutritional supplements, increasingly reliable studies and "evidence-based" recommendations are demanded. However, usually, it remains unclear what is meant by "evidence" and "evidence-based medicine". The aim of the current paper is to clarify and explain why continuous designed evaluation instruments, proofing the efficacy of pharmacological active compounds, cannot be applied without modifications to prove the benefits of nutrients. The focus bases on the following questions: (a) What does evidence-based medicine exactly means and how does it differ from non-evidence-based medicine? (b) What is the meaning of "evidence" and "evidence-based statements"? (c) What types of studies are suitable for securing evidence? (d) How can be drawn summarizing conclusions from various, sometimes divergent, results of single studies? (e) Which specific characteristics must be considered in the nutrition context?

  3. The Research in the Teaching Models of the English Teaching Methodology for Children under the Environments of Internet and Multi-media%多媒体网络环境下幼儿英语教学法课程的教学模式探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新莉

    2011-01-01

    幼儿英语教学法课程的最终目的是培养合格的幼儿园英语教师,其教学质量直接影响着我国幼儿图英语教师队伍的建设和培养.多媒体网络技术应用于幼儿英语教学法课程,是幼儿英语教学法课程教学模式改革的一条有效途径.%The aim of the English Teaching Methodology for Children is to cultivate the qualified English teachers in kindergarten. The quality of teaching will affect the building and cultivating of the English teachers in kindergarten, Applying the internet and multi-media to the English Teaching Methodology for Children is an effective way to reform the teaching model of the English Teaching Methodology for Children.

  4. Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for Healthy Children: Methodology and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruthi, Shalini; Brooks, Lee J; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn; Hall, Wendy A; Kotagal, Suresh; Lloyd, Robin M; Malow, Beth A; Maski, Kiran; Nichols, Cynthia; Quan, Stuart F; Rosen, Carol L; Troester, Matthew M; Wise, Merrill S

    2016-11-15

    Members of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine developed consensus recommendations for the amount of sleep needed to promote optimal health in children and adolescents using a modified RAND Appropriateness Method. After review of 864 published articles, the following sleep durations are recommended: Infants 4 months to 12 months should sleep 12 to 16 hours per 24 hours (including naps) on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Children 1 to 2 years of age should sleep 11 to 14 hours per 24 hours (including naps) on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Children 3 to 5 years of age should sleep 10 to 13 hours per 24 hours (including naps) on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Children 6 to 12 years of age should sleep 9 to 12 hours per 24 hours on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Teenagers 13 to 18 years of age should sleep 8 to 10 hours per 24 hours on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Sleeping the number of recommended hours on a regular basis is associated with better health outcomes including: improved attention, behavior, learning, memory, emotional regulation, quality of life, and mental and physical health. Regularly sleeping fewer than the number of recommended hours is associated with attention, behavior, and learning problems. Insufficient sleep also increases the risk of accidents, injuries, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and depression. Insufficient sleep in teenagers is associated with increased risk of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. A commentary on this article apears in this issue on page 1439.

  5. Los servicios de las bibliotecas de acceso público argentinas en entorno automatizado: aspectos teórico-metodológicos del Proyecto UBACYT F040 = Services of public libraries in Argentina in an automated environment: theoretical-methodological aspects of UBACYT F40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barber, N. Tripaldi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el proyecto UBACYT F040 en sus aspectos teóricos y metodológicos. Su objetivo apunta a relevar la incidencia de la automatización bibliotecaria en la prestación de servicios orientados al uso de la tecnología de la información en las bibliotecas de acceso público argentinas. La metodología empleada consiste en la aplicación (restringida en una primera etapa al área de Capital Federal y Gran Buenos Aires de un cuestionario diseñado en función de variables seleccionadas acorde a la naturaleza de las bibliotecas estudiadas. A partir de la firma de un convenio de Cooperación y Asistencia Técnica con ONU- Ecuador se vislumbra la realización de estudios comparativos entre ambos países con miras a un diagnóstico regional = UBACYT F040 project is being presented in its theoretical and methodological aspects. It is aimed to exalt the incidence of library automation in the provision of services oriented to the use of information technology in public libraries of Argentina. The methodology is based on the application (restricted in a first stage to the Capital Federal and Gran Buenos Aires area of a questionnaire designed according to selected variables depending on the nature of the studied libraries. From the signature of a Cooperation and Technical Assistance Agreement with United Nations – Ecuador, it is foresaw the realization of comparative researches between both countries having in mind later regional diagnosis.

  6. Proposición de un programa de garantía de calidad de la radioterapia en los niños: aspectos médicos PROPOSITION OF A QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM OF RADIOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN: MEDICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La radioterapia constituye una de las armas terapéuticas básicas en la atención de los tumores malignos de los niños. Para poder garantizar los objetivos del tratamiento radiante es preciso aplicar un Programa de Garantía de Calidad, que comprenda los aspectos médicos y físicos, estrechamente imbricados. En este trabajo nos referiremos a una proposición de Programa de Garantía de Calidad de la Radioterapia en los niños en sus aspectos médicos. El programa de sería aplicado a todo niño sometido a tratamiento radiante, y constituiría un sub-programa dentro del Programa de Garantía de Calidad Nacional. Entre los aspectos médicos incluye: a los programas o políticas de tratamiento; b los elementos técnicos y físicos, como controles en equipos de simulación, irradiación, etc., y la correcta aplicación diaria del tratamiento indicado y planificado y c revisiones periódicas de los programas de tratamiento, seguimiento de los casos y resultados obtenidos. Cada acápite comprende: 1 aspectos a auditar, y 2 cómo auditar. De todo lo anterior se infiere la necesidad de tener y aplicar un Programa de Garantía de Calidad del tratamiento radiante, que garantiza un tratamiento de calidad óptima.Radiotherapy is one of the basic therapeutic tools in the attention of malignant tumors in children. To guarantee the objectives of the radiant treatment it is necessary to apply a Quality Assurance Program comprising the medical and physical aspects closely related. In this paper, we refer to a proposition of the Quality Assurance Program of Radiotherapy in children in its medical aspects. The program will be applied to every child undergoing radiant treatment and it will be a subprogram within the National Quality Assurance Program. Among the medical aspects, we find: a the treatment programs or policies; b the technical and physical elements, such as controls in simulation equipment, irradiation, etc., and the correct daily application of the

  7. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbia Abir Gorrab MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively. The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7% only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001. The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31. The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  8. Why children with severe bacterial infection die: a population-based study of determinants and consequences of suboptimal care with a special emphasis on methodological issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Launay

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal care is frequent in the management of severe bacterial infection. We aimed to evaluate the consequences of suboptimal care in the early management of severe bacterial infection in children and study the determinants. METHODS: A previously reported population-based confidential enquiry included all children (3 months- 16 years who died of severe bacterial infection in a French area during a 7-year period. Here, we compared the optimality of the management of these cases to that of pediatric patients who survived a severe bacterial infection during the same period for 6 types of care: seeking medical care by parents, evaluation of sepsis signs and detection of severe disease by a physician, timing and dosage of antibiotic therapy, and timing and dosage of saline bolus. Two independent experts blinded to outcome and final diagnosis evaluated the optimality of these care types. The effect of suboptimal care on survival was analyzed by a logistic regression adjusted on confounding factors identified by a causal diagram. Determinants of suboptimal care were analyzed by multivariate multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: Suboptimal care was significantly more frequent during early management of the 21 children who died as compared with the 93 survivors: 24% vs 13% (p = 0.003. The most frequent suboptimal care types were delay to seek medical care (20%, under-evaluation of severity by the physician (20% and delayed antibiotic therapy (24%. Young age (under 1 year was independently associated with higher risk of suboptimal care, whereas being under the care of a paediatric emergency specialist or a mobile medical unit as compared with a general practitioner was associated with reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal care in the early management of severe bacterial infection had a global independent negative effect on survival. Suboptimal care may be avoided by better training of primary care physicians in the specifics of

  9. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

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    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  11. Effectiveness of a formative program about transcultural nursing on aspects of the mental health on immigrants children between 12 and 17 years old diagnosed of stress for movement syndrome

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    Elvira María Pértega Andía

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To value the efficiency of a formative program for Transcultural Nursing on the level of anxiety, emotional balance and social implication for children of immigrant population diagnosed of Syndrome of Stress for Movement.Methodology: Clinical random Essay with assignment for groups. There will be realized in the Area 6 of the Community of Madrid, the selection of the participants will realize in the centers of Primary care selected as group control and experimentally.An evaluation will be realized in the center of Mental Health of all the participants and the results will be compared after six months in health of all the participants (group control and experimental, as well as the nursing aims and the interventions realized in every center.The evaluation of every variable will carry out by means of validated instruments and by means of the utilization of nursing taxonomy.The population size belongs 14000 individuals and there will select a sample of 156 children, calculated for a mistake alpha of 0,05 a power of 0,8 and an estimated effect of 0,4.The analysis of information will be realized by comparison pre and post, as well as intergroups, besides the descriptive analysis of the variables.

  12. Aspectos culturais no cuidado familiar à criança com desnutrição = Cultural aspects in family care for children with malnutrition

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    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar o fator cultural que interfere no cuidado do filho desnutrido e propor ações de Educação Popular em Saúde na assistência à criança desnutrida. Trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação desenvolvida no Núcleo de Atenção Médica Integrada – NAMI, realizada no período de janeiro a julho de 2008. Participaram deste estudo oito mães e um pai, cujas idades variavam de 20 a 48 anos. A coleta de dados realizou-se mediante entrevistas semi-estruturadas e oficinas educativas, em que se utilizou análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Após organização dos resultados, foram identificadas as categorias: uma desnutrição desconhecida; oficinas educativas e saber popular; consciência do cuidado. O resultado aponta para uma nova consciência no cuidado com o filho desnutrido na cultura da comunidade. Recomendam-se intervenções de Educação Popular em Saúde adequadas para grupos culturalmente distintos. Nesta perspectiva, há de seconsiderar o conjunto de propostas, viabilizando e incentivando a Educação Popular, para buscar mudanças na constituição de novos sujeitos e práticas comprometidas com o rompimento das barreiras sociais, econômicas e políticas.This study aimed to identify the cultural factor that interferes with the care of undernourished children and to propose actions of Popular Health Education in the assistance of undernourished children. It regards an action research developed at the Nucleus of Integrated Medical Attention – NAMI, performed between January and July 2008. Eight mothers and one father took part in the study, with ages varying from 20 to 48 years old. The data collection took place by means of semi-structured interviews and educational workshops, which were used in the Bardin content analysis. After organizing the result, the following categories were identified: unknown malnutrition; educative workshops and popular knowledge; conscience of care. The results point to a new conscience at the

  13. Conceptual and methodological aspects of relations between discrimination and health in epidemiological studies Aspectos conceituais e metodológicos das relações entre discriminação e saúde em estudos epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Bastos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses conceptual and methodological aspects of the relations between discrimination and health from an epidemiological perspective. Definitions of discrimination and related constructs are reviewed, and the main theories underlying their association with health are presented. Scales developed to assess discrimination are discussed, in conjunction with a new instrument, devised to operationalize the concept in Brazilian epidemiological surveys. As a relatively unpredictable and uncontrollable source of psychosocial stress, discrimination has been consistently associated with adverse health outcomes and behaviors, particularly mental disorders, smoking, and alcohol use. However, progress in the area depends partly on dealing with aspects related to the assessment of the phenomenon, such as the definition of a construct map and simultaneous measurement of different types of discrimination. Research involving these aspects will enhance our understanding of discrimination and its health consequences, thus increasing our ability to reduce its social occurrence.Abordam-se aspectos conceituais e metodológicos das relações entre discriminação e saúde, sob uma perspectiva epidemiológica. São revisadas definições de discriminação, construtos correlatos e apresentadas as teorias subjacentes à interpretação de suas associações com saúde. Discutem-se os instrumentos desenvolvidos para aferição da discriminação e uma proposta para sua operacionalização em inquéritos epidemiológicos brasileiros. Enquanto fonte de estresse psicossocial relativamente imprevisível e de difícil controle, a discriminação tem sido consistentemente associada com piores condições/comportamentos em saúde, sobretudo transtornos mentais, tabagismo e uso de álcool. Entretanto, avanços na área dependem, em parte, do enfrentamento de questões vinculadas à aferição do fenômeno, como a definição de um mapa do construto e a necessidade

  14. Alguns aspectos observados no desenvolvimento de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual Children victims of sexual abuse: some aspects observed in their development

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    Mayte Raya Amazarray

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O abuso sexual de crianças é um dos tipos de maus-tratos mais freqüentes, apresentando implicações médicas, legais e psicossociais. Essa revisão da literatura aponta para algumas conseqüências do abuso sexual infantil, com o objetivo de entender o seu impacto no desenvolvimento da criança. Os efeitos prejudiciais do abuso sexual, a reação negativa da família e o despreparo dos profissionais constituem um potencial gerador de danos psicológicos para a criança. Devido a esses fatores, as crianças vitimizadas encontram-se em situação de risco. Portanto, faz-se necessária uma capacitação dos profissionais que trabalham com essas crianças e com suas famílias, de modo que se possa obter a versão real dos casos, bem como conduzir uma intervenção adequada.Child sexual abuse is one of the most frequent form of maltreatment, which has medical, legal, and psychosocial implications. This review of the literature points out to some consequences of child sexual abuse, aiming to the understanding of its impact on the child’s development. The adverse effects of sexual abuse, the negative reaction of the family, and the unpreparedness of professionals represent potencial source of psychological damage to the child. Due to these factors, the children who are victimized are at risk. For this reason, it is necessary to professionalize the people who work with these children and their families to allow them to do proper diagnosis and to carry out proper interventions.

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Measures of Self-Esteem for Young Children: A Framework for Future Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted meta-analysis of preschool and early elementary school self-esteem instruments, using reliability as criterion variable and different aspects of methodology used in testing an instrument as predictor variables. Found that reliability could be predicted by study setting, number of items in the scale, age of children being studied, method…

  16. Marketing aspect of paramedical

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    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available That's how the primary medical and ecological reasons as the well being for humanity came out of the satisfaction of specific health needs. Through operationally of these outcomes it tried to prove the need and the intentions of the customers, and through methodologies and strategies which stand to our service. Further developing activity acted as a useful to the innovation of the product and vertical structure of marketing, through the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession. The paper is concepted so that the received material inserted to the content part, do the following: 1. Meaning, characteristics and developing possibilities of phytotherapy; 2. Dimensions of market in managing of phytotherapic assortment. By observing the final results, which were obtained through means of representative sources and other research of phytotherapic products, it can be expected that the same can be applicable to broader spectrum in practice with kind input to the marketing ideas. Models, presented here, is meant to be for innovative applications in the medical marketing concept, by the results of wide spending in the food service industry (domain of dietetics, at manufacture of food for children at the manufacture of 'medical cosmetics' and cosmetic-druggist assortments (products for hygiene, shampoos, soap, creams and bubbles for bath.

  17. Aspect and Reference time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borik, O.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis provides a theory of aspect in Russian based on the notion of Reference time. The main claim advocated in this study is that there are two types of aspect, predicational/telicity aspect and perspective or Reference time aspect. It is argued that these two types should be carefully distin

  18. 小儿“肝常有余,脾常不足”用药探讨%Exploration of Using Drugs for Children from the Aspects of Constant Sufficient in the Liver and Constant Deficiency in the Spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成淑凤

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the characteristics of using drugs from the aspects of constant sufficiency in the liver and constant deficiency in the spleen of children. Methods:The characteristics of using drugs were summarized and analysed on the basis of children's physiological and pathological characteristics with a combination of the clinical experiences and the cured cases by the writer. According to the special constitution of children, the routine treatment of reinforcing insufficiency and reducing excessiveness should be broken. Results: Children were in vigorous growth stage, it was generally considered that there was constant sufficiency in the liver and constant deficiency in the spleen in the whole growth process. The routine treatment of reinforcing insufficiency and reducing excessiveness shouldn't be followed,because children are "immature yin and yang" and "pure yang". Purgation may impair yang,and reinforcing may cause internal heat. Conclusion:For pediatric diseases,medicine should give priority to regulation,transportation and mediation.%目的:探讨小儿“肝常有余,脾常不足”用药特点.方法:依据小儿“肝常有余,脾常不足”的生理、病理特点,结合笔者30a临床经验,分析、总结小儿用药特点.结果:小儿处于生长发育旺盛阶段,在整个发育过程中表现为“肝常有余,脾常不足”.而在治疗过程中不能遵循“泻其有余,补其不足”常规治疗原则,因小儿为“稚阴稚阳之体”又为“纯阳之体”泻易伤阳,补易助热.结论:对小儿疾病的用药,应以调、运、平为主.

  19. A new Methodology for Operations Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for developing and implementing Operations Strategy (OS). It encompasses both content and process aspects of OS and differs thereby from many of the present OS methodologies. The paper outlines its paradigmatic foundation and presents aim, process, dimensions......, guidelines and required competencies for using it on OS in practice. A case-based action research strategy has been conducted to make a first test and evaluation of the OS methodology and the paper thus provides a case example illustrating its practical unfolding. Finally a discussion is made...

  20. A new Methodology for Operations Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for developing and implementing Operations Strategy (OS). It encompasses both content and process aspects of OS and differs thereby from many of the present OS methodologies. The paper outlines its paradigmatic foundation and presents aim, process, dimensions......, guidelines and required competencies for using it on OS in practice. A case-based action research strategy has been conducted to make a first test and evaluation of the OS methodology and the paper thus provides a case example illustrating its practical unfolding. Finally a discussion is made...

  1. Diabetes tipo 2 en niños y adolescentes: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos, patogénicos y terapéuticos Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents: clinicoepidemiological, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Emiliano Licea Puig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: debido al incremento sostenido en la incidencia de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en personas OBJECTIVE: due to the sustained increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in persons under 20, the clinicoepidemiological, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents were reviewed. DEVELOPMENT: in children, it is estimated that type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 2-3 % of all cases. However, in the last years, there has been a ten-fold increase. Its prevalence is higher among Afro-Americans, Hispanics and native Americans, in puberty and in those with history of type 2 maternal diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors (obesity, physical inactivity, poor nutritional habits, among others. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations: severe hyperglycaemia with ketonuria and ketosis to a mild hyperglycaemia. 50 % may be asymptomatic. Obesity, Acantosis nigricans, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, puberty, and type 2 maternal diabetes mellitus are risk factors. It prevails in females, autoimmunity is rare and the dependence on insulin may be episodic. Those with the highest hyperglycaemia have lower levels of insulinemia and peptide C. When hyperglycaemia is mild, diet, physical exercise and, in some cases, the administration of oral drugs, such as metformin, may be useful. CONCLUSIONS: type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents is a reality. Evolutively, most of them do not need insulin therapy. They may have retinopathy, microalbuminuria, dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension on diagnosis. Risk populations should be actively screened.

  2. Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Influences on Children's Development:Introducing A Novel Methodology%分离遗传与环境对儿童发展的影响:介绍一个新颖的研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon T. Harold; Katherine H. Shelton; Frances Rice; Jacky Boivin; Dale Hay; Marianne Van Den Bree; Anita Thapar

    2008-01-01

    本文介绍一个可以用于研究遗传与环境互动的新颖方法.此研究收集了上千个4~10岁儿童的数据.这些儿童的出生都借助于不同的辅助受孕技术(Assisted Reproductive Technologies),包括试管婴儿、精子捐赠、卵子捐赠、胚胎捐赠及代孕技术.本项目通过妇科(助孕)医院收集被试的行为数据,包括家庭互动、养育方式、父母婚姻质量、家庭成员的心理健康及经济状况等.本文选择性地介绍一些分析的结果,以彰显这种设计在分离遗传和产前产后环境对儿童发展的贡献.首先,我们比较了"助孕"儿童与"自然孕"儿童在父母冲突、父母对子女敌意以及儿童抑郁症状之间关系的异同.其次,我们比较了这两组儿童在父母抑郁症状、家庭关系质量以及儿童抑郁症状之间关系的异同.再次,本文介绍了这一可分离遗传与环境因素的研究设计.最后,我们讨论了这一设计对发展心理病干预及预防的意义.%The present study describes a novel methodology to examine the interplay between genetic and environmental influences on children's development. Families of children aged 4 - 10 years born by one of five methods of assisted reproductive technologies, specifically homologous in vitro fertilization (IVF), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation, and gestational surrogacy, were contacted through fertility clinics and mailed a set of questionnaires focusing on the quality of family interaction, parenting, marital satisfaction, parent and child psychological health, economic conditions and family demographics. Analyses are described that highlight the novelty of this research design to disentangle genetic, intrauterine and early social environmental influences on children's development. First, results are described whereby comparisons were made between children born through assisted reproductive technologies and children conceived naturally in relation to patterns of

  3. Children's participation in family food consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for researching children and food consumption in the family. The proposed framework draws on contemporary social science approaches to the study of family decision making, food consumption patterns and routines, and consumer competence and food......-related lifestyle in order to understand children and families through their everyday practices. It suggest a new emphasis on children as active agents in the formation of family food consumption patterns and looks at children's food choices as embedded in everyday family life. We focus especially on the construct...... of the "Consumer Competence" of the child as one important aspect determining the way a child is involved in and gains influence over family food consumption. The paper also demonstrates how a mixed methods design, employing ethnographic and survey techniques, involves advances in methodological and analytical...

  4. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  5. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  6. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  7. Conducta suicida en niños y adolescentes. Aspectos éticos y morales Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents: moral and ethical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A Turiño Pedraja

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal sobre el intento suicida en pacientes pertenecientes a las áreas de salud Este y Julio A. Mella de la ciudad de Camagüey que ingresaron en la sala de Salud Mental del Hospital Pediátrico “Eduardo Agramonte Piña”. La muestra quedó constituida por 16 pacientes que realizaron intentos suicida en el período señalado. Los resultados muestran un alto predominio del sexo femenino (81,3%, los estudiantes externos (62,5%, seguido por los becados (31,2%. La escolaridad segundaria no terminada arrojó el mayor por ciento (56.2% y las familias disfuncionales constituyen el mayor factor de riesgo similar a los conflictos en las relaciones familiares, ambos con un 75%. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el comportamiento de los intento suicidas en la edad de Infanto Juvenil durante el año 2002 en dos áreas de salud del municipio de Camagüey y valorar los aspectos éticos y morales de dicho proceder con la ayuda del enfoque de los estudios de Ciencia - Tecnología - SociedadIt was carried out a descriptive and traverse study on suicidal attempts in patients belonging to “Este” and “Julio A. Mella” health areas in Camagüey city that were admitted to the Mental Health ward of “Eduardo Agramonte Pi ñ a Pediatric Hospital. The sample was constituted by 16 patients that carried out suicidal attempts in the period. The results show a high prevalence of the feminine sex (81,3%, external students (62,5%, and those granted a scholarship (31,2%. Those who didn't finish high school account for the highest percent (56.2% and dysfunctional families constitute number one risk factor together with family relationship conflicts, both with 75%. The objective of this study was to know the behavior of suicidal attempts in these age groups during the year 2002 in two health areas of Camagüey municipality and to value the ethical and moral aspects of this behavior with the help of the Science

  8. O tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar: uma revisão sistemática e crítica dos aspectos metodológicos dos estudos clínicos modernos The pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic and critical review of the methodological aspects of modern clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Cheniaux

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente os principais estudos clínicos sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar e fazer uma análise crítica de seus aspectos metodológicos. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados Medline, ISI e PsycINFO, utilizando-se os seguintes termos de busca: "bipolar", "randomized", "placebo" e "controlled". Foram selecionados estudos clínicos randomizados, duplo-cegos e controlados por placebo sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar. Além disso, de acordo com os nossos critérios, as amostras deveriam ser de no mínimo 100 pacientes e a substância testada deveria ser usada como monoterapia. RESULTADOS: 34 artigos se adequaram aos critérios de seleção. Todas as substâncias atualmente indicadas para mania, depressão bipolar e para o tratamento de manutenção foram mais eficazes que o placebo em pelo menos um estudo. Todavia, esses estudos tiveram amostras altamente selecionadas, altas taxas de abandono e baixas taxas de resposta clínica. CONCLUSÃO: Os modernos estudos clínicos sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar apresentam algumas importantes limitações metodológicas. Assim, seus resultados devem ser considerados com cautela.OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the main clinical trials on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder and to make a critical analysis of their methodological aspects. METHOD: A search in Medline, ISI and PsycINFO databases was conducted, using the following search terms: "bipolar", "randomized", "placebo" e "controlled". Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder were selected. Besides, according to our criteria, samples had to consist of at least 100 patients and experimental drug had to be used as monotherapy. RESULTS: 34 articles met our selection criteria. All drugs currently indicated for mania, bipolar depression and maintenance treatment of

  9. Optimising AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension of Java, is becoming increasingly popular. However, not much work has been directed at optimising compilers for AspectJ. Optimising AOP languages provides many new and interesting challenges for compiler writers, and this paper identifies and addresses three...... all of the techniques in this paper in abc, our AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ, and we demonstrate significant speedups with empirical results. Some of our techniques have already been integrated into the production AspectJ compiler, ajc 1.2.1....

  10. Grounded theory: methodology and philosophical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeljeh, Tahereh Najafi; Emami, Azita

    2009-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory reshapes the interactive relationship between researcher and participants and provides the reader with a sense of the analytical views through which the researcher examines the data. This paper presents an overview of grounded theory and constructivist grounded theory, exploring the ontological, epistemological and methodological aspects using examples from nursing research.

  11. Teaching Camera Calibration by a Constructivist Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, D.; Santolaria, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Metrovisionlab simulation software and practical sessions designed to teach the most important machine vision camera calibration aspects in courses for senior undergraduate students. By following a constructivist methodology, having received introductory theoretical classes, students use the Metrovisionlab application to…

  12. La energía en la formación de los suelos: aspectos teóricos y metodológicos para su evaluación Energy in soil formation: theoretical and methodological aspects for its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Degioanni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El suelo es un sistema abierto que tiende hacia un equilibrio dinámico acumulando y reciclando materia y energía a través del tiempo. Mediante un balance energético es posible evaluar la energía acumulada o la que circula a través de su masa. Esta miscelánea tiene por objetivo presentar aspectos teóricos y metodológicos para cuantificar la energía dinamizada durante la formación de un sistema suelo y analizar la relación entre ésta y algunas propiedades físicas, físico-químicas y químicas que definen la capacidad de producción del suelo. Se describió un modelo de balance energético para el cálculo de la energía en la formación de los suelos y se analiza la relación entre ésta y el contenido de arcilla, materia orgánica, capacidad de intercambio catiónico, pH, saturación con bases y capacidad productiva. Se aplicó la metodología de cálculo para tres suelos zonales argentinos. Se observó una relación positiva entre la cantidad de energía dinamizada durante la formación de los suelos con la génesis de arcilla, el contenido de materia orgánica, la lixiviación de bases y la productividad primaria de fitomasa nativa. Si bien el modelo energético presentó algunas limitaciones para su aplicación, el mismo se presentó una metodología novedosa para estudiar aspectos relacionados con génesis, relaciones clima-suelovegetación y capacidad de producción de los suelos.The soil is an open system that accumulates and recycles matter and energy over time. By modeling the energy balance, the energy that accumulates or circulates through soil mass may be assessed. The objective of this study was to present theoretical and methodological aspects that quantify energy dynamized during soil formation and to analyze the relationship between this energy and some physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties that define soil production capacity. The study describes a model of energy balance that calculates the annual use

  13. Language Policy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  14. Children Teaching Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  15. Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde: aspectos metodológicos e articulação com a Organização Mundial da Saúde World Health Survey: methodological aspects and interface with the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    2008-05-01

    financing and in health status, the proposal received countless criticisms from both conceptual and methodological viewpoints. During the redesign phase, in order to provide information about the health status of the population, the WHO proposed the application of the World Health Survey (WHS. In Brazil, the WHS was carried in 2003 for establishing consistent parameters to evaluate heath status and health care responsiveness, in addition to measuring socioeconomic health inequalities. The survey interviewed 5,000 individuals, aged 18 and above, nationwide. The sample design had three selection stages. In the first stage, 250 census tracts were systematically selected with probability proportional to size. In the second stage, households were selected with equal probability using an inverse sample design to assure 20 interviews by sector. In each household, just one adult (18 years or more was selected with equal probability to respond to the individual questionnaire. A modular questionnaire was translated and adapted from the one originally proposed by the WHO. Sample weights were based on the inverse of probabilities of inclusion in the sample calculated for each selection stage. In this paper, we describe the methodological aspects of the survey and the interface process with the WHO to conduct the WHS in Brazil.

  16. Discovering Early Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baniassad, E.; Clements, P.; Araujo, J.; Moreira, A.; Rashid, A.; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) has focused on the software life cycle's implementation phase: aspects are identified and captured mainly in code. But aspects are evident earlier in the life cycle, such as during requirements gathering and architecture development. Identif

  17. Aspects, Dependencies, and Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitchyan, R; Fabry, J.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Südholt, M.; Consel, C.

    2007-01-01

    For Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) the topic of Aspects, Dependencies and Interactions is of high importance across the whole range of development activities – from requirements engineering through to language design. Aspect interactions must be adequately addressed all across the softw

  18. Language learning - physiological and psychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Tarnoveanu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several stages in the linguistic development of a child; he will not merely reproduce the sentences he hears, but a personal production is often noticed. Children do not acquire the grammar of their native language through theoretical teaching; exposure to the speaking community will lead to the acquisition of the grammatical structures of their language. Little is known about how little children acquire the rules of their native language; yet, we may distinguish between physiological and psychological aspects.

  19. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised.

  20. 76 FR 38189 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study SUMMARY: In compliance... Collection Title: Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's... requirements of the Children's Health Act, the results of formative research will be used to maximize...

  1. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  2. Scenario development methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, J. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City, Herts (United Kingdom); Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are (a) Event tree analysis, (b) Influence diagrams and (c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs.

  3. LANGUAGE POLICY AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony J. Liddicoat

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit recommendations about the methods to be used in classroom practice, or indirectly, through the conceptualisation of language leaming which underlies the policy. It can be argued that all language policies have the potential to influence teaching methodologies indirectly and that those policies which have explicit recommendations about methodology are actually functioning of two levels. This allows for the possibility of conflict between the direct and indirect dimensions of the policy which results from an inconsistency between the explicitly recommended methodology and the underlying conceptualisation of language teaching and learning which informs the policy.

  4. Open verification methodology cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Glasser, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Functional verification is an art as much as a science. It requires not only creativity and cunning, but also a clear methodology to approach the problem. The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) is a leading-edge methodology for verifying designs at multiple levels of abstraction. It brings together ideas from electrical, systems, and software engineering to provide a complete methodology for verifying large scale System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. OVM defines an approach for developing testbench architectures so they are modular, configurable, and reusable. This book is designed to help both novic

  5. Studying children's religious knowledge: contributions of ethnography and the clinical-critical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Palacios, Mariana; Castorina, José Antonio

    2014-12-01

    We analyze different methodological and conceptual contributions of anthropology and psychogenetic theory to the research of children's religious knowledge. We argue that for the study of children's points of view it is possible to build an approach that links aspects studied by both disciplinary fields. With this aim, we revise some of their basic theoretical assumptions and recent reviews as well as their methodological proposals. Then we review the core characteristics of ethnography and the clinical-critical method-proposed by Piaget's psychogenetic theory-with the goal of stressing their potentialities as well as their limitations in research. We argue that within an ethnographic approach, we must establish certain restrictions on the clinical-critical method following basic premises of social anthropology. This approach lets us demonstrate the importance of understanding children's constructions by placing them within social relations that children produce and update in everyday interactions.

  6. Functional aspects of spina bifida in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Maria Adriana Gerdina Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Due to advanced medical treatment, more children with spina bifida survive into adulthood. Most outcome studies in the field of spina bifida research focus on disease aspects (‘pathology’) and its relation to one of the domains in the ‘disablement process’ such as physical functioning, cognitive abi

  7. Functional aspects of spina bifida in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Maria Adriana Gerdina Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Due to advanced medical treatment, more children with spina bifida survive into adulthood. Most outcome studies in the field of spina bifida research focus on disease aspects (‘pathology’) and its relation to one of the domains in the ‘disablement process’ such as physical functioning, cognitive

  8. Neuropsychological aspects in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    assessment should include all aspects of healthy development, including motor skills. This article outlines the results of a study whose objective was to show the relationship between age at onset of dietary treatment and adherence to the treatment, and the motor behavior of hyperphenylalaninemic children under nine years.

  9. Estudo longitudinal da população materno-infantil da região urbana do Sul do Brasil, 1993: aspectos metodológicos e resultados preliminares Longitudinal study of the mother and child population in an urban region of southern Brazil, 1993: methodological aspects and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar G. Victora

    1996-02-01

    followed up prospectively during the first years of their lives. In 1993, this study was repeated with a similar methodology, with the aim of assessing eventual changes in the level of maternal and child health. All five maternity hospitals in the city were visited daily and the 5,304 babies born included in the study. They were weighed and measured, and their gestational age was assessed using the Dubowitz method. Their mothers were examined and interviewed regarding a large number of risk factors. The mortality of these children was studied through the surveillance of all hospitals, cemeteries and death registries, and all hospital admissions were also recorded. Two nested case-control studies were carried out to assess risk factors for mortality and hospital morbidity. A systematic sample of 655 children were examined at home at one and three months of age, and these infants, as well as another sample of 805 children including all low-birthweight babies were also examined at the ages of six and twelve months. Their psychomotor development was also assessed. Losses to follow-up were only 6.6% at twelve months. Relative to the 1982 indicators, perinatal mortality fell by about 30% and infant mortality by almost 50%. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 3.1 to 4.0 months. On the other hand, there was little change in the prevalences of low birthweight or of length for age at twelve months. The article that refers this abstract describes the methodology of the study and forthcoming publications will present detailed results.

  10. Le Francais, Langue Seconde: Aspects de la Conversation (French as a Second Language: Conversational Aspects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Claude

    The nature of conversation as communication is explored in its psychological, linguistic, and didactic aspects with particular reference to the learning of French as a second language. Major emphasis is placed on psychological and linguistic theories. In the didactic section, the problems, value, and methodology of conversation classes are…

  11. Some aspects of periodontitis pathogenesis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina I.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory processes in the tissues surrounding tooth root are frequent enough and develop as the direct complication of caries. As acute periodontitis is manifested with grinding toothache and violation of ph¬y¬sio¬logical act of chewing, symptoms of general intoxication, the continuous sluggish chronic periodontitis is harmful and dangerous to the organism as well. It forms the state of chronic оdontogenetic intoxication and chroneosepsis with wrong functioning of some internal organs and body systems. The like complications can cause significant disturbance to the function of kidneys, liver, heart, joints and their treatment without ablating focus of inflammation is often in- effective; this must be taken into account by doctors-interns. However, scanning of the oral cavity by conservative means has its difficulties mostly because of ignoring pathogenesis of such inflammation. That is why activity of ferments of blood dehydrogenases from the periapical tissues of the teeth affected with the chronic periodontitis was studied. The level of succinate dehydrogenase and alpha-glycerophosphate degydrogenase of lymphocytes of 110 schoolchildren aged 13-17 years old was studied. The main group of examined individuals included those of infected with tuber¬culousis – 50 individuals, and the control group (60 individuals – clinically healthy ones without tuberculousis desease. All schoolchildren had 1 or 2 teeth affected with chronic periodontitis of the apical localization. The researchers found that a significant inhibition of activity of succinate dehydrogenase and alpha-glycerophosphate degydrogenase ferments occurs in the inflammatory periodontal tissues, which indicates to local immunity decline, and as a consequence, pathogenic bacteria activation. In people infected with tuberculousis these violations were more developed. Such features of periodontitis pathogenesis must be taken into account when providing a combined treatment.

  12. Psychological aspects of children with developmental glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Ferracina; Adriana Maria Rodrigues; Ricardo Belfort; Paulo Augusto Arruda Mello

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar as seguintes características psicológicas de crianças portadoras de glaucoma de desenvolvimento: imaturidade, ansiedade, dependência e sociabilização. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 15 crianças com glaucoma do desenvolvimento pertencentes ao ambulatório do Glaucoma Congênito e 15 crianças sem nenhum problema visual pelo teste projetivo do desenho livre. RESULTADOS: No grupo de estudo, 66,6% das crianças glaucomatosas se mostraram imaturas, 86,6% eram ansiosas, 73,3% eram dependente...

  13. A review of methodologies used in research on cadastral development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Maria Augusta; Stubkjær, Erik

    2002-01-01

    to the acceptance of research methodologies needed for cadastral development, and thereby enhance theory in the cadastral domain. The paper reviews nine publica-tions on cadastre and identifies the methodologies used. The review focuses on the institutional, social political and economic aspects of cadastral...... development, rather than on the technical aspects. The main conclusion of this paper is that the methodologies used are largely those of the social sciences. That agrees with the notion that cadastre relates as much to people and institutions, as it relates to land, and that cadastral systems are shaped...

  14. Data Centric Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.

    2012-01-01

    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  15. Creativity in phenomenological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente; Norlyk, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    on the methodologies of van Manen, Dahlberg, Lindseth & Norberg, the aim of this paper is to argue that the increased focus on creativity and arts in research methodology is valuable to gain a deeper insight into lived experiences. We illustrate this point through examples from empirical nursing studies, and discuss...

  16. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  17. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  18. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  19. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...

  20. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works as a b...

  1. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  2. Rapid Dialogue Prototyping Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Sojka, P.; Rajman, M.; Kopecek, I.; Melichar, M.; Pala, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the automated production of dialogue models. The goal is to propose and validate a methodology that allows the production of finalized dialogue models (i.e. dialogue models specific for given applications) in a few hours. The solution we propose for such a methodology, called the

  3. Benchmarking of corporate social responsibility: Methodological problems and robustness

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibilities and problems of benchmarking Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). After a methodological analysis of the advantages and problems of benchmarking, we develop a benchmark method that includes economic, social and environmental aspects as well as national and international aspects of CSR. The overall benchmark is based on a weighted average of these aspects. The weights are based on the opinions of companies and NGO’s. Using different me...

  4. Lexical and Grammatical Aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Angeliek; Lidz, Jeffrey; Snyder, William; Pater, Joe

    The temporality of a given situation ‘out there in the world’ can be described in many ways. Tense and aspect offer the essential parameters. Lexical aspect characterizes event descriptions; a situation with a sleeping child can be referred to as a state of affairs (be asleep) or as a happening

  5. Aspects of recent developments in analytical chemometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Yizeng; WU; Hailong; SHEN; Guoli; JIANG; Jianhui; LIANG; Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Some aspects of recent developments in analytical chemometrics are discussed, in particular the developments viewed from the angle of the research efforts undertaken in authors' laboratories. The topics concerned include resolution of high-order chemical data, morphological theory and methodology for chemical signal processing, multivariate calibration and chemical pattern recognition for solving complex chemical problems, and resolution of two-way chemical data from hyphenated chromatographic instruments.

  6. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...... Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers....

  7. Pesquisa qualitativa em Educação Matemática a distância: aspectos importantes do uso do Role Playing Game como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa Qualitative research in distance Mathematics Education: important aspects of the Role Playing Game as research methodological procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo evidencia aspectos do Role Playing Game (RPG, jogo de representação de personagens, que o tornam um importante procedimento de investigação em termos de Pesquisa Qualitativa em Educação (no caso, Educação Matemática a Distância. Esse jogo foi adotado em uma pesquisa (ROSA, 2008 que estudou as relações estabelecidas entre a construção de identidades online e o ensino e a aprendizagem do conceito de Integral Definida (conceito do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral em um curso a distância. Assim, a partir dessa investigação que utilizou o RPG jogado a distância, via chat, como procedimento de coleta de dados, discutimos a inserção desse jogo como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa em Educação Matemática a Distância e caracterizamos como esse processo liga-se a questões referentes à Pesquisa Qualitativa nesse novo cenário: o ciberespaço. Logo, assumimos que adotar o RPG como procedimento de pesquisa favorece tanto o pesquisador, quanto os sujeitos investigados, em termos de mostrarem-se como "diferentes" mesmo sendo "os mesmos" (ROSA, 2008 e isso potencializa a produção do conhecimento matemático, bem como a análise das ações e possibilidades educacionais vislumbradas pelo ser online que se apresenta no ambiente natural apresentado. Também apontamos a adoção do RPG como fator que impele e amplia a concepção pós-estruturalista de Educação que, em ambientes virtuais, cada vez mais, vem destacando e estabelecendo uma amplitude de investigação que transforma esse espaço imaginativo e surpreendente em um ambiente natural de pesquisa.This article highlights aspects of the Role Playing Game (RPG, which make an important procedure in terms of research on Qualitative Research in Distance Education (in this case, Mathematics Education. This game was used in a research (ROSA, 2008 that studied the relations between the construction of online identities and teaching and learning of the concept of

  8. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  9. Evolução da pneumonia lipoide exógena em crianças: aspectos clínicos e radiológicos e o papel da lavagem broncoalveolar Evolution of exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and the role of bronchoalveolar lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Maria de Azevedo Sias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os aspectos da evolução da pneumonia lipoide em crianças, com base em aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e de achados no lavado broncoalveolar, enfatizando a importância diagnóstica e terapêutica da lavagem broncoalveolar. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas 28 crianças, com idade média de 20 meses (1-108 meses e diagnóstico de pneumonia crônica refratária a antimicrobianos e/ou TB. A maioria apresentava um fator de risco para aspiração, e todas apresentavam história de ingestão de óleo mineral para o tratamento de constipação intestinal (23/28 ou de ascaridíase complicada (5/28. A avaliação clínica e tomográfica e análises do lavado broncoalveolar foram realizadas no início do tratamento e em até 24 meses. RESULTADOS: Os sintomas mais frequentes foram taquipneia e tosse. As principais alterações radiológicas foram consolidações (23/28, infiltrado peri-hilar (13/28 e hiperinsuflação (11/28. A TC de tórax mostrou consolidações com broncograma aéreo (24/28, diminuição de atenuação nas áreas de consolidação (16/28, opacidade em vidro fosco (3/28 e padrão em mosaico (1/28. O estudo do lavado broncoalveolar apresentava macrófagos espumosos corados por Sudan, confirmando o diagnóstico da pneumonia lipoide. Após tratamento com múltiplas lavagens broncoalveolares (média = 9,6, 20 crianças tornaram-se assintomáticas, havendo normalização tomográfica em 18. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico de pneumonia lipoide deve ser considerado na pneumonia crônica ou TB refratárias ao tratamento, especialmente se houver história de ingestão de óleo mineral. A broncoscopia com múltiplas lavagens broncoalveolares mostrou-se eficiente para a depuração do óleo aspirado do parênquima pulmonar e a prevenção da fibrose, contribuindo para a redução da morbidade dessa doença, que ainda é pouco diagnosticada.OBJECTIVE: To present aspects of the evolution of lipoid pneumonia in children, based on

  10. Foundational aspects of security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  11. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-06-18

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.

  12. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  13. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  14. Hermeneutic Phenomenology and Phenomenology: A Comparison of Historical and Methodological Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Susann M. Laverty

    2003-01-01

    Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology have become increasingly popular as research methodologies, yet confusion still exists about the unique aspects of these two methodologies. This article provides a discussion of the essential similarities and differences between hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology from historical and methodological perspectives. Consideration is given to the philosophical bases, assumptions, focus of research and research outcomes that differentiate these ap...

  15. Lexical Prosody as an Aspect of Oral Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Benjamin, Rebekah George

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lexical compounding, suffixation, and part of speech aspects of lexical prosody rendered while reading text aloud are predictive of children's developing oral reading fluency and reading comprehension skills. Ninety-four third grade children were recorded while reading aloud a grade-level…

  16. Some Aspects of Futurism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangchai, Samporn

    1975-01-01

    The article, an overview, surveys various schools of futures research with reference to futurism's dimensions (methodologies, typologies, and distance in time); planning for alternative futures; orientations; and inner-future orientations (mysticism vs. science). Developing nations are advised to adapt developed nations' learnings selectively, and…

  17. A Functional HAZOP Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    A HAZOP methodology is presented where a functional plant model assists in a goal oriented decomposition of the plant purpose into the means of achieving the purpose. This approach leads to nodes with simple functions from which the selection of process and deviation variables follow directly....... The functional HAZOP methodology lends itself directly for implementation into a computer aided reasoning tool to perform root cause and consequence analysis. Such a tool can facilitate finding causes and/or consequences far away from the site of the deviation. A functional HAZOP assistant is proposed...... and investigated in a HAZOP study of an industrial scale Indirect Vapor Recompression Distillation pilot Plant (IVaRDiP) at DTU-Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. The study shows that the functional HAZOP methodology provides a very efficient paradigm for facilitating HAZOP studies and for enabling reasoning...

  18. Children and youth with disabilities: innovative methods for single qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Gail; Gibson, Barbara E

    2013-02-01

    There is a paucity of explicit literature outlining methods for single-interview studies with children, and almost none have focused on engaging children with disabilities. Drawing from a pilot study, we address these gaps by describing innovative techniques, strategies, and methods for engaging children and youth with disabilities in a single qualitative interview. In the study, we explored the beliefs, assumptions, and experiences of children and youth with cerebral palsy and their parents regarding the importance of walking. We describe three key aspects of our child-interview methodological approach: collaboration with parents, a toolkit of customizable interview techniques, and strategies to consider the power differential inherent in child-researcher interactions. Examples from our research illustrate what worked well and what was less successful. Researchers can optimize single interviews with children with disabilities by collaborating with family members and by preparing a toolkit of customizable interview techniques.

  19. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  20. Changing methodologies in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Spiro, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Covering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of l