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Sample records for children methodological aspects

  1. Diuresis renography in children: methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnin, F.; Le Stanc, E.; Busquet, G.; Saidi, L.; Lyonnet, F.

    1995-01-01

    In paediatrics, diuresis renography is used as a method to guide clinical management of hydronephrosis or hydro-uretero-nephrosis. Various pitfalls in the technique and other errors exist and may lead to a misinterpretation of the test. The methodology for performing and interpreting the diuresis renography is discussed. (authors). 12 refs., 4 figs

  2. Diuresis renography in children: methodological aspects; Nephrogramme isotopique avec epreuve d`hyperdiurese chez l`enfant: aspects methodologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, F.; Le Stanc, E. [Hopital Beaujon, 92 - Clichy (France); Busquet, G.; Saidi, L. [Hopital Mignot, 78 - Versailles (France); Lyonnet, F. [Hopital Lapeyronie, 34 -Montpellier (France)

    1995-12-31

    In paediatrics, diuresis renography is used as a method to guide clinical management of hydronephrosis or hydro-uretero-nephrosis. Various pitfalls in the technique and other errors exist and may lead to a misinterpretation of the test. The methodology for performing and interpreting the diuresis renography is discussed. (authors). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.; Menossi, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  4. Methodological Aspects of Architectural Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arivaldo Amorim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodological approach that is being developed in the state of Bahia in Brazil since 2003, in architectural and urban sites documentation, using extensive digital technologies. Bahia has a vast territory with important architectural ensembles ranging from the sixteenth century to present day. As part of this heritage is constructed of raw earth and wood, it is very sensitive to various deleterious agents. It is therefore critical document this collection that is under threats. To conduct those activities diverse digital technologies that could be used in documentation process are being experimented. The task is being developed as an academic research, with few financial resources, by scholarship students and some volunteers. Several technologies are tested ranging from the simplest to the more sophisticated ones, used in the main stages of the documentation project, as follows: work overall planning, data acquisition, processing and management and ultimately, to control and evaluate the work. The activities that motivated this paper are being conducted in the cities of Rio de Contas and Lençóis in the Chapada Diamantina, located at 420 km and 750 km from Salvador respectively, in Cachoeira city at Recôncavo Baiano area, 120 km from Salvador, the capital of Bahia state, and at Pelourinho neighbourhood, located in the historic capital. Part of the material produced can be consulted in the website: < www.lcad.ufba.br>.

  5. Methodological aspects of language processing research with adults and children : Reading research and the Visual World Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijn, Rein

    2012-01-01

    Research on language comprehension has benefited greatly from the use of eye-tracking methodology. However, the technique is not easy to use. In particular, the creation of (auditory and visual) stimuli and the analysis of eye-movement data are difficult and laborious. The presentation will deal

  6. State debt dynamics: the methodological aspect

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    Crijanovschi Stela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development

  7. STATE DEBT DYNAMICS: THE METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT

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    Stela CRIJANOVSCHI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development.

  8. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  9. An aspect-oriented methodology for designing secure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georg, Geri; Ray, Indrakshi; Anastasakis, Kyriakos; Bordbar, Behzad; Toahchoodee, Manachai; Houmb, S.H.

    We propose a methodology, based on aspect-oriented modeling (AOM), for incorporating security mechanisms in an application. The functionality of the application is described using the primary model and the attacks are specified using aspects. The attack aspect is composed with the primary model to

  10. Methodological aspects of shift-work research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in shift-work research is to understand the possible ways in which shift work can impact performance and health. Nearly all body functions, from those of the cellular level to those of the entire body, are circadian rhythmic. Disturbances of these rhythms as well as the social consequences of odd work hours are of importance for the health and well-being of shift workers. This article reviews a number of common methodological issues which are of relevance to epidemiological studies in this area of research. It discusses conceptual problems regarding the use of the term "shift work," and it underscores the need to develop models that explain the mechanisms of disease in shift workers.

  11. [Hepatic cell transplantation. Technical and methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Eugenia; Martínez, Amparo; Cortés, Miriam; Bonora, Ana; Moya, Angel; Sanjuán, Fernando; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Mir, José

    2010-03-01

    Hepatic cell transplantation consists of grafting already differentiated cells such as hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes are viable and functionally active. Liver cell transplantation is carried out by means of a 3-step method: isolation of hepatocytes from donor liver rejected for orthotopic transplantation, preparing a cell suspension for infusion and, finally, hepatocytes are implanted into the recipient. There are established protocols for the isolation of human hepatocytes from unused segments of donor livers, based on collagenase digestion of cannulated liver tissue at 37 degrees C. The hepatocytes can be used fresh or cryopreserved. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes would then be available for planned use. In cell transplant, the important aspects are: infusion route, number of cells, number of infusions and viability of the cells. The cells are infused into the patient through a catheter inserted via portal vein or splenic artery. Liver cell transplantation allows liver tissue to be used that would, otherwise, be discarded, enabling multiple patients to be treated with hepatocytes from a single tissue donor. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. SOME METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TRAINING IT PROFESSIONALS

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    Svitlana Leshchuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The important task of higher educational establishments is preparation of competitive professional, man that easily feels in market conditions and informative society. Next to possessing of informatively-communication technologies necessary abilities to study in a group, skills of prosecution of general projects. The aim of the article is to show possibility of organization of educational activity of students with maintenance and form works that is required by modern industry of information technologies. An author is describe separate steps preparations of future specialists, that is required by a IT-sphere; specialists that own a modern tool are understood by modern approaches in programming; able to work in a command above a general project and to arrive at a result. The basic ideas of the object-oriented programming are considered, methodology of management projects for the flexible Scrum and possibilities of the use of control system by versions software development, as a powerful instrument that gives an opportunity simultaneously, swimmingly to each other, to conduct the prosecution of group projects. Description comes true on the basis of realization of the special course for specialists on the informatics of specialities «Applied mathematics», «Informatics» of physics-mathematics faculty (Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University. The table of contents of material is extended also by an acquaintance with the architectural template of MVC and generalization of abilities of work with a programmatic tool, by a necessity for creation of web-projects. The practical achievement of educational activity of students is development of social web-project with the aim of increase of level of culture of society and benevolent atmosphere of city.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM FORMATION

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    Larisa I. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological aspects of the internal control system formation are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the problems of financial statements misrepresentation. The basic principles and structure of the internal control system are discussed in this article.

  14. The specific aspects for the ASSET methodology implementation in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serbanescu, D [National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control of Romania (Romania)

    1997-10-01

    The main aspects of the implementation of a root cause analysis methodology are as follows: The Test Operating Licence requires that a systematical root cause analysis method for the event analysis to clarify the three questions from the ASSET methodology has to be implemented; A Training seminar on the ASSET methodology for the plant staff was performed at Cernavoda 1 NPP in April 1997, with the IAEA support; The self assessment process for the events which occurred during commissioning phases has to be performed by the plant up to the end of this year; An ASSET Peer Review of the Plant Self Assessment is planned in 1998; The Regulatory Authority has the task to evaluated independently the plant conclusions on various events. The tool used by CNCAN is the ASSET methodology.

  15. The specific aspects for the ASSET methodology implementation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbanescu, D.

    1997-01-01

    The main aspects of the implementation of a root cause analysis methodology are as follows: The Test Operating Licence requires that a systematical root cause analysis method for the event analysis to clarify the three questions from the ASSET methodology has to be implemented; A Training seminar on the ASSET methodology for the plant staff was performed at Cernavoda 1 NPP in April 1997, with the IAEA support; The self assessment process for the events which occurred during commissioning phases has to be performed by the plant up to the end of this year; An ASSET Peer Review of the Plant Self Assessment is planned in 1998; The Regulatory Authority has the task to evaluated independently the plant conclusions on various events. The tool used by CNCAN is the ASSET methodology

  16. Methodological Aspects of Depreciation as an Economic Category

    OpenAIRE

    Sigidov, Yuriy I.; Rybyantseva, Maria S.; Adamenko, Alexandr A.; Yarushkina, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    Depreciation is a complex economic category, the essence of which is manifested in the duality: this cost element, and its own source of reproduction of fixed assets and intangible assets. The depreciation laid relationship with asset and liability balance sheet; it touches on aspects such as formation costs, taxation issues, and reproductive process. That is why a methodological study of the depreciation essence, the allocation of the classification of bases, principles and functions seems u...

  17. Qualidade de vida e saúde bucal em crianças e adolescentes: aspectos conceituais e metodológicos Quality of life and oral health in children and adolescents: conceptual and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís de Souza Barbosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pela qualidade de vida e saúde bucal em crianças e adolescentes vem aumentando, já que as desordens orais provavelmente apresentam efeito negativo na qualidade de vida das mesmas. Neste sentido, questionários que visam a avaliar o impacto da saúde bucal no bem-estar têm sido desenvolvidos e adaptados para este grupo específico. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a relação entre qualidade de vida e saúde bucal em crianças e adolescentes, focalizando aspectos conceituais e metodológicos. Os instrumentos desenvolvidos para avaliar a qualidade de vida e saúde bucal em crianças e adolescentes são: o Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ, para crianças de 8-10 (CPQ8-10 e 11-14 anos (CPQ11-14; o Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances, para a idade de 11-12 anos; o Child Oral Health Impact Profile, para crianças de 8-14 anos, e o Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale para a faixa etária de 2-5 anos. Apesar dos progressos nessa área, ainda existem muitas questões a serem debatidas e respondidas, como a necessidade de questionários específicos para diferentes idades, a participação dos responsáveis como respondentes secundários e a avaliação do impacto da saúde bucal da criança e do adolescente na família.There has been increasing interest in the oral health-related quality of life of children and adolescents, since pediatric oral disorders are likely to have a negative effect on children's quality of life. So the questionnaires that aim to assess the impact of oral health on child' and adolescent' quality of life has been developed or adapted to this specific group. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between the quality of life and oral health in children and adolescents, focalizing conceptual and methodological aspects. The instruments developed to assess oral health-related quality of life in children and adolescents are: the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ, for children aged 8

  18. Aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Forget

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aimed at investigating some aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children. In the introduction general aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism are presented. Chapter 1 reviews recent litterature data on the intravenous fat tolerance test and on plasma postheparin

  19. Biopsychosocial aspects of sleep bruxism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restrepo Serna, C.C.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain an insight into the interactions between the biopsychological aspects of sleep bruxism (SB) in children. To that end, validated instruments and calibrated devices for the assessment of SB in children were used. The studies were performed in Medellin, Colombia. In

  20. Methodology for studying social advertising: A sociological aspect

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    S B Kalmykov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the author’s dynamic processual methodology for the sociological study of social advertising that combines the multiversion paradigmatic approach, legitimization procedures, methodological principles of interconnection, multilevel analysis and the principles of sociological data formalization developed by P. Lazarsfeld. The author explains the multi-stage strategy of the methodology and the research procedures that provide new sociological knowledge about the processes of social advertising. The first stage involves analysis of the social advertising as a number of institutional, communicative, socio-cultural and socio-technological processes. The second stage consists of the development of the substantive aspects of social advertising dynamics and its dependence on the features of different socio-demographic groups. The third stage of the methodology includes a comparative analysis of the social advertising theoretical and empirical aspects and the subsequent assessment of its fundamental and applied capabilities. The author identifies two types of research practices: the first one consists of three levels of complexity - the first one is to design the social advertising categories and concepts; the second one requires a higher level of generalization; the third one supposes justification of the universal categorization and the social advertising conceptualization for different social areas as well as a comparative analysis of the theory of the social advertising impact developed by O.O. Savel’eva with the research results for the aims of the promotion of the sociology of advertising. The article concludes with the demonstration of the proposed methodology universality for different spheres of social reality.

  1. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GIFTED CHILDREN

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    Gordana Nikola Stankovska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giftedness is a multidimensional phenomenon that despite numerous studies and different approaches remains underexplored. It is known that there is different views about gifted children in psychological theory and practice. Giftedness represents general intellectual ability, general creative ability, productive and creative ability, the sum of specific skills, the ability of thinking, specific area of intelligence and creativity.Gifted child is a child who has above average skills and specific characteristics, which play an important role in the growth, development and education of these children. Researchers confirm the importance of early socialization, family and the primary teachers in the continually development of the gifted child on intellectual, social, emotional and somatic plan.It is known that e gifted child has specific characteristics and properties, such as originality, individuality, emotional stability, a high degree of intellectual capacity, independence, verbal fluency, perfectionism.Development and manifestation of creativity in gifted children depends of their cognitive component, personality traits, motivation. Gifted child early showed a specific interest in a particular area.This kind of child has a positive self-image, high self-esteem, self-confidence, high goals, a sense of self-worth, greater independence which manifests across the non-conformism and initiative.Every child deserves the special attention of parents, school and society, especially a gifted child which is a child with special needs about their average ability and special educational needs.

  2. Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects

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    El-Tallawy H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Qena University, Qena, Egypt Abstract: Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1 data collection; (2 preparation; (3 screening; (4 case ascertainment; (5 investigations; (6 classifications; (7 data entry; and (8 statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2% than males (3.9%. The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%] and among the age

  3. Philosophical and methodological aspects of the Schroedinger paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juha, L.; Krajca, R.; Smatera, M.

    1989-01-01

    Methodological aspects of the foundations of quantum theory are dealt with in relation to the quantum description of macroscopic systems, biological in particular. Attention is paid to the philosophical content of the problems of 1) the logical status of the reduction postulate in quantum mechanics, and 2) the paradox of Schroedinger's cat, whose physical solution has not yet been attained. The problem of the quantum description of complex macroscopic systems is also treated, as is Herbert Froehlich's important concept of the excitation of dominant modes in biological systems. (author). 61 refs

  4. The structuralist tradition in economics: methodological and macroeconomics aspects

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    FABRÍCIO MISSIO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the structuralist tradition in economics, emphasizing the role that structures play in the economic growth of developing countries. Since the subject at hand is evidently too large to cover in a single article, an emphasis has been brought to bear upon the macroeconomic elements of such a tradition, while also exploring its methodological aspects. It begins by analysing some general aspects of structuralism in economics (its evolution and origins associated with ECLAC thought, in this instance focusing on the dynamics of the center-periphery relationship. Thereafter, the macroeconomic structuralism derived from the works of Taylor (1983, 1991 is presented, followed by a presentation of neo-structuralism. Centred on the concept of systemic competitiveness, this approach defines a strategy to achieve the high road of globalization, understood here as an inevitable process in spite of its engagement being dependent on the policies adopted. The conclusions show the genuine contributions of this tradition to economic theory.

  5. Safety on Judo Children: Methodology and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Sacripanti, Attilio; De Blasis, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Many doctors although they have not firsthand experience of judo, describe it as a sport unsuitable for children. Theoretically speaking falls derived by Judo throwing techniques,could be potentially dangerous,especially for kids,if poorly managed.A lot of researches were focalized on trauma or injuries taking place in judo, both during training and competition The goal of this Research is to define and apply a scientific methodology to evaluate the hazard in falls by judo throws for children...

  6. Improving aspects of palliative care for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, C.T.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about improving aspects of palliative care for children, and covers three different areas of quality of care. First of all, palliative care should be anticipating. To be able to deliver this anticipating care, caregivers should know what to expect. The first two chapters of the thesis

  7. Methodological and Technical Aspects of Power Sector Liberalisation of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.; Viksna, I.; Zeltinsh, N.

    2001-01-01

    A successful liberalisation of energy markets is taking place in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), that is why it is important to investigate the methodological and technical aspects as well as the effect of this process upon the development of energy supply in the North European region. Energy supply to the Baltic countries is characterised by the fact that energy resources there are mainly supplied from the CIS, where there is a rather difficult prognostic energy market with sharp price fluctuations (sometimes supplies are completely cut). At the same time, by using the CIS energy resources, the development of the energy sector may significantly influence the total North European energy supplies. Energy saving measures and energy-efficient technologies in the following years will greatly influence energy market and energy consumption. This is an actual problem for such countries as Latvia, where the main part of its energy carriers is imported from neighbouring countries.(author)

  8. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  9. Methodological Reflections on Working with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...

  10. Sleep quality and communication aspects in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Corrêa, Camila; José, Maria Renata; Andrade, Eduardo Carvalho; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Fukushiro, Ana Paula; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Maximino, Luciana Paula

    2017-09-01

    To correlate quality of life of children in terms of sleep, with their oral language skills, auditory processing and orofacial myofunctional aspects. Nineteen children (12 males and seven females, in the mean age 9.26) undergoing otorhinolaryngological and speech evaluations participated in this study. The OSA-18 questionnaire was applied, followed by verbal and nonverbal sequential memory tests, dichotic digit test, nonverbal dichotic test and Sustained Auditory Attention Ability Test, related to auditory processing. The Phonological Awareness Profile test, Rapid Automatized Naming and Phonological Working Memory were used for assessment of the phonological processing. Language was assessed by the ABFW Child Language Test, analyzing the phonological and lexical levels. Orofacial myofunctional aspects were evaluated through the MBGR Protocol. Statistical tests used: the Mann-Whitney Test, Fisher's exact test and Spearman Correlation. Relating the performance of children in all evaluations to the results obtained in the OSA-18, there was a statistically significant correlation in the phonological working memory for backward digits (p = 0.04); as well as in the breathing item (p = 0.03), posture of the mandible (p = 0.03) and mobility of lips (p = 0.04). A correlation was seen between the sleep quality of life and the skills related to the phonological processing, specifically in the phonological working memory in backward digits, and related to orofacial myofunctional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. NEW CO-EVOLUTION STRATEGIES OF THIRD MILLENNIUM; METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT

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    E. K. Bulygo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to an application of the co-evolution methodology to the social space. Principles of instability and non-linearity that are typical for contemporary natural science are used as a theoretical background of a new social methodology. Authors try to prove that the co-evolution strategy has a long pre-history in the ancient oriental philosophy and manifests itself in forms of modem culture

  12. The main aspects of methodology of quality management system

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    Smirnova E.K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article describes the formation and development of quality management as an integrated system. The author considers the theory and methodology of quality management since the early XXth century to the present day and describes the main problems encountered in the process of quality management system, as well as the ways to overcome them.

  13. Practical Aspects of Research Monitoring: Methodological and Functional Solutions

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    A A Onosov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of designing, testing and implementing the National system of monitoring the quality of meteorological services in Russia. Within the framework of this project a large-scale research program was carried out aimed to develop the conception, methodology, research tools and design of customer assessment of the Roshydromet services.

  14. Comparison of the sanitary effects of energy chains. Methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.

    1979-01-01

    Beyond technical and economical matters, the development of an industrial technology involves more or less numerous indirect consequences. From this viewpoint, the author analysis the methodological problems raised in evaluating the sanitary and ecological problems of the different energy-producing lines and considers successively the matter of technical interdependences, protection and safety regulations and selection of sites, classification of risks and measuring problems in relation to sanitary effects [fr

  15. SEMANTIC NETWORKS: THEORETICAL, TECHNICAL, METHODOLOGIC AND ANALYTICAL ASPECTS

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    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of the methodological procedures and cares for the measurement of the connotative meanings which will be used in the elaboration of instruments with ethnic validity. Beginning from the techniques originally proposed by Figueroa et al. (1981 and later described by Lagunes (1993, the intention is to offer a didactic panorama to carry out the measurement by semantic networks introducing some recommendations derived from the studies performed with this method.

  16. Methodological Aspects of Modelling and Simulation of Robotized Workstations

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    Naqib Daneshjo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of development of application and program products, key directions that need to be respected in computer support for project activities are quite clearly specified. User interfaces with a high degree of graphical interactive convenience, two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer graphics contribute greatly to streamlining project methodologies and procedures in particular. This is mainly due to the fact that a high number of solved tasks is clearly graphic in the modern design of robotic systems. Automation of graphical character tasks is therefore a significant development direction for the subject area. The authors present results of their research in the area of automation and computer-aided design of robotized systems. A new methodical approach to modelling robotic workstations, consisting of ten steps incorporated into the four phases of the logistics process of creating and implementing a robotic workplace, is presented. The emphasis is placed on the modelling and simulation phase with verification of elaborated methodologies on specific projects or elements of the robotized welding plant in automotive production.

  17. Methodological aspects of EEG and Body dynamics measurements during motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eReis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available EEG involves recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp originating from brain grey matter. EEG is one of the favorite methods to study and understand processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements, that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions of how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determination of real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks.

  18. Urban Agglomerations in Regional Development: Theoretical, Methodological and Applied Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shmidt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the major process of modern socio-economic development, such as the functioning of urban agglomerations. A short background of the economic literature on this phenomenon is given. There are the traditional (the concentration of urban types of activities, the grouping of urban settlements by the intensive production and labour communications and modern (cluster theories, theories of network society conceptions. Two methodological principles of studying the agglomeration are emphasized: the principle of the unity of the spatial concentration of economic activity and the principle of compact living of the population. The positive and negative effects of agglomeration in the economic and social spheres are studied. Therefore, it is concluded that the agglomeration is helpful in the case when it brings the agglomerative economy (the positive benefits from it exceed the additional costs. A methodology for examination the urban agglomeration and its role in the regional development is offered. The approbation of this methodology on the example of Chelyabinsk and Chelyabinsk region has allowed to carry out the comparative analysis of the regional centre and the whole region by the main socio-economic indexes under static and dynamic conditions, to draw the conclusions on a position of the city and the region based on such socio-economic indexes as an average monthly nominal accrued wage, the cost of fixed assets, the investments into fixed capital, new housing supply, a retail turnover, the volume of self-produced shipped goods, the works and services performed in the region. In the study, the analysis of a launching site of the Chelyabinsk agglomeration is carried out. It has revealed the following main characteristics of the core of the agglomeration in Chelyabinsk (structure feature, population, level of centralization of the core as well as the Chelyabinsk agglomeration in general (coefficient of agglomeration

  19. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LOGISTIC SYSTEMS OF THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăpăduşi Mihaela Loredana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremely complex issues including large scale logistics issue, whose solving depends on many sets of circumstances and political, economic, technical, cultural and environment factors can be approached by calling big systems theory. In the present stage of the development of new international economical activities of the scientific research, in the conceptualization plan it is impossible that when we call an inter and multidisciplinary approach of a complex technical-economical issue – and the logistics’ issue in the most general sense of the meaning is one of these - to build the appropriate theoretical structure other than starting from the system concept. Global economy, integrated as it currently works confronts itself more and more with complex problems (that have simultaneous technical, economical, ecological and social aspects and of broad dimensions drawing a large number of people, organisms and organizations.

  20. Methodological aspects to elaborate the management and procedure guides of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, F.; Jimenez Fernandez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The management guides in severe accidents are very important to know the procedures in these accidents. The present articles summarizes the methodological aspects to elaborate the management guides, in order to prevent the severe accidents

  1. Key aspects about education for refugee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Jesús Vega Pascual

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation entitled «Key Aspects about Education for Refugee Children:Refugee Camp Situation», is based on the 2003 UNHCR Guidelines on Education and highlights the relevance of the education even in situations of emergency and crisis, interms of protection and psychosocial well-being of children. It also mentions key issues to consider when working with refugees, internally displaced people, asylum-seekers,stateless and other populations of concen to UNHCR. Aspects such as refugee children’s rights, UNHCR policy commitments to education, participation of refugees and their communities in the design, establishement and implementation of education programmes, specially in emergencies, will be dealt with in this presentation. It will alsomentions topics such as the school drop out, education for vulnerable groups and the need for promoting a gender sentitive approach, bearing in mind that the hard experience of exile, the changes of family structure, the ethnic, cultural, religious and legal differences are key when working with this populationEsta presentación titulada "Consideraciones esenciales sobre la educación de los niños refugiados: la situación en los campos de refugiados", está basada en las Directrices del ACNUR sobre Eduación de 2003, y pretende resaltar la importancia de la educación en las situaciones de refugiados, incluso en situaciones de emergencia o crisis, y cómo ésta juega en favor de la protección y del bienestar psicosocial de los niños. Se mencionan las peculiaridades más relevantes que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se trabaja con refugiados, desplazados internos, solicitantes de asilo, apátridas y otras poblaciones de las que se ocupa el ACNUR. Se verán aspectos como los derechos de los niños refugiados, los compromisos del Alto Comisionado en materia de Educación, la participación de los refugiados y sus comunidades para diseñar, establecer e impartir programas de educación especialmente

  2. Experience feedback from incidents: methodological and cultural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinet, R.

    2007-01-01

    EdF has designed some provisions to improve the reliability of human interventions: an increased number of training simulators, management of the quality of interventions, implementation of human factor consultants on each site, improvement in user documentation, development of communication practices, etc. However, despite efforts made in the right direction, the complexity of human behaviour and organisations make it obligatory to follow up the efficacy of these provisions over time in order to ensure that they produce the expected results on work practices. The in-depth analysis by IRSN of events that are significant for safety shows that experience feedback from incidents constitutes a real opportunity to ensure this follow-up. It also highlights the difficulty for licensees to define the temporal context of investigations to carry out, analysing errors committed more in depth and identifying ensuing problems. This article shows that these difficulties are the result of inappropriate methodologies and a lack of skills and availability to carry out the analysis. Finally, it shows that the incident leads to defensive behaviour among those participating in the system that blocks the compilation of information and limits the relevance of analyses. (author)

  3. APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed. PMID:20122136

  4. Evaluating the Staff at Enterprise: Several Theoretical and Methodological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girman Alla P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing and systematizing various knowledge, related to evaluation of staff, on a common theoretical-methodological basis. Concept, objectives, directions, methods, and indicators for evaluating staff in the contemporary economy were analyzed. The topicality of using the theoretical developments on staff evaluation in actual practice of functioning of enterprises has been substantiated. A new approach to the procedure of evaluation of the total human resource of enterprise, based on the life cycle of organization, has been proposed. On the basis of the proposed scientific algorithmic step-by-step approach to the evaluation of staff, managers of companies can design their own models for staff evaluation, develop its separate elements. Prospects for further researches in this direction involve relation of staff evaluation to the life cycle of employee no less than the life cycle of enterprise. Management of the life cycle of employee represents methods for management of his development that would change the level of the employee’s professional maturity as result of a system impact.

  5. Methodological aspects of serosurveillance in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wolff, Cecilia; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl; Boqvist, Sofia; Franko, Mikael Andersson

    2018-01-01

    Animal production is important for the agricultural economy in low-income countries, but is threatened by infectious diseases. Serosurveys are conducted for different reasons such as disease detection, risk factor studies, disease monitoring and establishing disease-free status. Most reports on such serosurveys include some discussion about methodological constraints but still, by necessity, rely on serological results for case definition. This study uses a cross-sectional serosurvey for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Rift Valley fever (RVF) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in cattle in three districts in Western Uganda to illustrate the limitations of this approach, addressing the questions of what flaws can be expected in sampling and diagnostics and how these influence the results. The target was to collect blood samples from 60 cattle herds per district. To reflect the recent infection history of the herd, young animals (two to five years) were prioritised. The farmers were interviewed about management, cattle trade, cattle health and vaccination. Commercial ELISAs were used for serological analyses: for CBPP the IDEXX CBPP Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides antibody test kit, for RVF the ID Screen Rift Valley Fever competitive ELISA, and for FMD the PrioCHECK FMDV NS. Apparent prevalence, true prevalence and associations with herd characteristics were assessed. The sampling plans could not be entirely fulfilled, nor the number of tests run in the laboratory. There were reactors to all three diseases with an apparent prevalence of approximately 30 per cent for CBPP, 6 per cent for RVF and 7 per cent for FMD. Calculation of true prevalence based on test sensitivity and specificity resulted in a slightly higher prevalence figure for CBPP and lower figures for RVF and FMD. The study illustrates the importance of considering diagnostic test performance when interpreting results from serosurveys, and the challenge of representative sampling and

  6. Taking a Distributed Perspective: Epistemological and Methodological Tradeoffs in Operationalizing the Leader-Plus Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pustejovsky, James; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Lewis, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is concerned with the epistemological and methodological challenges involved in studying the distribution of leadership across people within the school--the leader-plus aspect of a distributed perspective, which it aims to investigate. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examines the entailments of the distributed…

  7. [The demographic consequences of austerity in Latin America: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1991-01-01

    This work reviews evidence in the literature of possible demographic effects of the austerity programs imposed on Latin American countries in the 1980s. The work focuses on methodological problems involved in assessing demographic changes and ascertaining that they were indeed attributable to the economic crisis. An introductory section describes the recession of the 1980s in Latin America, the declines in employment and living standards, and the health and social consequences of the deepening poverty. But the author argues that evaluation of health conditions, levels of nutrition, and especially factors such as infant mortality, fertility, marriage patterns, and migration as indicators of the impact of the economic depression is full of pitfalls that are not always obvious. Few Latin American countries have civil registration systems capable of providing accurate and up-to-date mortality and fertility data. Indirect methods currently in use were intended to analyze longterm levels and trends and are of little use for short-term fluctuations. Data on internal migration are scarce even in developed countries. Even when recent data are available it is often difficult or impossible to obtain data for comparison. Infant mortality and malnutrition levels, for example, are serious problems in many parts of Latin America, but series of data capable of demonstrating that they are truly consequences of the economic crisis are lacking. Another challenge is to separate the demographic effects of the debt crisis from longterm structural processes. The possibility of time lags and of different time frames may increase confusion. Almost a year must pass before effects on birth rates can be expected, for example. Neutralizing mechanisms may obscure the effects sought. Thus, the most impoverished urban sectors may return to the countryside to seek refuge in subsistence agriculture; their departure would in some measure diminish the consequences of recession in the urban economy

  8. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Women, children and advertising - legal and ethical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Stejskalová, Radka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis titled "Women, children and advertising - legal and ethical aspects" deals with the portrayal of women and children in advertising. The aim of the thesis is to analyze advertising with a focus on the portrayal of women and children present to Arbitration Committee in the reporting period and propose recommendations for the future. The work also deals with the importance of legal and ethical rules that regulate advertising and focuses on content regulation of women and children.

  10. Lung transplantation in children. Specific aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Solé Montserrat, Juan; Roman Broto, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Lung transplantation has become in recent years a therapeutic option for infantswith terminal lung disease with similar results to transplantation in adults.In Spain, since 1996 114 children lung transplants have been performed; this corresponds to3.9% of the total transplant number.The most common indication in children is cystic fibrosis, which represents between 70-80% of the transplants performed in adolescents. In infants common indications areinterstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.In most children a sequential double lung transplant is performed, generally with the help ofextracorporeal circulation. Lung transplantation in children presents special challenges in monitoring and follow-up, especially in infants, given the difficulty in assessing lung function and performing transbronchial biopsies.There are some more specific complications in children like postransplant lymphoproliferative syndrome or a greater severity of respiratory virus infections .After lung transplantation children usually experiment a very important improvement in their quality of life. Eighty eight per cent of children have no limitations in their activity after 3 years of transplantation.According to the registry of the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) survival at 5 years of transplantation is 54% and at 10 years is around 35%. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspects of the epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis (IP) in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis (IP) in children: ... Conclusion: The low level of knowledge, practices and perceptions of mothers concerning IP is a major cause for ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  13. Exploring Children's Perceptions of Play Using Visual Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Peter; Wee, Bryan Shao-Chang; Korris, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A great deal of scholarly work has examined the way that physical, social and cultural environments relate to children's health behaviour, particularly with respect to diet and exercise. While this work is critical, little research attempts to incorporate the views and perspectives of children themselves using visual methodologies.…

  14. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; van Riet, M M J; Hendriks, W H

    2017-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE)

  15. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Riet, van M.M.J.; Visser, P.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2017-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE)

  16. The Development of the Foundations of Modern Pedagogy: Paradigmal and Methodological Aspects of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, ?amara ?.; Lavryk, Tatjana V.; Yaresko, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the various fields of knowledge influenced the pedagogical science. The article explains the structure of the foundations of modern pedagogy through paradigmal and methodological aspects. Bases of modern pedagogy include complex of paradigms, object and subject of science, general and specific principles, methods and technologies.…

  17. THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE CATEGORIES OF LAW, MORALITY AND POLITICS IN SOCIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Krasilnikova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the category of law, morality and politics in the sociological knowledge in the context of theoretical and methodological aspects. We give a detailed and incomplete, structural and content characteristics of these categories in the interpretation of their manifestation in thepolitical and social dimension of society.

  18. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility meaurements in ponies fed different grass hays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Wartena, F.C.; Zoon, van M.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements of feedstuffs for equines were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming four grass-hay diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Diets contained either a low (L), medium (M), high (H), or very high (VH) ADF content (264, 314, 375, or 396 g·kg-1

  19. EMS and process of identification and evaluation of environmental aspects: a proposal methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotto, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Environmental Management System (EMS) is an instrument to manage the interaction between the organization and the environment. The scope od EMS is to reduce the environmental impact and to achieve improvements in overall performances. In particular, the focus point of EMS implementation is the method for identifying and assessing significant environmental aspects. The results of the literature and regulation reviews (Perotto 2006) have shown that rigourous repeatable and transparent methodologies do not exist. This paper presents a proposal method for identifying and assessing significant environmental aspects, that has all three of these important characteristics. In particular, the proposal methodology for assessing aspects is based on some criteria that are combined in a specific algorithm. It is important to specify that to make a correct application of the method a preliminary rigorous approach to investigating the environment and the activities of organizations is necessary [it

  20. Quantifying biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts: an integrative methodological approach from the behavioral sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portell, Mariona; Anguera, M Teresa; Hernández-Mendo, Antonio; Jonsson, Gudberg K

    2015-01-01

    Contextual factors are crucial for evaluative research in psychology, as they provide insights into what works, for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects, and why. Studying behavior in context, however, poses numerous methodological challenges. Although a comprehensive framework for classifying methods seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects in everyday contexts was recently proposed, this framework does not contemplate contributions from observational methodology. The aim of this paper is to justify and propose a more general framework that includes observational methodology approaches. Our analysis is rooted in two general concepts: ecological validity and methodological complementarity. We performed a narrative review of the literature on research methods and techniques for studying daily life and describe their shared properties and requirements (collection of data in real time, on repeated occasions, and in natural settings) and classification criteria (eg, variables of interest and level of participant involvement in the data collection process). We provide several examples that illustrate why, despite their higher costs, studies of behavior and experience in everyday contexts offer insights that complement findings provided by other methodological approaches. We urge that observational methodology be included in classifications of research methods and techniques for studying everyday behavior and advocate a renewed commitment to prioritizing ecological validity in behavioral research seeking to quantify biopsychosocial aspects. PMID:26089708

  1. Importance of the lipid peroxidation biomarkers and methodological aspects FOR malondialdehyde quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Grotto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals induce lipid peroxidation, playing an important role in pathological processes. The injury mediated by free radicals can be measured by conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, and others. However, malondialdehyde has been pointed out as the main product to evaluate lipid peroxidation. Most assays determine malondialdehyde by its reaction with thiobarbituric acid, which can be measured by indirect (spectrometry and direct methodologies (chromatography. Though there is some controversy among the methodologies, the selective HPLC-based assays provide a more reliable lipid peroxidation measure. This review describes significant aspects about MDA determination, its importance in pathologies and biological samples treatment.

  2. Metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects of critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 provides the aims of the studies (chapter 1) and a general overview and discussion of the current literature of metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects in critically ill children (chapter 2). In Part 2 the clinical use of an indirect calorimeter is tested and validated for

  3. Performance Evaluation and Measurement of the Organization in Strategic Analysis and Control: Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Živan Ristić; Neđo Balaban

    2006-01-01

    Information acquired by measuring and evaluation are a necessary condition for good decision-making in strategic management. This work deals with : (a) Methodological aspects of evaluation (kinds of evaluation, metaevaluation) and measurement (supposition of isomorphism in measurement, kinds and levels of measurement, errors in measurement and the basic characteristics of measurement) (b) Evaluation and measurement of potential and accomplishments of the organization in Kaplan-Norton perspect...

  4. [Types of medical registries - definitions, methodological aspects and quality of the scientific work with registries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis-Edenhofer, Stefan; Piso, Brigitte

    2011-12-01

    This work presents a comprehensive list of registry definitions including broader and narrower definitions. Compared to each other different methodological issues can be identified. Some of these issues are common for all registry types; some can be assigned more easily to a specific registry type. Instruments for evaluating the quality of registers reflect many of the mentioned aspects. Generally, and especially at registers with a descriptive or exploratory research dimension it is important to consider their intended purpose and in about it was achieved. This includes, for instance, whether the purpose and the methodology are coordinated. From the start of registration an initiator should be - based on the purpose - aware of the methodological dimension of the registry. This helps to apply the correct type of the registry, the appropriate guidance and, ultimately, the arguments for the effort (cost-benefit ratio).

  5. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  6. The Evaluation of Innovation in the IT Service Sector: Methodological and Empirical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Kazlauskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — Nowadays services are comprehended as the key factor for economic activity, growth and employment. Developed economies are service-dominated though little is known about the innovation details in the service sector and this study field has been neglected for a while. The innovation in service sector activities needs to be thoroughly evaluated because innovation is an interconnected process and cannot be defined using one or few indicators. IT services are an integral part of contemporary life, particularly for business. It can be introduced and implemented in all fields, especially when the world is becoming more multidimensional. Innovation performance in the IT sector has been under-researched, despite the fact that IT service sector plays the innovation disseminator role in other sectors by appliance of IT products. Design/methodology/approach — Based on scientific literature and methodological aspects analyses, an empirical research methodology was designed and the qualitative research on innovation in information technology service sector was accomplished. Findings — The article presents methodological aspects of innovation evaluation in service sector and empirical aspects on innovation implementation and development in the IT service companies in Lithuania. Research limitations/implications — For more comprehensive understanding of innovation in service sector, especially in IT services, the theory of service innovation is necessary. Deeper understanding and perspectives on how innovation benefits the information technology sector should be revealed in further researches and the multi-country analysis is needed. Practical implications — The finding of the paper can be used to improve the development of innovation in information technology service companies and create a model for more exhaustive multi-country empirical researches. Originality/value — The impact of innovation and its development in information

  7. Psychological aspects of radiotherapy of children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehler, A; Riedesser, P; Jobke, A; Wannenmacher, M

    1981-01-01

    The increasing importance of radiotherapy in tumors of childhood demands the investigation and consideration of the psychological aspects of this afflicting therapy. In this paper the results obtained by questioning and observing 28 childeren of different ages, their parents, attendants and employees of several radiological departments are discussed. As the children's fantasies and the resulting anxieties and reactions are depending on the respective intellectual and emotional developmental stage detailed proposals concerning the preparation and performance of radiation in toddlers, school children and adolescents are presented.

  8. Psychological aspects of radiotherapy of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poehler, A.; Riedesser, P.; Jobke, A.; Wannenmacher, M.; Freiburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing importance of radiotherapy in tumors of childhood demands the investigation and consideration of the psychological aspects of this afflicting therapy. In this paper the results obtained by questioning and observing 28 childeren of different ages, their parents, attendants and employees of several radiological departments are discussed. As the children's fantasies and the resulting anxieties and reactions are depending on the respective intellectual and emotional developmental stage detailed proposals concerning the preparation and performance of radiation in toddlers, school children and adolescents are presented. (orig.) [de

  9. RETARDED AND GIFTED CHILDREN (SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova Anastasya Vladimirovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main idea of ​​this study was to determine the influence of social and biological factors on the abilities and inclinations of abnormal children. Methodology: Study analyzes problem of the «phenomenon of giftedness» from the point of view of the cultural and historical development. Results: The study showed the dependence of the formation of giftedness in children from possible use in the activities of cultural practices and operations. Practical implications: Psychology & Education. Findings: Abnormal children have the ability and inclination to different activities. Their specific activity caused by a decline of motivation and inability to use the "cultural practices" to improve the final result of the activity.

  10. Automated sleep stage detection with a classical and a neural learning algorithm--methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaibold, M; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A

    2002-01-01

    For classification tasks in biosignal processing, several strategies and algorithms can be used. Knowledge-based systems allow prior knowledge about the decision process to be integrated, both by the developer and by self-learning capabilities. For the classification stages in a sleep stage detection framework, three inference strategies were compared regarding their specific strengths: a classical signal processing approach, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems. Methodological aspects were assessed to attain optimum performance and maximum transparency for the user. Due to their effective and robust learning behavior, artificial neural networks could be recommended for pattern recognition, while neuro-fuzzy systems performed best for the processing of contextual information.

  11. ASPECTS OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Žgur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Child’s motor development is not an isolated process but it rather involves numerous other developmental aspects, such as cognitive and conative. The research is focused on defining the developmental principles of motor abilities and skills in children with prominent motor deficits who were diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP. The research compares the motor maturity between two groups of children with CP; the younger group (up to 10 years of age and the older group (10 – 16 years of age. The research included 78 primary school children with different forms of CP (diplegia, hemiplegia, mixed forms, aged between 6 and 16. The discriminant analysis used in the research showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between age and motor maturity in children with CP. The structural matrix confirmed the different hierarchical representation of the motor components (strength, coordination, precision and graphomotor skills for the selected motor model, in relation to children’s age. The function of explosive strength showed significant differences between younger and older children as regards their motor maturity. We can conclude that there is a significant developmental difference between the groups of younger and older children with CP, in relation to their motor maturity (different hierarchical representation, with the most obvious difference in motor ability of explosive strength.

  12. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2017-12-20

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise. Notably, the evaluation of RFD in human skeletal muscle is a complex task as influenced by numerous distinct methodological factors including mode of contraction, type of instruction, method used to quantify RFD, devices used for force/torque recording and ambient temperature. Another important aspect is our limited understanding of the mechanisms underpinning rapid muscle force production. Therefore, this review is primarily focused on (i) describing the main mechanical characteristics of RFD; (ii) analysing various physiological factors that influence RFD; and (iii) presenting and discussing central biomechanical and methodological factors affecting the measurement of RFD. The intention of this review is to provide more methodological and analytical coherency on the RFD concept, which may aid to clarify the thinking of coaches and sports scientists in this area. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Kids'Cam: An Objective Methodology to Study the World in Which Children Live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Louise N; Smith, Moira B; Barr, Michelle; Stanley, James; Chambers, Tim J; Zhou, Jiang; Duane, Aaron; Jenkin, Gabrielle L S; Pearson, Amber L; Gurrin, Cathal; Smeaton, Alan F; Hoek, Janet; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on a new methodology to objectively study the world in which children live. The primary research study (Kids'Cam Food Marketing) illustrates the method; numerous ancillary studies include exploration of children's exposure to alcohol, smoking, "blue" space and gambling, and their use of "green" space, transport, and sun protection. One hundred sixty-eight randomly selected children (aged 11-13 years) recruited from 16 randomly selected schools in Wellington, New Zealand used wearable cameras and GPS units for 4 days, recording imagery every 7 seconds and longitude/latitude locations every 5 seconds. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015. Analysis commenced in 2015 and is ongoing. Bespoke software was used to manually code images for variables of interest including setting, marketing media, and product category to produce variables for statistical analysis. GPS data were extracted and cleaned in ArcGIS, version 10.3 for exposure spatial analysis. Approximately 1.4 million images and 2.2 million GPS coordinates were generated (most were usable) from many settings including the difficult to measure aspects of exposures in the home, at school, and during leisure time. The method is ethical, legal, and acceptable to children and the wider community. This methodology enabled objective analysis of the world in which children live. The main arm examined the frequency and nature of children's exposure to food and beverage marketing and provided data on difficult to measure settings. The methodology will likely generate robust evidence facilitating more effective policymaking to address numerous public health concerns. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Occupational therapists intervention methodologies in schools with children with Special Educational Needs in Portugal

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    Andreia Sofia Nabiço Maia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students with special educational needs should be inserted in regular classes, receiving all appropriate educational services allowing the development of skills and capabilities. The success of the school inclusion depends on the partnership between the various professionals in the school context. The insertion and occupational therapist’s contribution in the area of education is the subject of many studies. The importance of a professional team in school context is already recognized and valued by the community. Objectives: the aim is to identify the intervention methodologies used by occupational therapists in school with children with special educational needs. In order to determine the most common methodologies as well as relevant aspects of the therapeutic process. Method: this is a non-experimental research with descriptive and cross-sectional basis. A semi-structured questionnaire was prepared initially, quantitative in nature that was taught to occupational therapists that work or have worked for less than 3 years in school context. Results: the sample is composed of 40 occupational therapists, 37 are female and 3 are male. The majority of individuals (77.5% currently works in school context. The occupational therapists involved mainly with children, aged between 6 and 18 years. Conclusion: the methodologies used by the occupational therapists are playful activity/play therapy and the training activities of daily living. Riding for therapeutic purposes and the hippotherapy represent less widely used methodologies in school context, in that each was selected by 10% of therapists.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaoui, Nour; Karboubi, Lamiae; Ouadghiri, Fatima Zahra; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among children has significantly increased in Morocco. We conducted a study on the epidemiological aspect to propose a treatment strategy. Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical manifestation, and the management. 66 patients were identified. A female predominance was found (sex =15). The average age was 13 years old. This was a first episode in 97% of cases. Psychiatric history was found in 6 patients. The causes of suicide attempt were unidentified in 65%. The most frequent cause was family conflict (35%). The most frequent method was pharmaceutical drug ingestion (54.4%). Children were asymptomatic (57.6%). Neurological manifestations (30%) were most frequent. Digestive symptoms (12%) and hemodynamic (3%) were also discovered. Patients were hospitalized in a general pediatric service 92.4% of the times, admitted to intensive care 4.5% of the times, and two patients refused to be hospitalized. The treatment consisted of gastric lavage (18%) supplemented by symptomatic measures. The outcome was favorable in 95.4% of cases. We recorded 2 deaths by rat poison poisoning. All patients were advised in writing after leaving to follow up with a psychological treatment. Suicide attempts are the result of an ill being, mostly among children living in a family with conflict. Upstream treatment is essential to identify children at risk. Additionally, a psychiatric care in hospital is essential to avoid recurrences.

  16. Holistic aspects of children's ways of understanding in making sense of genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ju

    The study examined the nature of how children make sense of phenomena in the area of genetics and inheritance. I proposed the phrase, way of understanding to capture a unified entity which children use to make sense of phenomena. The methodology was semi-structured probing interviews with six sixth grade students. Seven specific ways of understanding were discussed in the results section. Overall, the study described and discovered children's ways of understanding in terms of five aspects: cognitive aspects, affective aspects, social aspects, playfulness, and mode of awareness. Students' propositional knowledge, a holistic view of looking at how people resemble each other, syntactic knowledge, and an extension of rational explanations belonged to the cognitive aspects. Four categories of affective expressions were: an enjoyment of thinking and learning, a special feeling about the instructional activity, a deep personal involvement, and an anxiety in finding correct answers. Two types of social context were identified, one had somewhat of a connection to the science world, and the other did not have much of an scientific tie. The playfulness and the mode of awareness were two emerging aspects through the study. The playfulness represented the spontaneity, freedom, and sense of fun associated with the social interaction activity, such as the playfulness in expressing ideas to others. The modes of awareness included two types of metacognition, one was a conscious reflection on one's cognitive abilities, and the other was a continuous process of monitoring knowledge. In addition, the importance of considering language aspect in science learning was an emerging issue. Students' talking about genetics was embedded in the larger framework of social relationships and social institutions. Their social identify might influence the development of concepts, ways of talking and science learning. The study reflects the richness of children's sense-making processes

  17. Methodological aspects of values for determining the physical load in sport.

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    Chernozub A.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the control system of training in sport and identified two methodological concepts determine the amount of physical activity during the training sessions. It is established that the physical training and sports activities in the course of employment estimate the value of physical activity mainly due to the reaction rates of the functional systems of the body to an external stimulus. Such an assessment, especially in a narrow range of controllable parameters (for the reaction of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, is more theoretical in nature and does not allow to clearly define the critical load levels for a particular organism. This problem highlights the need to use a single, integrated, suitable for precise mathematical analysis of the universal, possibly conditional, indicator or criteria for evaluating physical activity. Development of this criterion will optimize the training process at different stages of training opportunities tailored to individual athletes.

  18. Methodological aspects of fuel performance system analysis at raw hydrocarbon processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbjakina, A. V.; Dolotovskij, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses the methodological aspects of fuel performance system analysis at raw hydrocarbon (RH) processing plants. Modern RH processing facilities are the major consumers of energy resources (ER) for their own needs. To reduce ER, including fuel consumption, and to develop rational fuel system structure are complex and relevant scientific tasks that can only be done using system analysis and complex system synthesis. In accordance with the principles of system analysis, the hierarchical structure of the fuel system, the block scheme for the synthesis of the most efficient alternative of the fuel system using mathematical models and the set of performance criteria have been developed on the main stages of the study. The results from the introduction of specific engineering solutions to develop their own energy supply sources for RH processing facilities have been provided.

  19. Methodological Aspects in Forecasting Innovation Development of Dairy Cattle Breeding in the Region

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    Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Medvedeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that Russia is now a member of the World Trade Organization, long-term forecasting becomes an objectively necessary condition that helps choose an effective science-based long-term strategy for development of dairy cattle breeding that would take into consideration intellectual and innovative characteristics. Current structure of available statistical information does not meet modern challenges of innovation development and does not reflect adequately the trends of ongoing changes. The paper suggests a system of indicators to analyze the status, development and prospects of dairy cattle breeding in the region; this system provides timely identification of emerging risks and threats of deviation from the specified parameters. The system included indicators contained in the current statistical reporting and new indicators of innovation development of the industry, the quality of human capital and the level of government support. When designing the system of indicators, we used several methodological aspects of the Oslo Manual, which the Federal State Statistics Service considers to be an official methodological document concerning the collection of information about innovation activities. A structured system of indicators shifts the emphasis in the analysis of the final results to the conditions and prerequisites that help achieve forecast performance indicators in the functioning of Russia’s economy under WTO rules and make substantiated management decisions

  20. The glycemic index: methodological aspects related to the interpretation of health effects and to regulatory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is an experimental system that classifies carbohydrates (CHO) and CHO-containing foods according to their blood glucose-raising potential. It is based on the glycemic response following the ingestion of a test food containing a defined amount of available CHO relative to that of an equi-carbohydrate portion of either white bread or glucose. The concept has been extended to mixed meals and whole diets where the GI of the meal/diet is expressed as the weighted average of the GI of each food, based on the percentage of the total mealldiet CHO provided by each food. Over the last few decades, a substantial number of epidemiological and interventional studies have reported beneficial associationsleffects of lower GI diets across a wide spectrum of pathophysiological conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and certain forms of cancer. This has prompted proponents of the GI to recommend its use for dietary planning and labeling purposes. However, the currently recommended GI methodology is not well standardized and has several flaws, which brings into question the strength of evidence attributed to the health effects of low-GI diets. This review focuses exclusively on the methodological aspects of the GI, how they might impact the interpretation of data related to the purported health benefits of low GI diets, and the considerations for the use of the GI in food labeling. In addition, alternative systems for classifying the glycemic effects of CHO-containing foods are briefly discussed.

  1. Foreign body aspiration in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and bronchoscopic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, Andrea de Melo Alexandre; Reis, Marcelo Conrado dos; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Toro, Ivan Contrera; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and bronchoscopic treatment of foreign body aspiration in children under 14 years of age, correlating the clinical aspects with the bronchoscopic findings. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive study analyzing data related to children under 14 years of age undergoing bronchoscopy due to clinical suspicion of foreign body aspiration at the State University at Campinas Hospital das Clinicas from January of 2000 to December of 2005. Results: The sample consisted of 69 patients, ranging in age from 8 months to 12 years/7 months (75.4% under 3 years of age), 62.3% of whom were male. The principal complaint was sudden-onset cough (75.4%), auscultation was abnormal in 74%, and dyspnea was observed in 29%. Radiological abnormalities were seen in 88% of the cases. Aspirations were primarily into the right lung (54.8%), and 30.7% of the foreign bodies were of vegetal origin (principally beans and peanuts). In the follow-up period, 29% presented complications (most commonly pneumonia), which were found to be associated with longer aspiration time (p = 0.03). Mechanical ventilation was required in 7 children (10.1%), and multiple bronchoscopies were performed in 5 (7.2%). Conclusions: A history of sudden-onset choking and cough, plus abnormal auscultation and radiological findings, characterizes the profile of foreign body aspiration. In such cases, bronchoscopy is indicated. Longer aspiration time translates to a higher risk of complications. The high prevalence of foreign bodies of vegetal origin underscores the relevance of prevention at children younger than three years of age. (author)

  2. Foreign body aspiration in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and bronchoscopic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Andrea de Melo Alexandre; Reis, Marcelo Conrado dos; Zambon, Mariana Porto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Pediatric Emergency Room]. E-mail: andreafrag@gmail.com; Toro, Ivan Contrera [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Thoracic Surgery; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Pediatric Pulmonology

    2008-02-15

    Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and bronchoscopic treatment of foreign body aspiration in children under 14 years of age, correlating the clinical aspects with the bronchoscopic findings. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive study analyzing data related to children under 14 years of age undergoing bronchoscopy due to clinical suspicion of foreign body aspiration at the State University at Campinas Hospital das Clinicas from January of 2000 to December of 2005. Results: The sample consisted of 69 patients, ranging in age from 8 months to 12 years/7 months (75.4% under 3 years of age), 62.3% of whom were male. The principal complaint was sudden-onset cough (75.4%), auscultation was abnormal in 74%, and dyspnea was observed in 29%. Radiological abnormalities were seen in 88% of the cases. Aspirations were primarily into the right lung (54.8%), and 30.7% of the foreign bodies were of vegetal origin (principally beans and peanuts). In the follow-up period, 29% presented complications (most commonly pneumonia), which were found to be associated with longer aspiration time (p = 0.03). Mechanical ventilation was required in 7 children (10.1%), and multiple bronchoscopies were performed in 5 (7.2%). Conclusions: A history of sudden-onset choking and cough, plus abnormal auscultation and radiological findings, characterizes the profile of foreign body aspiration. In such cases, bronchoscopy is indicated. Longer aspiration time translates to a higher risk of complications. The high prevalence of foreign bodies of vegetal origin underscores the relevance of prevention at children younger than three years of age. (author)

  3. [Identification of circulatory diseases and their risk during medical examination of an adult population: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, A M; Ipatov, P V; Kaminskaya, A K; Kushunina, D V

    2015-01-01

    To study the efficiency of a methodology for the active detection of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) during medical examination and to determine the need and possible ways of its improvement. The medical examinations of 19.4 million people (94.6% of all the citizens who had undergone medical examinations in all the regions of Russia in 2013) were analyzed and the methodological aspects of identification of the circulatory diseases (CDs) that were induced by coronary and cerebral vessel atherosclerosis and had common risk factors, primarily CHD and CVD, were assessed. The medical examinations revealed 2,915,445 cases of CDs and their suspicions, during which its clinical diagnosis was established in 57.2%. The suspected disease requiring that its diagnosis should be further specified; off-medical examinations revealed hypertension in more than 770,000 cases, CHD in 232,000, and CVD in 146,000. The proportion of stable angina pectoris of all angina cases was much higher at a young age (25.6%) than at middle (15.6%) and elderly (11.3%) ages. Brachiocephalic artery stenoses were detected in almost 13,000 cases. According to the official health statistics, within the years preceding the introduction of large-scale medical examinations, there was a slight rise in new CD cases among the adult population of Russia, which was more significant in 2013 (according to the preliminary data) than in 2012. The methodology for the active detection of CDs through a two-step medical examination, which is used during a follow-up, makes it possible to substantially increase detection rates for CDs. There has been shown to be a need for the better quality and completeness of diagnostic examination in real practice.

  4. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

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    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible.

  5. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RATIONAL DESIGN FORMATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE OF AGRARIAN SECTOR OF UKRAINE

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    Ivan Korchynskyy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Methodological aspects of formation of rational design of infrastructure of agrarian sector of Ukraine on the basis of the institutional approach and laws of architectonics are examined. It is shown that the agrarian sector of Ukraine is a complex socio-economic system, the formation and development of which is in the process of market transformation what is caused by institutional influences. In general the process of relations institutionalization imply their formalization and standardization, in other case the subject of public life could not predict the actions of other entities associated with him and ensure their cooperation. One of the specific characteristic of human society is formed institutional system that regulates behaviour. In the article the factors of influence on the conduct of being in charge subjects are considered in the conditions of development of market economy. The special attention is spared the institutional factors of the economy growing. Methodology. The meaning of “agricultural field” and “infrastructure” and their mutual consistency is classified. As the scientific method, the institutional approach of principles of architectonics has been used, which allowed to justify the creation of a rational approach to the design of infrastructure in agrarian sector as a whole on the basis, relation and interdependence of its elements, based on the fundamental laws of architectonics (law of equilibrium, law of the golden mean structuring. The article demonstrates a necessary of the choice of a theory of institutionalism as the main methodological basis for the study of the process of innovation development of economic system of Ukraine. It is determined that the inefficient activities of institutions in Ukraine are the main cause of the low level of innovation, which has a negative impact on the development of the economy as a whole. Results. Research points on new aspects of infrastructure as a part of the entire

  6. [The etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, C A; Moraru, D

    2011-01-01

    The study of the etiological aspects of acute abdominal pain in children, in order to perceive the clinical-etiological correlations and the disorders distribution related to age, gender and the origin of the patients. The criteria for including patients were age (between 0 and 18 years) and the presence of acute abdominal pain before or during the consultation with the physician. The research on acute abdominal pain in children was performed on the level of the Surgery and Pediatrics II clinical departments of the "Sf. Ioan" Children's Emergency Clinical Hospital in Galati, between 01.01.2009 - 01.01.2011. The clinical study performed on the patients registered in the studied groups focused on the identification, the evaluation of the symptoms of acute abdominal pain in children, diagnosing and treating it. The criteria for excluding patients were an age older than 18 years or the absence of acute abdominal pain as a symptom before or during the examination. The statistical analysis used the descriptive and analytical methods. The data was centralized and statistically processed in M.S.EXCEL and S.P.S.S. databases. The patients with acute abdominal pain represent a percentage of 92.9% (2358 cases) of the total number of patients who suffer from abdominal pain (N=2537). The highest frequency of cases is represented by acute appendicitis (1056 cases - 44.8%). In the 5-18 years age group, acute appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, ovarian follicular cysts, acute pyelenophritis and salpingitis are predominant. In the 0-4 years age group gastroenteritis, acute pharyngitis, reactive hepatitis and lower digestive bleeding are predominant. In females, acute appendicitis, gastroenteritis, gastroduodenitis and cystitis are predominant, whereas in males, peritonitis, sepsis through E. coli, the contusion of the abdominal wall and acute pharyngitis are predominant.

  7. Cluster-randomized Studies in Educational Research: Principles and Methodological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyhaupt, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are being performed in educational research to evaluate new teaching methods and approaches. These studies could be performed more efficiently and deliver more convincing results if they more strictly applied and complied with recognized standards of scientific studies. Such an approach could substantially increase the quality in particular of prospective, two-arm (intervention studies that aim to compare two different teaching methods. A key standard in such studies is randomization, which can minimize systematic bias in study findings; such bias may result if the two study arms are not structurally equivalent. If possible, educational research studies should also achieve this standard, although this is not yet generally the case. Some difficulties and concerns exist, particularly regarding organizational and methodological aspects. An important point to consider in educational research studies is that usually individuals cannot be randomized, because of the teaching situation, and instead whole groups have to be randomized (so-called “cluster randomization”. Compared with studies with individual randomization, studies with cluster randomization normally require (significantly larger sample sizes and more complex methods for calculating sample size. Furthermore, cluster-randomized studies require more complex methods for statistical analysis. The consequence of the above is that a competent expert with respective special knowledge needs to be involved in all phases of cluster-randomized studies.Studies to evaluate new teaching methods need to make greater use of randomization in order to achieve scientifically convincing results. Therefore, in this article we describe the general principles of cluster randomization and how to implement these principles, and we also outline practical aspects of using cluster randomization in prospective, two-arm comparative educational research studies.

  8. Cluster-randomized Studies in Educational Research: Principles and Methodological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyhaupt, Jens; Mayer, Benjamin; Keis, Oliver; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Muche, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are being performed in educational research to evaluate new teaching methods and approaches. These studies could be performed more efficiently and deliver more convincing results if they more strictly applied and complied with recognized standards of scientific studies. Such an approach could substantially increase the quality in particular of prospective, two-arm (intervention) studies that aim to compare two different teaching methods. A key standard in such studies is randomization, which can minimize systematic bias in study findings; such bias may result if the two study arms are not structurally equivalent. If possible, educational research studies should also achieve this standard, although this is not yet generally the case. Some difficulties and concerns exist, particularly regarding organizational and methodological aspects. An important point to consider in educational research studies is that usually individuals cannot be randomized, because of the teaching situation, and instead whole groups have to be randomized (so-called "cluster randomization"). Compared with studies with individual randomization, studies with cluster randomization normally require (significantly) larger sample sizes and more complex methods for calculating sample size. Furthermore, cluster-randomized studies require more complex methods for statistical analysis. The consequence of the above is that a competent expert with respective special knowledge needs to be involved in all phases of cluster-randomized studies. Studies to evaluate new teaching methods need to make greater use of randomization in order to achieve scientifically convincing results. Therefore, in this article we describe the general principles of cluster randomization and how to implement these principles, and we also outline practical aspects of using cluster randomization in prospective, two-arm comparative educational research studies.

  9. Safety and efficacy of subretinal visual implants in humans: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Katarina; Bach, Michael; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Braun, Angelika; Bruckmann, Anna; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Hörtdörfer, Gernot; Kusnyerik, Akos; Peters, Tobias; Wilhelm, Barbara; Wilke, Robert; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-01-01

    Replacing the function of visual pathway neurons by electronic implants is a novel approach presently explored by various groups in basic research and clinical trials. The novelty raises unexplored methodological aspects of clinical trial design that may require adaptation and validation. We present procedures of efficacy and safety testing for subretinal visual implants in humans, as developed during our pilot trial 2005 to 2009 and multi-centre clinical trial since 2010. Planning such a trial requires appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria. For subretinal electronic visual implants, patients with photoreceptor degeneration are the target patient group, whereas presence of additional diseases affecting clear optic media or the visual pathway must be excluded. Because sham surgery is not possible, a masked study design with implant power ON versus OFF is necessary. Prior to the efficacy testing by psychophysical tests, the implant's technical characteristics have to be controlled via electroretinography (ERG). Moreover the testing methods require adaptation to the particular technology. We recommend standardised tasks first to determine the light perception thresholds, light localisation and movement detection, followed by grating acuity and vision acuity test via Landolt C rings. A laboratory setup for assessing essential activities of daily living is presented. Subjective visual experiences with the implant in a natural environment, as well as questionnaires and psychological counselling are further important aspects. A clinical trial protocol for artificial vision in humans, which leads a patient from blindness to the state of very low vision is a challenge and cannot be defined completely prior to the study. Available tests of visual function may not be sufficiently suited for efficacy testing of artificial vision devices. A protocol based on experience with subretinal visual implants in 22 patients is presented that has been found adequate to monitor

  10. [Methodological aspects of the reconstitution and evaluation of the behavioral theories that underlie population policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuw, F

    1991-09-01

    This work discusses methodological aspects of the articulation and evaluation of behavioral theories underlying demographic policies. Such theories, called "policy theories" among other terms, may be defined as a group of hypotheses explicitly translated into predictions about behavior that underlie policy measures and that concern the relations between the measure and the objective to be attained. Interest in policy theories has been reflected in the writings of such demographers as D. Bogue, J. Blake, and T. Burch, and of researchers from other social science disciplines. 2 examples of policy theories from the Netherlands are presented to illustrate the discussion, 1 describing family planning communication programs that were intended to reduce the number of unwanted and unplanned pregnancies, and the other describing measures to increase availability of child care services in order to facilitate labor force participation of women and ultimately to increase the birth rate. Both theories are found to be comprised of 2 main parallel theories and several related hypotheses. Because political authorities do not usually make explicit the hypotheses that support political measures, their hypotheses must be articulated and reconstituted through attention to debates, written communications, interviews, and other means. The reconstitution must be done as objectively as possible, which implies the need to follow some methodologic rules. Examples are cited of principles advanced by researchers in management science, market research, and political science. 7 methodological rules or steps are then suggested for articulating policy theories: 1) identify statements relative to the political problem, such as excessive or inadequate fertility rates; 2) use the sources to identify reasons for undertaking concrete policy measures; 3) describe the role of the official in the political process; 4) inventory all declarations concerning the relationship between the objective and the

  11. methodological and technical aspects to be considered in the location of physical recreational sports facilities

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    Jesús I. Benítez Llanes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes we wonder. Why practitioners of recreational physical activities do not make systematic use of a particular sports facility ?, Why some sports facility remains almost always empty? Why it is continued unnecessarily reversed large sums of material resources for maintenance? For the simple reason that sports facilities were from the beginning that were not well conceived and designed architecturally, where among other things, not sporting habits and population size of the place properly examined. Similarly, we have witnessed criteria issued regarding the performance of a specific sports field, far from contributing to the extension and improvement of the practice of recreational physical and sports activities in its various manifestations, its null or poor continuous maintenance contributing negatively to limit the sporting life and lacerate mental and physical welfare of the inhabitants of the environment. Justifications that led the author of this research to the development of methodological technical aspects regarding the location of recreational physical sports infrastructure, content which also form part of the subject and / or curricular unit "Spaces and Sports Facilities" currently teaches future professionals and managers of Physical Culture for the last two academic years at the University of the Sciences of Physical Culture and Sport Nancy Uranga Romagoza in Pinar del Río Cuba and the Iberoamerican University of Sport in Venezuela.

  12. Methodological aspects in quantitative translational neuroimaging in central nervous system diseases with Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müllauer, J.

    2013-01-01

    understanding of the transport mechanisms of radioligands across the BBB. Moreover, imaging artifacts, such as partial volume effect and spill over effect play a role in quantitative PET, in particular when imaging small anatomical structures. Phantom studies were conducted to evaluate these effects and correction methods were explored. Goal of this thesis is to reveal present and unattended methodological aspects of preclinical, as well as translational neuroimaging of CNS diseases with PET. (author) [de

  13. Environmental evaluation Methodology as part, of the project multi-aspect evaluation of the portfolio of ISAGEN options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala R, Ana Victoria

    2001-01-01

    ISAGEN designed and applied a multi-aspect methodology to classify and compare projects of the company's electricity generation options portfolio. It was developed from a holistic vision, integrating multidisciplinary information from the economic, environmental and technical aspects. This helped to classify the alternatives based on the sum of the values obtained for the different considered aspects. This document presents, in general form, the procedure adopted for the index formulation and selection of factors including the variables corresponding to the sub-aspects (or environmental dimensions) physical, biotic and social. The investigation's work, selection and classification of the variables were developed by an interdisciplinary group of experimented professionals in the environmental evaluation of projects. The integration of the three sub-aspects (physical, biotic and social) resulted in a hierarchy of projects based on environmental considerations, which were finally articulated with the respective values obtained from the technical and economical aspects. In general, the results obtained in each sub-aspect agreed with the hierarchy of projects based on an expert concept previous to the method application. In synthesis, it was observed that this technique is of great utility to make comparisons and general classifications because it allows to take advantage of information with different characteristics and include assumptions or artificial modifiable methodological items that reflect the structure of the deciding agents preferences at any given time

  14. Terminological and methodological aspects in investigating the preservation of rare library materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Hasenay

    2008-07-01

    efficient management and good organization of preservation presupposes a systematic and comprehensive approach applicable independent of the type of institution or type of material. The management and organization issues concerning the preservation of rare library materials is shown as an overview of their most important elements, with a critical evaluation of the most important achievements in theory in practice. The methodological aspect is also very important in investigating the preservation of rare library materials.The special emphasis is placed on the systematic investigation of the status of library holdings and the possibilities offered by the qualitative and quantitative description of holdings on the one hand, and the possibilities offered by the methods of interview and/or questionnaire on the other. Several practical examples that may serve as test models in the approach to this issue have been analyzed.The existing organization of the collection of historical newspapers from the city of Osijek area, and the organization of the collection of old books in the library of the Franciscan monastery in Mostar in relation to their status and protection activities have also been discussed. By comparing these models a significant difference in the material and content characteristics of the analyzed rare library holdings have been identified. This difference calls for the use of different methodologies for investigating the condition of the holdings. The information on the condition of the library holdings and approaches to their preservation serve as a starting point for planning further steps for the efficient preservation of rare library materials. The insights into the problem of preservation presented in this paper should be understood as a foundation for further implementation on similar examples.Key words : preservation of library materials, rare library materials, rare books, historical newspapers, organization and management of preservation, description of the

  15. A large-scale study of epilepsy in Ecuador: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia, M; Suarez, J; Crespo, F; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D; Ellison, R H; Cascante, S M

    1992-01-01

    The methodology is presented of a large-scale study of epilepsy carried out in a highland area in northern Ecuador, South America, covering a population of 72,121 people; The study was carried out in two phases, the first, a cross-sectional phase, consisted of a house-to-house survey of all persons in this population, screening for epileptic seizures using a specially designed questionnaire. Possible cases identified in screening were assessed in a cascade diagnostic procedure applied by general doctors and neurologists. Its objectives were: to establish a comprehensive epidemiological profile of epileptic seizures; to describe the clinical phenomenology of this condition in the community; to validate methods for diagnosis and classification of epileptic seizures by a non-specialised team; and to ascertain the community's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding epilepsy. A sample was selected in this phase in order to study the social aspects of epilepsy in this community. The second phase, which was longitudinal, assessed the ability of non-specialist care in the treatment of epilepsy. It consisted of a prospective clinical trial of antiepileptic therapy in untreated patients using two standard anti-epileptic drugs. Patients were followed for 12 months by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a primary health worker, rural doctor, neurologist, anthropologist, and psychologist. Standardised, reproducible instruments and methods were used. This study was carried out through co-operation between the medical profession, political agencies and the pharmaceutical industry, at an international level. We consider this a model for further large-scale studies of this type.

  16. Development of methodology for evaluation of long-term safety aspects of organic cement paste components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Holgersson, S.; Ervanne, H.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term safety aspects of superplasticizers (SP) and other cement paste components were studied in this joint Nagra - NUMO - SKB - Posiva project with aim to develop a methodology for the evaluation of the long-term safety aspects of superplasticizers (SP) and other organic components of cement pastes. The study also evaluated the effects of SPs and other cement paste components that have already been used or that are most likely to be used in the construction of the high-level nuclear waste repositories in Sweden, Switzerland, Finland and Japan. The main long-term safety issue of concern is whether the superplasticizers and/or other organic components of cement pastes might affect the transport properties of radionuclides. A full evaluation of whether the superplasticizers can be used in a high-level nuclear waste repository cannot be answered based on the studies but a classification of the superplasticizers based on their impact on sorption of radionuclides has been done. The basic methodology for testing, leaching and analyzing of leachants and solid samples of different types was developed at CRIEPI. Two different methodologies for studying the impact of SPs on the sorption of Eu on crushed rock were tested and developed by Helsinki University (HU) and Chalmers University of Technology (CTH). Methods for analyzing organics leaching from grouts were successfully tested by CRIEPI and CTH (Chalmers University of Technology). At CRIEPI the total organic content (TOC) of the leachants was analyzed by Infrared absorption spectrometry (IR) followed by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) for the identification of the organic compounds. At CTH several different analytical methods were tested (e.g. IR, UV spectroscopy, NMR, MALDI-TOF), but these methods still require improvement. In addition to SPs, organics are present in several components of cement pastes, for example in cement grinding aid (CGA) and micro silica slurry. The results suggests that the main high

  17. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  18. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility measurements in ponies fed different haylage to concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; van Riet, M M J; Visser, P; Blok, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2017-11-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming haylage-based diets with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Ponies were fed four experimental, iso-energetic (net energy (NE) basis) diets (i.e. 22 MJ NE/day) with increasing proportions of a pelleted concentrate (C) in relation to haylage (H). The absolute amounts of diet dry matter fed per day were 4.48 kg of H (100H), 3.36 and 0.73 kg of H and C (75H25C), 2.24 and 1.45 kg of H and C (50H50C) and 1.12 and 2.17 kg of H and C (25H75C). Diets were supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.7 g Ti/day). Voluntary voided faeces were quantitatively collected daily during 10 consecutive days and analysed for moisture, ash, ADL, acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and Ti. A minimum faeces collection period of 6 consecutive days, along with a 14-day period to adapt the animals to the diets and become accustomed to the collection procedure, is recommended to obtain accurate estimations on dry matter digestibility and organic matter digestibility (OMD) in equids fed haylage-based diets supplemented with concentrate. In addition, the recovery of AIA, ADL and Ti was determined and evaluated. Mean faecal recovery over 10 consecutive days across diets for AIA, ADL and Ti was 124.9% (SEM 2.9), 108.7% (SEM 2.0) and 97.5% (SEM 0.9), respectively. Cumulative faecal recovery of AIA significantly differed between treatments, indicating that AIA is inadequate to estimate the OMD in equines. In addition, evaluation of the CV of mean cumulative faecal recoveries obtained by AIA, ADL and Ti showed greater variations in faecal excretion of AIA (9.1) and ADL (7.4) than Ti (3.7). The accuracy of prediction of OMD was higher with the use of Ti than ADL. The use of Ti is preferred as a marker in digestibility trials in equines fed haylage-based diets supplemented with increasing amounts of pelleted concentrate.

  19. [Methodological aspects of a study of medical service satisfaction in patients with borderline mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malygin, Ya V; Tsygankov, B D

    The authors discussed a methodology of the study of medical service satisfaction and it's factors: moment of assessment, methodology of data collection, format of data, bench-marking, principles of inclusion of questions into a questionnaire, organizing and frequency of conducting studies.

  20. Linguistic and pragmatic aspects of narration in Finnish typically developing children and children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Leena; Loukusa, Soile; Laukkanen, Päivi; Leinonen, Eeva; Kunnari, Sari

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates narratives of Finnish children with specific language impairment (SLI) from linguistic and pragmatic perspectives, in order to get a comprehensive overview of these children's narrative abilities. Nineteen children with SLI (mean age 6;1 years) and 19 typically developing age-matched children participated in the study. Their picture-elicited narrations were analysed for linguistic productivity and complexity, grammatical and referential accuracy, event content, the use of mental state expressions and narrative comprehension. Children with SLI showed difficulties in every aspect of narration in comparison to their peers. Only one measure of productivity, the number of communication units, did not reach statistical significance. Not only was linguistic structure fragile but also pragmatic aspects of storytelling (referencing, event content, mental state expressions and inferencing) were demanding for children with SLI. Results suggest that pragmatic aspects of narration should be taken into account more often when assessing narrative abilities of children with SLI.

  1. 76 FR 9233 - Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Allotment Methodology and States' Fiscal Years 2009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... [CMS-2291-F] RIN 0938-AP53 Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Allotment Methodology and States... under Title XXI of the Social Security Act (the Act), for the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), as amended by the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA), by the...

  2. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  3. Methodological Aspects of Building Science-based Sports Training System for Taekwondo Sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananchenko Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have solved topical scientific problems in the article: 1 the research base in the construction of theoretical and methodological foundations of sports training, based on taekwondo has been analysed; 2 the organization and methodological requirements for the training sessions of taekwondo have been researched; 3 the necessity of interaction processes of natural development and adaptation to physical activity of young taekwondo sportsmen has been grounded; 4 the necessity of scientific evidence of building young fighters training loads in microcycles, based on their individualization has been proved.

  4. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical ...

  5. Mental Health Aspects of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, N.; Gallagher, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported variable and at times opposite findings on comorbid psychiatric problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Aims: This study aimed to examine patterns of comorbid psychiatric problems in children with ASD and their parents compared with IQ matched controls and their parents. Methods:…

  6. Key Methodological Aspects of Translators' Training in Ukraine and in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of international relations in the globalized world has influenced the role of a translator that is becoming more and more important. Translators' training institutions today are to work out and to implement the best teaching methodology taking into consideration the new challenges of modern multinational and multicultural society.…

  7. 2016 ACR-EULAR adult dermatomyositis and polymyositis and juvenile dermatomyositis response criteria-methodological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rider, Lisa G.; Ruperto, Nicolino; Pistorio, Angela; Erman, Brian; Bayat, Nastaran; Lachenbruch, Peter A.; Rockette, Howard; Feldman, Brian M.; Huber, Adam M.; Hansen, Paul; Oddis, Chester V.; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Amato, Anthony A; Chinoy, Hector; Cooper, Robert G.; Chung, Lorinda; Danko, Katalin; Fiorentino, David; García-De la Torre, Ignacio; Reed, Ann M.; Wook Song, Yeong; Cimaz, Rolando; Cuttica, Rubén J.; Pilkington, Clarissa A.; Martini, Alberto; van der Net, Janjaap; Maillard, Susan; Miller, Frederick W.; Vencovsky, Jiri; Aggarwal, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to describe the methodology used to develop new response criteria for adult DM/PM and JDM. Methods: Patient profiles from prospective natural history data and clinical trials were rated by myositis specialists to develop consensus gold-standard ratings of minimal,

  8. Methodological aspects of the use of materials from remote photographs in oil and gas search operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostryukov, M I; Tsarenko, P T

    1981-01-01

    Presented are the methodological characteristics of the use of materials from remote probes in oil and gas search operations within the central part of the western Siberian plain. Examined briefly are ways to increase the effectiveness of interpreting deep structures and the necessity for an amplification in the development of automated systems for interpretation is show.

  9. Methodological Aspects Regarding the Process of Estimating the Reserve for the Un-cleared Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2007-07-01

    The analyzed theoretical aspects are accompanied by empirical examples meant to give the researcher (reader the opportunity of a clearer understanding the mechanism in discussion. The examples are of a scholastic nature to the extent they are aiming a more explicit approach of the used mechanism only, without representing elements of a case analysis.

  10. Scientifically-methodological aspects of agroecological estimation of farmlands in the conditions of radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybul'ko, N.N.; Misyuchik, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Methodical aspects of adaptive land tenure in the conditions of radioactive pollution on the basis of an agroecological estimation of the earths under the radiating factor and an estimation of influence of soil-landscape conditions on migration radionuclide are proved. (authors)

  11. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation of NPP fault diagnostic systems' dynamic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Seong, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    A fault diagnostic system (FDS) is an operator decision support system which is implemented both to increase NPP efficiency as well as to reduce human error and cognitive workload that may cause nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents. Evaluation is an indispensable activity in constructing a reliable FDS. We first define the dynamic aspects of fault diagnostic systems (FDSs) for evaluation in this work. The dynamic aspect is concerned with the way a FDS responds to input. Next, we present a hierarchical structure in the evaluation for the dynamic aspects of FDSs. Dynamic aspects include both what a FDS provides and how a FDS operates. We define the former as content and the latter as behavior. Content and behavior contain two elements and six elements in the lower hierarchies, respectively. Content is a criterion for evaluating the integrity of a FDS, the problem types which a FDS deals with, along with the level of information. Behavior contains robustness, understandability, timeliness, transparency, effectiveness, and communicativeness of FDSs. On the other hand, the static aspects are concerned with the hardware and the software of the system. For quantitative evaluation, the method used to gain and aggregate the priorities of the criteria in this work is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The criteria at the lowest level are quantified through simple numerical expressions and questionnaires developed in this work. these well describe the characteristics of the criteria and appropriately use subjective, empirical, and technical methods. Finally, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of our evaluation method, we have performed one case study for the fault diagnosis module of OASYS TM (On-Line Operator Aid SYStem for Nuclear Power Plant), which is an operator support system developed at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)

  12. Important Aspects of Nutrition in Children with Cancer1

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jacqueline; Jürgens, Heribert; Frühwald, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during cancer plays a decisive role in several clinical outcome measures, such as treatment response, quality of life, and cost of care. However, the importance of nutrition in children and young adults with malignancies is still an underestimated topic within pediatric oncology. The importance of our work is to reinforce and indicate that malnutrition in children with cancer should not be accepted at any stage of the disease or tolerated as an inevitable process. Unique to...

  13. More Than Just a Discursive Practice? Conceptual Principles and Methodological Aspects of Dispositif Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D. Bührmann

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an introduction into the conceptual and practical field of dispositf analysis—a field that is of great importance but that is as yet underdeveloped. In order to render this introduction, we first explain the terms discourse and dispositif. Then we examine the conceptual instruments and methodological procedures of dispositf analysis. In this way, we define the relations between discourse and (a non discoursive practices (b subjectification, (c everyday orders of knowledge and (d institutional practices like societal changes as central issues of dispositif analysis. Furthermore, we point out the methodological possibilities and limitations of dispositif analysis. We demonstrate these possibilities and limitations with some practical examples. In general, this article aims to provide an extension of the perspectives of discourse theory and research by stressing the relations between normative orders of knowledge, their effects on interactions and individual self–reflections connected with them. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702281

  14. Environmental monitoring (water, soil, air, food) and some methodological aspects of radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanel, Vasile; Boldescu, Victoria; Mesina, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research results of radiological samples taken from various media (water, soil, air and some food). The study showed that concentrations of radionuclides Cs 137 and Sr 90 did not exceed the maximum permissible. A high level of radionuclides but within the norm occurred in some imported food. The research describes methodology used in radioactive decontamination in practice of the modern world. (authors)

  15. Significant aspects of the external event analysis methodology of the Jose Cabrera NPP PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquin Duena, A.; Martin Martinez, A.R.; Boneham, P.S.; Ortega Prieto, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the following advances in the methodology for Analysis of External Events in the PSA of the Jose Cabrera NPP: In the Fire Analysis, a version of the COMPBRN3 CODE, modified by Empresarios Agrupados according to the guidelines of Appendix D of the NUREG/CR-5088, has been used. Generic cases were modelled and general conclusions obtained, applicable to fire propagation in closed areas. The damage times obtained were appreciably lower than those obtained with the previous version of the code. The Flood Analysis methodology is based on the construction of event trees to represent flood propagation dependent on the condition of the communication paths between areas, and trees showing propagation stages as a function of affected areas and damaged mitigation equipment. To determine temporary evolution of the flood area level, the CAINZO-EA code has been developed, adapted to specific plant characteristics. In both the Fire and Flood Analyses a quantification methodology has been adopted, which consists of analysing the damages caused at each stage of growth or propagation and identifying, in the Internal Events models, the gates, basic events or headers to which safe failure (probability 1) due to damages is assigned. (Author)

  16. Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both…

  17. Concept Maps: An Alternative Methodology to Assess Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Dominique-Maikell, Nikole; McKean, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the utility and efficacy of using concepts maps as a research tool to assess young children. Pre- and post- concept maps have been used as an assessment and evaluation tool with teachers and with older students, typically children who can read and write; this article summarizes an investigation into the utility of using…

  18. Quantitative renal cinescintigraphy with iodine-123 hippuran methodological aspects, kit for labeling of hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, A.; Pecking, A.; Delorme, G.; Mathonnat, F.; Debaud, B.; Bardy, A.; Coornaert, S.; Merlin, L.; Vinot, J.M.; Desgrez, A.; Gambini, D.; Vernejoul, P. de.

    1981-08-01

    The development of an extemporaneous kit for the labeling of ortho-iodo-hippuric acid (Hippuran) with iodine 123 allows the performance of a routine quantitative renal cinescintigraphy providing in 20 minutes, and in an absolutely non-traumatic way, a very complete renal morphofunctional study including: a cortical renal scintigraphy, sequential scintigraphies of excretory tract, renal functional curves, tubular, global, and separate clearances for each kidney. This functional quantitative investigation method should take a preferential place in the routine renal balance. The methodology of the technique is explained and compared to classical methods for estimation of tubular, global and separate clearances [fr

  19. Children with congenital deficiencies or acquired amputations of the lower limbs : functional aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, AM; Rijnders, LJM; Groothoff, J W; Eisma, W H

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of prostheses, some secondary complications and functional aspects among children who had a congenital leg deficiency or an acquired leg amputation. Rehabilitation physicians were asked to refer children, aged 1-18 years, with a leg deficiency or

  20. Special aspects of radiation-therapy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, E.A.; Veraguth, P.C.; Wagner, H.P.; Bern Univ.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotherapy of tumors in children together with surgery and chemotherapy is an important part of therapy in the multimodal approach. Since the radiotherapy of such children requires special technical as well as psychological know-how, this should be undertaken in larger centers. The indications for using such radiation should be very strict because of the direct and longterm effects on the growing organs, and the benefits carefully weighed against the risks. It is the function of a multidisciplinary tumor team to estimate these risks. Changes in current standard therapy, as unilateral reduction in radiotherapy, should only be undertaken in controlled randomised trials. (orig.) [de

  1. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology.

  2. Methodological Aspects of Modeling Development and Viability of Systems and Counterparties in the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitlinskyy Valdemar V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study and generalize methodological approaches to modeling economic development and viability of economic systems with consideration for risk, changing their goals, status, and behavior in the digital economy. The definition of categories of economic development and viability is offered, the directions of their research by means of mathematical modeling are grounded. The system of characteristics and markers of the external economic environment under conditions of digitalization of economic activity is analyzed. The theoretical foundations and methodology for mathematical modeling of development of economic systems as well as ensuring their viability and security under conditions of introducing infrastructure of information society and digital economy on the principles of the information and knowledge approach are considered. It is proved that in an information society, predictive model technologies are a growing safety resource. There studied prerequisites for replacing the traditional integration concept of evaluation, analysis, modeling, management, and administration of economic development based on a threat-oriented approach to the definition of security protectors, information, and knowledge. There proposed a concept of creating a database of models for examining trends and patterns of economic development, which, unlike traditional trend models of dynamics, identifies and iteratively conceptualizes processes based on a set of knowledgeable predictors based on the use of data mining and machine learning tools, including in-depth training.

  3. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE BETWEEN UKRAINIAN GAAP AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kuzina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the global business environment the need to strengthen the accounting and financial re-porting. At the stage of attracting investment in the country there is a need in the preparation of financial statements generally accepted basic prin-ciples of which are based on common international financial reporting standards (IFRS . Relevant is the assessment of convergence of national standards and International Financial Reporting Standards. However, before you conduct content analysis necessary to determine compliance with standards of methodological approaches to the selection of key indicators for the assessment of convergence. The article is to define the methodo-logical approaches to the selection and development of indicators IFRSs list of key elements for further evaluation convergence of national and international standards. To assess the convergence was allocated 187 basic key elements measuring the level of convergence to IFRS. Sampling was carried out based on the professional judgment of the author, the key indicators of the standard, based on the evaluation of the usefulness of accounting information. These figures make it possible to calculate the specific level of convergence of international and national standards and determine how statements prepared by domestic standards corresponding to IFRS. In other words, can with some certainty assert that Ukraine has made (“good practices in IFRS implementation” or not? This calculation will assess the regulatory efforts of government agencies (Ministry of Finance on the approximation of Ukrainian standards and IFRS.

  4. An update on technical and methodological aspects for cardiac PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRESOTTO, Luca; BUSNARDO, Elena; GIANOLLI, Luigi; BETTINARDI, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is indicated for a large number of cardiac diseases: perfusion and viability studies are commonly used to evaluate coronary artery disease; PET can also be used to assess sarcoidosis and endocarditis, as well as to investigate amyloidosis. Furthermore, a hot topic for research is plaque characterization. Most of these studies are technically very challenging. High count rates and short acquisition times characterize perfusion scans while very small targets have to be imaged in inflammation/infection and plaques examinations. Furthermore, cardiac PET suffers from respiratory and cardiac motion blur. Each type of studies has specific requirements from the technical and methodological point of view, thus PET systems with overall high performances are required. Furthermore, in the era of hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT) and PET/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems, the combination of complementary functional and anatomical information can be used to improve diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, PET images can be qualitatively and quantitatively improved exploiting information from the other modality, using advanced algorithms. In this review we will report the latest technological and methodological innovations for PET cardiac applications, with particular reference to the state of the art of the hybrid PET/CT and PET/MRI. We will also report the most recent advancements in software, from reconstruction algorithms to image processing and analysis programs.

  5. Methodological aspects of modeling household solid waste generation in Japan: Evidence from Okayama and Otsu cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Jia, Renfu; Duan, Ruiyang; Gu, Aijun

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a quantitative methodology and two empirical case studies in Japan on modeling household solid waste (HSW) generation based on individual consumption expenditure (ICE) and local waste policy effects by using the coupled estimation model systems. Results indicate that ICE on food, miscellaneous commodities and services, as well as education, cultural, and recreation services are mainly associated with the changes of HSW generation and its components in Okayama and Otsu from 1980 to 2014. The effects of waste policy measures were also identified. HSW generation in Okayama will increase from 11.60 million tons (mt) in 1980 to 25.02 mt in 2025, and the corresponding figures are 6.82 mt (in 1980) and 14.00 mt (in 2025) in Otsu. To better manage local HSW, several possible and appropriate implications such as promoting a green lifestyle, extending producer responsibility, intensifying recycling and source separation, generalizing composting, and establishing flexible measures and sustainable policies should be adopted. Results of this study would facilitate consumer management of low waste generation and support an effective HSW policy design in the two case cities. Success could lead to emulation by other Japanese cities seeking to build and maintain a sustainable, eco-friendly society. Moreover, the methodologies of establishing coupled estimation model systems could be extended to China and other global cities.

  6. The Beliefs of Teachers and Daycare Staff regarding Children of Divorce: A Q Methodological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Klara; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Storksen, Ingunn

    2012-01-01

    This Q methodological study explores beliefs of daycare staff and teachers regarding young children's reactions related to divorce. The Q factor analysis resulted in two viewpoints. Participants on the viewpoint "Child problems" believe that children show various emotional and behavioral problems related to divorce, while those on the "Structure…

  7. Methodological aspects to be considered in evaluating the economics of service measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bald, M.

    1987-01-01

    For the purposes of the report, service measures is used as a term denoting all those steps which exceed the framework of normal in-service maintenance and repair and serve to improve economics over the normal case. Positive impacts are to be achieved on such parameters as availability, efficiency, and service life. One of the aspects investigated is the effect, if any, of such measures on the residual service life of plants in operation for a long period of time already. Residual service life in this case means the remaining span of effective technical and economic operation which, in these model calculations, also includes part of the period of depreciation. (orig.) [de

  8. Exploring Some Aspects Associated with Dentine Hypersensitivity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Shitsuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The etiology of dentine hypersensitivity (DH is still inconclusive and there are few studies concerning it in children. Aim. To evaluate clinical, dietary, and salivary variables in children with DH complaints. Design. Forty-eight children were asked about DH. Data regarding dietary habits were collected from the children’s parents and an examination was performed to determine dental erosion. Dental biofilm was estimated by oral hygiene status, according to Greene and Vermillion’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S. Whole saliva was collected under mechanical stimulation and evaluated salivary flow rate, initial pH, buffer capacity, and calcium and phosphate concentrations. The temperature of soft drinks, drinking method, sense of bitter taste, and other variables were also determined. Possible factors associated with DH were analyzed by univariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses. The prevalence ratio (PR values and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results. DH was associated with the presence of dental erosion (PR; 95% CI = 2.23; 1.05 to 4.71 and salivary flow rate (2.49; 1.05 to 5.91. When the presence of erosion was not included, other variables were retained as follows: bitter taste (2.36; 1.38 to 4.03, OHI-S (0.47; 0.23 to 0.97. Conclusion. DH in children is associated with factors related to dental erosion.

  9. Clinical aspects and prognosis of Brugada syndrome in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Probst, Vincent; Denjoy, Isabelle; Meregalli, Paola G.; Amirault, Jean-Christophe; Sacher, Frederic; Mansourati, Jacques; Babuty, Dominique; Villain, Elisabeth; Victor, Jacques; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Lupoglazoff, Jean-Marc; Mabo, Philippe; Veltmann, Christian; Jesel, Laurence; Chevalier, Philippe; Clur, Sally-Ann B.; Haissaguerre, Michel; Wolpert, Christian; Le Marec, Herve; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome is an arrhythmogenic disease characterized by an ECG pattern of ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads and augmented risk of sudden cardiac death. Little is known about the clinical presentation and prognosis of this disease in children. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  10. Psychological aspects of Recurrent Abdominal Pain Syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedi, A; Moayedi, F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Intermittent visceral distress syndrome is described as "at least three scenes of visceral distress, sufficiently severe to hinder their actions over a time longer than 3 months, continuing from the preceding year". Organic factors causing abdominal pain are rare, so most of the children with an intermittent visceral distress are designated to have a functional abdominal pain. This study was designed to evaluate psychological problems such as anxiety and distress in children with functional intestinal distress. Method. 120 children (50 boys and 70 girls) with an age range of 5-18 years, who complained of abdominal pain among other things, were included in this cross-sectional case-control study (forty with an organic etiology, 38 diagnosed as RAPS and 42 healthy controls). Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) questionnaire and Depression Self-Rated Scale (DSRS) questionnaire were used to determine the level of anxiety. A 28-question General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was also used to investigate the general mental health of their mothers. Result. In the present study, organic and functional etiology of abdominal pain was significantly different with regard to the anxiety score. However, this was not seen as far as depression was concerned. The total GHQ score of mothers was not significantly different between the three groups. ANOVA was used to compare groups. Conclusion. As shown in the present study, that is consistent with most other studies, psychological factors were seen in RAP and need a more in depth investigation to be resolved.

  11. Multidimensional Aspects of Young Children's Sex-Role Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Candace Garrett; Busch, Judith Wilde

    This article reports a study in which a sample of 89 White and 34 Spanish-language heritage children from ages 2 1/2 to 6 1/2 from the lower- and middle-classes responded to two cognitive measures (classification skill and gender knowledge), three verbal sex-typing measures (occupations, toys, and peer behaviors), and a behavioral sex-typing…

  12. IFRS 9 implementation in banks and macroeconomic scenarios: Some methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Financial Reporting Standard 9 - IFRS is another one in the series of global level initiatives undertaken with a view to fixing the consequences of the global economic and financial crisis, and preventing the future negative developments caused by inadequate recognition and presentation of credit losses on the part of banks. The IFRS 9 also represents a significant shift in relation to traditional accounting, given that it introduced the concept of expected credit losses to replace the concept of occurred credit losses. This task cannot be fulfilled by the traditional and conservative accounting without involving the macroeconomic assessment models, i.e. macroeconomic scenarios. This paper aims to highlight some specific methodological rudiments in macroeconomic analyses and forecasts as inputs for the accounting recognition and presentation of expected credit losses.

  13. Studies into abnormal aggression in humans and rodents: Methodological and translational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Jozsef

    2017-05-01

    Here we review the principles based on which aggression is rendered abnormal in humans and laboratory rodents, and comparatively overview the main methodological approaches based on which this behavior is studied in the two categories of subjects. It appears that the discriminating property of abnormal aggression is rule breaking, which renders aggression dysfunctional from the point of view of the perpetrator. We show that rodent models of abnormal aggression were created by the translation of human conditions into rodent equivalents, and discuss how findings obtained with such models may be "translated back" to human conditions when the mechanisms underlying aggression and its possibilities of treatment are investigated. We suggest that the complementary nature of human and rodent research approaches invite a more intense cross-talk between the two sides of aggression research than the one presently observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comorbidity and radiation: methodological aspects of health assessment of persons exposed to the Chornobyl accident factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosach, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comorbidity is one of the most challenging problems of a modern medicine. In a population exposed to the factors of the Chornobyl accident there is an obvious increase in the number of diseases occurring simultaneously against the background of rising prevalence of different classes of chronic medical nosology. The scientific data analysis are presented on the methodological approaches that can be used to create a specialized system for integrated assessment of the health of patients with comorbid disorders. Developing such a system it should be taken into account the trends of changes in the incidence, prevalence and structure of chronic disease, factors and regularities of comorbid disease in the cohorts of Chornobyl accident clean-up workers, evacuees and dwellers of contaminated territories. The system should provide a non-random selection of combinations (clusters) of the most common diseases with serious consequences for the survivors. Nosach O. V., 2013.

  15. Important Aspects of Nutrition in Children with Cancer1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jacqueline; Jürgens, Heribert; Frühwald, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during cancer plays a decisive role in several clinical outcome measures, such as treatment response, quality of life, and cost of care. However, the importance of nutrition in children and young adults with malignancies is still an underestimated topic within pediatric oncology. The importance of our work is to reinforce and indicate that malnutrition in children with cancer should not be accepted at any stage of the disease or tolerated as an inevitable process. Unique to our manuscript is the close collaboration, the exchange of knowledge and expertise between pediatric oncologists and a nutritional specialist, as well as the comprehension of the mechanisms during cancer cachexia and malnutrition. We provide a critical review of the current state of research and new knowledge related to nutritional management in childhood cancer. PMID:22332035

  16. ASPECTS OF BIODETERIORATION OF LAPIDEOUS SUBMERGED ARTEFACTS: 3D METHODOLOGIES APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ricci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Submerged stone archaeological artefacts are bioeroded by endolithic microbiota (cyanobacteria, algae and fungi and macroborers (Porifera, Bivalvia and Sipuncula. Optical microscope and SEM observations permit to analyse the bioerosion traces and to identify bioeroders. Data obtained with these techniques cannot be used to estimate volumes of material bioeroded. This aspect require the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from artefact. In this work we illustrate two 3D imaging techniques used to study bioerosion phenomena of underwater Cultural Heritage. In particular Digital Video Microscope permit the elaboration of 3D images, which are widely employed for close-range acquisitions. Underwater Laser Scanner documents the in situ degradation of submerged artefacts. This research aims to sensitize specialist figures in the study 3D offering a starting point for future collaborations that could lead to interesting results.

  17. [Quality of life - methodology and clinical practice aspects with a focus on ocular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, G H; Gall, C

    2008-08-01

    Due to the demographic development in western industrialised countries, the proportion of visually impaired persons is likely to increase in the future. Currently there is a shift in scientific recognition from relative neglect of psychopathological distress in the visually impaired to better notice of disease-related subjective impairments that are detectable with specific questionnaire measures. Visual acuity primarily determines the subjective rating of visual functioning independent from the eye disease. Ophthalmic patients who show only mild symptoms from a medical point of view normally suffer considerably diminished vision-related quality of life with respect to physical, functional, mental, and social aspects. Treatment effects have been shown using vision-related quality-of-life measures for different ophthalmic diseases, particularly cataract surgery. Assessment of vision-related quality of life provides a meaningful complement to objective data.

  18. Methodological aspects of market study on residential, commercial and industrial sectors, of the Conversion Project for natural gas of existing network in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinami, R.I.; Perazza, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The methodological aspects of market study, developed at the geographical area served by existing network of naphtha gas, which will be converted to natural gas in a two years conversion program are presented. (author)

  19. ABOUT THE RELEVANCE AND METHODOLOGY ASPECTS OF TEACHING THE MATHEMATICAL MODELING TO PEDAGOGICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Perminov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the need for profile training in mathematical modeling for pedagogical students, caused by the total penetration of mathematics into different sciences, including the humanities; fast development of the information communications technologies; and growing importance of mathematical modeling, combining the informal scientific and formal mathematical languages with the unique opportunities of computer programming. The author singles out the reasons for mastering and using the mathematical apparatus by teaches in every discipline. Indeed, among all the modern mathematical methods and ideas, mathematical modeling retains its priority in all professional spheres. Therefore, the discipline of “Mathematical Modeling” can play an important role in integrating different components of specialists training in various profiles. By mastering the basics of mathematical modeling, students acquire skills of methodological thinking; learn the principles of analysis, synthesis, generalization of ideas and methods in different disciplines and scientific spheres; and achieve general culture competences. In conclusion, the author recommends incorporating the “Methods of Profile Training in Mathematical Modeling” into the pedagogical magistracy curricula. 

  20. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Adaptation Potential of Personnel

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    Sesina Iryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of theoretical and methodological recommendations with respect to assessment of the adaptation potential of employees as an important prerequisite of development of employees and ensuring competitiveness of an enterprise. It contains the author’s interpretation of the adaptation potential as a possibility of adjusting to the environment with the aim of achieving socio-economic goals of an enterprise. Adaptation potential is a property of a person as a performer of labour functions and ability to master new methods of work, adjustment to new labour conditions, processing of information and also a communicative property. At the same time adaptation potential is an aggregate of motivational, professional, information and integration components of a person. For assessing the adaptation potential it is proposed to combine 360 degrees method and method of paired comparison, which facilitates increase of trustworthiness of results. The author marks out some criteria of assessment of the adaptation potential: ratio of professional experience, ratio of official experience, ratio of efficiency of work, independence in mastering new methods of work, fast adjustment to new labour conditions, ability to quickly process big volumes of information, mobility, high level of productivity under different labour conditions, sharpness of wit in different production situations, ability to form interpersonal relations in a collective and psychological features.

  1. Clinical and electrophysiological aspects of tics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiullina, G I; Safiullina, A A

    2015-01-01

    Tics are diverse in nature inappropriate movements or vocalizations. They significantly degrade patients' quality of life, lead to social difficulties, and disturbance of learning especially during exacerbations. The prevalence of tics among children ranges from 4% to 24%, thus emphasizing the relevance of the problem. To study clinical and electrophysiological features of tics in children with development of new treatment methods. We conducted a comprehensive clinical and electrophysiological examination of 50 patients with tics, aged 5 to 15 years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children. The research included a thorough study of the history, neurological examination, manual testing of skeletal muscles, psychological testing. Electrophysiological examination included a review of the functional state of corticospinal tract (CST) by the method of magnetic stimulation (MS), study of polysynaptic reflex excitability (PRE) according to a late component of the blink reflex (BR). Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric methods of data processing. All children of the study group showed signs of minimal brain dysfunction (MBD), they had complicated antenatal and postnatal history (trauma, disease, occurring with intoxication). There was a trend towards the increase of MBD signs with worsening of tics. Manual diagnosis in patients identified functional blockade at different levels of the vertebral column, sacroiliac joints, we identified latent myofascial trigger points (MFTP) mainly in the cervical-collar zone, in the area of the paravertebral muscles, periosteal triggers in the area of the sacroiliac joints.The research allowed determining decrease in propagation velocity of excitation (PVE) throughout CST in patients with tics. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between the severity of tics and PVE (r = -0.38; p tics: I - low and moderate type of reflex responses; and II - high type of reflex responses. Collation of data

  2. Danish children's acquisition of noun plurals: the role of methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi-naturalistic/s......In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi...... the experimental data and we therefore predict a lower percentage of incorrectly produced PL forms in the semi-naturalistic/semi-experimental than in the experimental data. 3) In the experimental data the children are to produce the PL form of nouns given by the investigator. We expect children to produce a large...... amount of sg. instead of PL forms, either as a repetition of the sg. form given by the investigator or as a PL error form irreguralizing the “Ø” PL marker (pure zero, e.g. sg. mus ‘mouse’ – PL mus ‘mice’). 4) The experimental data is based on a fixed number of specific pre-selected items and we therefore...

  3. Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling and betting and membership of children and adolescents in street gangs. The author discusses fundamental reasons, causes and motives for animal abuse committed by children as well as the devastating impact of children’s exposure to the scenes of animal abuse on their future delinquent behavior. She emphasizes the link between animal abuse and family violence and analyzes the position of a child as a direct or indirect victim in such situations. In addition, the author estimates the efficiency of existing mechanisms of prevention and state reaction to such behaviours and suggests solutions, which are accepted in comparative law, as potential role models.

  4. CURRENT ASPECTS OF ACUTE STREPTOCOCCAL TONSILLOPHARYNGITIS DIAGNOSTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Polyakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute tonsillopharyngitis in children is one of the most common reasons for medical consultations. The majority of acute pharyngeal inflammatory diseases are viral. The frequency of bacterial tonsillopharyngitis in children (the main causative agent is group A Streptococcus, GAS is about 20–30%. In spite of it antibiotics are prescribed for 95% of patients, thus it is inappropriate. On the other hand misdiagnosis of acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis and antibiotics refusal can lead to suppurative and nonsuppurative rheumatic complications. Some prominent trials have shown a poor ability of signs and inflammatory biomarkers to identify tonsillopharyngitis streptococcal vs. viral. So it is impossible to use them as indication for antibiotic. The experience of clinical score use (McIsaac etc. have also demonstrated a poor prognostic value. As a result the throat swab culture is the «gold standard» of acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. It has such limitations as rare microbiology labs, method technology, the price and the delay in obtaining result. An alternative technique is GAS rapid antigen detecting test (RADT for the identification of GAS directly from throat swabs. The world data shows a high sensitivity and specificity of modern RADTs.

  5. Functional brain imaging with SPECT in normal again and dementia. Methodological, pathophysiological, and diagnostic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemar, G.

    1996-03-01

    New developments in instrumentation, radiochemistry, and data analysis, particularly the introduction of 99m Tc-labeled brain-retained tracers for perfusion studies, have opened up a new era of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review critical methodological issues relating to the SPECT instrument, the radioactive tracers, the scanning procedure, the data analysis and interpretation of data, and subject selection are discussed together with the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed in normal aging. An overview is given of the topography and the pathophysiological and diagnostic significance of focal rCBF deficits in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementia disorders, in which SPECT is capable of early or preclinical disease detection. In Alzheimer's disease, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of focal rCBF deficits measured with SPECT and brain-retained tracers are very high, in particular when combined with medial temporal lob atrophy on CT. Together with neuropsychological testing, SPECT serves to map the topography of brain dysfunction. Thus, in the clinical setting, SPECT provides information that is supplemental to that obtained in other studies. Future applications include neuroreceptor studies and treatment studies, in which SPECT may serve as a diagnostic aid in the selection of patients and as a potential mean for monitoring treatment effects. Although positron emission tomography is the best characterized tool for addressing some of these clinical and research issues in dementia, only the less expensive and technically simpler SPECT technique will have the potential of being available as a screening diagnostic instrument in the clinical setting. It is concluded that, properly approached, functional brain imaging with SPECT represents an important tool in the diagnosis, management, and research of dementia disorders. (au) 251 refs

  6. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF OSAI METHODOLOGY IN ASSESSING THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF AN ENGINEERING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Biletskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to generalize and highlight the practical application of certain science-based approaches to assessment of an engineering company’s organizational culture. The OSAI method application has enabled determining the type of the organizational culture existing within a company and the desirable type thereof, i.e. the one which would produce a positive effect on the competitive status of a company, as well as on the utilization of its human resources. This is important because an appropriate level of the organizational culture within a company would enhance the psychological climate within a company and would provide an opportunity for improving its performance. Methodology. In order to attain the goal of our research, it is necessary to diagnose the type of the organizational culture of some selected companies and draw a conclusion as to amendment of their organizational culture. In order to ensure the successful outcome of the corporate organizational culture diagnosing procedure, let us use the OSAI tool to determine the foundation of such culture. This organizational culture assessment tool helps to define the organizational culture which members of a company are to achieve in order to meet the demands and to respond to the dynamic changes in the business environment. The results showed that the assessment of organizational culture using the method made it possible to determine the OSAI required type of organizational culture on the test plants. Practical implications. Definition of recommendation type of organizational culture has enabled the leadership to change the style of his behavior and better motivate the labor collective. Pay attention to the existing problems and improve the psychological atmosphere in the team, as well as improve the efficiency of plant personnel. Value/originality. The data obtained for the four businesses lead to the conclusion that it is the method of evaluation the optimum procedure for

  7. A comparison of usability methods for testing interactive health technologies: methodological aspects and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Monique W M

    2009-05-01

    Usability evaluation is now widely recognized as critical to the success of interactive health care applications. However, the broad range of usability inspection and testing methods available may make it difficult to decide on a usability assessment plan. To guide novices in the human-computer interaction field, we provide an overview of the methodological and empirical research available on the three usability inspection and testing methods most often used. We describe two 'expert-based' and one 'user-based' usability method: (1) the heuristic evaluation, (2) the cognitive walkthrough, and (3) the think aloud. All three usability evaluation methods are applied in laboratory settings. Heuristic evaluation is a relatively efficient usability evaluation method with a high benefit-cost ratio, but requires high skills and usability experience of the evaluators to produce reliable results. The cognitive walkthrough is a more structured approach than the heuristic evaluation with a stronger focus on the learnability of a computer application. Major drawbacks of the cognitive walkthrough are the required level of detail of task and user background descriptions for an adequate application of the latest version of the technique. The think aloud is a very direct method to gain deep insight in the problems end users encounter in interaction with a system but data analyses is extensive and requires a high level of expertise both in the cognitive ergonomics and in computer system application domain. Each of the three usability evaluation methods has shown its usefulness, has its own advantages and disadvantages; no single method has revealed any significant results indicating that it is singularly effective in all circumstances. A combination of different techniques that compliment one another should preferably be used as their collective application will be more powerful than applied in isolation. Innovative mobile and automated solutions to support end-user testing have

  8. Metacognitive aspects influence subjective well-being in parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffalini, Enrico; Veltri, Alessia; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-02-01

    Research suggests that metacognitive beliefs may be involved in psychological distress and even in the pathogenesis of emotional disorders. The present research is a first attempt to investigate how certain metacognitive aspects operate as favorable or adverse factors influencing subjective wellbeing (SWB) in the parents of children with cancer. Thirty parents of children being treated for cancer completed questionnaires on their metacognitive beliefs (Metacognition Questionnaire), sensitivity to autobiographical memory, and self-reported measures of positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Results in the study group were compared with those obtained from 36 control parents of children being treated for acute, not life-threatening illnesses (hospitalized control group) and from 30 control parents of healthy children (healthy control group). Parents in both the study group and the hospitalized control group reported less SWB than the healthy control group. Most important, metacognitive aspects explained up to 77% of the variance in SWB in parents of children with cancer, as opposed to only 23% in hospitalized control group and 33% in the healthy control group. Differentmetacognitive aspects have a crucial role—both negative and positive—inSWB of parents of children with cancer. It is suggested that the psychological support for parents copingwith a child suffering from oncological disease should assess such aspects and try to address them in clinical practice.

  9. Historical seismicity in Morocco: methodological aspects and cases of multidisciplinary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmrabet, T.; Ramdani, M.; Tadili, B.

    1989-05-01

    Within the framework of a cooperative agreement between Sofratome and the Office National d'Electricite of Morocco, the Centre National de la Recherche of Rabat, with the collaboration of the French Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, was put in charge of compiling a revised catalogue of the historical seismicity of Morocco. The method adopted calls for the participation of several different disciplines in view of situating each earthquake in its own geographical and historical context. The approach entails, during the first stage involving primarily the historian, gathering together the original sources of data and subjecting them to a critical analysis in order to assess their reliability. The second stage consists in interpreting the information so as to define those earthquake characteristics that are requisite to seismic hazard studies. This latter evaluation must be the fruit of a multidisciplinary effort. This is particularly true for earthquakes of past centuries, the observations of which are frequently incompatible or biased and accordingly need to be substantiated by referring to information of a varying nature and, wherever possible, calibrated using accurate data from recent events. In a number of instances, duplications are encountered, or lumped effects for distinct events due to calendar misreckonings, erroneous copying, or misconceptions relative to the geological or historical context. A particularly significant example of the interference of these diverse aspects is afforded by the assessment of the destructive effects in Morocco of the 1755 'Lisbon' earthquake: a method is proposed for calibrating its intensities by comparing them with those of the recent 1969 event of similar origin

  10. Platform development for merging various information sources for water management: methodological, technical and operational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Diogo

    2013-04-01

    As a result of various economic, social and environmental factors, we can all experience the increase in importance of water resources at a global scale. As a consequence, we can also notice the increasing need of methods and systems capable of efficiently managing and combining the rich and heterogeneous data available that concerns, directly or indirectly, these water resources, such as in-situ monitoring station data, Earth Observation images and measurements, Meteorological modeling forecasts and Hydrological modeling. Under the scope of the MyWater project, we developed a water management system capable of satisfying just such needs, under a flexible platform capable of accommodating future challenges, not only in terms of sources of data but also on applicable models to extract information from it. From a methodological point of view, the MyWater platform obtains data from distinct sources, and in distinct formats, be they Satellite images or meteorological model forecasts, transforms and combines them in ways that allow them to be fed to a variety of hydrological models (such as MOHID Land, SIMGRO, etc…), which themselves can also be combined, using such approaches as those advocated by the OpenMI standard, to extract information in an automated and time efficient manner. Such an approach brings its own deal of challenges, and further research was developed under this project on the best ways to combine such data and on novel approaches to hydrological modeling (like the PriceXD model). From a technical point of view, the MyWater platform is structured according to a classical SOA architecture, with a flexible object oriented modular backend service responsible for all the model process management and data treatment, while the information extracted can be interacted with using a variety of frontends, from a web portal, including also a desktop client, down to mobile phone and tablet applications. From an operational point of view, a user can not only see

  11. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  12. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system

  13. Immunological aspects of persistent hepatitis B in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsoyo Notoatmojo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the immunological status of 203 children having persistence Hepatitis B (positive HBsAg ranging in age from 6 to 14 years in Semarang Municipality. The results of humoral immunity examination (IgM Anti-HBc showed that all were negative, indicating that they are not in acute phase of hepatitis B infection. Cellular immunity examination, i.e., CMI skin test has shown positive result in 64.9% on persistent and 65.2% in non persistent hepatitis B (p>0.05. T cell examination showed statistically significant difference (p<0.01 between persistenct and non persistent hepatitis B patients, there was is also significant difference (p<0.01 on CD4 cell examination. These findings indicated that there was difference in immunoregulation function and response repression of antivirus between both groups of patients. On the other hand CD4/ CD8 ratio and T cell function showed no significant difference between the two gorups of patients; similarly the specific function of cytotoxic T cell was not significantly difference.

  14. Type 2 diabetes in children: Clinical aspects and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM. T2DM patients generally have increased C-peptide levels (may be normal at time of diagnosis, usually no auto-antibodies, strong family history of diabetes, obese and show signs of insulin resistance (hypertension, acanthosis, PCOS. The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends lifestyle modifications ± metformin when blood glucose is 126-200 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c 200 mg/dL and HbA1c >8.5, with or without ketosis. Metformin is not recommended if the patient is ketotic, because this increases the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin is currently the only oral hypoglycemic that has been approved for use in children. Knowing these subtle differences in mechanism, and knowing how to test patients for which mechanism (s are causing their diabetes mellitus, may help us eventually tailor treatment programs on an individual basis.

  15. Methodological aspects and development of techniques for neutron activation analysis of microcomponents in materials of geologic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of the activation analysis methodology applied to geological samples activated in nuclear reactors were studied, and techniques were developed for the determination of various elements in different types of matrixes, using gamma spectrometry for the measurement of the products. The consideration of the methodological aspects includes the study of the working conditions, the preparation of samples and standards, irradiations, treatment of the irradiated material, radiochemical separation and measurement. Experiments were carried out on reproducibility and errors in relation to the behaviour of the measurement equipment and that of the methods of area calculation (total area, Covell and Wasson), as well as on the effects of geometry variations on the results of the measurements, the RA-3 reactors's flux variations, and the homogeneity of the samples and standards. Also studied were: the selection of the conditions of determination, including the irradiation and decay times; the irradiation with thermal and epithermal neutrons; the measurement with the use of absorbers, and the resolution of complex peaks. Both non-destructive and radiochemical separation techniques were developed for the analysis of 5 types of geological materials. These methods were applied to the following determinations: a) In, Cd, Mn, Ga and Co in blende; b) La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in fluorites; c) La, Ca, Eu, Tb, Yb, Se and Th in barites and celestites; d) Cu and Zn in soils. The spectral interferences or those due to nuclear reactions were studied and evaluated by mathematical calculation. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Considering children's advertising literacy from a methodological point of view : past practices and future recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Zarouali, Brahim; Pauw, De, Pieter; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Poels, Karolien; Cauberghe, Veroline; Hudders, Liselot

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Childrens advertising literacy is a well-documented research area. Yet, the literature on how to measure advertising literacy is not straightforward due to conceptual and operational differences in the existing studies. This has led to inconsistent results with regard to the development, possession and application of advertising literacy. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the different measurement methodologies used in past research efforts to assess childrens advert...

  17. The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of loss-of-function cardiac sodium channelopathies in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Priya; Clur, Sally-Ann B.; Breur, Johannes M. P. J.; Kriebel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Rammeloo, Lukas A.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Blom, Nico A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Loss-of-function sodium channelopathies manifest as a spectrum of diseases including Brugada syndrome (BrS) and cardiac conduction disease. OBJECTIVE To analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these disorders in children. METHODS Patients aged <= 16 years with genetically

  18. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children`s health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanova, E M; Antipkine, Y G; Omelchenko, L I; Chernyshov, V P; Apuhovskaya, L I; Ossinskaya, L F [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children`s population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ``Children of Chernobyl``. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ``clean`` regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  19. Daycare Staff Emotions and Coping Related to Children of Divorce: A Q Methodological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverland, Klara; Størksen, Ingunn; Bru, Edvin; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad

    2014-01-01

    This Q methodological study explores emotional experiences and coping of daycare staff when working with children of divorce and their families. Two main coping strategies among daycare staff were identified: 1) Confident copers, and 2) Non-confident copers. Interviews exemplify the two main experiences. Both groups may struggle with coping in…

  20. A Systematic Review of Brief Functional Analysis Methodology with Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Spencer, Trina D.; Boelter, Eric W.; DuBard, Melanie; Jennett, Heather K.

    2012-01-01

    Brief functional analysis (BFA) is an abbreviated assessment methodology derived from traditional extended functional analysis methods. BFAs are often conducted when time constraints in clinics, schools or homes are of concern. While BFAs have been used extensively to identify the function of problem behavior for children with disabilities, their…

  1. Listening to Children as a Way to Reconstruct Knowledge about Children: Some Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosinho, Julia; Araujo, Sara Barros

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have been turning to children's views as a way to better construct knowledge about children and childhood issues. This article presents, firstly, a brief reflection on the image of child underlying this new perspective in research with children, an image that assumes, first and above all, a strong belief in…

  2. Phenotypic aspects of oral strains of Candida albicans in children with down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the biological aspects of oral strains of C. albicans in children with Down's syndrome. These yeasts were analyzed as to their macromorphological and enzymatic aspects and were tested as to their in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs using broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The morphotyping revealed that all oral C. albicans isolates from children with Down's syndrome promoted the formation of fringes regardless of size, while the control group presented smaller fringes. All oral C. albicans strains produced proteinase, but those with phospholipolytic activity showed greater enzyme capacity in the test group. In vitro susceptibility showed that all oral C. albicans isolates were sensitive to the drugs used.

  3. Methodological Aspects of Strategic Development of Regional Socio-Economic System (Following the Example of Radio-Electronic Industry Enterprises in the Republic of Tatarstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraev, Nikolay N.; Mingaleev, Gaziz F.; Kushimov, Aleksandr T.; Kolesov, Nikolay A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the methodological aspects of forming a development strategy for the regional socioeconomic system (by the example of radio-electronic enterprises in the Republic of Tatarstan). The paper suggests a conceptual scheme of the macro- and micro-factors' influence on the regional socioeconomic system. This scheme is based on the…

  4. Methodological Aspects and Relevance of the Study of Vegetable Oil, Fat and Lipoprotein Oxidation Using Pancreatic Lipase and Arylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Nus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils as major dietary components are involved in the development of chronic diseases. In this paper the physiological relevance and some methodological aspects related to the determination of two enzymes enrolled in metabolism of fat – pancreatic lipase and arylesterase – are discussed. Pancreatic lipase has been extensively used to study the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition and the in vitro digestion of oils and fats. The action of this enzyme may be coupled to analytical methods as GC, HPLC, HPSEC, TLC- -FID, etc. as a useful tool for understanding the composition and digestion of thermal oxidized oils. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis occurs in the water/oil interface, and it presents a behaviour that seems to be Michaelian, in which the apparent Km and the apparent Vmax of the enzymatic process depend more on the type of oil tested than on the degree of alteration. The kinetic behaviour of pancreatic lipase towards thermally oxidized oils also depends on the presence of natural tensioactive compounds present in the oil and surfactants formed during the frying. Arylesterase is an HDL binding enzyme that inhibits LDL oxidation. Low serum concentration of this enzyme has been related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. In this paper the most widely used methods for the determination of arylesterase activity are commented on. The importance of intrinsic factors (e.g. substrates, cofactors participating in the enzyme reaction is also discussed. Moreover, several suggestions about further researches on the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. diet, oxidative stress upon the enzyme activity are proposed.

  5. Methodological Adaptations for the Discourse Analysis of Children with Intellectual Disability: Narrating Without a Language

    OpenAIRE

    Manghi Haquin, Dominique; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Otálora Cornejo, Fabiola; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Arancibia M., Marianela; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso

    2017-01-01

    Given the need to understand the forms of communication of people with intellectual disability, as to favor their social participation, this study deals with narration as a self-managed instance of discourse beyond language. The purpose is to standardize a methodology which allows us to explore their narrative discourse using a multi-modal perspective. The description corresponds to narrations of fifteen Chilean children of school age with intellectual disability and low development of oral l...

  6. Munchausen syndrome by proxy in Mexican children: medical, social, psychological and legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Hernández, Jorge; Loredo-Abdalá, Arturo; Orozco-Garibay, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSP), is considered as an unusual less frequent variety of child abuse (CA). In this type of abuse the perpetrators purposely provide factitious information, tamper with specimens or actually induce an illness in a child. Nowadays, it is a clinical entity described in pediatrics as more frequently than before. Despite the fact of its presence worldwide, there are still problems in order to get an appropriate diagnostic. It is also difficult to handle both the clinical and legal aspects in various countries. Make our academic fellows aware of various pediatric, psychological, social and legal aspects of a series of cases attended at the Clínica de Atención Integral al Niño Maltratado from Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (CAINM-INP), Mexico [Integral Clinic of Attention for Abused Children, at National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico]. From a series of 25 cases, 18 minors of age were considered with this syndrome since we found that they shared medical, psychological, social and legal characteristics. 18 minors of age belonged to 14 families. 4 of those families had two affected children each one. These affected children were girls 13/18, predominant in children under six years in 10/18. Syndrome expression was distributed as follows: fever from a non determined origin, seizures, chronic diarrhea, hematuria, and probable sexual abuse. 14 children were hospitalized. In all cases, the aggressor was the mother. The psychological evaluation of six perpetrators revealed psychotic, histrionic, and compulsive-obsessive traits. The socio-economic condition was low in 50% of the cases. A legal demand was posed for seven patients in which all the children remained under the custody of the mother. In Mexico, reports of CA have increased within the last years according to experience. Some complex forms as MSP require the participation of an interdisciplinary team for both diagnosis and integral attention.

  7. [Estimating child mortality using the previous child technique, with data from health centers and household surveys: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A; Hill, A G

    1988-01-01

    2 trials of the previous child or preceding birth technique in Bamako, Mali, and Lima, Peru, gave very promising results for measurement of infant and early child mortality using data on survivorship of the 2 most recent births. In the Peruvian study, another technique was tested in which each woman was asked about her last 3 births. The preceding birth technique described by Brass and Macrae has rapidly been adopted as a simple means of estimating recent trends in early childhood mortality. The questions formulated and the analysis of results are direct when the mothers are visited at the time of birth or soon after. Several technical aspects of the method believed to introduce unforeseen biases have now been studied and found to be relatively unimportant. But the problems arising when the data come from a nonrepresentative fraction of the total fertile-aged population have not been resolved. The analysis based on data from 5 maternity centers including 1 hospital in Bamako, Mali, indicated some practical problems and the information obtained showed the kinds of subtle biases that can result from the effects of selection. The study in Lima tested 2 abbreviated methods for obtaining recent early childhood mortality estimates in countries with deficient vital registration. The basic idea was that a few simple questions added to household surveys on immunization or diarrheal disease control for example could produce improved child mortality estimates. The mortality estimates in Peru were based on 2 distinct sources of information in the questionnaire. All women were asked their total number of live born children and the number still alive at the time of the interview. The proportion of deaths was converted into a measure of child survival using a life table. Then each woman was asked for a brief history of the 3 most recent live births. Dates of birth and death were noted in month and year of occurrence. The interviews took only slightly longer than the basic survey

  8. Having Children Status of University Students in Uzbekistan and Social Hygienic Aspect of their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barno Erkinovna Abdusamatova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate social-hygienic characteristics of “mother students” and their children below 3 years old, in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. METHOD: General properties, life conditions of 470 student mother and some health indicators, health service during pregnancy of student mothers in these families, and the health status of their children below 3 years old were studied. RESULTS: It was established that 95.3% students become mothers for the first two year-period of marriage. It was determined that low level of medical observation and recovery during pregnancy in students. Because of refusal to take academic vocation during pregnancy and after delivery there is practically no immediately mother’s care of child in such families. Also, percentage of children taken additional food in the student’s families was about 56% during first six months. CONCLUSION: These and other negative circumstances determine high level of morbidity for children of early age in families of mothers-students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 369-372

  9. [The spa-health resort and touristic-recreational facilities of the region: the methodological aspects of their development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilina, V M; Kolesnikova, N V; Kolesnikov, N G

    2016-01-01

    The correction and optimization of the motor activity of the patients are currently the main priorities of all rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities. The forms of such activities include walking tours and excursion trips. In other words, the excursion potential is one of the very important attributes of the recreational recourses. Under the current conditions characterized by the rapid socio-economic changes, the studies concerning the structural and functional transformation of spa and health resorts, recreational and tourist facilities acquire special importance, both from the humanitarian and economic points of view. The results of these studies may greatly contribute to the organization and the further development of rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities, recreational and tourist centers taking into consideration their evolution. The objective of the present article is to analyze the structure and functions of the recreation and tourist centres as well as the modes of their cooperation with the spa and health resort facilities. In other words, these structures and their functions are both the object and the subject of the present study. The methodology of the study is based on the logical analysis of the development of the recreational and tourist systems in the framework of the evolutionary approach. (1) the notions of «tourist destination» and «recreation» have been substantiated; (2) the results of the studies carried out at the Institute of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Petrozavodsk State University have been used to elaborate the affiliate international Master Degree program «Project management in the tourism industry». The main emphasis in this program is placed on the necessity and methods of the improvement of recreational activities and more efficacious utilization of the climatic factors and the health resort infrastructure as

  10. Children's Avoidance of Interrupting Others' Activities in Requesting Help: Cultural Aspects of Considerateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba, Omar; Rogoff, Barbara; López, Angélica; Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Gutiérrez, Kris

    2015-01-01

    To be able to collaborate skillfully, people need to coordinate well with others, taking into account how their actions fit with those of their partners. This is a key aspect of an approach to learning called Learning by Observing and Pitching In, hypothesized to be common in many Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. This chapter considers cultural values that emphasize considerateness and awareness of how one's actions impact others such as the Mexican cultural value of respeto and cultural differences in children's efforts to avoid interrupting others' activity. US Mexican-heritage children showed more evidence of avoiding interrupting the ongoing activity of an adult when they requested help, compared with European American children from families with extensive schooling experience. Most of the Mexican-heritage children's requests for help that gave evidence of avoiding interruption were made nonverbally, which may facilitate unobtrusive requests. There were no significant differences among children from two US Mexican-heritage backgrounds varying in experience with Western schooling and likely experience with Indigenous-American practices, suggesting that the Mexican cultural value of respeto and associated considerateness is widespread even among US Mexican-heritage families with extensive experience with Western schooling and life in the United States. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Information security of children and adolescents in the modern world: psychological aspects of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budykin S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus on identifying the psychological aspects of the problem of information security of children and adolescents in the modern world. It is noted that new technologies are penetrating deeper into our lives, become cultural means of socialization and human development, contribute to the formation of new social practices in everyday life, require a certain style of life. Draws attention to the fact that the impact of these technologies varies in age groups, the most vulnerable are children and adolescents. After Western researchers of problems of information security of children and adolescents, identifies the category of risk associated with Internet communication: 1 risk associated with the content of the materials provided on the Internet; 2 the risk due to contacts with others; 3 the risk arising in connection with the illegal downloading of materials. 4 risks resulting from the use of personal data, children and adolescents often provide personal information. Demonstrates the necessity of analyzing how users of new technologies to diagnose risk associated with the use of technology such as the Internet, and what behavioral strategies they adapt. Stresses the importance and the need to examine how the immediate environment of children and adolescents interpreterpath information security and suggests how to counter the threat, coupled with the use of the Internet.

  12. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Children sold for transplants: medical and legal aspects. Amnesty International--Danish Working Group for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, U; Christensen, J; Glending, S

    1998-11-01

    Over the last few decades there has been a substantially higher percentage of successful organ transplants but also a significant imbalance between the demand for and the supply of organs, creating the basis for a highly profitable black market trade in human organs. Sometimes there are reports that children have been kidnapped, only to reappear later lacking one kidney, or that they simply disappear and are subsequently killed to have all their transplantable organs removed for profit. The European Union feels that there is a need for action and that it has a duty to act in this field, especially for ethical reasons. There is now established close co-operation between the various European transplant organizations. The legal protection of children with regard to organ transplantation is not specifically mentioned in the existing conventions because this issue was not foreseen at the time of their preparation. However, the issue is covered in a broader sense by more general provisions. There are endless rumours surrounding this area. Members of various organizations who travel in the suspected countries say that the trafficking in children who are sold for transplantation is well known, but it is too difficult and very dangerous to catch the people involved. We have to conclude that it has been impossible to prove or disprove the rumours, but they are consistent and we all, especially in the health care professions, have an obligation to be keenly aware of how and where organs are obtained.

  14. Preventive aspects in children's caries treatments preceding dental care under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanheimo, Nora; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2008-03-01

    In Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS) the Special Oral Health Care Unit (SOHCU) provides comprehensive dental treatments under general anaesthesia (GA). For the present study, all dental treatment given under GA for generally healthy children (n = 102) below 16 years of age (range 2.3-15.8) during a 1-year period and dental treatment and visits of these children in the preceding 2 years in Helsinki PDS was recorded in detail. These children were referred to the SOHCU because of serious difficulties in dental care due to large treatment needs or failures in psychological and chemical management, including sedation. To describe treatments given to generally healthy children under GA and to evaluate preventive aspects of their dental care in the preceding 2 years. The study was cross-sectional and retrospective. Data came from the patients' individual records. Treatments under GA included an average of 6.0 restorations (SD = 2.7, range 0-12) and 1.7 extractions (SD = 2.1, range 0-10). In the 2 preceding years, these children had visited dentist an average of 5.1 times (SD = 2.7, range 1-14) with an average of 2.4 restorations (SD = 1.9, range 0-12) and 0.5 extractions (SD = 1.4, range 0-10). Of the restorations made, 36% were temporary. Of all visits, those with an operative approach accounted for 35%, preventive for 37%, operative and preventive for 5%, and visits with total uncooperation for 23%. Of the children, 90% had at least one preventive visit. Children treated under conscious sedation in the preceding 2 years received less prevention (P = 0.02). Remaining without preventive measures was most likely for those children exhibiting visits with total uncooperation (odds ratio = 4.6; P = 0.004) and for those receiving numerous temporary fillings (odds ratio = 4.1; P = 0.0005). The uncooperative high-caries children pose a demanding challenge to PDS. The early identification of high-caries risk and efforts of intensive preventive care are in key position to

  15. Diet qualities: healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet quality in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Ramsden, Megan; Kaye, Gail

    2016-06-01

    Diet quality indexes combine the healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet within a single construct, but few studies have evaluated their association. Emerging evidence suggests that predictors differ for the more and less healthy components of children's diets. Our objectives were to determine whether preschool-aged children's frequency of eating healthy foods was inversely related to their intake of unhealthy foods and to determine whether this differed by household income, maternal education, or child race-ethnicity. We analyzed data from a representative sample of 8900 US children (mean age: 52.5 mo) who were born in 2001 and participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Primary caregivers reported the frequency with which children consumed fruit, vegetables, milk, juice, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, sweets, and salty snacks in the past week. Response options ranged from none to ≥4 times/d. We created healthy (fruit, vegetables, milk) and unhealthy (SSBs, fast food, sweets, salty snacks) diet scores. Healthy diet behaviors were defined as ≥2 daily servings of fruit, vegetables, and milk. The prevalence of consuming fruit, vegetables, and milk ≥2 times/d (i.e., having 3 healthy diet behaviors) was 18.5%, and a similar proportion (17.6%) of children had none of these healthy behaviors. Contrary to our hypotheses, children with more healthy diet behaviors did not have lower unhealthy diet scores. The intake of healthy foods was not inversely associated with unhealthy foods overall or within any subgroup. Overall, the Spearman rank correlation between healthy and unhealthy diet scores was positive (r = 0.09). From the lowest to the highest strata of household income, these correlations were 0.12, 0.14, 0.14, 0.05, and 0.00, respectively. No evidence was found in US preschool-aged children of an inverse association between eating healthy and unhealthy foods. The implications of combining healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet

  16. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Tragueta FERREIRA-VASQUES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009. The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG, these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG, matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal

  17. Estudo MONISA: características e aspectos metodológicos MONISA study: characteristics and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira de Sousa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é apresentar as características e os procedimentos metodológicos adotados no Estudo Monitoramento dos Indicadores de Saúde e Qualidade de Vida de Acadêmicos (MONISA. Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, do tipo painel, com inquéritos bianuais em amostras representativas de estudantes de uma universidade pública do Estado da Bahia. Este estudo realizará cinco inquéritos, perfazendo 10 anos de monitoramento (2010 a 2018. A amostra é estratificada e proporcional aos cursos de graduação presenciais, período de estudo (noturno e diurno e ano de ingresso na universidade. Por fim, os estudantes universitários são selecionados em cada estrato, por meio da lista de matrícula em ordem alfabética. Para obtenção das informações é utilizado um questionário estruturado, com as seguintes seções: indicadores sociodemográficos; indicadores do estilo de vida e saúde; hábitos alimentares e controle do peso corporal; atividades físicas e opções de lazer; comportamentos preventivos; e, indicadores do ambiente e condições de aprendizagem. O pioneirismo do Estudo MONISA poderá auxiliar no esclarecimento de possíveis tendências relacionadas à saúde de estudantes universitários brasileiros e subsidiar informações para propor programas ou projetos de promoção da saúde e qualidade de vida em nível organizacional local.The objective is to present the characteristics and methodological procedures adopted in the MONISA Study (Surveillance of health and quality of life indicators of college students. This is a prospective, panel type study, with biannual surveys of representative samples of undergraduate students at a public university in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This study carried out five surveys, totaling 10 years of monitoring (2010-2018. The sample is stratified and proportional to the courses, study period (day and night and year of attending university. Finally, college students are selected at each stratum

  18. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  19. Improving operating room efficiency in academic children's hospital using Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, Edward P; Thirumoorthi, Arul S; Lenart, John; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mitchell, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology that utilizes a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically identifying root causes of problems. Our objective was to determine whether application of LSS could improve efficiency when applied simultaneously to all services of an academic children's hospital. In our tertiary academic medical center, a multidisciplinary committee was formed, and the entire perioperative process was mapped, using fishbone diagrams, Pareto analysis, and other process improvement tools. Results for Children's Hospital scheduled main operating room (OR) cases were analyzed, where the surgical attending followed themselves. Six hundred twelve cases were included in the seven Children's Hospital operating rooms (OR) over a 6-month period. Turnover Time (interval between patient OR departure and arrival of the subsequent patient) decreased from a median 41min in the baseline period to 32min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). Turnaround Time (interval between surgical dressing application and subsequent surgical incision) decreased from a median 81.5min in the baseline period to 71min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that a coordinated multidisciplinary process improvement redesign can significantly improve efficiency in an academic Children's Hospital without preselecting specific services, removing surgical residents, or incorporating new personnel or technology. Prospective comparative study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: temporal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Silbiger, S; Lifshitz, N; Katz, N; Steinhart, S; Cermak, S A; Weintraub, N

    2015-03-01

    The study examined the relationship between motor skills, participation in leisure activities and quality of life (QOL), within a temporal context (school year vs. summer vacation and school days vs. weekends). Parents of 22 children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and of 55 typically developing children, aged 6-11, filled out two questionnaires relating to their children's participation in leisure activities (vigorous, moderate and sedentary) and QOL. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was administered to their children. Results showed that among the children with DCD, balance scores positively correlated with participation in sedentary activities, and in both groups both balance and aiming and catching were related to the physical and school aspects of QOL. Furthermore, participation in vigorous activities in the summer was positively correlated with social and school QOL. In contrast, among typically developing children, participation in vigorous activities during the school year was negatively correlated with school QOL. Finally, in both groups, participation in sedentary activities during school days was negatively correlated with school QOL. These results suggest that the parents' perceptions of their children's QOL may be related to the level of activeness of the leisure activities but also to temporal aspects. Therefore, it is important that therapists and educators consider the temporal aspects, when consulting with parents and their children regarding participation in leisure activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary sepsis in children: a systematic review of diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Arap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, new imaging techniques and biological probesprovided further insight into the pathogenesis and natural history ofurinary tract infection (UTI in children. Especially in newborns, UTIis a common cause of fever and probably the most common causeof renal parenchymal loss. In children aged equal or less than 2years, the symptoms of UTI are vague and non-specific - fever,irritability, poor feeding, vomiting, diarrhea and ill appearance. Inneonates, clinical symptoms or laboratory tests could not be usedto predict UTI episodes or eliminate the likelihood of a UTI even ifother sites of infections are clinically suggested. For this reason, thegoal of managing UTI in children is based on identifying and modifyingfactors that may increase the risk of renal parenchymal and functionalloss as from the onset of infection. Moreover, selective antimicrobialpressure is a major concern when treating children with UTI, asrenal parenchymal loss may occur within a short period of time, ifinadequate antimicrobial agents are utilized. OBJECTIVES: Thissystematic review assessed recent diagnostic and therapeuticaspects of severe UTI in children. We also summarized wellconductedstudies and the most important publications regardingdiagnosis and treatment of urinary sepsis in the pediatric population.SEARCH STRATEGY: Trials and reviews were searched in generaland specialized databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library andreferences were reviewed. SELECTION CRITERIA: All publishedtrials and reviews were eligible for inclusion provided they reportedresults for the pediatric population, included clinically significantevents resulting from urinary tract infection, and included specificaspects of diagnosis and therapy. DATA COLLECTION: One reviewerextracted Information. Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of urinarysepsis in the pediatric age group were assessed.

  2. Methodological aspect of research of the process of socialization in media-cultural space of information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Hirlina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated within the social and philosophical discourse interdisciplinary methodology, based on the classic philosophical methodology for the analysis of socio-cultural phenomena enables a holistic understanding of the studied phenomenon. From a methodological point of view it is important to determine the social and philosophical understanding of the impact medіa cultural space of personality in conditions of dynamically changing socio-cultural environment. important social and philosophical methodological guideline should be considered on a thesis constant presence in the media culture of human space as being due to the fact that man is a social being, and the information society without media culture as its attribute exists. Philosophical «core» study of the spiritual culture of youth is humanism in its broadest sense, that is, understanding of the studied phenomenon primarily as a multi-dimensional culturing of human values. Submission materialistic determinant factors medіa cultural spiritual space is only possible under the dominance of humanistic values. With all the variety to understanding the spiritual dimension of the relationship of the individual with the socio-cultural environment common dominant philosophical idea of guidelines is the recognition of the spiritual and cultural autonomy rights. Globalization and its associated civilization and processes are seen as foreign in relation to social rights, while the internal spiritual content is cultural processes. Anthropological oriented cultural space of socialization based on interpersonal cultural interaction that produces unique and distinctive personality.

  3. Methodological considerations for observational coding of eating and feeding behaviors in children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2017-12-15

    Behavioral coding of videotaped eating and feeding interactions can provide researchers with rich observational data and unique insights into eating behaviors, food intake, food selection as well as interpersonal and mealtime dynamics of children and their families. Unlike self-report measures of eating and feeding practices, the coding of videotaped eating and feeding behaviors can allow for the quantitative and qualitative examinations of behaviors and practices that participants may not self-report. While this methodology is increasingly more common, behavioral coding protocols and methodology are not widely shared in the literature. This has important implications for validity and reliability of coding schemes across settings. Additional guidance on how to design, implement, code and analyze videotaped eating and feeding behaviors could contribute to advancing the science of behavioral nutrition. The objectives of this narrative review are to review methodology for the design, operationalization, and coding of videotaped behavioral eating and feeding data in children and their families, and to highlight best practices. When capturing eating and feeding behaviors through analysis of videotapes, it is important for the study and coding to be hypothesis driven. Study design considerations include how to best capture the target behaviors through selection of a controlled experimental laboratory environment versus home mealtime, duration of video recording, number of observations to achieve reliability across eating episodes, as well as technical issues in video recording and sound quality. Study design must also take into account plans for coding the target behaviors, which may include behavior frequency, duration, categorization or qualitative descriptors. Coding scheme creation and refinement occur through an iterative process. Reliability between coders can be challenging to achieve but is paramount to the scientific rigor of the methodology. Analysis approach

  4. Methodological Study to Develop Standard Operational Protocol on Oral Drug Administration for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijarania, Sunil Kumar; Saini, Sushma Kumari; Verma, Sanjay; Kaur, Sukhwinder

    2017-05-01

    To develop standard operational protocol (SOP) on oral drug administration and checklist to assess the implementation of the developed SOP. In this prospective methodological study, SOPs were developed in five phases. In the first phase, the preliminary draft of SOPs and checklists were prepared based on literature review, assessment of current practices and focus group discussion (FGD) with bedside working nurses. In the second phase, content validity was checked with the help of Delphi technique (12 experts). Total four drafts were prepared in stages and necessary modifications were made as per suggestions after each Delphi round. Fourth Delphi round was performed after conducting a pilot study. In the fourth phase, all bedside nurses were trained as per SOPs and asked to practice accordingly and observation of thirty oral drug administrations in children was done to check reliability of checklists for implementation of SOPs. In Phase-V, 7 FGDs were conducted with bedside nurses to assess the effectiveness of SOPs. The Content Validity Index (CVI) of SOP and checklists was 99.77%. Overall standardized Cronbach's alpha was calculated as 0.94. All the nurses felt that the SOP is useful. Valid and feasible SOP for drug administration to children through oral route along with valid and reliable checklist were developed. It is recommended to use this document for drug administration to children.

  5. Methodology for the identification of significant environmental aspects of oil refining process; Metodologia para identifcacao de aspectos ambientais significativos nos processos de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie; Henschel, Jefferson [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The oil-producing sector have been developing several actions in order to reduce its environmental impacts, an example is the implementation of the Environmental Management System (EMS). It requires the identification of the environmental aspects which are relevant, but it does not specify the methodology for it. Some authors suggest the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as it is a scientific, rigorous and possible subject to be reproduced. Life Cycle Assessment aims the reduction of the environmental impacts generated by a product, process or service, since the extraction of the natural resources until it's discard. This work seeks to adapt this methodology to the demands, needs and inherent reality of an oil-refinery. An analyses of the natural resources inputs and residues of the most common pollutants for each process has been carried out. After that, equations were gathered in order to create a computer software, based on Delphi. This program is been tested. (author)

  6. Cephalometric aspects of thalassemic children in the Indian subcontinent: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Anand Samba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the cephalometric characteristics of thalassemic children in the Indian subcontinent with the controls, matched for sex and dental age. Methodology: A total of 31 thalassemic children were a part of the study. Cephalometric readings were recorded for the study and the control group. Results: Within the Group I stage, the anterior cranial base length was 68.40±2.93 mm, shorter when compared to the control group. In the Group II stage, the maxillary/mandibular angle was 31.58° for the case group and the mandibular length was shorter in comparison to the controls. In the Group III stage, the SNB angle was 76.42°, lesser than the control group. A relative maxillary prognathism of 9.88 mm and 12.85 mm was observed in thalassemic males and females respectively through the Wiley's analysis. Conclusion: The overall picture depicted a retruded position of the maxilla and a retrognathic mandible within the study group. A class II profile has also been observed among the study subjects.

  7. [Methodological aspects in the evaluation of turn-over and up/down sizing as indicators of work-related stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, G; Bertù, L; Mombelli, S; Cimmino, L; Caravati, G; Conti, M; Abate, T; Ferrario, M M

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the methodological aspects related to the evaluation of turn-over and up-down sizing as indicators of work-related stress, in complex organizations like a university hospital. To estimate the active workers population we developed an algorithm which integrated several administrative databases. The indicators were standardized to take into account some potential confounders (age, sex, work seniority) when considering different hospital structures and job mansions. Main advantages of our method include flexibility in the choice of the analysis detail (hospital units, job mansions, a combination of both) and the possibility to describe over-time trends to measure the success of preventive strategies.

  8. Proposals for implementation of methodological aspects in the use of 18F-FDG in the Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cássio Miri

    2013-01-01

    This work covered three objectives: to evaluate and implement methods for in vivo internal occupational monitoring of individuals involved during the 18 F-FDG process production; to suggest a national Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) for 18 F-FDGPET oncologic procedures; and to obtain the 'Recovery Coefficients' (RCs) factors used to correct the radiopharmaceutical uptake in region of interest for a better quantification and evaluation of images. The methodology of internal monitoring was implemented in the radiopharmaceuticals production centers of Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) in Belo Horizonte - MG and the Nuclear Science Regional Center, North-East (CRCN-NE) in Recife, PE, Brazil. The results demonstrated that the developed methodology was efficient to evaluate 18 F-FDG incorporations in both centers; additionally, the methodology showed that there was possibility of 18 F incorporation in the form of 18 F-FDG during non-routine actions performed in the radiopharmaceutical production process. DRLs were suggested based on a questionnaire that was used for the survey of 18 F-FDG administered activity in 72 Brazilian clinics currently licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The results reported by 41 (57%) of the 18 F-FDG-PET clinics showed variations up to 100% in the administered activities among clinics for the same procedure. The calculated DRL from the third quartile was 5.54 MBq/kg or 387.7 MBq (for a 70 kg standard patient). For image analysis, two phantoms were used for obtaining the RCs, the NEMA/IEC Body Phantom, which has spherical capture areas and the modified Jaszczak, which has cylindrical capitation capture areas. Both phantoms were tested for different lesion:BG activity ratios, in the amount of 4:1 and 10:1; for different acquisition time. RCs obtained according to NEMA and IEC standards were applied to the SUVmax and SUVmed semi quantification tools. Values of SUVmed corrected by RCs presented

  9. Morphological, clinical and radiological aspects in diagnostics of bronchopulmonary diseases and their complications in children with dysplasia of connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palchik S.M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the literature devoted to study of radiological, morphological and clinical aspects of diagnostics of respiratory diseases and their complications in children with dysplasia of connective tissue nowadays. We made an analysis of the role of connective tissue disorders in pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary diseases. Theoretically was substantiated the importance of radiological methods in early diagnostics of this disease in children.

  10. Descriptive analysis of bacon smoked with Brazilian woods from reforestation: methodological aspects, statistical analysis, and study of sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Erick; Castillo, Luiz Saldarriaga; Sánchez, Jorge Cabrera; Siche, Raúl; de Almeida, Marcio Aurélio; Behrens, Jorge H; Selani, Miriam Mabel; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis (DA) of bacons smoked with woods from reforestation and liquid smokes in order to investigate their sensory profile. Six samples of bacon were selected: three smoked bacons with different wood species (Eucalyptus citriodora, Acacia mearnsii, and Bambusa vulgaris), two artificially smoked bacon samples (liquid smoke) and one negative control (unsmoked bacon). Additionally, a commercial bacon sample was also evaluated. DA was developed successfully, presenting a good performance in terms of discrimination, consensus and repeatability. The study revealed that the smoking process modified the sensory profile by intensifying the "saltiness" and differentiating the unsmoked from the smoked samples. The results from the current research represent the first methodological development of descriptive analysis of bacon and may be used by food companies and other stakeholders to understand the changes in sensory characteristics of bacon due to traditional smoking process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Methodological aspects in the determination of the auditory filters and critical band at low and mid-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2008-01-01

    or after the experiment, normally being applied afterwards. Due to the non-linear characteristics of the cochlear amplifier, it is arguable whether postexperimental weighting is a proper approach, or whether at low frequencies there will be any difference between pre or post stimuli weighting. Listening......In order to evaluate loudness or audibility of complex sounds, knowledge of the auditory filter characteristics is necessary. At low frequencies, where both the threshold of hearing and dynamic range become considerably frequency dependent, care must be taken to account for this both in the psycho......-acoustical model and the methodological approach. To account for variation in hearing sensitivity at low frequencies, equal loudness contours have been used to weight the stimuli accordingly. At mid and high frequencies, threshold of hearing curves have been used. These stimuli weightings can be applied before...

  12. Conducting evaluation research with children exposed to violence: How technological innovations in methodologies and data collection may enhance the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael A; Jenney, Angelique; Walsh, Margaret

    2018-01-20

    Research and program evaluation processes that engage children and youth are becoming much more common due to influences from children's rights and the acknowledgement that children have the capacity to contribute to research, both as participants and co-researchers (Roberts, 2017). Recent technological advances in the form of tablet and internet-based applications have provided researchers with additional methodological tools to better capture the voices and experiences of children and their caregivers (Livingstone & Blum-Ross, 2017). However, little has been written on the ways in which these new technological advances can improve research experiences for children who have been exposed to intimate partner and family violence, as well as other forms of traumatic experiences. This paper provides a review of current literature and a case study example of how one children's mental health agency has implemented tablet-based data collection procedures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Automated Synthesis of 68Ga-DOTA-TOC: Methodological Aspects and Suitable Technical Solutions for a Cationic Purification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Licia; Boschi, Alessandra; Cittanti, Corrado; Martini, Petra; Lodi, Luca; Zappaterra, Elisa; Romani, Simona; Zaccaria, Samanta; Cecconi, Davide; Rambaldi, Ilaria; Santi, Ivan; Panareo, Stefano; Giganti, Melchiore; Bartolomei, Mirco

    2018-05-08

    The PET Gallium-68 isotope has the advantage of being produced from a generator, so it is also available in nuclear medicine departments without a cyclotron. The preparation of Ga-68 DOTA-labelled compounds is actually performed by remotely controlled automated systems developed in order to assure production efficiency, reproducibility of the results, guarantee fast reaction time, to facilitate the synthesis and minimize the radiation exposure. Many automatic synthesis systems are available on the radiopharmaceutical market, and each of these requires the realization of some technical adaptations for routine use. We reported the Ga-68 DOTATOC production by automated cassette-based theranostic synthesizer system used in combination with a disposable GMP grade cassette system for cationic purification. The synthesizer is integrated with the 68Ge/68Ga generator systems and it allows to perform elution, eluate purification and radiolabeling in about 38 minutes. We have performed between January 2016 and January 2017 over 100 [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TOC preparation and of these only three have failed. The average synthesis yield of radiopharmaceutical production was 54.4 ± 2.3 % and the average radiochemical purity was 96.94 ± 0.74 %. The methodology and the technical solutions adopted have allowed to obtain a high quality radiopharmaceutical product as required by the European Pharmacopoeia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. [Statistical (Poisson) motor unit number estimation. Methodological aspects and normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle of healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J

    Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (page than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively pphisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.

  15. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Methodological aspects on international biofuels trade: International streams and trade of solid and liquid biofuels in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinimoe, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biomass for fuel is increasing in industrialised countries. Rapidly developing biomass markets for energy purposes along with weak information on biofuels trade that statistics offer have been incentives for several recently published studies investigating the status of biofuels trade. The comparison of the studies is often challenging due particularly to the various approaches to the indirect trade of biofuels and the diverse data sources utilised. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the Finnish situation with respect to the status of the streams of international biofuels trade. Parallel to this, the study aimed to identify methodological and statistical challenges in observing international biofuels trade. The study analysed available statistical information and introduced a procedure to obtain a clear overview on import and export streams of biofuels. In Finland, the total direct import and export of biofuels, being mainly composed of wood pellets and tall oil, is tiny in comparison with the total consumption of biofuels. Instead, the indirect trade has remarkable importance. Large import volumes of industrial raw wood make Finland a net importer of biofuels. In 2004, approximately 22% (64 PJ) of wood-based energy in Finland originated from imported wood. The study showed that the indirect trade of biofuels may be a significant sector of global biofuels trade. In the case of Finland, a comprehensive compilation of statistics on energy and forestry enabled the determination of the trade status satisfactory. However, national and international statistics should be further developed to take better into consideration international trade and to support continuously developing biofuels markets. (author)

  17. Methodological Aspects of Subjective Life Expectancy: Effects of Culture-Specific Reporting Heterogeneity Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-05-01

    Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been suggested as a predictor of mortality and mortality-related behaviors. Although critical for culturally diverse societies, these findings do not consider cross-cultural methodological comparability. Culture-specific reporting heterogeneity is a well-known phenomenon introducing biases, and research on this issue with SLE is not established. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined reporting heterogeneity in SLE focusing on item nonresponse, focal points, and reports over time for five ethnic-cultural groups: non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic other races, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. On item nonresponse, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics said, "I don't know," to SLE significantly more than any other groups. Nearly half of the respondents chose 0, 50, or 100, making them focal points. However, the focal points differed: 50 for Whites, 100 for Blacks, and 0 for Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. The relationship of SLE measured at two time points was higher for Whites than minorities. Moreover, those who said "I don't know" to SLE showed higher subsequent mortality than those who gave an answer. SLE was not a significant mortality predictor for Hispanics. Overall, SLE is not free from culture-specific reporting heterogeneity. This warrants further research about its culture-relevant measurement mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Methodological Aspects of Analyzing and Assessing the Per Capita Consumption of Fish and Seafood in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mikhailovich Selin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and increased competition leads to the need to strengthen the functions of the Russian government to ensure food security of the country and, accordingly, the consolidation of mechanisms of state regulation of agricultural economy and food markets. The importance of solving the problems of information security, a high degree of reliability of the information provided by the Government of the relevant statistical authorities is growing. The relevance of obtaining high-quality statistical information for the adoption of timely and informed decisions by the government on the management of the national economy has increased significantly during the period of political and economic confrontation between Russia and the West in terms of sanctions and counter-sanctions. Taking fishing industry and its product – the water biological resources – as an example, the author of the present study carried out a structural analysis of the methodology for composing the balance of fish and fish products to determine the per capita level of consumption, described the different approaches to assessing the level of consumption of water biological resources, structured export indicators of water biological resources gathered from various official sources, on the basis of which the author revealed significant differences in the assessment of the situation. The subject of statistics as the problem was raised at the Presidium of the State Council from October 19, 2015 devoted to the development of the fishing industry of the Russian Federation and was reflected as a separate item in the Order of the President following the results of the State Council. Established by the Order of the Federal State Statistics Service dated October 21, 2013 No. 419, the new method of determining the level of per capita consumption of fish and fish products, based on the compilation of the balance of water biological resources, and composed after the

  19. Methodological considerations and future insights for 24-hour dietary recall assessment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods. In this review we focus on dietary assessment with children with particular attention on the 24-hour dietary recall method. We look at the level of under-reporting of energy intakes and how this tends to change with age, gender and body mass index. We discuss potential alternatives to self-reported (or proxy-reported) dietary assessment methods with children, such as biomarkers, and how these do not enable the collection of information important to public health nutrition such as the cooking method, the mixture of foods eaten together or the context in which the food is consumed. We conclude that despite all of the challenges and flaws, the data collected using self-reported dietary assessment methods are extremely valuable. Research into dietary assessment methodology has resulted in significant increases in our understanding of the limitations of self-reported methods and progressive improvements in the accuracy of the data collected. Hence, future investment in dietary surveillance and in improving self-reported methods of intake can make vital contributions to our understanding of dietary intakes and are thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating the Place and Meaning of "Physical Education" to Preschool Children: Methodological Lessons from a Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2015-01-01

    Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and…

  1. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables...... in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall...... significant time-of-day effect was observed for all selected COP variables. The greatest change in all COP variables was observed (on average ~15%) between midday (12:30) and the afternoon (16:00), indicating that a systematic time-of-day influence on static postural balance exists in community-dwelling older...

  2. Behavioural and Autonomic Regulation of Response to Sensory Stimuli among Children: A Systematic Review of Relationship and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ivan Neil; Lai, Cynthia Y Y; Morato-Espino, Paulin Grace; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Tsang, Hector W H

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have explored the correlates of behavioural and autonomic regulation of response to sensory stimuli in children; however, a comprehensive review of such relationship is lacking. This systematic review was performed to critically appraise the current evidence on such relationship and describe the methods used in these studies. Online databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed, full-text articles in the English language between 1999 and 2016, initially screened by title and abstract, and appraised and synthesized by two independent review authors. Fourteen Level III-3 cross-sectional studies were included for systematic review, among which six studies explored the relationship between behaviour and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli. Three studies reported significant positive weak correlations among ASD children; however, no correlations were found in typically developing children. Methodological differences related to individual differences among participants, measures used, and varied laboratory experimental setting were noted. This review suggests inconclusive evidence supporting the relationship between behavioural and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli among children. Methodological differences may likely have confounded the results of the current evidence. We present methodological recommendations to address this matter for future researches. This trial is registered with PROSPERO registration number CRD42016043887.

  3. Behavioural and Autonomic Regulation of Response to Sensory Stimuli among Children: A Systematic Review of Relationship and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Neil Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have explored the correlates of behavioural and autonomic regulation of response to sensory stimuli in children; however, a comprehensive review of such relationship is lacking. This systematic review was performed to critically appraise the current evidence on such relationship and describe the methods used in these studies. Methods. Online databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed, full-text articles in the English language between 1999 and 2016, initially screened by title and abstract, and appraised and synthesized by two independent review authors. Results. Fourteen Level III-3 cross-sectional studies were included for systematic review, among which six studies explored the relationship between behaviour and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli. Three studies reported significant positive weak correlations among ASD children; however, no correlations were found in typically developing children. Methodological differences related to individual differences among participants, measures used, and varied laboratory experimental setting were noted. Conclusion. This review suggests inconclusive evidence supporting the relationship between behavioural and physiological regulation of responses to sensory stimuli among children. Methodological differences may likely have confounded the results of the current evidence. We present methodological recommendations to address this matter for future researches. This trial is registered with PROSPERO registration number CRD42016043887.

  4. Methodological Proposal for Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Aspects and Impacts of IPEN Nuclear Facilities: A Case Study Applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis A. Terribile de; Filho, Tufic Madi; Meldonian, Nelson Leon

    2013-06-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Control Plan for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (authors)

  5. The effect of video games on development and health among children and youth - Psychological and somatic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rykkvin, Rikard

    2005-01-01

    Video games are one of the most popular pasttimes of children and youth alike. The research on effects of playing video games reaches back only two decades, and is marred by suboptimal methodologies and conflicting evidence. Still, some cautious conclusions can be drawn from current research. Violent video games increase aggression, but the effect is significantly lower than with tv violence. More recent studies show a larger effect than older ones, suggesting that newer video games with ...

  6. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  7. IMMUNIZATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST PNEUMOCOCCAL DISEASE: PRACTICAL ASPECTS FROM THE STANDPOINT OF AN OTOLARYNGOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gubanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of studying the effectiveness of vaccination of children with allergic disorders and frequently ill children against pneumococcal diseases. The effectiveness and good tolerability of the vaccine was detected. A follow-up study of the vaccinated children was performed. The positive effect of vaccination on the incidence of acute respiratory diseases, acute adenoiditis and acute otitis media in all groups of children was shown. The positive effect of vaccination on the degree of hyperplasia of adenoid tissue in the nasopharynx of frequently ill children was proved.

  8. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanova, E.M.; Antipkine, Y.G.; Omelchenko, L.I.; Chernyshov, V.P.; Apuhovskaya, L.I.; Ossinskaya, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. Methodological aspects of mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Roest, S.; Bokelmann, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the development of the in vitro adventitious bud technique for Chrysanthemum morifolium, Solanum tuberosum, Begonia x hieemalis, Dianthus caryophyllus, Muscari, Euphorbia pulcherrima, and Forsythia intermedia. (G.T.H.)

  10. Methodological Aspects for Preclinical Evaluation of Gadolinium Presence in Brain Tissue: Critical Appraisal and Suggestions for Harmonization-A Joint Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Philippe; Frenzel, Thomas; Factor, Cécile; Jost, Gregor; Rasschaert, Marlène; Schuetz, Gunnar; Fretellier, Nathalie; Boyken, Janina; Idée, Jean-Marc; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2018-04-13

    Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are pharmaceuticals that have been approved for 30 years and used daily in millions of patients worldwide. Their clinical benefits are indisputable. Recently, unexpected long-term presence of Gd in the brain has been reported by numerous retrospective clinical studies and confirmed in preclinical models particularly after linear GBCA (L-GBCA) compared with macrocyclic GBCA (M-GBCA). Even if no clinical consequences of Gd presence in brain tissue has been demonstrated so far, in-depth investigations on potential toxicological consequences and the fate of Gd in the body remain crucial to potentially adapt the clinical use of GBCAs, as done during the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis crisis. Preclinical models are instrumental in the understanding of the mechanism of action as well as the potential safety consequences. However, such models may be associated with risks of biases, often related to the protocol design. Selection of adequate terminology is also crucial. This review of the literature intends to summarize and critically discuss the main methodological aspects for accurate design and translational character of preclinical studies.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  11. What do children know and understand about universal gravitation? Structural and developmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frappart, S.; Raijmakers, M.; Frède, V.

    2014-01-01

    Children's understanding of universal gravitation starts at an early age but changes until adulthood, which makes it an interesting topic for studying the development and structure of knowledge. Children's understanding of gravitation was tested for a variety of contexts and across a wide age range

  12. Empathy in Children with Autism and Conduct Disorder: Group-Specific Profiles and Developmental Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Mergenthaler, Julia; Keller, Katharina; Zech, Julie; Salehi, Sarah; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Schecklmann, Martin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Warnke, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A deficit in empathy is discussed to underlie difficulties in social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD). To date, no study has compared children with ASD and different subtypes of CD to describe disorder-specific empathy profiles in clinical samples. Furthermore, little is known about…

  13. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: methodological developments and current tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Chris; Freeman, John; Samdal, Oddrun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodological development of the HBSC survey since its inception and explore methodological tensions that need to be addressed in the ongoing work on this and other large-scale cross-national surveys. METHODS: Using archival data and conversations with members...... of the network, we collaboratively analysed our joint understandings of the survey's methodology. RESULTS: We identified four tensions that are likely to be present in upcoming survey cycles: (1) maintaining quality standards against a background of rapid growth, (2) continuous improvement with limited financial...... in working through such challenges renders it likely that HBSC can provide a model of other similar studies facing these tensions....

  14. Methodological framework for the ergonomic design of children's playground equipment: a Serbian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanovic, Miroljub; Jekic, Savko; Stojiljkovic, Evica

    2014-01-01

    Adequate application of the static and dynamic anthropometric measures of pre-school children in ergonometric design of children's playground equipment should eliminate all dangers and difficulties in their use. Possibilities of injuries, insecure movements, discomfort able positions and some other dangerous actions may be minimized; and safety and health protection of pre-school children will be increased. Children's playground represents a significant space of activity for pre-school children. Therefore, it is necessary to apply ergonomic principles which contribute to the adjustment of the playground elements to children's anatomic features. Based on the results presented in this paper, new constructions were designed and new playgrounds were installed in Serbia. Participants were children from three pre-school age groups: Junior age group (3-4 years of age, 17 children), Medium age group (4-5 years of age, 22 children), and Senior age group (5-6 years of age, 26 children). Thirty-one static anthropometric measures (12 in standing position, 11 in sitting position, 7 related to dimensions of hand, foot an head, with body weight and shoe size) and 15 dynamic anthropometric measures (7 in standing position, 6 in sitting position and 2 dimension of foot and hand) were defined for the study. Measurements were taken using an anthrop-meter, a flexible measuring tape. Equations for ergonomic design of children's playground elements were also defined. Basic statistical data of static and dynamic anthropometric measurements of the pre-school children are presented in this paper, as well as the statistical calculation of the corrective anthropometric measurements. Measurements were performed in "Poletarac" kindergarten, part of the pre-school institution "Radost" in Cacak. Elements of playground equipment in "Bambi" kindergarten in Kragujevac (the Indian tent "wigwam", gate-house, swing and carousel) were designed and built using these parameters. Based on the obtained

  15. Imaging aspects of neurologic emergencies in children treated for non-CNS malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, S.C.; Langston, J.; Rodriguez-Galindo, C.; Furman, W.L.; Thompson, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    There is a paucity of radiologic literature addressing neurologic emergencies in children receiving therapy for non-CNS primary malignancies. In the acute setting, many of these children present to local community hospitals. This pictorial is from a single institutional experience describing the spectrum of neurologic emergencies seen in children with non-CNS cancers. We hope to familiarize pediatric radiologists with these entities in order to expedite diagnosis, facilitate treatment, and minimize morbity and mortality that may be associated with these complications. (orig.)

  16. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...... quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques....

  17. [ASPECTS OF HEALTH-SAVING MOTIVATION IN CHILDREN OF THE PRESCHOOL GROUP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosheva, E S; Kartysheva, S I; Popova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The problem of education of culture of health in children ofpreschool age is actual and sufficiently complicated. It is important at this age stage to create in children the first knowledge and practical skills of a healthy lifestyle. The example of parents has considerable impact on adoption of health saving behavior of a child. For identification of motivations of parents in the sphere of protection and strengthening of health of their children there was performed questionnaire survey of parents of preschool children according to specially developed questionnaire. A half of parents are established to be unable to devote sufficient time to health of the child due to engrossment. A considerable portion of parents doesn't keep a healthy lifestyle, differs in low medical and sports activity. The main motivation of parents is the motivation on recovery of the child after the disease, but not on preservation, strengthening and development of health.

  18. Educational Paper: Aspects of clinical pharmacology in children--pharmacovigilance and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choonara, Imti

    2013-05-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant problem in children, affecting one in ten children in hospital. Within the community, one in 500 children will experience an adverse drug reaction each year. Pharmacovigilance has been useful in detecting suspected ADRs. However, most ADRs are unreported and often not suspected. Education of health professionals in relation to drug toxicity improves the reporting rate of suspected ADRs. Clinical trials are useful to evaluate the efficacy of drugs. They are, however, not the best way of looking at ADRs where surveillance following the widespread use of a drug is more appropriate. Alongside work by the regulatory agencies, independent investigators have helped collate data. This information has been useful in developing guidelines to prevent further cases of drug toxicity. Greater awareness and understanding of drug toxicity in children should result in more rational prescribing.

  19. Current aspects of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of children with type I galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Volgina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the topical problems arising in children with the most severe form of type I galactosemia. It describes the specific features of neonatal screening for galactosemia. Diagnostic criteria for the classic, clinical, and biochemical variants of galactosemia are presented. The basic characteristics of the clinical picture and late sequels of the disease are identified. Particular emphasis is placed on management tactics for ill children via dietary correction, complication treatments, preventive measures, and a follow-up.

  20. Empathy in children with autism and conduct disorder: group-specific profiles and developmental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Mergenthaler, Julia; Keller, Katharina; Zech, Julie; Salehi, Sarah; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Schecklmann, Martin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Warnke, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M

    2012-06-01

      A deficit in empathy is discussed to underlie difficulties in social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD). To date, no study has compared children with ASD and different subtypes of CD to describe disorder-specific empathy profiles in clinical samples. Furthermore, little is known about age influences on the development of empathic skills. The aim of the current study was to compare cognitive and emotional empathy in different age groups of children with ASD, CD with elevated or low callous-unemotional-traits (CU+ vs. CU-) and a matched control group (CG).   Fifty-five boys with ASD, 36 boys with CD-CU+, 34 boys with CD-CU- and 67 controls were included. The study implemented three tasks on emotion recognition, perspective taking and emotional affection induced by another person's situation. Multivariate Analysis of variance with the factors group and age (median split) including their interaction term was performed to describe disorder-specific profiles.   Empathy profiles showed differential impairment in children with ASD and CD-CU+. Boys with ASD were impaired in cognitive empathy while participants with CD-CU+ were impaired in emotional empathy. Children with CD-CU- did not differ from the CG. However, boys with CD-CU- were less emotionally reactive in response to film stimuli than children with ASD. Furthermore, we found strong age effects indicating an increase in cognitive and affective empathic skills beyond early infancy in all groups.   In this study, distinct empathic profiles in children with ASD and CD-CU+ were found. Furthermore, the work demonstrates improvement of empathic skills throughout childhood and adolescence, which is comparable for individuals with psychiatric disorders and control children. These results yield implications for further research as well as for therapeutic interventions. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and

  1. Oral aspects in celiac disease children: clinical and dental enamel chemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Bezerra da Silva, Raquel Assed; Sawamura, Regina; Bachmann, Luciano; Bezerra da Silva, Léa Assed; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral manifestations of celiac disease (CD), the chemical composition of dental enamel, and the occurrence of CD in children with dental enamel defects (DEDs). In the study, 52 children with CD and 52 controls were examined for DEDs, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), dental caries experience, and salivary parameters. In addition, 10 exfoliated primary enamel molars from each group were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fifty children with DEDs were submitted to CD diagnosis. Among the children with CD, a higher prevalence of DEDs (P = .00001) and RAS (P = .0052), lower caries experience (P = .0024), and reduction of salivary flow (P = .0060) were observed. Dental enamel from the children with CD demonstrated a lower calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (P = .0136), but no difference in the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio (P = .5862) was observed. In the multivariate analysis, CD was a protective factor for caries (OR = 0.74) and a risk factor for RAS (OR3.23). The children with CD presented with more RAS, DEDs, reduction of salivary flow, and chemical alterations in the enamel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Information and methodological support of the cluster of children wellness recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Svetlana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the instrument of transfer of pedagogical experience of the staff at children's health camps, which can be used as one of the components of the cluster to ensure the functioning of the health-educational system children's health camps. The transformation of the notion "cluster" from economic category in social and pedagogical is shown

  3. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    2014-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall significant time-of-day effect was observed for all selected COP variables. The greatest change in all COP variables was observed (on average ~15%) between midday (12:30) and the afternoon (16:00), indicating that a systematic time-of-day influence on static postural balance exists in community-dwelling older adults. Consequently, longitudinal (i.e. pre-to-post training) comparisons of postural balance in in older adults with repeated assessments should be conducted at the same time-of-day. In Study II a novel approach for measuring postural balance (using the Nintendo Wii Stillness and Agility tests) was examined for reproducibility and concurrent validity in 30 community-dwelling older adults. While the Nintendo Wii Stillness test showed a high reproducibility, a systematic learning effect between successive sessions was observed for the Agility test. Moderate-to-excellent concurrent validity was seen for the Stillness test. In contrast, the Agility test revealed a poor concurrent validity. In conclusion, the Wii Stillness test seems to represent a low-cost objective reproducible test of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults and appears feasible in various clinical settings. A habituation (familiarization) period is necessary for the Wii Agility test to avoid a systematic learning effect between successive test sessions. Study III investigated the effect of ten

  4. ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN IN THE AGE ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Rovny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of laboratory-confirmed acute respiratory syncytial virus infection (ARSVI are described in 221 children of the age from 1 month to 5 years. Febrile fever has been recorded in 76% of patients with ARSVI, and significantly more often in children in the second year of life (92%, but the difference in the temerature or duration has not been found. 98% of children have had symptoms of the lower respiratory tract lesions. The most common ARSVI manifestations in the patients of the first year of life were obstructive diseases of the lower respiratory tract (obstructive bronchitis in 53% and bronchiolitis in 11% of children, in the patients of the second year of life — pneumonia (28%, p < 0,05 and catarrhal otitis (26%; p < 0,05. Bronchial obstruction syndrome in children of the first year of life was characterized by the significantly higher frequency (73% and the maximal duration (9,7 ± 1,08 days. The largest number of cases of the severe respiratory failure has been recorded among patients of the second year of life (3 degree of respiratory failure in 22% of patients, p < 0,05.

  5. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physica...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD.......It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...

  6. SCIENTIFIC AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOURISM SECTOR ENTERPRISES OF POLTAVA REGION IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Chernysh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to summarise and present the scientific-methodological and conceptual aspects of business management and organizational development of tourist enterprises of Poltava region in the context of sustainable growth. Methodology. The methodological basis of the research is general scientific research methods: methods of scientific analysis and synthesis, in particular, system-logical analysis of the influence of modern information and innovative technologies on the organizational development of tourism enterprises that allows creating the prerequisites for sustainable development. The rationale for the introduction of a virtual cluster based on the process and system approaches, where the main source of information is the scientific works of foreign and domestic scientists and practitioners. Results. The structural-logical scheme of organizational and economic support of the virtual association of tourist enterprises of the Poltava region is formed. The main participants of the virtual association of tourist enterprises of the Poltava region are singled out. Scientific novelty. The expediency of creating a virtual association of tourist enterprises of the Poltava region as an instrument of organizational development in the context of modern, global trends in the development of the tourist sphere is substantiated. Participants of the virtual association, goals and objectives, principles are singled out. It is determined, which priority tasks of the Poltava region will the virtual association able to solve. Practical implications. It is determined by the possibility of using these research results in the development of regional tourism development programs in the Poltava region and the establishment of projects for the development of tourism enterprises. Conclusions. The choice of such a form as a voluntary tourist virtual association is due to the fact that, as world practice shows, it will help to reduce

  7. Mental Health Aspects of Victims of Crime with Special Reference to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parul

    2005-01-01

    Every woman, man, youth and child has the human right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, without discrimination of any kind. This is enshrined in the Indian Constitution and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. Enjoyment of the human right to health is vital to all aspects of a person's life and well-being,…

  8. Socio-Psychological Aspects of Animal Therapy in Treating Children Suffering from Forms of Dysontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolskaya, Anastasia V.

    2012-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of animal therapy using are discussed. Research of 30 case studies is displayed that pet therapy is a good therapeutic tool in approximately 60% of cases. To diagnose possible problems in families which have got a dog as a "therapist" for the child suffering from some or other form of dysontogenesis, the…

  9. Fostering permanency of children in out-of-home care: psycho-legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, M J

    1988-01-01

    Over the past 20 years increasing interest has been given to children's rights that grant special protections to children living apart from their biological parents. The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 was promulgated to prevent unnecessary removal of children from their original families and to ensure permanency when return to their families could not be secured. The psychiatrist's role in this process has been to ensure that effective interventions occur prior to the child being removed from home and that every effort is made to return the child to his or her family of origin once placement has been made. In the event that the child cannot return home, the psychiatrist can assist the court by providing grounds for termination of parental rights and by otherwise ensuring that the child's best interests are protected.

  10. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The biology, pathogenesis and clinical aspects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P; Bhansali, R; Izraeli, S; Hijiya, N; Crispino, J D

    2016-09-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at a 20-fold increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (DS-ALL). Although the etiology of this higher risk of developing leukemia remains largely unclear, the recent identification of CRLF2 (cytokine receptor like factor 2) and JAK2 mutations and study of the effect of trisomy of Hmgn1 and Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) on B-cell development have shed significant new light on the disease process. Here we focus on the clinical features, biology and genetics of ALL in children with DS. We review the unique characteristics of DS-ALL on both the clinical and molecular levels and discuss the differences in treatments and outcomes in ALL in children with DS compared with those without DS. The identification of new biological insights is expected to pave the way for novel targeted therapies.

  12. Effects of Sleep on Word Pair Memory in Children – Separating Item and Source Memory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Word paired-associate learning is a well-established task to demonstrate sleep-dependent memory consolidation in adults as well as children. Sleep has also been proposed to benefit episodic features of memory, i.e., a memory for an event (item bound into the spatiotemporal context it has been experienced in (source. We aimed to explore if sleep enhances word pair memory in children by strengthening the episodic features of the memory, in particular. Sixty-one children (8–12 years studied two lists of word pairs with 1 h in between. Retrieval testing comprised cued recall of the target word of each word pair (item memory and recalling in which list the word pair had appeared in (source memory. Retrieval was tested either after 1 h (short retention interval or after 11 h, with this long retention interval covering either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Compared with the wake interval, sleep enhanced separate recall of both word pairs and the lists per se, while recall of the combination of the word pair and the list it had appeared in remained unaffected by sleep. An additional comparison with adult controls (n = 37 suggested that item-source bound memory (combined recall of word pair and list is generally diminished in children. Our results argue against the view that the sleep-induced enhancement in paired-associate learning in children is a consequence of sleep specifically enhancing the episodic features of the memory representation. On the contrary, sleep in children might strengthen item and source representations in isolation, while leaving the episodic memory representations (item-source binding unaffected.

  13. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ECHINOCOCCOSIS IN CHILDREN IN THE ASTRAKHAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Arakelyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Analyze the epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in children in the Astrakhan region. In the Astrakhan region from 2001 to 2016. Registered 141 cases of echinococcosis in humans, incl. In children — 22 cases (15,6%. Among all the sick children, echinococcosis was more often reported in school-age persons — 90,9%. From the preschool age group, echinococcosis was recorded in two (9,1% unorganized children aged 5 and 6 years. The main complaints in the majority of invasive children were pain and a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium — 40,9%, periodically arising cramping pain in the area of localization of the parasite — 31,8%. In rare cases, complaints of weakness and a feeling of bursting at the site of echinococcal cyst localization were noted — 4,5% each. A part of patients — 18,2% of the complaints were absent. When diagnosing, both laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods were used. In most cases — 90,9%, the diagnosis of echinococcosis was confirmed by the enzyme immunoassay (ELISA method. Thus, recently in the territory of the Astrakhan region there has been an increase in the number of cases of human infection with echinococcus, incl. аnd children of school age. The parasite is located, as a rule, in the liver and lung. The disease was susceptible to those who had a history of permanent contact with non-undelminthic dogs. In the diagnosis of echinococcosis, the main role is played by the complex methods of ELISA, CT, ultrasound, x-ray and histological methods.  

  14. Investigating the Substantive Aspect of Construct Validity for the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children: A Focus on Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the substantive aspect of construct validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C; Gadermann et al. in Soc Indic Res 96:229-247, "2010"). Specifically, the study examined the cognitive processes of children when responding to the items of the SWLS-C to find out how they…

  15. Psychosocial aspects and mental health in children after permanent pacemaker implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C; Hørder, K; Kristensen, L

    1994-01-01

    -14). Generally the psychological condition was strained in 7 families, in which psychiatric and social therapy had been necessary. The children's intelligence was within normal ranges, average IQ being 110 (range 80-135). The children had abnormal body image related to the pacemaker. Adults virtually incorporate......, and they were given a child-psychiatric evaluation consisting of a semi-structured and a child-psychiatric interview. The psychological interview used intelligence tests and the Draw-A-Person test as well as the Rorschach test. The patients had had their pacemakers during an average of 6.7 years (range 3...

  16. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita; Friis, Henrik; Kurpad, Anura; Wells, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique. We refined procedures for administration of isotope doses and collection of saliva. Furthermore, we established that equilibration time in local context is 3 h. These findings and the resulting standard operating procedures are important to improve data quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques.

  17. A New Calibration Methodology for Thorax and Upper Limbs Motion Capture in Children Using Magneto and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies for motion capture have produced devices, mainly based on magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU, that are now suitable for out-of-the-lab use with children. In fact, the reduced size, weight and the wireless connectivity meet the requirement of minimum obtrusivity and give scientists the possibility to analyze children’s motion in daily life contexts. Typical use of magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU motion capture systems is based on attaching a sensing unit to each body segment of interest. The correct use of this setup requires a specific calibration methodology that allows mapping measurements from the sensors’ frames of reference into useful kinematic information in the human limbs’ frames of reference. The present work addresses this specific issue, presenting a calibration protocol to capture the kinematics of the upper limbs and thorax in typically developing (TD children. The proposed method allows the construction, on each body segment, of a meaningful system of coordinates that are representative of real physiological motions and that are referred to as functional frames (FFs. We will also present a novel cost function for the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, to retrieve the rotation matrices between each sensor frame (SF and the corresponding FF. Reported results on a group of 40 children suggest that the method is repeatable and reliable, opening the way to the extensive use of this technology for out-of-the-lab motion capture in children.

  18. Children Who Are Hearing Impaired with Additional Disabilities and Related Aspects of Parental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2000-01-01

    In this German study, 317 parents of children with hearing impairments and additional disabilities completed both the Parenting Stress Index and an additional questionnaire on demographics and related information. Analysis showed consistently high stress scores in the Child Domain, whereas the Parent Domain showed only a slight tendency toward…

  19. Psycho-Social Aspects of Educating Epileptic Children: Roles for School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Brenda B.

    1985-01-01

    Epileptic children may have physical and emotional needs which can interfere with learning and socialization. Current prevalence estimates, definitions, and classifications of epilepsy are surveyed. Factors affecting the epileptic child's school performance and specific learning problems are addressed. Specific roles are presented for school…

  20. Modern aspects of external anti'inflammatory therapy of atopic dermatitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhotnikova O.M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combined use of creams Prednicarbum and synthetic tannin (phenol-methanal-of urea-polycondensate in the treatment of exacerbation of atopic dermatitis in children. Material and methods: 50 children, 1 to 12 years, with atopic dermatitis with the exacerbation of the skin process different degrees of severity. Results: In children with mild localized form of atopic dermatitis after the monotherapy whith cream synthetic tannin, noted a marked clinical improvement up to 7 days of treatment. The noted expressive positive dynamics of the skin process and reduction of objective symptoms during the first days after of combination treatment with Prednicarbatet cream and synthetic tannin, also after combination therapy Prednicarbate and moisturizing cream in mode of step therapy. Conclusions: The combined application of Prednicarbate cream and phenol-methanal-of urea-polycondensate increases the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment of atopic dermatitis, which can reduce the duration of use of topical corticosteroids and reduce the risk of adverse reactions in children with moderate and severe course skin process.

  1. Aspects of protein metabolism in children in acute and chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In critically ill children, a negative protein balance is associated with an increased incidence of infections, fewer ventilator-free days, and increased length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. Additionally, a malnourished state due to chronic illness increases the risk of respiratory

  2. Atherogenic dyslipidemia in children: evaluation of clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montali, Anna; Truglio, Gessica; Martino, Francesco; Ceci, Fabrizio; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Ciociola, Ester; Maranghi, Marianna; Gianfagna, Francesco; Iacoviello, Licia; Strom, Roberto; Lucarelli, Marco; Arca, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The precursors of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) are not well defined. Therefore, we investigated 62 non-obese, non-diabetic AD and 221 normolipemic children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and biochemical measures were obtained in index children, their parents and all available siblings. The heritability (h(2)) of anthropometric and biochemical traits was estimated by SOLAR. Rare and common variants in APOA1 and LPL genes were screened by re-sequencing. Compared to normolipemic, AD children showed increased body mass index, waist circumference, plasma glucose, insulin, ApoB, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and lower adiponectin (pchildren (0.073 vs. 0.026; P=0.038). The LPL p.S447* gain-of-function mutation, resulted to be less frequent in AD than in control children (0.064 vs. 0.126; P=0.082). No variant in the APOA1 gene was found. Our data indicate that AD is a rather common dyslipidemia in childhood; it associates with metabolic abnormalities typical of insulin resistant state and shows a strong familial aggregation. LPL variants may contribute to the development of AD phenotype.

  3. Medical decision-making in children and adolescents: developmental and neuroscientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; Hein, Irma M.; van den Broek, Jos M.; de Vries, Martine C.

    2017-01-01

    Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed decision-making

  4. Medical decision-making in children and adolescents : Developmental and neuroscientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; Hein, Irma M.; van den Broek, Jos M.; de Vries, Martine C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed

  5. Atherogenic dyslipidemia in children: evaluation of clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Montali

    Full Text Available The precursors of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD are not well defined. Therefore, we investigated 62 non-obese, non-diabetic AD and 221 normolipemic children. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and biochemical measures were obtained in index children, their parents and all available siblings. The heritability (h(2 of anthropometric and biochemical traits was estimated by SOLAR. Rare and common variants in APOA1 and LPL genes were screened by re-sequencing. Compared to normolipemic, AD children showed increased body mass index, waist circumference, plasma glucose, insulin, ApoB, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and lower adiponectin (p<0.001 for all. Metabolic syndrome was present in 40% of AD while absent in controls. All traits (except adiponectin and hs-CRP showed a strong familial aggregation, with plasma glucose having the highest heritability (89%. Overall, 4 LPL loss-of-function mutations were detected (p.Asp9Asn, p.Ser45Asn, p.Asn291Ser, p.Leu365Val and their cumulative prevalence was higher in AD than in control children (0.073 vs. 0.026; P=0.038. The LPL p.S447* gain-of-function mutation, resulted to be less frequent in AD than in control children (0.064 vs. 0.126; P=0.082. No variant in the APOA1 gene was found. Our data indicate that AD is a rather common dyslipidemia in childhood; it associates with metabolic abnormalities typical of insulin resistant state and shows a strong familial aggregation. LPL variants may contribute to the development of AD phenotype.

  6. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Koh, Yun-Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young-Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun-Chung; Park, Jee In

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Materials and Methods Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6–12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Results Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. Conclusion K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created. PMID:28120577

  7. Cross-Cultural Aspect of Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child: Standardization in Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jungeun; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun Joo; Cheon, Keun Ah; Hong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young Key; Cho, Kyungjin; Lim, Eun Chung; Park, Jee In; Kim, Young Shin

    2017-03-01

    Our study aimed to examine psychometric properties and cross-cultural utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Parent Rating Scale-Child (BASC-2 PRS-C) in Korean children. Two study populations were recruited: a general population sample (n=2115) of 1st to 6th graders from 16 elementary schools and a clinical population (n=219) of 6-12 years old from 5 child psychiatric clinics and an epidemiological sample of autism spectrum disorder. We assessed the validity and reliability of the Korean version of BASC-2 PRS-C (K-BASC-2 PRS-C) and compared subscales with those used for US populations. Our results indicate that the K-BASC-2 PRS-C is a valuable instrument with reliability and validity for measuring developmental psychopathology that is comparable to those in Western population. However, there were some differences noted in the mean scores of BASC-2 PRS-C between Korean and US populations. K-BASC-2 PRS-C is an effective and useful instrument with psychometric properties that permits measurement of general developmental psychopathology. Observed Korean-US differences in patterns of parental reports of children's behaviors indicate the importance of the validation, standardization and cultural adaptation for tools assessing psychopathology especially when used in populations different from those for which the instrument was originally created.

  8. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  9. Chronopathological aspects of sleep disorders and cognitive dysfunctions in children with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important and noticeable rhythmical phenomenon observed in the human body is a sleep-wake rhythm and related physical and mental changes. The so-called circadian rhythms that vary over a period of approximately 24 hours are most important. The suprachi-asmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus is a primary circadian pacemaker in mammals; and light pulses out of all stimuli obtained by this structure have been mostly studied. The light pulses unrelated to visual perception serve as the most important synchronizers of circadian rhythms. Children with visual impairments lack adequate photic stimulation and hence circadian rhythm disorders develop and cognitive impairments worsen with a high probability. The most important types of sleep disorders in children with visual impairments are considered; their negative impact on a child's cognitive functions is discussed; possible correction approaches are laid down.

  10. INTESTINAL DYSBIOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH FOOD ALLERGY: PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS AND MODERN CORRECTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Makarova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background paper analyses the role of intestinal micro-flora at the stage of forming immunity, the importance of intestinal microflora abnormalities during the periods of allergic diseases development (primarily food allergies, as well as mechanisms of dysbiosis effect on the allergic processes in child's body. The study discusses the mechanisms of treatment and prevention effect of probiotics for cases of child allergic diseases. The work also specifies modern approaches to correcting dysbiotic abnormalities for children with food allergies, reviews the options of diet and medication treatment of food allergy, suggests a new algorithm of gradual treatment that targets correction of dysbiosis in this patient category.Key words: children, food allergy, dysbiosis, probiotics, prebiotics, diet therapy.

  11. Alimentary tract duplications in newborns and children: Diagnostic aspects and the role of laparoscopic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño Mayer, Jan; Bettolli, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Alimentary tract duplications are rare congenital lesions normally diagnosed in newborns and children that can occur anywhere from the mouth to the anus and have a reported incidence of approximately 1 in 4500 life births. Symptoms and clinical presentation vary greatly. The presentation varies according to age and location. The treatment finally is surgical; total resection when possible should be the aim of the intervention. In pediatric surgery minimally invasive surgical procedures became...

  12. Primary hypertension and special aspects of hypertension in older children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Demetrius; Miyashita, Yosuke

    2011-01-01

    Demetrius Ellis, Yosuke MiyashitaChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USAAbstract: The prevalence of hypertension has increased at an accelerated rate in older children and adolescents. This has raised great concern about premature development of cardiovascular disease, which has major long-term health and financial implications. While obesity and sedentary habits largely explain this phenomenon, there are other social and cultu...

  13. Epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute bacterial diarrhea in children from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz-Santos, Daniel R.; Santana, José S.; Barretto, Junaura R.; Andrade, Maria Goreth M.; Silva, Luciana R.

    2005-01-01

    In the few cases of acute childhood diarrhea that require antimicrobial therapy, the correct choice of the drug depends on detailed previous knowledge of local strains. In order to establish such parameters in our city, we reviewed the results of all 260 positive stool cultures of children between 0 and 15 years of age during two years at a pediatric tertiary care facility in Salvador, Brazil. Bacterial strains had been presumptively identified by culturing in selective media and by biochemic...

  14. The differences in aspects of parent-child interactions in healthy and oncologically ill children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezáčková, Alena; Jamrichová, J.; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Kepák, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2011), s. 59-60 ISSN 0887-0446. [European Health Psychology Conference: Engaging with Other Health Professions: Challenges and Perspectives /25./. 20.09.2011-24.09.2011, Hersonissos, Kréta] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : oncologically ill children * parent-child interactions * family functioning Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Using practice development methodology to develop children's centre teams: ideas for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Ann; Cowdell, Fiona

    2009-09-01

    The Children's Centre Programme is a recent development in the UK and brings together multi-agency teams to work with disadvantaged families. Practice development methods enable teams to work together in new ways. Although the term practice development remains relatively poorly defined, its key properties suggest that it embraces engagement, empowerment, evaluation and evolution. This paper introduces the Children's Centre Programme and practice development methods and aims to discuss the relevance of using this method to develop teams in children's centres through considering the findings from an evaluation of a two-year project to develop inter-agency public health teams. The evaluation showed that practice development methods can enable successful team development and showed that through effective facilitation, teams can change their practice to focus on areas of local need. The team came up with their own process to develop a strategy for their locality.

  16. Mental health of children and adolescents with epilepsy: analysis of clinical and neuropsichological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Souza Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy compromises the development of cognitive and social skills and represents a risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: To compare psychopathological symptoms in children with epilepsy and in a healthy group, and to correlate the results with neuropsychological and clinical variables. Method: Forty five children with idiopathic epilepsy and sixty five healthy controls underwent neuropsychological evaluation and their caregivers replied to a psychopathology questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist – CBCL. Results: There were significant differences in CBCL, with poorer results showed mainly by patients with epilepsy. There was no significant association between any psychopathological symptom and disease duration or amount of antiepileptic drugs used. There was positive correlation between intelligence quocient and CBCL on items such as sluggish cognitive tempo, aggressive behavior, attention problems and activities and a negative relation between academic achievement, conduct and rule-breaking behavior. Conclusion: Children with epilepsy had the worse results in the psychopathology evaluation. Certain psychopathological variables are related to the cognitive profile, with no relation to clinical variables.

  17. Review: Psychogenic Aspect of Pain & Coceptualization of Psychogenic Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the sensory and emotional experience of discomfort whiehis usually associated with actual or threatened physical damsge or irritation . Virtvally all people experience pain at all ages. Children also experience pain from the moment of birth through childhood years. Underestaning pain in children is very important , because of treatment implication and its influence in child physical and psychological development . Experienced researchers have found that pain is a concequence of emotional disorder which is observed in some patients . in many cases we have seen that a patient says to his / her clinician that she has no pain because there is no evidence of somatic disease. Dicomfont involved in psychogenic pain seems to resort primerly from psychological process. Many of physicion are familiar with unpleasant and avoidant concequences of these distortions . In these cases , it s better for us to agree with patients , experience of pain and not to prob somatic risk factors and their mechanism all the time. The researches hove recognized that psychological factors cam cause pain which is named psychogenic pain. It means that the cause of pain has psychological roots , versus organic pain which is related to discomfort is caused by tissue damage . In this study , theorical , psychological , psychoanalytical and psycho social approaches and personality characteristics description related to pain and the relations among these approaches in this area have been studied . Also, the perception of pain among children with different gender have been probed

  18. Rhino-bronchial syndrome in children: pathogenic correlations and clinical-experimental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Michele; Cassano, Pasquale; Luigi, Mappa; Gelardi, Matteo; Farràs, Aline Castelante; Fiorella, Maria Luisa

    2006-03-01

    This study aims at defining the incidence of rhino-bronchial syndrome (RBS) in children in order both to verify the influence of nasal obstructions on the disease and to determine therapeutic strategies which may cure the syndrome effectively at its early stage. The investigation includes 128 non-allergic children with obstructive disorders (adenoid hypertrophy, septal deviation, etc.) and rhino-sinus inflammations associated with bronchopulmonary diseases (asthma, chronic cough, bronchopulmonary infections). Medical and/or surgical treatment was chosen in consideration of the type and entity of the patients' main nasal pathology. At least 1 year follow-up was provided for each case to establish the improvement in the disorders affecting both the lower and upper airways. The results were statistically assessed. Medical and mainly surgical treatment always cured the upper airways disorders in patients with chronic nasal obstruction and rhino-sinus inflammation. Improvement of bronchopulmonary disease was reported in about half of the patients (49.4%). Statistically significant results were obtained only in the group with recurrent bronchopulmonary infections (80.9%, pobstruction and rhino-sinus infections. In the population studied, among the lower airways disorders, only infective bronchopulmonary inflammation showed a significant correlation in the assessment between lower and upper airways disorders. In order to prevent the progression of the syndrome to serious pathologic events of the lower airways, a prompt and effective treatment of children's nasal disorders is thus recommended.

  19. Clinical aspects of a nationwide epidemic of severe haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudmundsdottir Helga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Report a nationwide epidemic of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC O103:H25 causing hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS in children. Methods Description of clinical presentation, complications and outcome in a nationwide outbreak. Results Ten children (median age 4.3 years developed HUS during the outbreak. One of these was presumed to be a part of the outbreak without microbiological proof. Eight of the patients were oligoanuric and in need of dialysis. Median need for dialysis was 15 days; one girl did not regain renal function and received a kidney transplant. Four patients had seizures and/or reduced consciousness. Cerebral oedema and herniation caused the death of a 4-year-old boy. Two patients developed necrosis of colon with perforation and one of them developed non-autoimmune diabetes. Conclusion This outbreak of STEC was characterized by a high incidence of HUS among the infected children, and many developed severe renal disease and extrarenal complications. A likely explanation is that the O103:H25 (eae and stx2-positive strain was highly pathogen, and we suggest that this serotype should be looked for in patients with HUS caused by STEC, especially in severe forms or outbreaks.

  20. [The microbiological aspects of orthodontic treatment of children with dental maxillary anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, V A; Chesnokova, M G; Leontiev, V K; Mironov, A Yu; Lomiashvili, L M; Kriga, A S

    2015-03-01

    The issues of pre-nosologic diagnostic and effectiveness of treatment of diseases of oral cavity is an actual issue in dentistry. The long- duration orthodontic treatment of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies using non-removable devices is followed by such negative consequences as development demineralization of enamel and caries registered during treatment and after remove ofdevices. The level of quantitative content of oral streptococci was analyzed and dental status in children with dentoalveolar anomalies was evaluated during treatment with non-removable devices was evaluated. The caries and inflammation of periodontium of oral cavity were most often detected in children with high level of content of streptococci. In different periods of study the firm tendency of increasing of concentration of Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguis of dental plaque of oral cavity is established. The established index indicators of dental status of patients testify intensity of caries damage, level of poor hygiene of oral cavity, development of average degree of severity of inflammation process of periodontium. The obtained results substantiate involvement ofstreptococci, associates of microbiota of dental plaque of oral cavity in children, in process of development of caries. The characteristics of micro-ecology of dental plaque to evaluate cariesgenic situation that can be used as a basis for constructing diagnostic algorithm under monitoring of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies with purpose of forthcoming planning and implementation of effective orthodontic treatment.

  1. Psychomotor education, an aspect of general formation of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Shingjergji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current developments of scientific thinking in the field of education are increasingly demanding in various disciplines for young people as a matter of urgency. It is already known that child development is conditioned by ancestry, socio-cultural environment, including interaction with peers and adults. Albanian institutions (kindergarten compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries have to deal with issues such as: (1 The development of a run or optimal acceleration enrichment motor for kindergarten children, seen as an important element of the formation of the human personality and its preparation to cope with various situations of life ; (2 The role of infrastructure in the natural development of the personality of children and the educational process as a whole; (3 Parental community involvement as a fundamental prerequisite of real development of the child; (4The qualification level of the teaching staff in the elementary education system and the preparation of students teacher. I hope to add my contribution through this paper, not only by identifying the problems above, but also in presenting alternatives of a development model of kindergarten children motors skills progress, compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries. Keywords: ; ; ; ;

  2. Using drawing tests to explore the multidimensional psychological aspects of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Yutaka; Yamada, Miwa; Nakagawa, Kanae; Nanri, Hiromi; Kawase, Masatoshi; Fukui, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    In seeking to understand how life-threatening illness affects children psychologically, projective testing may be beneficial, particularly when attempting to identify psychological problems in younger adolescents. The advantages of projective testing are that it does not depend on patients' verbal ability and is not invasive. Three cancer inpatients from Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, aged between 10 and 16 years old, participated in the study. Projective testing was used to measure the depth of participants' distress and included a tree-drawing test, a person-drawing test and a free drawing test. Results from the tree- and person-drawing tests indicated energy loss, anxiety and a sense of emptiness. However, results from the free drawing test suggested that the children had hope and a desire to recover from their illness. The combination of drawing tests in this study may increase the understanding of the internal psychological difficulties faced by children hospitalized with cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Aspectos metodológicos da coorte de nascimentos de 1993 em Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gomes Victora

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city's hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings.Descrever aspectos metodológicos do estudo da coorte de crianças que podem ser relevantes para pesquisadores que estejam planejando investigações semelhantes. Em 1993, uma coorte de base populacional foi recrutada em Pelotas, RS. Os 5.249 recém-nascidos nos hospitais da cidade foram acompanhados com um, três e seis meses, e com um e quatro anos de idade. Subestudos estão sendo realizados sobre saúde bucal, desenvolvimento psicológico e saúde mental, composição corporal e aspectos etnográficos. Em 2004-5 foi possível entrevistar 87,5% da coorte inicial, com a idade de 10-12 anos. Estudos de coortes de nascimentos são essenciais para investigar os determinantes precoces da morbidade e estado nutricional de adultos. No entanto, há poucos estudos com esta metodologia em países de renda média e baixa, e alguns dos determinantes da situação de saúde podem ser distintos daqueles observados em países ricos.

  4. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  5. Predictors of outcome and methodological issues in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Miguel; Gupta, Sumit; Vasquez, Roberto; Fuentes, Soad L; deReyes, Gladis; Ribeiro, Raul; Sung, Lillian

    2010-12-01

    Most children with cancer live in low-income countries (LICs) where risk factors in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) developed in high-income countries may not apply. We describe predictors of survival for children in El Salvador with ALL. We included patients El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras II protocol. Demographic, disease-related, socioeconomic and nutritional variables were examined as potential predictors of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). 260/443 patients (58.7%) were classified as standard risk. Standard- and high-risk 5-year EFS were 56.3 ± 4.5% and 48.6 ± 5.5%; 5-year OS were 77.7 ± 3.8% and 61.9 ± 5.8%, respectively. Among standard-risk children, socioeconomic variables such as higher monthly income (hazard ratio [HR] per $100 = 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.99; P=0.04]) and parental secondary education (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.84; P = 0.01) were associated with better EFS. Among high-risk children, higher initial white blood cell (HR per 10×10(9)/L = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05; P<0.001) predicted worse EFS; socioeconomic variables were not predictive. The difference in EFS and OS appeared related to overestimating OS secondary to poor follow-up after abandonment/relapse. Socioeconomic variables predicted worse EFS in standard-risk children while disease-related variables were predictive in high-risk patients. Further studies should delineate pathways through which socioeconomic status affects EFS in order to design effective interventions. EFS should be the primary outcome in LIC studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in very young children. Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of 43 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverger, G.; Bancillon, A.; Schaison, G.; Alby, N.; Boiron, M.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1982, 43 children less than 2 years of age were treated in the hematology department of Hospital Saint-Louis for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Of the patients who presented before 18 months of age, 80% had a WBC greater than 100,000 microliter and/or a great tumor bulk. As a result of our experience, treatment regimens have been changed here from conventional chemotherapy to a very intensive program with a heavy induction (vincristine, daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and L-asparaginase) and monthly reinductions with the same drugs plus ArA-C, without maintenance. Prophylaxis included CNS irradiation (16-24 Gy) after 12 months of age, plus intrathecal methotrexate. Complete remission (CR) occurred in 78% before 18 months and in 100% between 18 and 24 months of age at diagnosis. In this report the probability of a prolonged CR (33% at 2 years) was the same before and after 12 months of age. However, younger patients were more intensively treated. The prognosis for children less than 1 year of age who received very intensive chemotherapy has greatly improved, with a significantly higher probability of long CR (p less than 0.02). Presently, 10 of 43 children are in CR 27 months to 8 years after diagnosis. Of 18 patients aged less than 1 year at diagnosis, four are in CR. No relapse occurred after 23 months. None of these patients presented with important sequellae, with the exception of one child who suffered from severe bacterial meningitis. An aggressive chemotherapy program is indicated in patients less than 2 years of age. The feasibility of this mode of treatment in young patients is possible only with the help of specific supportive care

  7. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in very young children. Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of 43 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leverger, G.; Bancillon, A.; Schaison, G.; Alby, N.; Boiron, M.

    Between 1974 and 1982, 43 children less than 2 years of age were treated in the hematology department of Hospital Saint-Louis for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Of the patients who presented before 18 months of age, 80% had a WBC greater than 100,000 microliter and/or a great tumor bulk. As a result of our experience, treatment regimens have been changed here from conventional chemotherapy to a very intensive program with a heavy induction (vincristine, daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and L-asparaginase) and monthly reinductions with the same drugs plus ArA-C, without maintenance. Prophylaxis included CNS irradiation (16-24 Gy) after 12 months of age, plus intrathecal methotrexate. Complete remission (CR) occurred in 78% before 18 months and in 100% between 18 and 24 months of age at diagnosis. In this report the probability of a prolonged CR (33% at 2 years) was the same before and after 12 months of age. However, younger patients were more intensively treated. The prognosis for children less than 1 year of age who received very intensive chemotherapy has greatly improved, with a significantly higher probability of long CR (p less than 0.02). Presently, 10 of 43 children are in CR 27 months to 8 years after diagnosis. Of 18 patients aged less than 1 year at diagnosis, four are in CR. No relapse occurred after 23 months. None of these patients presented with important sequellae, with the exception of one child who suffered from severe bacterial meningitis. An aggressive chemotherapy program is indicated in patients less than 2 years of age. The feasibility of this mode of treatment in young patients is possible only with the help of specific supportive care.

  8. Epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute bacterial diarrhea in children from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Diniz-Santos

    Full Text Available In the few cases of acute childhood diarrhea that require antimicrobial therapy, the correct choice of the drug depends on detailed previous knowledge of local strains. In order to establish such parameters in our city, we reviewed the results of all 260 positive stool cultures of children between 0 and 15 years of age during two years at a pediatric tertiary care facility in Salvador, Brazil. Bacterial strains had been presumptively identified by culturing in selective media and by biochemical testing, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were automatically detected by the MicroScan Walkaway System. Data about patients' sex and age, monthly distribution of the cases, pathogens isolated and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were recorded. Males corresponded to 55.4% of our sample, and most of our patients (42.7% were between one and four years of age. Shigella was the commonest pathogen, being found in 141 (54.3% cultures, while Salmonella was found in 100 (38.4% cultures and Enteropathogenic E. coli in 19 (7.3%. Salmonella was the main causal agent of diarrhea in children younger than five years old, whereas Shigella was the most frequent pathogen isolated from the stools of children between five and 15 years old. The peaks of incidence correspond to the periods of school vacations. Shigella specimens presented a very high resistance rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90.1% and to ampicillin (22.0%, while Salmonella presented very low resistance rates to all drugs tested. These data are useful for practitioners and they reinforce the need for continuous microbiological surveillance.

  9. Epidemiological and microbiological aspects of acute bacterial diarrhea in children from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Santos, Daniel R; Santana, José S; Barretto, Junaura R; Andrade, Maria Goreth M; Silva, Luciana R

    2005-02-01

    In the few cases of acute childhood diarrhea that require antimicrobial therapy, the correct choice of the drug depends on detailed previous knowledge of local strains. In order to establish such parameters in our city, we reviewed the results of all 260 positive stool cultures of children between 0 and 15 years of age during two years at a pediatric tertiary care facility in Salvador, Brazil. Bacterial strains had been presumptively identified by culturing in selective media and by biochemical testing, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were automatically detected by the MicroScan Walkaway System. Data about patients' sex and age, monthly distribution of the cases, pathogens isolated and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were recorded. Males corresponded to 55.4% of our sample, and most of our patients (42.7%) were between one and four years of age. Shigella was the commonest pathogen, being found in 141 (54.3%) cultures, while Salmonella was found in 100 (38.4%) cultures and Enteropathogenic E. coli in 19 (7.3%). Salmonella was the main causal agent of diarrhea in children younger than five years old, whereas Shigella was the most frequent pathogen isolated from the stools of children between five and 15 years old. The peaks of incidence correspond to the periods of school vacations. Shigella specimens presented a very high resistance rate to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90.1%) and to ampicillin (22.0%), while Salmonella presented very low resistance rates to all drugs tested. These data are useful for practitioners and they reinforce the need for continuous microbiological surveillance.

  10. PHARMACO-ECONOMICAL ASPECTS OF IN-PATIENT TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH PERINATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Sudakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of expert analyses АВС–VEN of drugs, using in treatment of children with perinatal encephalopathy at the age of 7 days to 3 years in psycho-neurological department of MIH «Belgorod Municipal children hospital» are represented in this study. The research is performed accounting syndrome approach to the diagnosis. It was established, that in the groups with the most financial costs («A» and «B» almost half of the drugs were referred to «V» and «N» categories, and 67,6% of drugs of group «B» were referred to «E» category. According to expert VEN-analysis the predominant amount of drugs — 34 (51,5% of total used drugs consist group «E». There are irrational use of drugs in central nervous system excitation syndrome and autonomic-visceral disturbances treatment. In general it was established that there are certain reserves for medicine therapy optimization in treatment of each syndrome of perinatal encephalopathy. 

  11. [Pesticide poisoning in Moroccan children: epidemiological and prognostic aspects (1990-2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Sanae; Khattabi, Asmae; Rhalem, Naïma; Ouammi, Lahcen; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the epidemiological profile of acute pesticide poisoning in children (APP) treated by the Moroccan Poison Control Center (CAPM) and to analyze death cases in order to determine factors predictive of severity. the study is based on a retrospective study of all cases of APP collected by the CAPM over a period of eighteen years (January 1990 to December 2008). Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors. 2,672 cases of childhood poisoning by pesticide were collected. The mean age was 5.6 ± 4.57 years. The sex ratio was 1.12. The cause of poisoning was accidental in 87.1% of cases, followed by attempted suicide (12.1%). Organophosphates were the most frequent poison (50.7%), followed by alpha-chloralose (26.5%). The case fatality rate was 3.3%. Mortality was attributed to organophosphates in 30 cases, followed by inorganic derivatives (7 cases) and carbamates (6 cases). A univariate analysis comparing survivors and groups who died showed that rural origin (p = 0.04), voluntary circumstances (p = 0.001), and the type of chemical class of pesticide (p < 0.001) significantly influence fatal poisoning. Acute pesticide poisoning among children is a reality in Morocco. Preventive measures may be needed.

  12. Primary hypertension and special aspects of hypertension in older children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Demetrius Ellis, Yosuke MiyashitaChildren’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USAAbstract: The prevalence of hypertension has increased at an accelerated rate in older children and adolescents. This has raised great concern about premature development of cardiovascular disease, which has major long-term health and financial implications. While obesity and sedentary habits largely explain this phenomenon, there are other social and cultural influences that may unmask genetic susceptibility to hypertension in the pediatric population. While it is essential to exclude numerous causes of secondary hypertension in every child, these disorders are not discussed in this review. Rather, the aim of this review is to familiarize pediatricians with casual and ambulatory blood pressure measurement, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of several common conditions that play a role in the development of hypertension in children and adolescents. Besides primary hypertension and obesity-related hypertension, emphasis is given to epidemiology, measurement of blood pressure, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, hypertension associated with drug use, teenage pregnancy, and video and computer games. Lastly, because pediatricians are increasingly confronted with special issues concerning the management of the hypertensive athlete, this topic is also addressed.Keywords: hypertension, adolescents, obesity, drugs, pregnancy, athletes

  13. How to Reduce Head CT Orders in Children with Hydrocephalus Using the Lean Six Sigma Methodology: Experience at a Major Quaternary Care Academic Children's Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, A; Jackson, E M; Ogborn, J; Liang, S; Bledsoe, M; Durand, D J; Jallo, G; Huisman, T A G M

    2016-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma methodology is increasingly used to drive improvement in patient safety, quality of care, and cost-effectiveness throughout the US health care delivery system. To demonstrate our value as specialists, radiologists can combine lean methodologies along with imaging expertise to optimize imaging elements-of-care pathways. In this article, we describe a Lean Six Sigma project with the goal of reducing the relative use of pediatric head CTs in our population of patients with hydrocephalus by 50% within 6 months. We applied a Lean Six Sigma methodology using a multidisciplinary team at a quaternary care academic children's center. The existing baseline imaging practice for hydrocephalus was outlined in a Kaizen session, and potential interventions were discussed. An improved radiation-free workflow with ultrafast MR imaging was created. Baseline data were collected for 3 months by using the departmental radiology information system. Data collection continued postintervention and during the control phase (each for 3 months). The percentage of neuroimaging per technique (head CT, head ultrasound, ultrafast brain MR imaging, and routine brain MR imaging) was recorded during each phase. The improved workflow resulted in a 75% relative reduction in the percentage of hydrocephalus imaging performed by CT between the pre- and postintervention/control phases (Z-test, P = .0001). Our lean interventions in the pediatric hydrocephalus care pathway resulted in a significant reduction in head CT orders and increased use of ultrafast brain MR imaging. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Medical decision-making in children and adolescents: developmental and neuroscientific aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; Hein, Irma M; van den Broek, Jos M; de Vries, Martine C

    2017-05-08

    Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed decision-making competent. Minors of the same age may show different levels of maturity. In addition, patients deemed rational conversation-partners as a child can suddenly become noncompliant as an adolescent. Age, context and development all play a role in decision-making competence. In this article we adopt a perspective on competence that specifically focuses on the impact of brain development on the child's decision-making process. We believe that the discussion on decision-making competence of minors can greatly benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. We adopted such an approach in order to contribute to the understanding on how to deal with children in decision-making situations. Evidence emerging from neuroscience research concerning the developing brain structures in minors is combined with insights from various other fields, such as psychology, decision-making science and ethics. Four capacities have been described that are required for (medical) decision-making: (1) communicating a choice; (2) understanding; (3) reasoning; and (4) appreciation. Each capacity is related to a number of specific skills and abilities that need to be sufficiently developed to support the capacity. Based on this approach it can be concluded that at the age of 12 children can have the capacity to be decision-making competent. However, this age coincides with the onset of adolescence. Early development of the brain's reward system combined with late development of the control system diminishes decision-making competence in adolescents in specific contexts. We conclude that even adolescents possessing capacities required for decision-making, may need support of facilitating environmental factors

  15. Alimentary tract duplications in newborns and children: Diagnostic aspects and the role of laparoscopic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Mayer, Jan; Bettolli, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Alimentary tract duplications are rare congenital lesions normally diagnosed in newborns and children that can occur anywhere from the mouth to the anus and have a reported incidence of approximately 1 in 4500 life births. Symptoms and clinical presentation vary greatly. The presentation varies according to age and location. The treatment finally is surgical; total resection when possible should be the aim of the intervention. In pediatric surgery minimally invasive surgical procedures became more and more important over the last decades. In consequence the operative procedure on alimentary tract duplications changed in this manner. We review on case reports and clinical reports on minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of alimentary tract duplications, determine the importance of minimally invasive techniques in the treatment of this rare entity and rule out that further studies in the field should be performed. PMID:25339813

  16. Psychological aspects in children affected by Duchenne de Boulogne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Roccella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease.

  17. Aspects of the built environment associated with obesity in children and adolescents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nappi Corrêa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a narrative literature review to describe the availability of food retailers (groceries and eateries and their association with obesity in schoolchildren and adolescents. METHODS: The review included studies published from 2003 to 2013 listed in three databases with data on the child's school and/or home surroundings. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of fast foods near the schools, especially high schools, public schools, or schools located in low-income regions. Moreover, children and adolescents living in areas further from convenience stores had better diets. CONCLUSION: Acknowledging the relationship between built environment and obesity by establishing scientific evidence is necessary for developing specific strategies that help to control the spread of obesity in this age group, aiming to construct healthier spaces.

  18. Psychological aspects in children affected by duchenne de boulogne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Teresa Di; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele

    2012-07-26

    Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease.

  19. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in children. Clinical aspects and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Augello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO is a rare mixed odontogenic tumor. Clinically AFO presents as a hamartoma or immature odontoma. The AFO is a well-encapsulated, painless, slow-growing and expanding tumor in young patients. Histologically, it has been classified as an ameloblastic fibroma or odontoma. Despite numerous efforts, there is still considerable confusion concerning the nature, the histology and the surgical therapy of this lesion. However, it can present with progressive growth causing bone destruction and significant deformity. The transformation of AFO in sarcoma is also known and extremely rare. Therefore a long term follow up is recommended. Enucleation still remains the gold standard. We are discussing our experience with AFO focused on children in clinical and surgical features and reviewing the relevant literature.

  20. [Pilot study of psychiatric and social aspects of children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häßler, Frank; Gaese, Franziska; Colla, Michael; Huss, Michael; Kretschmar, Christoph; Brinkman, Marc; Peters, Helmut; Elstner, Samuel; Weirich, Steffen; Pittrow, David

    2017-03-01

    The study describes the burden of psychosocial risks of mental illnesses and the ways in which children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FRX) can be treated. Data from a sample of 34 patients with FRX younger than 18 years stemming from a prospective multicenter (n = 11) registry study (EXPLAIN) were analyzed with regard to psychosocial burden and Treatment. One third of all participants reported having relatives who suffer from FRX. The majority of participants were suffering themselves from one kind or another mental or neurological problems. Younger participants (therapies and occupational therapies (more than once a month). In our sample, 96.3 % of the younger patients and more than 57.1 % of the older patients were still living with their parents. Patients with FRX often suffer from additional neurological and mental disorders. For that reason, they should be diagnosed and treated early on.

  1. [Clinical and neurophysiological aspects of severe forms of autism in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simashkova, N V; Iakupova, L P; Bashina, V M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate fundamentals for the phenomenon of universality of childhood autism by comparison of clinical and neurophysiological features of its severest forms--children endogenous autism (CEA) and Rett's syndrome (RS). Each group included 20 patients. Both groups were similar by age-at-disease-onset, clinical appearances during the disease course and dynamics of psychopathological syndromes. The theta-rhythm is common for CEA and RS at the disease stage with marked signs of disease acuity, autism, regress and, therefore, may be regarded as a marker of severity and development delay. The universality of autism phenomenon in its severe forms was confirmed both at the clinical and neurophysiological levels.

  2. Rhinosurgery in children: developmental and surgical aspects of the growing nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, Carel D. A.; Verwoerd-Verhoef, Henriette L.

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the nasal skeleton in newborns and adults are not alike. The complete cartilaginous framework of the neonatal nose becomes partly and gradually ossified during the years of growth and is more vulnerable to trauma in that period. Injury in early youth may have large consequences for development and may result in a nasal deformity which will increase during growth and reach its peak during and after the adolescent growth spurt. To understand more of the underlying problems of nasal malformations and their surgical treatment (septorhinoplasty) these items became the focus of multiple animal studies in the last 40 years. The effects of surgery on the nasal septum varied considerably, seemingly depending on which experimental animal was used. In review, however, the very different techniques of the experimental surgery might be even more influential in this respect. Study of one of the larger series of experiments in young rabbits comprised skeletal measurements with statistical analysis, and microscopic observations of the tissues. The behaviour of hyaline cartilage of the human nose appeared to be comparable to that of other mammals. Cartilage, although resilient, can be easily fractured whereas its tendency to integrated healing is very low, even when the perichondrium has been saved. Also surgical procedures – like in septoplasty – may result in growth disturbances of the nasal skeleton like recurrent deviations or duplicature. Loss of cartilage, as might occur after a septum abscess, is never completely restored despite some cartilage regeneration. In this article experimental studies are reviewed and compared. Still there remains a lack of consensus in the literature concerning the developmental effects of rhinosurgry in children. Based on their observations in animals and a few clinical studies, mostly with small numbers of patients but with a long follow-up, the authors have compiled a list of guidelines to be considered before starting to

  3. A study of some aspects of auto immunity in children with thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Adham, E.K

    2008-01-01

    This study is subjected to estimate the study of the most common autoimmune complications in thalassemia and the prevalence of different auto antibodies so as to evaluate its correlation with personal data including age, sex, growth parameters, Hepatitis C virus infection ferritin level and type of iron chelation therapy methodology : Different Abs including anti cardiolipin, antitistone, ANA, Anti erythropoietin by ELISA technique Hepatitis C virus by ELISA. Ferritin by IRMA (Immune radiometric assay), Protein C, S. Antithrombin III by ELISA result of the study were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods .The results showed that age of Hepatitis C virus negative cases was significantly lower than Hepatitis C virus Positive cases, ferritin levels were significantly higher in patients on defripone than those as desferrioxamine, anti erythropoietin was detected in 93.3% of cases regarding the antithrombotic factors deficiency. Protein C was deficient in 26.67% of cases. Protein S was deficient in 13.33% only and no cases showed anti thrombin III deficiency. No special relation was found between these abnormalities and type of chelation , Conclusions: Auto immunity may be a cofactor in the development of life threatening complication

  4. Some Aspects of International Children Abduction - Theoretical and Practical Approach from the Perspective of the European Law and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyday life revealed even in the media by presenting cases of international abduction of minors, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the existence of cases increasingly complex from the national/ EU practice, to which we should add the insufficient analysis in the doctrine of the topic in representing some evidence to support the elaboration of this paper. Through its international and / or European regulations (Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is supplemented by Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, (prevailing the latter and national ones (Law no. 63/2014 amending and supplementing Law no. 369/2004 on the application of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction which Romania adhered to by the Law no. 100/199, the legislator sought to ensure the prompt return of children abducted in the Member State of origin, the objective being the same: discouraging underage child abduction by a parent or by third parties, usually relatives and, in case of committing an act of international abduction of minors, ensuring the best interests of the child through the cooperation of the competent authorities in the field. The structure includes sections that address theoretical issues (e.g. the notion of international abduction of minors, regulations, procedure for solving the request, the competent authorities and practical aspects, without neglecting the interpretation given by the Court of Justice of the European Union of some texts from the Regulation.

  5. Text comprehension in children: comparing different classes of inferences by using on-line methodology / Compreensão de texto em crianças: comparações entre diferentes classes de inferência a partir de uma metodologia on-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Galvão Spinillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, by means of using an on-line methodology, examined 7 and 9-year-old children's text comprehension in relation to different types of inferences constructed during a story reading task: causal inferences, state inferences and inferences of prediction (what happens next in the story. The on-line methodology consists of making inferential questions to the child during text comprehension immediately after the subject has read a passage. Due to the fact that inferences of prediction involve extratextual information and require to raise hypothesis about the continuity of the narrative, children had difficulties in predicting events that had not occurred yet in the story. It was concluded that the ability to make inferences during text comprehension varies according to the type of inferential question presented and that this ability develops with age. The inovative aspect of the on-line methodology and its relevance to the research on text comprehension are discussed.

  6. Safety of children in cars: A review of biomechanical aspects and human body models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Brolin

    2015-03-01

    To study how children interact with restraints during on-road driving and during pre- and in-crash events, numerical child models implementing age-specific anthropometric features will be essential. The review of human whole body models covers multi body models (age 1.5 to 15 years and finite element models (ages 3, 6, and 10 years. All reviewed child models are developed for crash scenarios. The only finite element models to implement age dependent anthropometry details for the spine and pelvis were a 3 year-old model and an upcoming 10 year-old model. One ongoing project is implementing active muscles response in a 6 year-old multi body model to study pre-crash scenarios. These active models are suitable for the next important step in providing the automotive industry with adequate tools for development and assessment of future restraint systems in the full sequence of events from pre- to in-crash.

  7. A methodology to measure cervical vertebral bone maturation in a sample from low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luciana Barreto Vieira; Caldas, Maria de Paula; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the regression method for determining vertebral age developed by Caldas et al. (2007) by testing this method in children from low-income families of the rural zone. The sample comprised cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 76 boys and 64 girls aged 7.0 to 14.9 years living in a medium-sized city in the desert region of the northeastern region of Brazil, with an HDI of 0.678. C3 and C4 vertebrae were traced and measured on cephalometric radiographs to estimate the bone age. The average age, average hand-wrist age and average error estimated for girls and boys were, respectively, 10.62 and 10.44 years, 11.28 and 10.57 years, and 1.42 and 1.18 years. Based on these results, the formula proposed by Caldas et al. (2007) was not applicable to the studied population, and new multiple regression models were developed to obtain the children's vertebral bone age accurately.

  8. Design and pilot testing of a dietary assessment methodology for children at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Laursen, Rikke; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    in school food environments. Aim: The aim of this report was to investigate and develop appropriate methods for studying the link between healthy eating practices and organic food procurement policies using Danish public elementary schools as a setting. Methods: Based on relevant scientific literature......, the Danish Dietary Recommendations, and inspired by other successful studies, a self-administered questionnaire investigating children’s eating habits was designed. After testing by an Expert Evaluation Panel and Think Aloud Interviews adjustments were integrated. Conclusion: If special attention is given...... to literacy skills and cognitive development, children in Danish 6th grade classes can be used as respondents in studies of the relation between food procurement policies and eating practice. The study suggests that a Cross-Sectional design is a satisfactory method to investigate the association between...

  9. Methodological considerations in a pilot study on the effects of a berry enriched smoothie on children's performance in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Ulla; Rumpunen, Kimmo; Olsson, Viktoria; Åström, Mikael; Rosander, Pia; Wendin, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Berries contain bioactive compounds that may affect children's cognitive function positively, while hunger and thirst during lessons before lunch affect academic performance negatively. This pilot study addresses methodological challenges in studying if a berry smoothie, offered to schoolchildren as a mid-morning beverage, affects academic performance. The objective was to investigate if a cross-over design can be used to study these effects in a school setting. Therefore, in order to investigate assay sensitivity, 236 Swedish children aged 10-12 years were administered either a berry smoothie (active) or a fruit-based control beverage after their mid-morning break. Both beverages provided 5% of child daily energy intake. In total, 91% of participants completed the study. Academic performance was assessed using the d2 test of attention. Statistical analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test in StatXact v 10.3. The results showed that the children consumed less of the active berry smoothie than the control (154 g vs. 246 g). Both beverages increased attention span and concentration significantly (p = 0.000). However, as there was no significant difference (p = 0.938) in the magnitude of this effect between the active and control beverages, the assay sensitivity of the study design was not proven. The effect of the beverages on academic performance was attributed the supplementation of water and energy. Despite careful design, the active smoothie was less accepted than the control. This could be explained by un-familiar sensory characteristics and peer influence, stressing the importance of sensory similarity and challenges to perform a study in school settings. The employed cross-over design did not reveal any effects of bioactive compound consumption on academic performance. In future studies, the experimental set up should be modified or replaced by e.g. the parallel study design, in order to provide conclusive results.

  10. EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT METHODOLOGICAL MODELS OF SWIMMING PRACTICE WITH PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 68 preschool boys and girls aged five to six years two models of swimming teaching realised with purpose to research their efficacity. lt was finded before that they were nonswimers. Testers deviated in two similar groups by basic motor and cognitive abilities. First model of swim teaching, signed as time deviated learning, was realised at the cloused swimming pool with 36 testers which exercised twice of week during three months. Second model of swim teaching, signed as time concentrated learning, was realised as a two-week course with 32 testers which exercised at the sea side. Two control assessment of swimming level knowledge were made during experimental process, and a final assesment was made at the and of the experiment Scaling tehnicque was used for assesing. An analysis of the obtained data resulted in the following conclusions: the both models of swim teaching were efficacity and majority of children accepted swim knovvledge. Results of time concentrated model learning were statistical significance beter then time deviated learning only in the control assesments, but the svviming level knowledge was not different in the final assment. That conclusion shows that model of time concentrated learning has more efficacity in the begining, and model of time deviated learning in the later period of teaching

  11. Global trends in the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents : a systematic review and evaluation of methodological approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, S; van der Aa, M P; van der Vorst, M M J; Knibbe, C A J; de Boer, A

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to systematically review what has been reported on the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, to scrutinise the methodological issues observed in the included studies and to prepare recommendations for future research and

  12. Three-Dimensions vs. Two-Dimensions Intervention Programs: The Effect on the Mediation Level and Behavioural Aspects of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, S.; Bezer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the effect of an intervention program employing 3D immersive virtual reality (IVR), which focused on the perception of sequential time, on the mediation level and behavioural aspects of children with intellectual disability (ID). The intervention is based on the mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which refers the…

  13. Endocrine problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: special review on associated genetic aspects and early growth hormone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a complex multisystem genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. The main clinical features include neonatal hypotonia, distinctive facial features, overall developmental delay, and poor growth in infancy, followed by overeating with severe obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism later in development. This paper reviews recent updates regarding the genetic aspects of this disorder. Three mechanisms (paternal deletion, maternal disomy, and deficient imprinting are recognized. Maternal disomy can arise because of 4 possible mechanisms: trisomy rescue (TR, gamete complementation (GC, monosomy rescue (MR, and postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (Mit. Recently, TR/GC caused by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 has been identified increasingly, as a result of advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea. We verified that the d3 allele increases the responsiveness of the growth hormone (GH receptor to endogenous GH. This paper also provides an overview of endocrine dysfunctions in children with PWS, including GH deficiency, obesity, sexual development, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency, as well as the effects of GH treatment. GH treatment coupled with a strictly controlled diet during early childhood may help to reduce obesity, improve neurodevelopment, and increase muscle mass. A more active approach to correct these hormone deficiencies would benefit patients with PWS.

  14. A multi-methodological MR resting state network analysis to assess the changes in brain physiology of children with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito de Celis Alonso

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to highlight the neurological differences between the MR resting state networks of a group of children with ADHD (pre-treatment and an age-matched healthy group. Results were obtained using different image analysis techniques. A sample of n = 46 children with ages between 6 and 12 years were included in this study (23 per cohort. Resting state image analysis was performed using ReHo, ALFF and ICA techniques. ReHo and ICA represent connectivity analyses calculated with different mathematical approaches. ALFF represents an indirect measurement of brain activity. The ReHo and ICA analyses suggested differences between the two groups, while the ALFF analysis did not. The ReHo and ALFF analyses presented differences with respect to the results previously reported in the literature. ICA analysis showed that the same resting state networks that appear in healthy volunteers of adult age were obtained for both groups. In contrast, these networks were not identical when comparing the healthy and ADHD groups. These differences affected areas for all the networks except the Right Memory Function network. All techniques employed in this study were used to monitor different cerebral regions which participate in the phenomenological characterization of ADHD patients when compared to healthy controls. Results from our three analyses indicated that the cerebellum and mid-frontal lobe bilaterally for ReHo, the executive function regions in ICA, and the precuneus, cuneus and the clacarine fissure for ALFF, were the "hubs" in which the main inter-group differences were found. These results do not just help to explain the physiology underlying the disorder but open the door to future uses of these methodologies to monitor and evaluate patients with ADHD.

  15. Recommendations for the organization of mental health services for children and adolescents in Belgium: use of the soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroeck, Philippe; Dechenne, Rachel; Becher, Kim; Eyssen, Marijke; Van den Heede, Koen

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents in Western countries is high. Belgium, like many other Western countries, struggles with the set-up of a coherent and effective strategy for dealing with this complex societal problem. This paper describes the development of a policy scenario for the organization of child and adolescent mental health care services (CAMHS) in Belgium. The development process relied on Soft Systems Methodology including a participatory process with 66 stakeholders and a review of the existing (inter-)national evidence. A diagnostic analysis illustrated that the Belgian CAMHS is a system in serious trouble characterized by fragmentation and compartmentalization. A set of 10 strategic recommendations was formulated to lay down the contours of a future, more effective CAMHS system. They focus on mastering the demands made on scarce and expensive specialized mental health services; strengthening the range of services - in particular for those with serious, complex and multiple mental health problems - and strengthening the adaptive capacity of and the ethical guidance within the future CAMHS system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis on How Methodological Quality May Influence Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie; Keller, Amélie; Laure Depeyre, Jocelyne; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-04-01

    In the context of a worldwide high prevalence of childhood obesity, the role of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a cause of excess weight gain remains controversial. Conflicting results may be due to methodological issues in original studies and in reviews. The aim of this review was to systematically analyze the methodology of studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents, and the studies' ability to answer this research question. A systematic review of cohort and experimental studies published until December 2013 in peer-reviewed journals was performed on Medline, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies investigating the influence of SSB consumption on risk of obesity and obesity among children and adolescents were included, and methodological quality to answer this question was assessed independently by two investigators using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist. Among the 32 identified studies, nine had positive quality ratings and 23 studies had at least one major methodological issue. Main methodological issues included SSB definition and inadequate measurement of exposure. Studies with positive quality ratings found an association between SSB consumption and risk of obesity or obesity (n=5) (ie, when SSB consumption increased so did obesity) or mixed results (n=4). Studies with a neutral quality rating found a positive association (n=7), mixed results (n=9), or no association (n=7). The present review shows that the majority of studies with strong methodology indicated a positive association between SSB consumption and risk of obesity or obesity, especially among overweight children. In addition, study findings highlight the need for the careful and precise measurement of the consumption of SSBs and of important confounders. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia in children with meningococcal sepsis and septic shock: A prospective, observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Verhoeven (Jennifer)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of hyperglycemia and insulin response in critically ill children with meningococcal disease in the intensive care unit of an academic children's hospital.Methods: Seventy-eight children with meningococcal disease

  18. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapała, Szymon; Adamski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  19. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ciapała

    Full Text Available Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics, some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  20. Overlapping and disease specific aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Rydkjær, Jacob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    Objectives: To identify disease specific and overlapping aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders or ADHD. Methods: Motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task), reflection impulsivity (Information Sampling Task), and trait impulsivity (Barratt ...... their decision making to gather more information in a condition with a conflict between reward and certainty. The reduced information sampling may also reflect an increased conviction in the decision at a point of relative uncertainty....

  1. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...

  2. An assessment of international trade related to bioenergy use in Austria—Methodological aspects, recent developments and the relevance of indirect trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalt, Gerald; Kranzl, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Increasing international biomass trade for energy and concerns about sustainability of globally traded biomass have raised interest in assessments of cross-border trade related to bioenergy. Within this paper, approaches to overcome methodological difficulties related to biomass trade are proposed and applied for the case of Austria. Biomass currently has a share of 15.5% in Austria’s primary energy consumption of 1354 PJ (2009). According to energy statistics, the rate of self-sufficiency with biomass for energy (defined as the ratio of domestic production to inland consumption, with both imports and exports taken into account) is 91%. However, feedstock imports for transport fuel production and indirect imports of wood-based fuels (wood processing residues and waste liquor of the paper industry originating from imported wood) are not taken into account in energy statistics, but prove to be of some significance. Imports of agricultural commodities to the amount of 9.7 PJ can be attributed to domestic biofuel production, and indirect imports of wood-based fuels, account for 31 PJ. With these import streams taken into account, the share of domestic fuels in bioenergy use is only 67%, rather than 84%, as official energy statistics suggest. On the other hand, Austria is exporting more than 50% of its production of sawnwood, panelboard and paper products. - Highlights: ► We investigate biomass cross-border trade related to bioenergy use in Austria. ► International biomass trade for energy has increased significantly in recent years. ► A flow wood diagram is derived to identify indirect trade streams of wood fuels. ► Biofuel feedstock imports are about as important as direct biofuel imports. ► 33% of bioenergy in Austria originate from imported biomass (2009).

  3. Methodological Aspects of the IAEA State Level Concept and Acquisition Path Analysis: A State’s Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Related Capabilities, and the Quantification of Acquisition Paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, K. Kim; Renda, Guido; Cojazzi, Giacomo G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Within its State Level Concept (SLC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) envisions a State Level Approach (SLA) for safeguards implementation that considers, inter alia, a State’s nuclear and nuclear-related activities and capabilities as a whole when developing an annual implementation plan. Based on the assessed nuclear fuel cycle and related capabilities of a State, Acquisition Path Analysis (APA) identifies, characterizes, and prioritizes plausible routes for acquiring weapons-usable material to aid in safeguards implementation planning. A review of proposed APA methods and historical evidence indicates that assessments of pathway completion time can be fraught with uncertainty and subject to bias, potentially undermining safeguards effectiveness and efficiency. Based on considerations of theory and evidence, a number of methodological insights are identified to support consistent implementation and ongoing APA development. The use of algorithms to support APA and SLA processes in lieu of human judgement is a contentious issue requiring an evidence- based assessment and is also briefly discussed. This paper captures concepts derived primarily from open sources of information, including publications, presentations, and workshops on on-going APA development by the IAEA and various Member States Support Programs (MSSP) as well as relevant work found in the open literature. While implementation of the SLA has begun for a number of States, these SLAs are being updated and developed for other States. In light of these ongoing developments, the topics covered here should be considered a snapshot in time that does not reflect finished products and does not necessarily reflect official views.

  4. Overlapping and disease specific aspects of impulsivety in children and adolescents with schiozphrenia spectrum disorders or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Rydkjær, Jacob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    making to gather more information in a condition with a conflict between reward and certainty. The reduced information sampling may also reflect an increased risk-taking or conviction in the decision at a point of relative uncertainty. Children and adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorder......Background and aim: Dimensions of impulsivity have been observed in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia patients. The purpose is to identify disease specific and overlapping aspects of impulsivity in children and adolescents with ADHD or early-onset schizophrenia......-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients appear to perform differently from the healthy controls and the schizphrenia spectrum disorder patients, although not signivicantly (p = .163). Conclusion: Reduced information sampling in children and adolescents with ADHD may reflect an inability to delay their decision...

  5. An Innovative Methodology for Capturing Young Children's Curiosity, Imagination and Voices Using a Free App: Our Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie; Payler, Jane; Horsley, Karen; Gomez, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study explores children's narratives of their curiosity and imagination through innovative use of an information technology app--Our Story. Novel use of the app allowed children to express and record their opinions they considered significant to them. The research captured children's approaches to everyday situations through their play.…

  6. Methodological Approaches for Estimating Gross Regional Product after Taking into Account Depletion of Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution and Human Capital Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A key indicator of the System of National Accounts of Russia at a regional scale is Gross Regional Product characterizing the value of goods and services produced in all sectors of the economy in a country and intended for final consumption, capital formation and net exports (excluding imports. From a sustainability perspective, the most weakness of GRP is that it ignores depreciation of man-made assets, natural resource depletion, environmental pollution and degradation, and potential social costs such as poorer health due to exposure to occupational hazards. Several types of alternative approaches to measuring socio-economic progress are considering for six administrative units of the Ural Federal District for the period 2006–2014. Proposed alternatives to GRP as a measure of social progress are focused on natural resource depletion, environmental externalities and some human development aspects. The most promising is the use of corrected macroeconomic indicators similar to the “genuine savings” compiled by the World Bank. Genuine savings are defined in this paper as net savings (net gross savings minus consumption of fixed capital minus the consumption of natural non-renewable resources and the monetary evaluations of damages resulting from air pollution, water pollution and waste disposal. Two main groups of non renewable resources are considered: energy resources (uranium ore, oil and natural gas and mineral resources (iron ore, copper, and aluminum. In spite of various shortcomings, this indicator represents a considerable improvement over GRP information. For example, while GRP demonstrates steady growth between 2006 and 2014 for the main Russian oil- and gas-producing regions — Hanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, genuine savings for these regions decreased over all period. It means that their resource-based economy could not be considered as being on a sustainable path even in the framework of

  7. Estudo Pró-Saúde: características gerais e aspectos metodológicos The Pro-Saude Study: general characteristics and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Faerstein

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, relatamos as motivações e características do Estudo Pró-Saúde enfatizando aspectos temáticos e metodológicos. Estudos longitudinais de populações "saudáveis" em idade laboral nas grandes metrópoles brasileiras são ainda escassos. Nessas metrópoles, a vida contemporânea pode modificar características de várias exposições e possivelmente seus efeitos; por outro lado, as condições vigentes de vida e trabalho de seus habitantes impõem dificuldades especiais à condução de estudos de coorte, com previsão de longo período de acompanhamento, em amostras da população geral. Populações de funcionários públicos apresentam patamar de escolaridade que permite a utilização de métodos eficientes de coleta de dados (por exemplo, autopreenchimento de questionários, heterogeneidade socioeconômica, e estabilidade do vínculo de trabalho que facilita o seguimento. Serão acompanhados 3.253 funcionários de uma universidade pública no Rio de Janeiro, que participaram da coleta de dados de base (fases 1 e 2, 1999-2001. Foram aplicados questionários autopreenchíveis e aferidos peso, altura, circunferência da cintura e pressão arterial. O estudo tem como foco principal a investigação de determinantes sociais da saúde. São detalhadamente investigados marcadores de posição socioeconômica, raça/etnia, religião, história conjugal e de migração. Enfatiza-se a aferição de indicadores relativos, como desigualdade e trajetórias sociais, e efeitos contextuais das áreas de residência e setores de trabalho. Finalmente, busca-se abordar temas ainda pouco explorados em nosso meio, como rede e apoio social, estresse no trabalho e experiência de discriminação.In his paper, we report the motivations and characteristics of the Pro-Saude Study with emphasis on its scope and methods. Longitudinal studies of "healthy" populations of working age in Brazilian large cities are still scarse. In these settings, aspects

  8. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability

  9. Effects of Hippotherapy on Psychosocial Aspects in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Their Caregivers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chul Hwan; Joo, Min Cheol; Noh, Se Eung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Dae Bo; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Ho Kyun; Park, Hyo In

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of hippotherapy on psychosocial and emotional parameters in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their caregivers. Eight children with CP were recruited (three males and five females; mean age, 7.3 years; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1-3). Hippotherapy sessions were conducted for 30 minutes once weekly for 10 consecutive weeks in an indoor riding arena. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index were evaluated. All children were evaluated by the Children's Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, State Anxiety Inventory for Children, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, and the Korean-Satisfaction with Life Scale (K-SWLS). Their caregivers were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the K-SWLS. We assessed children and their caregivers with the same parameters immediately after hippotherapy. Significant improvements on the GMFM, dimension E in the GMFM, and the PBS were observed after hippotherapy compared with the baseline assessment (phippotherapy program. Hippotherapy was safe and effectively improved gross motor and balance domains in children with CP. However, no improvements were observed in psychosocial or emotional parameters.

  10. Coenzyme Q10 and pro-inflammatory markers in children with Down syndrome: clinical and biochemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira E. Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α levels in young children with Down syndrome may be used as biomarkers reflecting the neurodegenerative process in them. Coenzyme Q10 might have a role as a good supplement in young children with Down syndrome to ameliorate the neurological symptoms.

  11. Divided Parents, Shared Children : Legal aspects of (residential) co-parenting in England, the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolina, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much discussion worldwide on parenting after parental separation, especially on the desirability for the children involved of equally shared care (co-parenting) and the feasibility of legal arrangements in which the children alternate their residence between their parents’ houses

  12. The Importance of Methodology Evaluation of School Furniture for Czech Children with Mobility Disability in Relation to Children’s Anthropometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research conducted under the support of the IGA LDF MENDELU project, id. No. 32/2010 (Anthropometry in Disabled Children in Relation to Furniture and the NIS MPO ČR FR-TI1/050 project (Information System for the Support of Research, Development, Innovation and Furniture Quality. It gives an account of theoretical and methodological foundations, introduces the project’s research objectives. Its major objective is to familiarise professional public with the results of the conducted research the focus of which was to determine requirements for furniture designated for children with mobility restrictions. The defined requirements then constitute the grounds of school furniture assessment methodology. These requirements are divided into three levels that are somehow interconnected. Application of the methodology as a whole is highly wide and can be directed at all educational institutions in the Czech Republic with the pupils from the target group. The evaluation outcome is a report of each evaluated product. The questions raised also belong to a broader context of the issue at hand, related to the project of protection and safety standards establishment in relation to health status of children and youth, in the context of the “Long-term programme of the improvement of health status of the Czech Republic population – Health for everybody in the 21st century” paper, objective 4: HEALTH OF YOUTH – TO BUILD CONDITIONS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE TO BECOME HEALTHIER AND APTER TO FULFILL THEIR ROLE IN THE SOCIETY BY 2020. It is recommended to make a proper definition of the dimensional characteristics of children and update their measurements for furniture design in the Czech Republic constantly (including revision of technical regulations and innovation dimensions in the literature. This can be considered as an opportunity to improve the health of future generations.

  13. The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the treatment of social and behavioral aspects of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortimer R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rachel Mortimer, Melinda Privopoulos, Saravana Kumar International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are increasing in prevalence. Children with ASDs present with impairments in social interactions; communication; restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, or activities; as well as motor delays. Hydrotherapy is used as a treatment for children with disabilities and motor delays. There have been no systematic reviews conducted on the effectiveness of hydrotherapy in children with ASDs. Aim: We aimed to examine the effectiveness of hydrotherapy on social interactions and behaviors in the treatment of children with ASDs. Methods: A systematic search of Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, MEDLINE®, and Academic Search Premier was conducted. Studies of participants, aged 3–18 years, with ASDs at a high-functioning level were included if they utilized outcome measures assessing social interactions and behaviors through questionnaire or observation. A critical appraisal, using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies, was performed to assess methodological quality. Results: Four studies of varying research design and quality met the inclusion criteria. The participants in these studies were aged between 3–12 years of age. The duration of the intervention ranged from 10–14 weeks, and each study used varied measures of outcome. Overall, all the studies showed some improvements in social interactions or behaviors following a Halliwick-based hydrotherapy intervention. Interpretation: Few studies have investigated the effect of hydrotherapy on the social interactions and behaviors of children with ASDs. While there is an increasing body of evidence for hydrotherapy for children with ASDs, this is constrained by small sample size, lack of comparator, crude sampling methods, and

  14. The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the treatment of social and behavioral aspects of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Rachel; Privopoulos, Melinda; Kumar, Saravana

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are increasing in prevalence. Children with ASDs present with impairments in social interactions; communication; restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, or activities; as well as motor delays. Hydrotherapy is used as a treatment for children with disabilities and motor delays. There have been no systematic reviews conducted on the effectiveness of hydrotherapy in children with ASDs. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of hydrotherapy on social interactions and behaviors in the treatment of children with ASDs. A systematic search of Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, MEDLINE®, and Academic Search Premier was conducted. Studies of participants, aged 3-18 years, with ASDs at a high-functioning level were included if they utilized outcome measures assessing social interactions and behaviors through questionnaire or observation. A critical appraisal, using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies, was performed to assess methodological quality. Four studies of varying research design and quality met the inclusion criteria. The participants in these studies were aged between 3-12 years of age. The duration of the intervention ranged from 10-14 weeks, and each study used varied measures of outcome. Overall, all the studies showed some improvements in social interactions or behaviors following a Halliwick-based hydrotherapy intervention. Few studies have investigated the effect of hydrotherapy on the social interactions and behaviors of children with ASDs. While there is an increasing body of evidence for hydrotherapy for children with ASDs, this is constrained by small sample size, lack of comparator, crude sampling methods, and the lack of standardized outcome measures. Hydrotherapy shows potential as a treatment method for social interactions and behaviors in children with ASDs.

  15. SOME ASPECTS OF TEACHING MEDIA LITERACY TO PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLOVENIA FROM A PERCEPTION STANDPOINT OF TEACHERS AND PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with media literacy as a multidimensional skill that parents and teachers possess. In this context we warn of the media-technical aspect of this skill and, within this aspect, of parents’ and teachers’ opinion on the presence of media in children’s lives. Following that, the paper explores teachers’ media-didactic competence as a component of educators’ media literacy. In the empiric part we used two aspects of fostering media literacy. One is the media-technical competence of parents and educators, while the other is the media-didactic competence of educators. We found that both parents and teachers believe that media have a strong presence in everyday lives of pre-school children and that they play an important role in teaching pre-school children. Teachers are aware of the importance of early teaching with media, for media and about media with the purpose of developing children’s media literacy, so they will not be afraid of media when they grow up.

  16. Differences in neurocognitive aspects of dyslexia in Dutch and immigrant 6-7- and 8-9-years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpalen, Johanna Mp; van de Vijver, Fons Jr

    2015-01-01

    Detecting dyslexia in immigrant children can be jeopardized because of assessment bias, as a consequence of a limited word lexicon or differences in language development of these children. This is in contrast with the view of the universal neurocognitive basis for dyslexia. In this research, differences in screening children at risk for dyslexia with the Dyslexia Screening Test (DST) were studied in third and fifth graders of primary school of Dutch (mainstream) and immigrant descent. Mean group differences were found on a few subtests (Naming Letters, Semantic Fluency, Backward Digit Span and Verbal Fluency), probably as a consequence of bias because of the linguistic character of these subtests. The raw scores of word lexicon increased in the Dutch and immigrant group. The association of having a dyslexia diagnosis on DST scores was comparable for Dutch and immigrant children. Differences in the DST scores between non-dyslexic and dyslexic children were found between the third and fifth grade, with a stronger effect of having a dyslexia diagnosis in the fifth grade than the third grade, for Dutch as well as immigrant children. Screening of dyslexia seems easier in the fifth grade than in the third grade, dyslexic children show a slower reading development than their non-dyslexic peers, irrespective of their cultural background.

  17. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  18. Notes on methodology and pitfalls in science and research and on communication of results. Some aspects related to EMF; Synpunkter paa metodik och fallgropar inom vetenskap och forskning samt hur resultaten kommuniceras. Naagra aspekter relaterade till EMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedervall, Bjoern (Unit of Med. Radiation Physics and Med. Radiation Biology, Dept. Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    There are many aspects of the controversy around EMF and potential risks that are largely unknown to the wider audience. Such aspects form the basis for the topics discussed in this report. More specifically focus has been on arguments related to possible cause-effect where linguistic barriers and societal 'filters' (for instance by uncritical media) may constitute a problem. Regardless of whether scientists are working with for example molecular biology or epidemiology they are confronted with a number of methodological problems that may be difficult or even impossible to master. Such difficulties are seldom seen in press releases, news media and so on but they may still be part of many scientists' daily challenges. The most difficult communication challenge is probably that if something is absolutely safe it cannot be proven. An unknown virus, bacterium, or chemical contaminant may completely ruin experiments in a molecular biology experiment but at least the experiments can be repeated and often measures can be taken once such a contamination has been found. For epidemiological studies there is always a specific challenge in that the investigations cannot be repeated as people never do the same things under the same conditions and in a predictable manner. It is with this background and context that the author has chosen to treat some methodological problems in science as well as the so-called Hill's criteria for cause-effects. A shorter comment has been made with reference to various aspects of the precautionary principle as it is often referred to in the EMF debate but most often, however, it has seldom been clarified what is meant by precautionary practices or actions. Precaution is closely related to human fear and therefore a corresponding chapter has been included. This report ends with a few looks into the historical rear-view mirror which illuminates the anticipated benefits with the invisible and mystical rather than the potential

  19. Working memory and referential communication – multimodal aspects of interaction between children with sensorineural hearing impairment and normal hearing peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the language development of children with sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI has repeatedly been shown to differ from that of peers with normal hearing (NH, few studies have used an experimental approach to investigate the consequences on everyday communicative interaction. This mini review gives an overview of a range of studies on children with SNHI and NH exploring intra- and inter-individual cognitive and linguistic systems during communication.Over the last decade, our research group has studied the conversational strategies of Swedish speaking children and adolescents with SNHI and NH using referential communication, an experimental analogue to problem-solving in the classroom. We have established verbal and nonverbal control and validation mechanisms, related to working memory capacity (WMC and phonological short term memory (PSTM. We present main findings and future directions relevant for the field of cognitive hearing science and for the clinical and school-based management of children and adolescents with SNHI.

  20. Behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reinforcer availability: an experimental study using signal detection methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Emi; Shimabukuro, Shizuka; Alsop, Brent; Tripp, Gail

    2017-09-25

    Most research on motivational processes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been undertaken in Western Europe and North America. The extent to which these findings apply to other cultural groups is unclear. The current study evaluated the behavioral sensitivity of Japanese children with and without ADHD to changing reward availability. Forty-one school-aged children, 19 diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD, completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different reinforcement frequencies. The response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched twice during the task without warning. Both groups of children developed an initial bias toward the more frequently reinforced response alternative. When the reward contingencies switched the response allocation (bias) of the control group children followed suit. The response bias scores of the children with ADHD did not, suggesting impaired tracking of reward availability over time. Japanese children with ADHD adjust their behavioral responses to changing reinforcer availability less than their typically developing peers. This is not explained by poor attention to task or a lack of sensitivity to reward. The current results are consistent with altered sensitivity to changing reward contingencies identified in non-Japanese samples of children with ADHD. Irrespective of their country of origin, children with ADHD will likely benefit from behavioral expectations and reinforcement contingencies being made explicit together with high rates of reinforcement for appropriate behaviors.

  1. Body composition in Nepalese children using isotope dilution: the production of ethnic-specific calibration equations and an exploration of methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Roberts, Sebastian; Chaube, Shiva Shankar; Saville, Naomi M; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Osrin, David; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2015-01-01

    Background. Body composition is important as a marker of both current and future health. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is a simple and accurate method for estimating body composition, but requires population-specific calibration equations. Objectives. (1) To generate population specific calibration equations to predict lean mass (LM) from BIA in Nepalese children aged 7-9 years. (2) To explore methodological changes that may extend the range and improve accuracy. Methods. BIA measurements were obtained from 102 Nepalese children (52 girls) using the Tanita BC-418. Isotope dilution with deuterium oxide was used to measure total body water and to estimate LM. Prediction equations for estimating LM from BIA data were developed using linear regression, and estimates were compared with those obtained from the Tanita system. We assessed the effects of flexing the arms of children to extend the range of coverage towards lower weights. We also estimated potential error if the number of children included in the study was reduced. Findings. Prediction equations were generated, incorporating height, impedance index, weight and sex as predictors (R (2) 93%). The Tanita system tended to under-estimate LM, with a mean error of 2.2%, but extending up to 25.8%. Flexing the arms to 90° increased the lower weight range, but produced a small error that was not significant when applied to children <16 kg (p 0.42). Reducing the number of children increased the error at the tails of the weight distribution. Conclusions. Population-specific isotope calibration of BIA for Nepalese children has high accuracy. Arm position is important and can be used to extend the range of low weight covered. Smaller samples reduce resource requirements, but leads to large errors at the tails of the weight distribution.

  2. Body composition in Nepalese children using isotope dilution: the production of ethnic-specific calibration equations and an exploration of methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delan Devakumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Body composition is important as a marker of both current and future health. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA is a simple and accurate method for estimating body composition, but requires population-specific calibration equations.Objectives. (1 To generate population specific calibration equations to predict lean mass (LM from BIA in Nepalese children aged 7–9 years. (2 To explore methodological changes that may extend the range and improve accuracy.Methods. BIA measurements were obtained from 102 Nepalese children (52 girls using the Tanita BC-418. Isotope dilution with deuterium oxide was used to measure total body water and to estimate LM. Prediction equations for estimating LM from BIA data were developed using linear regression, and estimates were compared with those obtained from the Tanita system. We assessed the effects of flexing the arms of children to extend the range of coverage towards lower weights. We also estimated potential error if the number of children included in the study was reduced.Findings. Prediction equations were generated, incorporating height, impedance index, weight and sex as predictors (R2 93%. The Tanita system tended to under-estimate LM, with a mean error of 2.2%, but extending up to 25.8%. Flexing the arms to 90° increased the lower weight range, but produced a small error that was not significant when applied to children <16 kg (p 0.42. Reducing the number of children increased the error at the tails of the weight distribution.Conclusions. Population-specific isotope calibration of BIA for Nepalese children has high accuracy. Arm position is important and can be used to extend the range of low weight covered. Smaller samples reduce resource requirements, but leads to large errors at the tails of the weight distribution.

  3. Aspects and Intensity of Pediatric Palliative Case Management Provided by a Hospital-Based Case Management Team: A Comparative Study Between Children With Malignant and Nonmalignant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagt-van Kampen, Charissa T; Colenbrander, Derk A; Bosman, Diederik K; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Kars, Marijke C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yn

    2018-01-01

    Anticipating case management is considered crucial in pediatric palliative care. In 2012, our children's university hospital initiated a specialized pediatric palliative care team (PPCT) to deliver inbound and outbound case management for children with life-shortening disease. The aim of this report is to gain insight in the first 9 months of this PPCT. Aspects of care during the first 9 months of the PPCT are presented, and comparison is made between patients with malignant disease (MD) and nonmalignant disease (NMD) in a retrospective study design. Insight in the aspects of care of all patients with a life-shortening disease was retrieved from web-based files and the hour registrations from the PPCT. Forty-three children were supported by the PPCT during the first 9 months: 22 with MD with a median of 50 (1-267) days and 29 minutes (4-615) of case management per patient per day and 21 patients with NMD with a median of 79.5 (5-211) days and 16 minutes of case management per day (6-64). Our data show significantly more interprofessional contacts for patients with MD and more in-hospital contacts for patients with NMD. The median number of admission days per patient was 11 (0-22) for MD (44% for anticancer therapy) and 44 (0-303) for NMD (36% for infectious diseases). This overview of aspects of pediatric palliative case management shows shorter but more intensive case management for MD in comparison with NMD. This insight in palliative case management guides the design of a PPCT.

  4. Destination image, image at destination. Methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Díaz-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the part played by the image in the development of tourism, and, specially, as a diffe- rentiation element of a destination area is widely acknowledged. This is reflected to a great extent in the literature that focuses its interest on identifying the variables that motivate the purchase or stimulate the decision process. However, the reference to feedback processes or image control mechanisms as well as their creation, is surprising. An approach model to these processes will be exposed in this article.

  5. FINANCE CORPORATIONS: THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Vitaly Yu. Zaitsev; Yurii I. Fedchishin

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the essence of corporate Finance and the principles of their organization. The characteristic of the system of corporate financial management, describes its purpose, objectives and functions. Given the definition of a financial company policy. Review the organizational structure of corporate financial management from the current position.

  6. FINANCE CORPORATIONS: THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Yu. Zaitsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the essence of corporate Finance and the principles of their organization. The characteristic of the system of corporate financial management, describes its purpose, objectives and functions. Given the definition of a financial company policy. Review the organizational structure of corporate financial management from the current position.

  7. Analysis of Corporate Environmental Management: Methodological Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2001-01-01

    in business presents a challenge to management, however, since it implies a fundamental change in some of the ways of operating a company. This paper will briefly discuss how information on the actual extent of environmental management in Danish companies and the way it is applied has been collected based......Human activities cannot avoid influencing conditions in the natural environment one way or the other. This includes as well common activities in the business sector. But during the past few decades, environmental disasters in Seveso and Bhopal, and the Exxon Valdes oil spill in Alaska have...... contributed to an increasing awareness of the effect of business activities on the physical environment. To assist companies reduce, evaluate, monitor and control their environmental impact the concept of corporate environmental and resource management has been developed. Implementation of this concept...

  8. THE RETIREMENT SYSTEM. FISCAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in most countries, but particularly in European and in the more developed world, heated discussions about reforming the current pension system. To address adequately the taxation of pension incomes in our country is very important to know and how this issue is regulated in different countries, but especially the European ones in the developed world. In terms of taxation of pensions, European countries are divided into three groups: 1. European countries where pension income is not taxed: Bulgaria, Slovakia and Lithuania. 2. European countries where pension income is subject to progressive taxation: Belgium, Cyprus, Greece, Finland, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, United Kingdom, Norway (not EU member, the Netherlands and Spain. 3. European countries where pension income is taxed based flat: Austria, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia and Hungary.

  9. STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona DANILIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  10. Methodological aspects on drug receptor binding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, A.

    1978-01-01

    Although drug receptors occur in relatively low concentrations, they can be visualized by the use of appropriate radioindicators. In most cases the procedure is rapid and can reach a high degree of accuracy. Specificity of the interaction is studied by competition analysis. The necessity of using several radioindicators to define a receptor population is emphasized. It may be possible to define isoreceptors and drugs with selectivity for one isoreceptor. (Author)

  11. Eating frequency: methodological and dietary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, S J

    1997-04-01

    It is commonly stated that 'snack' foods provide 'empty calories' and, therefore elevate energy intake whilst providing insignificant quantities of other nutrients. The data presented in the present review suggest that foods which contribute to the pattern of 'snacking' contribute significantly to the nutrient quality of the diet. Those who 'snack' frequently tend to eat more food in general. Part of the difficulty in identifying the nutritional implications of 'snacking' is related to the definitions of 'meals' and 'snacks' and subsequent categorization of individual patterns. The physiological definitions typically relating to energy content or the time of eating do not necessarily coincide with colloquial, cultural or individual perceptions of what constitutes a 'meal' or 'snack'. Clearly, a more consistent approach would facilitate interpretation of the literature and enable more effective health education messages about 'snacking' to be delivered.

  12. Methodological aspects of network assets accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhimenko-Nazaruk I.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of using innovative tools of processing and representation of information about network assets is substantiated. The suggestions for displaying network assets in accounts are presented. The main reasons for the need to display the network assets in the financial statements of all members of the network structure (the economic essence of network assets as the object of accounting; the non-additional model for the formation of the value of network assets; the internetworking mechanism for the formation of the value of network assets are identified. The stages of accounting valuation of network assets are allocated and substantiated. The analytical table for estimating the value of network assets and additional network capital in accounting is developed. The order of additional network capital reflection in accounting is developed. The method of revaluation of network assets in accounting in the broad sense is revealed. The order of accounting of network assets with increasing or decreasing the number of participants in the network structure is determined.

  13. Color of cyanobacteria: some methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Beatriz; Sanmartin, Patricia; Aira, Noelia; Silva, Benita

    2010-01-01

    Although the color of cyanobacteria is a very informative characteristic, no standardized protocol has, so far, been established for defining the color in an objective way, and, therefore, direct comparison of experimental results obtained by different research groups is not possible. In the present study, we used colorimetric measurements and conventional statistical tools to determine the effects on the measurement of the color of cyanobacteria, of the concentration of the microorganisms and their moisture content, as well as of the size of the target area and the minimum number of measurements. It was concluded that the color measurement is affected by every factor studied, but that this can be controlled for by making at least 10 consecutive measurements/9.62 cm 2 at different randomly selected points on the surface of filters completely covered by films of cyanobacteria in which the moisture contents are higher than 50%.

  14. Cancer diagnosis by infrared spectroscopy: methodological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael; Kim, Keith; Tetteh, John; Mansfield, James R.; Dolenko, Brion; Somorjai, Raymond L.; Orr, F. W.; Watson, Peter H.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1998-04-01

    IR spectroscopy is proving to be a powerful tool for the study and diagnosis of cancer. The application of IR spectroscopy to the analysis of cultured tumor cells and grading of breast cancer sections is outlined. Potential sources of error in spectral interpretation due to variations in sample histology and artifacts associated with sample storage and preparation are discussed. The application of statistical techniques to assess differences between spectra and to non-subjectively classify spectra is demonstrated.

  15. Strategy of International Economic Cooperation: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Silvestru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the authors describe the essence of cooperation and those strategic problems that can be solved internationally only through cooperation efforts. In this context, the authors propose to understand cooperation as the actions of a few companies, corporations from one country or several countries that through their activities contribute to the achievement of goals of economic, ecological and social importance for a region, a country, many countries or for all humanity. Cooperation in such cases, contribute to realization of synergistic results and development of preconditions for each participant to carry out its activities according to its own optimization criteria. Cooperation generates productive systems based on principles and technologies, it can be multispectral, creates preconditions for demand increasing, solves some marketing problems, creates a comfortable space for the activities of all economic subjects.

  16. Methodological aspects on microdialysis sampling and measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Pernilla

    2010-01-01

    Background:     The microdialysis (MD) technique is widely spread and used both experi­mentally and in clinical practice. The MD technique allows continuous collection of small molecules such as glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol. Samples are often analysed using the CMA 600 analyser, an enzymatic and colorimetric analyser.  Data evaluating the performance of the CMA 600 analysis system and associated sample han­dling are sparse. The aim of this work was to identify sources of variabilit...

  17. Los aspectos histórico-libidinales en los niños con dificultades atencionales Historic and libidinal aspects in children with attentional disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Untoiglich

    2006-12-01

    the attention to arise as a function in a subject; this will allow to deepen on which are the necessary conditions that will make possible for a child to pay attention, thus making possible to help children suffering from these difficulties by deepening on some of the factors that are limiting them. The aim of this paper is to expose the theoretical framework that brings together this research and the methodology that is been used to carry it through. Since this research is in progress, I will expound some partial conclusions.

  18. Methodological decisions and the evaluation of possible effects of different family structures on children: The new family structures survey (NFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Every social science researcher must make a number of methodological decisions when planning and implementing research projects. Each such decision carries with it both advantages and limitations. The decisions faced and made by Regnerus (2012) are discussed here in the wider context of social science literature regarding same-sex parenting. Even though the apparent outcomes of Regnerus's study were unpopular, the methodological decisions he made in the design and implementation of the New Family Structures Survey were not uncommon among social scientists, including many progressive, gay and lesbian scholars. These decisions and the research they produced deserve considerable and continued discussion, but criticisms of the underlying ethics and professionalism are misplaced because nearly every methodological decision that was made has ample precedents in research published by many other credible and distinguished scholars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Particularities of Speech Readiness for Schooling in Pre-School Children Having General Speech Underdevelopment: A Social and Pedagogical Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanova, Irina A.; Borisova, Elena A.; Shapovalova, Olga E.; Karynbaeva, Olga V.; Vorotilkina, Irina M.

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of the research is due to the necessity of creating the pedagogical conditions for correction and development of speech in children having the general speech underdevelopment. For them, difficulties generating a coherent utterance are characteristic, which prevents a sufficient speech readiness for schooling forming in them as well…

  20. Some aspects of treatment and habilitation of children and adolescents with autistic disorder in Northern-Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2002-01-01

    Hospital records and data on the treatment/habilitation status of 187 children with autism aged 3-18 years were gathered from Northern Finland. The treatment programs and therapies varied, depending on the trained staff available. One-hundred and fifty-two (82.9%) children and adolescents with autism received more than one therapeutic intervention or specific training program. The most common therapies were physiotherapy as well as speech, occupational and music therapy. 43.9% of the children and adolescents with autism received specific training according to TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-Handicapped Children), 10.2% according to Lovaas and 30.5% according to the Portage program. Antiepileptic medication had been prescribed to 23.9% and psychopharmacological interventions to 14.9% of the individuals with autistic disorder (AD). One hundred and seventy-eight subjects out of 187 showed some improvement on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), even if no statistically significant difference was found between the outcome of the available habilitation methods.

  1. Universal, Developmental, and Variable Aspects of Young Children's Play: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Pretending at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Wendy L.; Wang, Xiao-lei; Fung, Heidi Han-tih; Williams, Kimberley; Mintz, Judith

    1999-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data from five Irish American families and nine Chinese families in Taiwan, in conjunction with cultural psychology research evidence, to propose universal, culturally variable, and developmental dimensions of children's pretend play. Findings raise the theoretical issue of how universal and variable dimensions of…

  2. Aspects of activities and participation of 7-8 year-old children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, E.; Ahmed, J.; van Ouwerkerk, W.J.R.; de Groot, V.; Beckerman, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) can experience problems in the performance of meaningful activities such as writing, bimanual activities, and participation in sports and leisure activities. Aims: To quantify the everyday functioning and participation of 7-8

  3. MODERN ASPECTS OF THE COMBINED PATHOLOGY: BRONCHIAL ASTHMA AND DISEASES OF THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT SEGMENTS AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Arshba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the combined pathology in childhood, namely a combination of bronchial asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The authors highlighted the key theories of the disease etiopathogenesis under alternating environmental conditions. They also highlighted the results of their own studies.Key words: bronchial asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, children.

  4. Coenzyme Q10 and pro-inflammatory markers in children with Down syndrome: clinical and biochemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Moushira E; El-Bassyouni, Hala T; Tosson, Angie M S; Youness, Eman; Hussein, Jihan

    Evidence of oxidative stress was reported in individuals with Down syndrome. There is a growing interest in the contribution of the immune system in Down syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the coenzyme Q10 and selected pro-inflammatory markers such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α in children with Down syndrome. Eighty-six children (5-8 years of age) were enrolled in this case-control study from two public institutions. At the time of sampling, the patients and controls suffered from no acute or chronic illnesses and received no therapies or supplements. The levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, coenzyme Q10, fasting blood glucose, and intelligence quotient were measured. Forty-three young Down syndrome children and forty-three controls were included over a period of eight months (January-August 2014). Compared with the control group, the Down syndrome patients showed significant increase in interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α (p=0.002), while coenzyme Q10 was significantly decreased (p=0.002). Also, body mass index and fasting blood glucose were significantly increased in patients. There was a significantly positive correlation between coenzyme Q10 and intelligence quotient levels, as well as between interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α. Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α levels in young children with Down syndrome may be used as biomarkers reflecting the neurodegenerative process in them. Coenzyme Q10 might have a role as a good supplement in young children with Down syndrome to ameliorate the neurological symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Coenzyme Q10 and pro-inflammatory markers in children with Down syndrome: clinical and biochemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira E. Zaki

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: Evidence of oxidative stress was reported in individuals with Down syndrome. There is a growing interest in the contribution of the immune system in Down syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the coenzyme Q10 and selected pro-inflammatory markers such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α in children with Down syndrome. Methods: Eighty-six children (5-8 years of age were enrolled in this case-control study from two public institutions. At the time of sampling, the patients and controls suffered from no acute or chronic illnesses and received no therapies or supplements. The levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, coenzyme Q10, fasting blood glucose, and intelligence quotient were measured. Results: Forty-three young Down syndrome children and forty-three controls were included over a period of eight months (January-August 2014. Compared with the control group, the Down syndrome patients showed significant increase in interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α (p = 0.002, while coenzyme Q10 was significantly decreased (p = 0.002. Also, body mass index and fasting blood glucose were significantly increased in patients. There was a significantly positive correlation between coenzyme Q10 and intelligence quotient levels, as well as between interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α. Conclusion: Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α levels in young children with Down syndrome may be used as biomarkers reflecting the neurodegenerative process in them. Coenzyme Q10 might have a role as a good supplement in young children with Down syndrome to ameliorate the neurological symptoms.

  6. ‘Place’ as conceptual centre: a methodological focus on the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age in kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hognestad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how attention on ‘place’ can be productive in methodology concerning the bodily relations, movements and expressions of children up to three years of age who are enrolled in kindergarten. While research that has adopted a hermeneutic and phenomenological approach has contributed to important knowledge concerning young children, we propose re-thinking methodology that takes children’s bodily relations, movements and expressions into concern. Using ‘place’ as a lens, we show how power relations are interrupted and allow for alternative ways for the researcher to relate to data. Inspired by Somerville (2010, elements of place are situated at the centre of the research analysis. The three key elements of place that are put to work are as follows: our relationship to place is constituted in stories and other representations; place learning is local and embodied; and place is a contact zone for cultural contact. The paper is part of a research project which explores how place can be more explicit in educational practices to strengthen kindergarten as a learning arena. We seek to explore how place relations work and what they have the possibility of producing in the analyzing process.

  7. [Pulmonary hypertensive crisis in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension undergoing cardiac catheterization: the risk factors and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zhu, Y; Li, Q Q; Gu, H

    2018-06-02

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors, clinical features, treatments, and prevention of pulmonary hypertensive crisis (PHC) in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) undergoing cardiac catheterization. Methods: This retrospective study included 67 children who were diagnosed with IPAH and underwent cardiac catheterization between April 2009 and June 2017 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital. The medical histories, clinical manifestations, treatments, and outcomes were characterized. Statistical analyses were performed using t test, χ(2) test and a multiple Logistic regression analysis. Results: During cardiac catheterization, five children developed PHC who presented with markedly elevated pulmonary artery pressure and central venous pressure, decline in systemic arterial pressure and oxygen saturation. Heart rate decreased in 4 cases and increased in the remaining one. After the treatments including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, pulmonary vasodilator therapy, improving cardiac output and blood pressure, and correction of acidosis, 4 of the 5 cases recovered, while 1 died of severe right heart failure with irreversible PHC 3 days after operation. Potential PHC was considered in 7 other patients, whose pulmonary artery pressure increased and exceeded systemic arterial pressure, oxygen saturation decreased, and central venous pressure and vital signs were relatively stable. Univariate analysis showed that the risk factors of PHC in children with IPAH undergoing cardiac catheterization were younger age ( t= 3.160, P= 0.004), low weight ( t= 4.004, Phistory of syncope (χ(2)=4.948, P= 0.026), and WHO cardiac functional class Ⅲ or Ⅳ (χ(2)=19.013, Pcatheterization. WHO cardiac functional class may be associated with PHC. Integrated treatment is required for these patients. Reducing risk factors, early identification, and active treatment may help to prevent the occurrence and progression of PHC.

  8. Psychological Aspects in the System of Self-Management Education for Children with Diabetes Mellitus (Literature Review and Own Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Bolshova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the scientific data concerning self-managing education and psychological support as part of treatment and prevention of complications in children and adolescents with diabetes. There is a direct correlation between the compensation of diabetes, level of education of patients about their illness, psychological condition analysis and adequate self-control. We assessed the effectiveness of self-management training in combination with psychological help in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1. The study found that in the main group (87 patients HbA1c rate after 3 and 6 months decreased to 9.12 ± 0.86 % and 8.75 ± 1.10 % compared to 9.51 ± 0.85 % before diabetes self-managing education. We noted positive dynamics of glycemic control, respectively, in 19.5 and 36.8 % of patients (compared with 10.3 % at the beginning of training. In I group (37 children and adolescents who had psychological help HbA1c rate after 3 and 6 months decreased to 8.84 and 8.21 %, respectively (9.23 % before diabetes self-managing education.

  9. The EuroPrevall surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children and adults: background and study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Mills, E. N. C.; Clausen, M.; Dubakiene, R.; Pérez, C. Farnãndez; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Knulst, A. C.; Kowalski, M. L.; Lidholm, J.; Le, T.-M.; Metzler, C.; Mustakov, T.; Popov, T.; Potts, J.; van Ree, R.; Sakellariou, A.; Töndury, B.; Tzannis, K.; Burney, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological surveys in children and adults of the EU-funded multidisciplinary Integrated Project EuroPrevall, launched in June 2005, were designed to estimate the currently unknown prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy across

  10. Experimental Economics: Some Methodological Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is presenting in a self-contained paper some methodological aspects as they are received in the current experimental literature. The purpose has been to make a critical review of some very influential papers dealing with methodological issues. In other words, the idea is to have a single paper where people first approaching experimental economics can find summarised (some) of the most important methodological issues. In particular, the focus is on some methodological prac...

  11. Methodology of sustainability accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Sokil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern challenges of the theory and methodology of accounting are realized through the formation and implementation of new concepts, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of users in standard and unique information. The development of a methodology for sustainability accounting is a key aspect of the management of an economic entity. The purpose of the article is to form the methodological bases of accounting for sustainable development and determine its goals, objectives, object, subject, methods, functions and key aspects. The author analyzes the theoretical bases of the definition and considers the components of the traditional accounting methodology. Generalized structural diagram of the methodology for accounting for sustainable development is offered in the article. The complex of methods and principles of sustainable development accounting for systematized and non-standard provisions has been systematized. The new system of theoretical and methodological provisions of accounting for sustainable development is justified in the context of determining its purpose, objective, subject, object, methods, functions and key aspects.

  12. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF CLINICAL TRIALS IN THE PEDIATRIC POPULATION

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    S.V. Topolyanskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting clinical trials on children population is a challenge both for organizers and pediatricians involved in trials. Difficulties in recruiting patients, a significant heterogenecity of the population, specific side reactions, difficulties in identifying the objective final points warrant the specific nature of designing clinical trials in pediatrics. The article illustrates key issues and methodology aspects: planning, design, control groups, patient recruitment. It stresses the need to carefully consider specific characteristics of a child’s system and multi-disciplinary approach involving a pediatrician at the early stages of planning, preliminary consultations with parent organizations, children and regulators.Key words: clinical trials, methodology, planning, design, patient recruitment, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:6-10

  13. Em busca de metodologias investigativas com as crianças e suas culturas Searching for investigative methodologies with children and their cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Coll Delgado

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre metodologias investigativas com as crianças e suas culturas, a partir do referencial da Sociologia da Infância. Este campo teórico considera as crianças como atores sociais que acionam estratégias de luta por meio das suas culturas de pares. Na produção acadêmica brasileira sobre as crianças e suas culturas, ainda não possuímos uma tradição de estudos que tratem das vozes das crianças por elas próprias. A questão motivou a organização deste texto em três sessões. Na primeira, refletimos sobre a ausência das crianças como protagonistas das pesquisas brasileiras e as influências de uma ciência androcêntrica, que nasce com a modernidade. Na segunda, apresentamos a etnografia das infâncias como possibilidade de contato e aceitação dos adultos nos grupos infantis para a compreensão das suas culturas de pares. Na terceira, levantamos algumas idéias acerca dos traços das culturas infantis como base teórica para a construção de outros modos de fazer pesquisa que articulem ciência e estética, razão e emoção, fantasia e realidade.This article features reflections on investigative methodologies with children and their cultures from the point of view of Sociology of Childhood. This theoretical field considers children as social actors that build fight strategies by means of their peer cultures. The Brazilian academic production on children and their cultures does not have yet a tradition of studies on the voices of children themselves. This issue has led to the organization of this text in three sections. In the first section we think of the absence of children in Brazilian researches and the influences of an androcentric science emerging with modernity. In the second section we present the ethnography of childhoods as a possibility of contact and acceptance of adults by groups of children in order to understand their peer cultures. In the third section we raise some ideas

  14. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY ASPECTS OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS B ON THE BACKGROUND OF REFRACTORY ANEMIA OF INFLAMMATION IN CHILDREN OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Inoyatova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 children with chronic hepatitis B (ChHB with a refractory variant of anemia of inflammation (AV course were examined, the pathogenetic manifestation of which was the development of iron overload syndrome (IOS. It was revealed that against the background of an increase in the severity of the IOS, the incidence of progressive forms of the disease with persistent prevalence of asthenovegetative, hemorrhagic syndromes and severe hepatosplenomegaly increased. At the same time, the leading biochemical syndromes were the presence of cytolysis with prolonged hyperfermentemia, endotoxemia and mesenchymal inflammatory syndrome. A directly proportional dependence of the hepcidin-25 peptide level on the degree of expression of the IOS, the higher the presentation of the IOS, the higher the level of suppression of peptide expression in hepatocytes. Diagnostically significant tests of severe forms of IOS in ChHB in children are the presence of hemosiderin in the urine and an increase in the level of sIL-6R in the serum.  

  15. The impact of intelligence on memory and executive functions of children with temporal lobe epilepsy: Methodological concerns with clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzezak, Patricia; Guimarães, Catarina A; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Valente, Kette D

    2017-05-01

    Patients with TLE are prone to have lower IQ scores than healthy controls. Nevertheless, the impact of IQ differences is not usually considered in studies that compared the cognitive functioning of children with and without epilepsy. This study aimed to determine the effect of using IQ as a covariate on memory and attentional/executive functions of children with TLE. Thirty-eight children and adolescents with TLE and 28 healthy controls paired as to age, gender, and sociodemographic factors were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery for memory and executive functions. The authors conducted three analyses to verify the impact of IQ scores on the other cognitive domains. First, we compared performance on cognitive tests without controlling for IQ differences between groups. Second, we performed the same analyses, but we included IQ as a confounding factor. Finally, we evaluated the predictive value of IQ on cognitive functioning. Although patients had IQ score in the normal range, they showed lower IQ scores than controls (p = 0.001). When we did not consider IQ in the analyses, patients had worse performance in verbal and visual memory (short and long-term), semantic memory, sustained, divided and selective attention, mental flexibility and mental tracking for semantic information. By using IQ as a covariate, patients showed worse performance only in verbal memory (long-term), semantic memory, sustained and divided attention and in mental flexibility. IQ was a predictor factor of verbal and visual memory (immediate and delayed), working memory, mental flexibility and mental tracking for semantic information. Intelligence level had a significant impact on memory and executive functioning of children and adolescents with TLE without intellectual disability. This finding opens the discussion of whether IQ scores should be considered when interpreting the results of differences in cognitive performance of patients with epilepsy compared to healthy

  16. A methodological approach to speech therapy intervention disorders in children (as 6th year of the degree preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina García Benítez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues related to the results of a master's thesis in which the importance of educational game addressed during speech therapy intervention to meet the communication needs of children of preschool age. The alternative is in line with the activities proposed in degree programs, responding to the current demands of the integral for-mation of students and constituting a resource, to develop an efficient speech therapy intervention.

  17. Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2009-05-01

    Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth.

  18. Ethical aspects of diagnosis and interventions for children with fetal alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Bertilsson, Göran; Domeij, Helena; Fahlström, Gunilla; Heintz, Emelie; Hjern, Anders; Nehlin Gordh, Christina; Nordin, Viviann; Rangmar, Jenny; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Wahlsten, Viveka Sundelin; Hultcrantz, Monica

    2018-01-05

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD. Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists. Several advantages and disadvantages in regards of obtaining a diagnosis or description of the condition were identified. For instance, it provides an explanation and potential preparedness for not yet encountered difficulties, which may play an essential role in acquiring much needed help and support from health care, school, and the social services. There are no interventions specifically evaluated for FASD conditions, but training programs and family support for conditions with symptoms overlapping with FASD, e.g. ADHD, autism, and intellectual disability, are likely to be relevant. Stigmatization, blame, and guilt are potential downsides. There might also be unfortunate prioritization if individuals with equal needs are treated differently depending on whether or not they meet the criteria for a specific condition. The value for the concerned individuals of obtaining a FASD-related description of their condition - for instance, in terms of wellbeing - is not established. Nor is it established that allocating resources based on whether individuals fulfil FASD-related criteria is justified, compared to allocations directed to the most prominent specific needs.

  19. Aspectos metodologicos de la medición en el sitio de ocurrencia de lesiones por accidentes de tráfico Methodological aspects of measuring injuries from traffic accidents at the site of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Híjar-Medina

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes de trânsito de veículos a motor representam problema de saúde pública, em nível mundial. No México, a pesquisa, nesse campo, é limitada e a metodologia para seu estudo é pouco desenvolvida. Na literatura científica internacional são escassos os artigos que discutem os aspectos metodológicos de pesquisa nesse campo. Assim, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de apresentar alguns aspectos metodológicos úteis para os interessados em pesquisar lesões por acidentes de trânsito. Foram discutidos aspectos sobre como medir, no local de ocorrência, as variáveis básicas para o estudo dessas lesões, tais como: se o motorista sofreu ou não lesões, uso de cinto de segurança, velocidade e consumo de álcool.Los accidentes de tráfico de vehículos de motor, representan un problema de Salud Pública a nivel mundial. En México la investigación en este campo es limitada y la metodología para su estudio está poco desarrollada. Por otro lado, son relativamente escasos los artículos publicados en revistas científicas internacionales que abunden, en la discusión sobre aspectos metodológicos de la investigación. El objetivo del trabajo es el presentar algunas consideraciones metodológicas que pueden ser de utilidad para los investigadores interesados en el tema de las lesiones por accidentes de tráfico. Se discuten aspectos que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se miden en el sitio de ocurrencia algunas variables fundamentales para el estudio de las lesiones, como son: Si el conductor está o no lesionado, uso de cinturón de seguridad, velocidad y consumo de alcohol.Traffic accidents are a well-known public health problem worldwide. In Mexico research into risk factors for motor involving vehicles accidents and their consequences has recentlly been taken into account. The relevant literature does not normally describe the methodological aspects involved in the collection of primary data, since most studies have used secondary

  20. Universal, developmental, and variable aspects of young children's play: a cross-cultural comparison of pretending at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, W L; Wang, X L; Fung, H H; Williams, K; Mintz, J

    1999-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from five Irish American families in the United States and nine Chinese families in Taiwan, in conjunction with an emerging body of evidence in the cultural psychology literature, we propose universal, culturally variable, and developmental dimensions of young children's pretend play. Possible universal dimensions include the use of objects, and the predominantly social nature of pretend play. Developmental dimensions include increases in the proportion of social pretend play initiated by the child, the proportion of partner initiations elaborated upon by the child, and caregivers' use of pretend play initiations to serve other, nonplay social functions. Culturally variable dimensions include the centrality of objects, the participation of specific play partners, the extent of child initiations of social pretend play with caregivers, the various functions of social pretend play in interaction, and specific themes. These findings raise the theoretical issue of how universal and variable dimensions of pretend play interact in specific communities to create distinctive development pathways.

  1. Aspiração de corpo estranho em crianças: aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e tratamento broncoscópico Foreign body aspiration in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and bronchoscopic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Melo Alexandre Fraga

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever manifestações clínicas e tratamento broncoscópico da aspiração de corpo estranho em crianças menores de 14 anos de idade, correlacionando com achados broncoscópicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo analisando prontuários de todas as crianças menores de 14 anos de idade atendidas no Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2005, submetidas à broncoscopia por suspeita clínica de aspiração de corpo estranho. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 69 pacientes, com idade entre 8 meses e 12 anos/7 meses (75,4% abaixo de 3 anos, dos quais 62,3% eram do sexo masculino. A principal queixa foi tosse súbita (75,4%. Em 74% dos casos houve alteração de ausculta pulmonar e dispnéia foi observada em 20 crianças (29%. Um total de 88% apresentou alteração radiológica. A aspiração ocorreu predominantemente em pulmão direito (54,8%, com material de origem vegetal, destacando feijão e amendoim (30,7%. Complicações ocorreram em 29% dos pacientes, sendo pneumonia a mais comum, e foram associadas ao tempo maior de aspiração (p = 0,03. Um total de 7 pacientes (10,1% necessitaram ventilação mecânica, e 5 (7,2% foram submetidos a mais de uma broncoscopia. CONCLUSÃO: História clínica com início súbito de engasgo e tosse, anormalidades na ausculta pulmonar e na radiografia de tórax caracterizam o quadro clínico de aspiração e são indicativas de broncoscopia. Quanto maior o tempo de aspiração, maior o risco de complicações. A alta prevalência de corpos estranhos de origem vegetal alerta para a necessidade de programas preventivos dirigidos aos menores de 3 anos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations and bronchoscopic treatment of foreign body aspiration in children under 14 years of age, correlating the clinical aspects with the bronchoscopic findings. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study analyzing data related to children under 14

  2. Temporal and Other Exposure Aspects of Residential Magnetic Fields Measurement in Relation to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children: The National Cancer Institute Children's Cancer Group Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baris, D.; Linet, M.; Auvinen, A.; Kaune, W.T.; Wacholder, S.; Kleinerman, R.; Hatch, E.; Robison, L.; Niwa, S.; Haines, C.; Tarone, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Case-control studies have used a variety of measurements to evaluate the relationship of children's exposure to magnetic fields (50 or 60 Hz) with childhood leukaemia and other childhood cancers. In the absence of knowledge about which exposure metrics may be biologically meaningful, studies during the past 10 years have often used time-weighted average (TWA) summaries of home measurements. Recently, other exposure metrics have been suggested, usually based on theoretical considerations or limited laboratory data. In this paper, the rationale and associated preliminary studies undertaken are described as well as feasibility and validity issues governing the choice of the primary magnetic field exposure assessment methods and summary metric used to estimate children's exposure in the National Cancer Institute/Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) case-control study. Also provided are definitions and discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the various exposure metrics used in exploratory analyses of the NCI/CCG measurement data. Exposure metrics evaluated include measures of central tendency (mean, median, 30th to 70th percentiles), peak exposures (90th and higher percentiles, peak values of the 24 h measurements), and measurements of short-term temporal variability (rate of change). This report describes correlations of the various metrics with the time-weighted average for the 24 h period (TWA-24-h). Most of the metrics were found to be positively and highly correlated with TWA-24-h, but lower correlations of TWA-24-h with peak exposure and with rate of change were observed. To examine further the relation between TWA and alternative metrics, similar exploratory analysis should be considered for existing data sets and for forthcoming measurement investigations of residential magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. (author)

  3. METHODOLOGICAL WAY TO ENSURE SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AND CAREGIVERS IN THE PROCESS OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Grushina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For example, the CRD MUNICIPAL budget preschool educational institution – kinder-center “Baby” the results of realization of noospheric educational technologies adapted to the specifics of children’s age. The methodological possibilities of creative tasks, technology use computer environment, heuristic learning, music education, narrative learning. The analysis of the importance of ensuring the professional competence of teachers. The efficiency bioadequate methods of teaching in practical operation the OED. Through psycho-pedagogical monitoring of creative development of a preschool child a study of the effectiveness of the noosphere theory; generalized educational experience from the standpoint of using environmentally friendly means and methods in the system of training and education. 

  4. The EuroPrevall-INCO surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children from China, India and Russia: the study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G W K; Mahesh, P A; Ogorodova, L; Leung, T F; Fedorova, O; Holla, A D; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Clare Mills, E N; Kummeling, I; van Ree, R; Yazdanbakhsh, M; Burney, P

    2010-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the global variations in the prevalence of food allergies. The EuroPrevall-INCO project has been developed to evaluate the prevalence of food allergies in China, India and Russia using the standardized methodology of the EuroPrevall protocol used for studies in the European Union. The epidemiological surveys of the project were designed to estimate variations in the prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy and to compare the data with different European countries. Random samples of primary schoolchildren were recruited from urban and rural regions of China, Russia and India for screening to ascertain possible adverse reactions to foods. Cases and controls were then selected to answer a detailed questionnaire designed to evaluate the possible risk factors of food allergies. Objective evidence of sensitisation including skin-prick test and serum specific IgE measurement was also collected. More than 37 000 children from the three participating countries have been screened. The response rates for the screening phase ranged from 83% to 95%. More than 3000 cases and controls were studied in the second phase of the study. Further confirmation of food allergies by double blind food challenge was conducted. This will be the first comparative study of the epidemiology of food allergies in China, India, and Russia using the same standardized methodology. The findings of these surveys will complement the data obtained from Europe and provide insights into the development of food allergy.

  5. Metacognitive Aspects of Executive Function Are Highly Associated with Social Functioning on Parent-Rated Measures in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Tonje Torske

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is characterized by social dysfunction. Even though executive dysfunction has been recognized as important in understanding ASD, the findings are inconsistent. This might be due to different definitions of executive function (EF, which part of EF that has been studied, structured vs. unstructured tasks, inclusion of different moderators (age, IQ, sex and different diagnostic categories within the spectrum. The main finding is that people with ASD have more EF difficulties than normal controls and more difficulties on open-end tasks than on structured cognitive tasks. Since some EF difficulties may not be observable in a laboratory setting, informant measures might have higher ecological validity than neuropsychological tests. Evidence suggests that executive dysfunctions are associated with social impairments, but few studies have investigated the details of this relationship, and it remains unclear what types of EF deficits are relevant for the social problems of individuals with ASD. Here we investigated which EF domains were associated with various domains of social function on parent-rated measures. A total of 86 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ASD were included and tested for general cognitive abilities. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations between SRS scores and age, sex, total IQ and the BRIEF indexes. The Metacognition Index from the BRIEF added significantly to the prediction of the SRS total score and the subscales Social Communication, Social Motivation and Autistic Mannerisms. The findings suggest that metacognitive aspects of EF are of particular importance for social abilities in children and adolescents with ASD. Earlier research has shown that typically developing (TD children have a different relationship between EF and social function than

  6. Financial aspects of decommissioning (key aspects of decommissioning costing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danska, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the following aspects of NPPs decommissioning are discussed: Requirements and purpose of decommissioning costing; Decommissioning costing methodologies; Standardised decommissioning cost structure; Input data for cost estimate process; Waste management in cost estimate process; Grading aspects in cost estimating; Cost control in decommissioning projects; Summary of the cost estimation process; Conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Lente de contato em crianças: aspectos epidemiológicos Contact lens in children: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Alves Salame

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil epidemiológico de crianças encaminhadas para adaptação de lente de contato. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de pacientes registrados no Setor de lente de contato da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os pacientes com até 12 anos de idade foram avaliados quanto ao sexo, idade, diagnóstico, indicação e tipo de lente de contato testada na primeira consulta. RESULTADOS: Dos 73 prontuários avaliados, 34 (46,6% pertenciam a crianças do sexo masculino e 39 (53,4% a crianças do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 2 a 12 com média de 10,2 e desvio-padrão de 2,42 anos. O diagnóstico mais encontrado foi afacia em 16 (21,9% crianças, seguido de ceratocone em 14 (19,1%, leucoma em 11 (15%, anisometropia em 10 (13,7%, ametropia em 9 (12,3%, astigmatismo irregular em 7 (9,5% e ectopia lentis em 4 (5,4%. Uma criança era alta míope (1,3% e outra emétrope (1,3% que possuía desejo de usar lente de contato estética. Em relação às indicações, 52 (71,2% pacientes tinham indicação médica, 9 (12,3% indicação óptica e 12 (16,4% indicação cosmética. Foram testadas lentes em 103 olhos sendo as mais testadas a rígida gás permeável esférica em 43 (41,7%, a gelatinosa esférica em 41 (39,8% e a gelatinosa cosmética em 11 (10,6%. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil epidemiológico dos usuários de lente de contato nessa faixa etária tem como diagnóstico mais prevalente a afacia, a indicação mais freqüente a de ordem médica e a lente mais testada a rígida gás permeável esférica.PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of children submitted to contact lens fit. METHODS: Retrospective study of 73 children that had been submitted to contact lens fit at the "Universidade Federal de São Paulo". This study analyzed sex distribution, age, diagnosis, indications and contact lens fitted at first examination. RESULTS: 34 children (46.6% were male and 39 (53.4% female, aged between 2 and 12 years with mean of 10.2 and

  8. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (Pfood group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (Pfood options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest.

  9. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  10. Interword and intraword pause threshold in the writing of texts by children and adolescents : a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eChenu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section. This taken into account, the study of pause phenomena can be considered following two approaches. A first approach, driven by temporality, would define a threshold and observe where pauses, e.g. scriptural inactivity occurs. A second approach, linguistically driven, would define structural units and look for scriptural inactivity at the boundaries of these units or within these units. Taking a temporally driven approach, we present two methods which aim at the automatic identification of scriptural inactivity which is most likely not attributable to grapho-motor management in texts written by children and adolescents using digitizing tablets in association with Eye and Pen© (Chesnet & Alamargot, 2005. The first method is purely statistical and is based on the idea that the distribution of pauses exhibits different Gaussian components each of them corresponding to a different type of pause. After having reviewed the limits of this statistical method, we present a second method based on writing dynamics which attempts to identify breaking points in the writing dynamics rather than relying only on pause duration. This second method needs to be refined to overcome the fact that calculation is impossible when there is insufficient data which is often the case when working with young scriptors.

  11. Mode Equivalence of Health Indicators Between Data Collection Modes and Mixed-Mode Survey Designs in Population-Based Health Interview Surveys for Children and Adolescents: Methodological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Robert; Houben, Robin; Krause, Laura; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Background The implementation of an Internet option in an existing public health interview survey using a mixed-mode design is attractive because of lower costs and faster data availability. Additionally, mixed-mode surveys can increase response rates and improve sample composition. However, mixed-mode designs can increase the risk of measurement error (mode effects). Objective This study aimed to determine whether the prevalence rates or mean values of self- and parent-reported health indicators for children and adolescents aged 0-17 years differ between self-administered paper-based questionnaires (SAQ-paper) and self-administered Web-based questionnaires (SAQ-Web), as well as between a single-mode control group and different mixed-mode groups. Methods Data were collected for a methodological pilot of the third wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents". Questionnaires were completed by parents or adolescents. A population-based sample of 11,140 children and adolescents aged 0-17 years was randomly allocated to 4 survey designs—a single-mode control group with paper-and-pencil questionnaires only (n=970 parents, n=343 adolescents)—and 3 mixed-mode designs, all of which offered Web-based questionnaire options. In the concurrent mixed-mode design, both questionnaires were offered at the same time (n=946 parents, n=290 adolescents); in the sequential mixed-mode design, the SAQ-Web was sent first, followed by the paper questionnaire along with a reminder (n=854 parents, n=269 adolescents); and in the preselect mixed-mode design, both options were offered and the respondents were asked to request the desired type of questionnaire (n=698 parents, n=292 adolescents). In total, 3468 questionnaires of parents of children aged 0-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=708; SAQ-paper: n=2760) and 1194 questionnaires of adolescents aged 11-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=299; SAQ-paper: n=895) were analyzed. Sociodemographic characteristics and a broad

  12. [Epidemiological, clinical, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemia in children: the experience at the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumbia, Mariam; Uwingabiye, Jean; Bissan, Aboubacar; Rachid, Razine; Benkirane, Souad; Masrar, Azlarab

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemias (AL) in children diagnosed at IBN SINA University Hospital Center and to determine the concordance between cytology and immunophenotyping results. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center between June 2012 and May 2014. Among the 104 cases with diagnosed AL, 52% were boys with a sex-ratio H/F= 1.32, the average age was 5.7 years. The distribution of different types of AL was: lymphoid AL (LAL) (74%), myeloid (AML) (20.2%), biphenotypic AL (BAL) (65.8%). Among the LALs, 78% were classified as B LAL and 22% as T LAL. Clinical signs were mainly presented with tumor syndrome (73.1%), fever (61%) and hemorrhagic syndrome (50%). The most common blood count abnormalities were: thrombopenia (89.4%), anemia (86.5%), hyperleukocytosis (79.8%). The rate of peripheral and bone marrow blasts was statistically higher for LAL than for AML and BAL (p <0.001). The rate of relapse and mortality was 21.2% and 16. 3% respectively. Concordance rate between the results of cytology and of immunophenotyping was 92.7% for LAL and 82.6% for AML. Diagnosis of AL is always based primarily on cytology. Immunophenotyping allowed us to make a better distinction between acute leukemias. The management of paediatric AL is a major health problem which requires specialized care centers.

  13. Microphysics evolution and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisio, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A few general features of microscopics evolution and their relationship with microscopics methodology are briefly surveyed. Several pluri-disciplinary and interdisciplinary aspects of microscopics research are also discussed in the present scientific context. The need for an equilibrium between individual tendencies and collective constraints required by team work, already formulated thirty years ago by Frederic Joliot, is particularly stressed in the present conjuncture of Nuclear Research favouring very large team projects and discouraging individual initiatives. The increasing importance of the science of science (due to their multiple social, economical, ecological aspects) and the stronger competition between national and international tendencies of scientific (and technical) cooperation are also discussed. (author)

  14. Avaliação do impacto do Programa Nacional do Leite em Alagoas, através de métodos isotópicos: aspectos metodológicos e resultados preliminares Isotope methods for evaluating the impact of the National Nutritional Program in Alagoas: methodological aspects and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Petrucci Gigante

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever aspectos metodológicos e resultados preliminares de um estudo de intervenção planejado para medir o impacto de um programa de suplementação alimentar sobre a promoção do crescimento infantil de crianças desnutridas. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal, controlado, desenvolvido no estado de Alagoas, com grupos comparados antes e depois da intervenção. Vinte municípios foram selecionados através de um indicador de cobertura do programa de suplementação alimentar. Essa cobertura foi estimada pela diferença entre a proporção de crianças desnutridas e a proporção de crianças atendidas pelo programa. Os dez municípios com indicador de alta cobertura foram selecionados para o grupo intervenção e aqueles de menor cobertura para o grupo controle. Em cada município do grupo intervenção foram selecionadas 15 crianças ingressando no Programa. Em cada município do grupo controle foram incluídas 15 crianças elegíveis, mas que não conseguiram vaga no Programa. RESULTADOS: Foram aplicados 111 e 102 questionários em crianças dos municípios do grupo intervenção e controle, respectivamente. A comparação em relação às características de base mostra que a distribuição das variáveis demográficas e nutricionais foi semelhante entre as crianças dos grupos intervenção e controle. Por outro lado, as crianças do grupo intervenção são provenientes de famílias com menor renda familiar e seus pais apresentaram menor escolaridade quando comparadas às do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados preliminares mostram que os grupos são comparáveis em relação às variáveis demográficas e nutricionais e que as diferenças observadas quanto ao nível socioeconômico deverão ser consideradas na análise ajustada, na segunda fase do estudo.OBJECTIVE: To describe methodological aspects and preliminary results of an intervention designed to measure the impact on child growth of nutritional programs

  15. State of the evidence on acute asthma management in children: a critical appraisal of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Offringa, Martin

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate clinical, methodologic, and reporting aspects of systematic reviews on the management of acute asthma in children. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of systematic reviews on acute asthma management in children. We identified eligible reviews by searching

  16. Organisational aspects of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  17. A pesquisa de intervenção na psicologia da educação matemática: aspectos conceituais e metodológicos Intervention research in the psychology of mathematics education: conceptual and methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fávero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focamos um dos grandes desafios atuais da psicologia: a pesquisa de intervenção tomada como geradora de transformação e que, ao mesmo tempo, evidencia o processo a ela subjacente. Expomos nossa linha teórico-metodológica de investigação e relatamos uma pesquisa de intervenção no contexto da psicologia da educação matemática. Consideramos quatro aspectos teórico-conceituais articulados: 1. a evidência das interações entre as regulações cognitivas e as sociais; 2. o papel da mediação semiótica no desenvolvimento psicológico humano; 3. os efeitos dos sistemas de signos no desenvolvimento psicológico e nas comunicações individuais; 4. a tomada de consciência de que as ações humanas não são aleatórias: trata-se de práticas sociais com um conteúdo que lhes dão fundamento. Tais aspectos fundamentam a Psicologia do conhecimento e o método adotado, com um duplo desafio: desenvolver um procedimento visando à tomada de consciência de uma professora licenciada em matemática sobre o paradigma que sustentava sua prática e o reformulasse assumindo um trabalho sistematizado de articulação entre intervenção psicopedagógica e pesquisa, que possibilitasse: 1. o estudo das aquisições conceituais dos alunos; e 2. a análise dos processos mediacionais das interações interpessoais, considerando a natureza do material utilizado e das atividades propostas. Os resultados evidenciaram a pertinência do procedimento: as atividades propostas e a qualidade da atividade mediada engendraram a aquisição de novas competências conceituais nos alunos e o desenvolvimento de novas competências para a professora como mediadora do conhecimento.We focus on one of the great current challenges in psychology: interventional research aimed at generating transformation while demonstrating its underlying process. We detail our theoretical and methodological approach and describe an interventional study in the psychology of mathematics

  18. Mode Equivalence of Health Indicators Between Data Collection Modes and Mixed-Mode Survey Designs in Population-Based Health Interview Surveys for Children and Adolescents: Methodological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Elvira; Hoffmann, Robert; Houben, Robin; Krause, Laura; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje

    2018-03-05

    The implementation of an Internet option in an existing public health interview survey using a mixed-mode design is attractive because of lower costs and faster data availability. Additionally, mixed-mode surveys can increase response rates and improve sample composition. However, mixed-mode designs can increase the risk of measurement error (mode effects). This study aimed to determine whether the prevalence rates or mean values of self- and parent-reported health indicators for children and adolescents aged 0-17 years differ between self-administered paper-based questionnaires (SAQ-paper) and self-administered Web-based questionnaires (SAQ-Web), as well as between a single-mode control group and different mixed-mode groups. Data were collected for a methodological pilot of the third wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents". Questionnaires were completed by parents or adolescents. A population-based sample of 11,140 children and adolescents aged 0-17 years was randomly allocated to 4 survey designs-a single-mode control group with paper-and-pencil questionnaires only (n=970 parents, n=343 adolescents)-and 3 mixed-mode designs, all of which offered Web-based questionnaire options. In the concurrent mixed-mode design, both questionnaires were offered at the same time (n=946 parents, n=290 adolescents); in the sequential mixed-mode design, the SAQ-Web was sent first, followed by the paper questionnaire along with a reminder (n=854 parents, n=269 adolescents); and in the preselect mixed-mode design, both options were offered and the respondents were asked to request the desired type of questionnaire (n=698 parents, n=292 adolescents). In total, 3468 questionnaires of parents of children aged 0-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=708; SAQ-paper: n=2760) and 1194 questionnaires of adolescents aged 11-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=299; SAQ-paper: n=895) were analyzed. Sociodemographic characteristics and a broad range of health indicators for

  19. Dosimetric methodology of the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1994-01-01

    Establishment of guidance for the protection of workers and members of the public from radiation exposures necessitates estimation of the radiation dose to tissues of the body at risk. The dosimetric methodology formulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to be responsive to this need. While developed for radiation protection, elements of the methodology are often applied in addressing other radiation issues; e.g., risk assessment. This chapter provides an overview of the methodology, discusses its recent extension to age-dependent considerations, and illustrates specific aspects of the methodology through a number of numerical examples

  20. Exotic aspects of black holes: an astronaut near the horizon (on the methodological note by A A Grib and Yu V Pavlov 'Is it possible to see the infinite future of the Universe when falling into a black hole?')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2009-01-01

    We comment on the methodological note by A A Grib and Yu V Pavlov [Phys. Usp. 52 257 (2009)] to show that its authors are incorrect in understanding a passage that they quote from A M Cherepashchuk's book Black Holes in the Universe (Fryazino: Vek-2, 2005, p.7) and which supposes an astronaut to be at rest in the vicinity of the horizon (not to fall freely into a black hole!). With this error corrected, Grib and Pavlov's note is quite useful methodologically. (letters to the editors)

  1. Organization aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Mehandjiev, N.; Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the BOAT framework discussed in Chapter 1, this chapter describes the organization aspect of the CrossWork approach. It shows how the business requirements identified in the previous chapter can be fulfilled by dynamic organization structures and business processes in Networks of

  2. FORMING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF THE PROSPECTIVE HEADS OF CHILDREN'S DANCE GROUPS DURING THE CHOREOGRAPHIC ACTIVITIES IN THE COURSE "FOLK DANCE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the urgent problem of contemporary art pedagogy – involvement to training future professional choreographic traditions of different nations. Addressing to this problem is caused by a number of socio-political events in Ukraine, mainstreaming of national and international education, integration of Ukrainian education with the European educational space, intensive development of domestic students’ intercultural communication with young people from different countries, which is the basis for updating national art education. Prospective choreographers, who are being training at pedagogical universities to manage children's dance groups, should actively be involved into creating their own productions of folk dance various genres. It promotes the formation of choreographers’ professional competence and pedagogical skills. The development of Georgian "Lezginka" is proposed – a joint creative work of the teacher and students who get higher education degree in SHEE “Donbass State Pedagogical University” (Bachelor's Degree. Development of the dance contains schematic drawings of dance figures, it is recommended for use in forming choreographers’ professional skills while studying the course "Folk Dance Theory and Methodology". The author admits that folklore material requires a cautious, respectful attitude. Therefore, modern folk stage dances are integrally to combine traditional choreographic manner with its new interpretations. The author believes the actual capture of different nations’ choreographic culture improves intercultural youth communication; involves future professionals into the traditions of different nations; form professional skills of managers of children’s dance groups. The author concluded that a dance always reflects consciousness of different nations; future choreographers should be aware of characteristic features of dances of different world nations so that on the basis of traditional

  3. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  4. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  5. Fatores de risco, aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais da asma em crianças Risk factors, clinical and laboratory aspects of asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líllian S.L. Moraes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais, e os fatores de risco associados à asma em crianças atendidas no Ambulatório de Pediatria, do Hospital Universitário Júlio Müller. Método: estudo de caso-controle, incluindo 59 crianças asmáticas (casos e 104 não-asmáticas (controles. Os seguintes fatores foram considerados para análise de risco: escolaridade dos pais, exposição aos alérgenos domiciliares, tabagismo passivo, aleitamento materno, renda e antecedentes familiares alérgicos. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue para hemograma e dosagem de IgE total e específica para alérgenos. Realizou-se teste cutâneo de hipersensibilidade imediata pelo método de puntura para os seguintes alérgenos: ácaros, animais, fungos e baratas com controles positivo (histamina e negativo (solução fisiológica.Um modelo de regressão logística foi usado para calcular odds ratio (OR e intervalo de confiança (IC 95% ajustado para outros fatores de risco e confundidores. RESULTADOS: dentre os fatores de risco estudados, sexo, baixa escolaridade, baixa renda, tempo de aleitamento materno e tabagismo passivo não estiveram associados à ocorrência de asma. A exposição aos alérgenos foi semelhante nos dois grupos, a não ser pela maior freqüência de animais nos domicílios dos controles (c²=16,9; P OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the clinical and laboratory aspects and the risk factors associated with asthma in children treated at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of Hospital Universitário Júlio Müller. METHODS: A case-control study including 59 asthmatic children (cases and 104 nonasthmatic children (controls. The following factors were considered for risk analysis: parents' level of education, domestic exposure to allergens, passive smoking, breast feeding, low income, and family history of allergy. Samples of blood were collected for hemogram and to determine the total serum IgE as well as the one specific to allergens. Immediate

  6. Methodological and Clinical Issues in Studies of the Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Children and Adolescents on Abbreviated Forms of the WISC-R: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimet, Sara G.; Adler, Shoshana Shapiro

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research from 1974 to 1988 that suggests there is promise in valid and reliable use of a short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children as a means of obtaining clinically relevant information and as an emergency screening device with children with serious emotional disorders. Discusses situations in which children should…

  7. Theory of Mind (ToM) in Children with Autism or Typical Development: Links between Eye-Reading and False Belief Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Previous research shows that high-functioning children with autism are slow to pass "litmus" false belief tests of ToM but how this may relate to other aspects of mindreading (e.g., discerning thoughts from facial expressions) is less clear, partly for methodological reasons. Thus the joint methodological and conceptual goals of this…

  8. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in very young and pre-school children in the context of selected sociodemographic indicators in the Czech Republic and in some others countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Včelařová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this study present the results of surveys in significant areas of social peda-gogy relating to both the prevention of overweight and obesity in children, and healthy lifestyle edu-cation. The psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in early age and preschool children are monitored in the context of selected socio-demographic indicators in the Czech Republic, Great Brit-ain, the USA, Australia, some European countries, Iran and China. The purpose of such oriented stud-ies is to find appropriate preventive, pedagogical or therapeutic interventions that could contribute to the elimination of risk factors in the particular societies. It turns out that the sociodemographic and psychosocial aspects of overweight and obesity in chil-dren (in terms of particular countries cannot be always uniformly described and defined. Numerous psychosocial or sociodemographic characteristics were found when comparing different ethnic groups, the different age cohorts of parents or the different developmental stages of children, when comparing countries with various standards of living, or even just, when comparing different socio-economic strata within the same country. It also appears that the relationships identified by the be-low-mentioned researches don´t have a straight forward effect, but are also modified by the influ-ence of other variables. A common feature overweight and obesity in children in the majority of countries seems to be associated with significant social inequalities within a specific country. Accord-ing to some authors, one of the possible ways to fight overweight and obesity in children is to reduce the inequalities of the macroeconomic society

  9. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  10. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  11. Tumeurs mandibulaires : Aspects epidemiologiques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Study the anatomopathological and epidemiological aspects of the tumors of the mandible in order to compare the literature data. Methodology: It is an analytic, descriptive and retrospective study conducted over a period of 10 years at the ENT and the Anatomo-pathology Departments of CHU in Lomé. Results: ...

  12. The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Mark

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear

  13. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....... Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...

  14. MIRD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained

  15. PSA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300{sup 1} and EPS 900{sup 2} PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs.

  16. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  17. A cross-sectional survey of 5-year-old children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: the Cleft Care UK study. Part 1: background and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M; Sandy, J R; Waylen, A; Wills, A K; Al-Ghatam, R; Ireland, A J; Hall, A J; Hollingworth, W; Jones, T; Peters, T J; Preston, R; Sell, D; Smallridge, J; Worthington, H; Ness, A R

    2015-11-01

    We describe the methodology for a major study investigating the impact of reconfigured cleft care in the United Kingdom (UK) 15 years after an initial survey, detailed in the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report in 1998, had informed government recommendations on centralization. This is a UK multicentre cross-sectional study of 5-year-olds born with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. Children born between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 were seen in cleft centre audit clinics. Consent was obtained for the collection of routine clinical measures (speech recordings, hearing, photographs, models, oral health, psychosocial factors) and anthropometric measures (height, weight, head circumference). The methodology for each clinical measure followed those of the earlier survey as closely as possible. We identified 359 eligible children and recruited 268 (74.7%) to the study. Eleven separate records for each child were collected at the audit clinics. In total, 2666 (90.4%) were collected from a potential 2948 records. The response rates for the self-reported questionnaires, completed at home, were 52.6% for the Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire and 52.2% for the Satisfaction with Service Questionnaire. Response rates and measures were similar to those achieved in the previous survey. There are practical, administrative and methodological challenges in repeating cross-sectional surveys 15 years apart and producing comparable data. © 2015 The Authors. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A cross-sectional survey of 5-year-old children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: the Cleft Care UK study. Part 1: background and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M; Sandy, J R; Waylen, A; Wills, A K; Al-Ghatam, R; Ireland, A J; Hall, A J; Hollingworth, W; Jones, T; Peters, T J; Preston, R; Sell, D; Smallridge, J; Worthington, H; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives We describe the methodology for a major study investigating the impact of reconfigured cleft care in the United Kingdom (UK) 15 years after an initial survey, detailed in the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report in 1998, had informed government recommendations on centralization. Setting and Sample Population This is a UK multicentre cross-sectional study of 5-year-olds born with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. Children born between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 were seen in cleft centre audit clinics. Materials and Methods Consent was obtained for the collection of routine clinical measures (speech recordings, hearing, photographs, models, oral health, psychosocial factors) and anthropometric measures (height, weight, head circumference). The methodology for each clinical measure followed those of the earlier survey as closely as possible. Results We identified 359 eligible children and recruited 268 (74.7%) to the study. Eleven separate records for each child were collected at the audit clinics. In total, 2666 (90.4%) were collected from a potential 2948 records. The response rates for the self-reported questionnaires, completed at home, were 52.6% for the Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire and 52.2% for the Satisfaction with Service Questionnaire. Conclusions Response rates and measures were similar to those achieved in the previous survey. There are practical, administrative and methodological challenges in repeating cross-sectional surveys 15 years apart and producing comparable data. PMID:26567851

  19. Zooplankton Methodology, Collection & identyification - A field manual

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    and productivity would largely depend upon the use of correct methodology which involves collection of samples, fixation, preservation, analysis and computation of data. The detailed procedures on all these aspects are given in this manual....

  20. Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for Healthy Children: Methodology and Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Paruthi, Shalini; Brooks, Lee J.; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn; Hall, Wendy A.; Kotagal, Suresh; Lloyd, Robin M.; Malow, Beth A.; Maski, Kiran; Nichols, Cynthia; Quan, Stuart F.; Rosen, Carol L.; Troester, Matthew M.; Wise, Merrill S.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine developed consensus recommendations for the amount of sleep needed to promote optimal health in children and adolescents using a modified RAND Appropriateness Method. After review of 864 published articles, the following sleep durations are recommended: Infants 4 months to 12 months should sleep 12 to 16 hours per 24 hours (including naps) on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Children 1 to 2 years of age should sleep 11 to 14 hours pe...

  1. Testing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  2. Testing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical ''signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs

  3. Tourism Methodologies - New Perspectives, Practices and Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in differen...... codings and analysis, and tapping into the global network of social media.......This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  4. Pecan cultivation: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Fronza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Given the increasing investment in the pecan production in southern Brazil, it becomes necessary researches, assisting in solve problems and proposition of technical and methodology to enhance this production chain. Thus, the present review aimed to survey the existing information about the culture, both on the world and the Brazilian scene. Issues related to botany, climate and soil requirements, alignment and planting density, cultivars, pests and diseases, among other technical aspects of this culture will be addressed. Pecan nut presents nutraceutical properties that are beneficial to human health, which has increased its demand from consumers. However, there are few research results with pecan nut in Brazil and there are many gaps in scientific knowledge about this culture, especially as regards the management of pests and diseases control, irrigation and nutrition, in Brazilian conditions.

  5. Compreensão de texto em crianças: comparações entre diferentes classes de inferência a partir de uma metodologia on-line Text comprehension in children: comparing different classes of inferences by using on-line methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Galvão Spinillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma metodologia on-line, examinou-se a compreensão de textos em crianças de 7 e 9 anos em relação a diferentes tipos de inferências estabelecidas durante a leitura de uma história: inferências causais, de estado e de previsão. A metodologia on-line consiste na leitura interrompida do texto, sendo feitas perguntas inferenciais sobre cada passagem lida e sobre o que o leitor acha que virá a seguir (previsão. Verificou-se que as inferências de previsão envolvem informações extratextuais e requerem a formulação de hipóteses sobre a continuidade da narrativa; gerando, nas crianças, certa dificuldade em prever eventos que estão por acontecer. Conclui-se que a capacidade de estabelecer inferências durante a leitura de um texto varia em função da natureza da informação inferencial solicitada, e que esta capacidade se desenvolve com a idade. Dicute-se o caráter inovador da metodologia on-line de investigação e sua relevância para a pesquisa na área.This study, by means of using an on-line methodology, examined 7 and 9-year-old children's text comprehension in relation to different types of inferences constructed during a story reading task: causal inferences, state inferences and inferences of prediction (what happens next in the story. The on-line methodology consists of making inferential questions to the child during text comprehension immediately after the subject has read a passage. Due to the fact that inferences of prediction involve extratextual information and require to raise hypothesis about the continuity of the narrative, children had difficulties in predicting events that had not occurred yet in the story. It was concluded that the ability to make inferences during text comprehension varies according to the type of inferential question presented and that this ability develops with age. The inovative aspect of the on-line methodology and its relevance to the research on text comprehension are

  6. A new Methodology for Operations Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for developing and implementing Operations Strategy (OS). It encompasses both content and process aspects of OS and differs thereby from many of the present OS methodologies. The paper outlines its paradigmatic foundation and presents aim, process, dimensions...

  7. The EuroPrevall-INCO surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children from China, India and Russia: the study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, G. W. K.; Mahesh, P. A.; Ogorodova, L.; Leung, T. F.; Fedorova, O.; Holla, A. D.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Kummeling, I.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Burney, P.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background: Very little is known regarding the global variations in the prevalence of food allergies. The EuroPrevall-INCO project has been developed to evaluate the prevalence of food allergies in China, India and Russia using the standardized methodology of the EuroPrevall protocol used for

  8. Promoting health equity in European children: Design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantziki, K.; Vassilopoulos, A.; Radulian, G.; Borys, J.M.; Du Plessis, A.J.; Gregorio, M.J.; Graca, G.; de Henauw, S.; Handjiev, S.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Seidell, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity.

  9. Current trends in Bayesian methodology with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Satyanshu K; Dey, Dipak K; Loganathan, Appaia

    2015-01-01

    Collecting Bayesian material scattered throughout the literature, Current Trends in Bayesian Methodology with Applications examines the latest methodological and applied aspects of Bayesian statistics. The book covers biostatistics, econometrics, reliability and risk analysis, spatial statistics, image analysis, shape analysis, Bayesian computation, clustering, uncertainty assessment, high-energy astrophysics, neural networking, fuzzy information, objective Bayesian methodologies, empirical Bayes methods, small area estimation, and many more topics.Each chapter is self-contained and focuses on

  10. Information processing and aspects of visual attention in children with the DSM-III-R diagnosis ''pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified'' (PDDNOS) .1. Focused and divided attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M; deSonneville, LMJ; Minderaa, RB; Hensen, LGN; Til, RB

    A sample of 8-to 12-year-old nonhyperactive children of normal intelligence with the DSM-III-R diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) completed two selective attention tasks. Following a linear stage model of information processing, it was demonstrated that

  11. Aspectos motores corporais e orais em um grupo de crianças com transtorno/atraso fonológico Body and oral motor aspects in a group of children with phonological delay/disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ramos de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desenvolvimento motor e aspectos orofaciais em crianças com transtorno e atraso fonológico. MÉTODOS: Participaram da pesquisa 80 crianças de cinco a 11 anos de idade pertencentes à rede escolar regular de um município da Grande Porto Alegre com alterações fonológicas. Foi realizada uma entrevista com os pais através de um questionário semi-estruturado. Em seguida, foram avaliados o sistema estomatognático e a fala das crianças, e o diagnóstico de transtorno ou atraso fonológico foi confirmado para cada sujeito. Para a análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Fisher e o Qui-quadrado com nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: To compare the motor development and orofacial aspects in children with phonological disorder and delay. METHODS: The participants were 80 children with phonological deficits and ages ranging from five to 11 years, who belonged to the regular school system of a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. An interview with their parents was conducted, using a semi-structured questionnaire. After that, it was carried out the assessment of the subjects' stomatognathic system and speech, and the diagnosis of phonological delay or disorder was confirmed. The Chi-square test and the Fisher test were used for statistical analysis, with significance level of 5% (p<0,05. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the group with phonological delay and the group with phonological disorder in all aspects examined. CONCLUSION: Phonological delay and disorder do not show significant distinction regarding motor, oral and infectious aspects, together with deleterious oral habits, as shown by the homogeneity between the groups.

  12. Importance of methodology on (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphic image quality: imaging pilot study for RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux) multicenter investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziessman, Harvey A; Majd, Massoud

    2009-07-01

    We reviewed our experience with (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy obtained during an imaging pilot study for a multicenter investigation (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux) of the effectiveness of daily antimicrobial prophylaxis for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection and renal scarring. We analyzed imaging methodology and its relation to diagnostic image quality. (99m)Technetium dimercapto-succinic acid imaging guidelines were provided to participating sites. High-resolution planar imaging with parallel hole or pinhole collimation was required. Two core reviewers evaluated all submitted images. Analysis included appropriate views, presence or lack of patient motion, adequate magnification, sufficient counts and diagnostic image quality. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated. We evaluated 70, (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid studies from 14 institutions. Variability was noted in methodology and image quality. Correlation (r value) between dose administered and patient age was 0.780. For parallel hole collimator imaging good correlation was noted between activity administered and counts (r = 0.800). For pinhole imaging the correlation was poor (r = 0.110). A total of 10 studies (17%) were rejected for quality issues of motion, kidney overlap, inadequate magnification, inadequate counts and poor quality images. The submitting institution was informed and provided with recommendations for improving quality, and resubmission of another study was required. Only 4 studies (6%) were judged differently by the 2 reviewers, and the differences were minor. Methodology and image quality for (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy varied more than expected between institutions. The most common reason for poor image quality was inadequate count acquisition with insufficient attention to the tradeoff between administered dose, length of image acquisition, start time of imaging and resulting image

  13. Acoustic emission methodology and application

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarchuk, Zinoviy; Serhiyenko, Oleh

    2017-01-01

    This monograph analyses in detail the physical aspects of the elastic waves radiation during deformation or fracture of materials. I presents the  methodological bases for the practical use of acoustic emission device, and describes the results of theoretical and experimental researches of evaluation of the crack growth resistance of materials, selection of the useful AE signals. The efficiency of this methodology is shown through the diagnostics of various-purpose industrial objects. The authors obtain results of experimental researches with the help of the new methods and facilities.

  14. [Anxiety in the parents of children treated in pediatric emergency services in Andalusia and its association with aspects of family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the level of anxiety in the parents of children treated in hospital emergency departments in Andalusia and its association with dimensions of family functioning. Descriptive observational study based on a cross-sectional survey. We recruited a convenience sample of parents bringing children to 6 pediatric emergency services in the Spanish autonomous community of Andalusia in 2012. The variables recorded were place of origin, educational level, anxiety level on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and family functioning according to the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, version 2. A total of 637 parents were included. Their mean (SD) age was 35.4 (8.4) years; 399 (62.6%) were women. The mean anxiety score was 44.26 (10.15), and we found no differences between mothers and fathers. Lower anxiety levels were associated with higher levels of family cohesion (r = -0.37; P < .001) and adaptability (r = -0.36; P < .001). The parents of children attended in pediatric emergency departments in Andalusia have high levels of anxiety. Anxiety is inversely associated with family adaptability and cohesion.

  15. [Chagas disease Control Program in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: serological and entomological aspects of primary school-children surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Esther de; Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Barata, José Maria Soares

    2011-01-01

    Two serological surveys were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of measures put into effect in the State of São Paulo (Brazil) to control Chagas disease vectors. The first one, during the period from 1968 to 1970; the complement fixation reaction was performed on serum samples from school-children resident in all municipalities of the State of São Paulo, with the exception of the Greater São Paulo. The second one, annually, from 1973 to 1983, involving school-children resident in municipalities with high trypanosomiasis prevalence values; the indirect immuno-fluorescence test was performed on filter paper total blood eluates. Data on the occurrence of triatomines and their infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in each municipality formed the basis of insight into the epidemiological situation associated with the school-children's dates of birth. Most positive serological results, as well as the highest proportion of autochthonous cases associated with Triatoma infestans were observed in the region of Sorocaba until the early 1970s, while the proportions of both autochthonous and imported cases were kept in equilibrium elsewhere. It has been inferred that as recently as 1974, vectorial transmission of Chagas disease could still be observed in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that, even rather lacking in coverage, no seropositive cases have been observed in people inhabiting the regions included in the Control Program for the State of São Paulo and now aged less than 15 years.

  16. The French national survey on food consumption of children under 3 years of age - Nutri-Bébé 2013: design, methodology, population sampling and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, Jean-Pierre; Tavoularis, Gabriel; Emery, Yves; Francou, Aurée; Hébel, Pascale; Bocquet, Magali; Hankard, Régis; Turck, Dominique

    2018-02-01

    To update the data on food consumption and practices in children under 3 years of age in metropolitan France. The Nutri-Bébé 2013 cross-sectional study selected a random sample, according to the quota sampling method. After giving their informed consent, parents had to record the food consumption during three non-consecutive days framed by two face-to-face interviews, using for quantitative information different portion size measurement aids. One thousand one hundred and eighty-four children were enrolled. Mothers' mean age was 30·8 (sd 5·4) years; 38 % were primiparous; 89 % lived with a partner; 60 % had an occupation. Of the infants younger than 4 months, 31 % were breast-fed. One thousand and thirty-five children consumed infant formula followed by growing-up milk in 63 % of them; solid foods were introduced at a mean age of 5·4 (sd 2·13) months. From 8 months onwards, 25 % of children consumed the same foods as their parents on a more or less regular basis; 29 % ate in front of a screen, with a daily average screen time of 43·0 (sd 40·4) min. This robust survey highlights the low prevalence and duration of breast-feeding in France and shows a modest improvement since the previous survey of 2005 in the observance of recommendations concerning other feeding practices. The frequent consumption of adult foods and the screen time are of concern.

  17. Guidelines on acute gastroenteritis in children : a critical appraisal of their quality and applicability in primary care Epidemiology and research methodology in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jose; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reasons for poor guideline adherence in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children in high-income countries are unclear, but may be due to inconsistency between guideline recommendations, lack of evidence, and lack of generalizability of the recommendations to general practice. The aim of

  18. Leukemia and brain tumors among children after radiation exposure from CT scans: design and methodological opportunities of the Dutch Pediatric CT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, Johanna M.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Jahnen, Andreas; Lee, Choonsik; Kieft, Mariëtte; Laméris, Johan S.; van Herk, Marcel; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N.; van Straten, Marcel; Visser, Otto; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hauptmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans are indispensable in modern medicine; however, the spectacular rise in global use coupled with relatively high doses of ionizing radiation per examination have raised radiation protection concerns. Children are of particular concern because they are more sensitive to

  19. Leukemia and brain tumors among children after radiation exposure from CT scans : design and methodological opportunities of the Dutch Pediatric CT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, Johanna M.; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; Nievelstein, Rutger A. J.; Jahnen, Andreas; Lee, Choonsik; Kieft, Mariette; Lameris, Johan S.; van Herk, Marcel; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Jeukens, Cecile R. L. P. N.; van Straten, Marcel; Visser, Otto; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hauptmann, Michael

    Computed tomography (CT) scans are indispensable in modern medicine; however, the spectacular rise in global use coupled with relatively high doses of ionizing radiation per examination have raised radiation protection concerns. Children are of particular concern because they are more sensitive to

  20. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  1. 76 FR 40379 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... Collection Title: Study Logistics Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... national longitudinal study of environmental influences (including physical, chemical, biological, and...

  2. Intelligent systems engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Scott

    1990-01-01

    An added challenge for the designers of large scale systems such as Space Station Freedom is the appropriate incorporation of intelligent system technology (artificial intelligence, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, etc.) into their requirements and design. This presentation will describe a view of systems engineering which successfully addresses several aspects of this complex problem: design of large scale systems, design with requirements that are so complex they only completely unfold during the development of a baseline system and even then continue to evolve throughout the system's life cycle, design that involves the incorporation of new technologies, and design and development that takes place with many players in a distributed manner yet can be easily integrated to meet a single view of the requirements. The first generation of this methodology was developed and evolved jointly by ISX and the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the past five years on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/Air Force Pilot's Associate Program, one of the largest, most complex, and most successful intelligent systems constructed to date. As the methodology has evolved it has also been applied successfully to a number of other projects. Some of the lessons learned from this experience may be applicable to Freedom.

  3. Artificial Intelligence Techniques and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell, Jaime G.; Sleeman, Derek

    1982-01-01

    Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. It is imperative to analyze the repertoire of AI methods with respect to past experience, utility in new domains,...

  4. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  5. Proposición de un programa de garantía de calidad de la radioterapia en los niños: aspectos médicos PROPOSITION OF A QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM OF RADIOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN: MEDICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La radioterapia constituye una de las armas terapéuticas básicas en la atención de los tumores malignos de los niños. Para poder garantizar los objetivos del tratamiento radiante es preciso aplicar un Programa de Garantía de Calidad, que comprenda los aspectos médicos y físicos, estrechamente imbricados. En este trabajo nos referiremos a una proposición de Programa de Garantía de Calidad de la Radioterapia en los niños en sus aspectos médicos. El programa de sería aplicado a todo niño sometido a tratamiento radiante, y constituiría un sub-programa dentro del Programa de Garantía de Calidad Nacional. Entre los aspectos médicos incluye: a los programas o políticas de tratamiento; b los elementos técnicos y físicos, como controles en equipos de simulación, irradiación, etc., y la correcta aplicación diaria del tratamiento indicado y planificado y c revisiones periódicas de los programas de tratamiento, seguimiento de los casos y resultados obtenidos. Cada acápite comprende: 1 aspectos a auditar, y 2 cómo auditar. De todo lo anterior se infiere la necesidad de tener y aplicar un Programa de Garantía de Calidad del tratamiento radiante, que garantiza un tratamiento de calidad óptima.Radiotherapy is one of the basic therapeutic tools in the attention of malignant tumors in children. To guarantee the objectives of the radiant treatment it is necessary to apply a Quality Assurance Program comprising the medical and physical aspects closely related. In this paper, we refer to a proposition of the Quality Assurance Program of Radiotherapy in children in its medical aspects. The program will be applied to every child undergoing radiant treatment and it will be a subprogram within the National Quality Assurance Program. Among the medical aspects, we find: a the treatment programs or policies; b the technical and physical elements, such as controls in simulation equipment, irradiation, etc., and the correct daily application of the

  6. Understanding the role of nutrition in the brain and behavioral development of toddlers and preschool children: identifying and addressing methodological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Francisco J; Reznick, J Steven; Zeisel, Steven H

    2009-10-01

    The preschool years (i.e. 1-5 years of age) is a time of rapid and dramatic postnatal brain development (i.e. neural plasticity), and of fundamental acquisition of cognitive development (i.e. working memory, attention and inhibitory control). Also, it is a time of transition from a direct maternal mediation/selection of diet-based nutrition to food selection that is more based on self-selection and self-gratification. However, there have been fewer published studies in preschool children than in infants or school-aged children that examined the role of nutrition in brain/mental development (125 studies versus 232 and 303 studies, respectively during the last 28 years). This may arise because of age-related variability, in terms of individual differences in temperament, linguistic ability, and patterns of neural activity that may affect assessment of neural and cognitive development in pre-school children. In this review, we suggest several approaches for assessing brain function in children that can be refined. It would be desirable if the discipline developed some common elements to be included in future studies of diet and brain function, with the idea that they would complement more targeted measures based on time of exposure and understanding of data from animal models. Underlining this approach is the concept of 'window of sensitivity' during which nutrients may affect postnatal neural development: investigators and expert panels need to look specifically for region-specific changes and do so with understanding of the likely time window during which the nutrient was, or was not available.

  7. Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine on the Recommended Amount of Sleep for Healthy Children: Methodology and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruthi, Shalini; Brooks, Lee J; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn; Hall, Wendy A; Kotagal, Suresh; Lloyd, Robin M; Malow, Beth A; Maski, Kiran; Nichols, Cynthia; Quan, Stuart F; Rosen, Carol L; Troester, Matthew M; Wise, Merrill S

    2016-11-15

    Members of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine developed consensus recommendations for the amount of sleep needed to promote optimal health in children and adolescents using a modified RAND Appropriateness Method. After review of 864 published articles, the following sleep durations are recommended: Infants 4 months to 12 months should sleep 12 to 16 hours per 24 hours (including naps) on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Children 1 to 2 years of age should sleep 11 to 14 hours per 24 hours (including naps) on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Children 3 to 5 years of age should sleep 10 to 13 hours per 24 hours (including naps) on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Children 6 to 12 years of age should sleep 9 to 12 hours per 24 hours on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Teenagers 13 to 18 years of age should sleep 8 to 10 hours per 24 hours on a regular basis to promote optimal health. Sleeping the number of recommended hours on a regular basis is associated with better health outcomes including: improved attention, behavior, learning, memory, emotional regulation, quality of life, and mental and physical health. Regularly sleeping fewer than the number of recommended hours is associated with attention, behavior, and learning problems. Insufficient sleep also increases the risk of accidents, injuries, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and depression. Insufficient sleep in teenagers is associated with increased risk of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. A commentary on this article apears in this issue on page 1439. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  8. Shared learning for chronic conditions: a methodology for developing the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) care pathways for children with allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John O; Lloyd, Kate

    2011-11-01

    The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) Science and Research Department was commissioned by the Department of Health to develop national care pathways for children with allergies. The pathways focus on defining the competences to deliver the highest standard of care for such children. By defining competences rather than criteria for onward referral, the authors have sought to create flexibility in delivery of care which will be responsive to regional variations in knowledge, skills and service. All pathways were developed by multidisciplinary working groups, based on a comprehensive review of evidence. The pathways were reviewed by a broad group of stakeholders and approved by the Allergy Care Pathways Project Board and the RCPCH Clinical Standards Committee. The results for all pathways are presented in two sections: a pathway algorithm and the competences. The entry points for each pathway are defined at the point where symptoms first occur and the ideal management is described from self-care through complete diagnosis to monitoring of progress. From the evidence review the working groups were able to make research recommendations. The authors present eight national care pathways for allergic conditions based on evidence review, expert consensus and stakeholder input. They provide a guide for training and development of services to facilitate improvements in delivery as close to the patient's home as possible. The authors recommend that these pathways are implemented locally by a multidisciplinary team with a focus on creating networks between primary, secondary and tertiary care to improve services for children with allergic conditions.

  9. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend......KE*, and demonstrate usefulness of AspectKE* through a security aspect for a distributed chat system....

  10. Alguns aspectos observados no desenvolvimento de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual Children victims of sexual abuse: some aspects observed in their development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Raya Amazarray

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O abuso sexual de crianças é um dos tipos de maus-tratos mais freqüentes, apresentando implicações médicas, legais e psicossociais. Essa revisão da literatura aponta para algumas conseqüências do abuso sexual infantil, com o objetivo de entender o seu impacto no desenvolvimento da criança. Os efeitos prejudiciais do abuso sexual, a reação negativa da família e o despreparo dos profissionais constituem um potencial gerador de danos psicológicos para a criança. Devido a esses fatores, as crianças vitimizadas encontram-se em situação de risco. Portanto, faz-se necessária uma capacitação dos profissionais que trabalham com essas crianças e com suas famílias, de modo que se possa obter a versão real dos casos, bem como conduzir uma intervenção adequada.Child sexual abuse is one of the most frequent form of maltreatment, which has medical, legal, and psychosocial implications. This review of the literature points out to some consequences of child sexual abuse, aiming to the understanding of its impact on the child’s development. The adverse effects of sexual abuse, the negative reaction of the family, and the unpreparedness of professionals represent potencial source of psychological damage to the child. Due to these factors, the children who are victimized are at risk. For this reason, it is necessary to professionalize the people who work with these children and their families to allow them to do proper diagnosis and to carry out proper interventions.

  11. Effectiveness of a formative program about transcultural nursing on aspects of the mental health on immigrants children between 12 and 17 years old diagnosed of stress for movement syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira María Pértega Andía

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To value the efficiency of a formative program for Transcultural Nursing on the level of anxiety, emotional balance and social implication for children of immigrant population diagnosed of Syndrome of Stress for Movement.Methodology: Clinical random Essay with assignment for groups. There will be realized in the Area 6 of the Community of Madrid, the selection of the participants will realize in the centers of Primary care selected as group control and experimentally.An evaluation will be realized in the center of Mental Health of all the participants and the results will be compared after six months in health of all the participants (group control and experimental, as well as the nursing aims and the interventions realized in every center.The evaluation of every variable will carry out by means of validated instruments and by means of the utilization of nursing taxonomy.The population size belongs 14000 individuals and there will select a sample of 156 children, calculated for a mistake alpha of 0,05 a power of 0,8 and an estimated effect of 0,4.The analysis of information will be realized by comparison pre and post, as well as intergroups, besides the descriptive analysis of the variables.

  12. Methodological aspects in the analysis of spontaneously produced sputum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Out, T. A.; Jansen, H. M.; Lutter, R.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of sputum as a specimen containing inflammatory indices has gained considerable interest during the last decade with focus on chronic bronchitis (CB) with or without airway obstruction, cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. The nature of the

  13. Memory during general anesthesia : Practical and methodological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonebakker, AE; Jelicic, M; Passchier, J; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    Evidence coming from several studies into memory and awareness during general anesthesia suggests that in surgical patients who seem to be adequately anesthetized (i.e., unaware of what happens in the operating theater), some form of cognitive functioning is preserved. This finding has important

  14. Theoretical and methodological aspects of strategic sales management of enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Hurzhiy, N.

    2014-01-01

    In the article existing approaches to strategic management are analyzed, features and a concept of strategic sales management are defined. Also in the article there is encouraged to use processdesign approach in the implementation of strategic management. Also the principles which should be carried out by strategic management of sales activities are identified in relation to the elements of the systemsales activities, as consumers, state infrastructure software sales, competition and enterprise.

  15. Scientific-methodological aspects of communication management on industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    L.Yu. Sager

    2012-01-01

    The article explains the purpose of communication management and proposes the scheme of communication process. The groups of potential obstacles of effective communication management and basic measures to overcome them are allocated.

  16. EXTREME SUBCULTURES: THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sergeevich Shulgin

    2017-05-01

    Practical implications. The results of the research can be used in the scientific and practical sphere, as well as to expand scientific knowledge about the sociocultural foundations and forms of manifestation of extreme in modern society.

  17. The Methodological Aspect of the Diagnostics of Objects in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grynko Pavlo О.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article on the basis of morphological analysis defines the concept of «diagnostics in economics». The differences of diagnostics in economics, economic diagnostics, and analysis in economics were analyzed. The types, functions, principles of diagnostics in economics in modern conditions have been substantiated. The interrelationship of diagnostics with other functions of management in economics has been concretized. The logic and contents of stages of the diagnostic technology in economics have been clarified. The reliability of diagnostics in economics is determined by analytical tools, which are applicable in its implementation. Recommendations of analytical tools for realization of diagnostics in economics have been substantiated. A structural-logical scheme of diagnostics in economics, firming its scientific base and providing objectivity in practical implementation has been proposed.

  18. Methodologic and clinical aspects of free thyroid hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Baldewyns, P.; Beauduin, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnostic value of free thyroid hormones measures depends on used technic. The results gived by two different kits are compared: - Kit Le Petit with chromatographic separation, - Kit Amersham which uses an analogue [fr

  19. Evidence and causality assessment in environmental epidemiology: methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valleron, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    There are usually three major steps in the study of the possible impact of environmental factors on health: 1) to demonstrate that there is an association between exposure to the factor and the disease under study; 2) to demonstrate that this association is causal; 3) to evaluate the health benefit that could be obtained by removing the source of exposure. Statistical methods are commonly assumed to provide an objective way of achieving these three steps. This paper reviews some of the conditions that have to be met to allow proper interpretations and to avoid some of the controversies that are often found in health-environment studies. First, it should be remembered that the so-called P value which is used to qualify 'statistically significant' associations between risk factors and diseases does not give any indication of the probability that this association is actual, while far too often it is believed that it does. The probability that an association between an environmental factor and a disease is real could, however, be estimated by using Bayesian methods. These methods require that the a priori probabilities be stated, which is difficult to do in practice. Some directions to overcome this difficulty are presented. Second, the analysis of causality cannot be carried out on statistical grounds alone and the so-called 'causality criteria' are of limited practical interest. Definition of what is a cause, and upon which conditions a candidate factor of a disease can be considered as a cause, deserves much research effort, and careful consideration of the huge literature (mostly outside of the epidemiological field, for example in logic) which is devoted to this subject. Finally, the measurement of the role of a factor in a disease is very often assessed through the use of 'attributable fraction' or 'attributable mortality'. This should be done only when it is demonstrated that the considered factor is causal. Moreover, the interpretation of attributable fractions to a specific factor may be difficult in the (general) case where there are multiple causal factors implied in the development of the disease. Demographic measures of 'potential years (or days, etc.) of life lost' should in general be used, rather than 'numbers of deaths' to quantify the possible impact of environmental factors. Also, as the personal factors are generally extremely important in the determinism of the causes of death associated to environmental factors, and as they cannot be controlled through ecological studies, epidemiological designs where these cofactors can be evaluated individually on cases and controls should be preferred. (author)

  20. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

    OpenAIRE

    H.Ya. Hlukha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine...

  1. Methodological aspects of accounting production cost of public sector entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Геннадіївна Ловінська

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of obtaining objective information about the activities of the public sector in various areas of the production is defined. It is proved an expediency of development the Project of «Guidelines for the structure of production costs» on the basis of the approved in the public sector NP(SAPS 135 "Costs". The need for accounting costs by type of activity (operational, financial and investment is marked. The composition of production costs is defined

  2. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LOGISTIC SYSTEMS OF THE COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Lăpăduşi Mihaela Loredana; Constantin Căruntu

    2009-01-01

    Extremely complex issues including large scale logistics issue, whose solving depends on many sets of circumstances and political, economic, technical, cultural and environment factors can be approached by calling big systems theory. In the present stage of the development of new international economical activities of the scientific research, in the conceptualization plan it is impossible that when we call an inter and multidisciplinary approach of a complex technic...

  3. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  4. Selected methodological aspects of routine medical supervision of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1981-01-01

    Examinations of the blood, skin, chromosomes, eyes and lungs provide an important means for detecting biological radiation effects in occupationally exposed workers. The diagnostic value of these five methods is discussed. (author)

  5. Radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in human serum. Methodologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradalier, N.; Canal, P.; Pujol, A.; Fregevu, Y.; Soula, G.

    1982-01-01

    We propose a double antibody radioimmunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum for diagnosis and management of prostatic adenocarcinoma under treatment. The antigen is purified from human prostatic fluid by a gel-filtration on Sephadex G 100 followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose. A specific antibody is raised in rabbits and purified by immunoadsorption with a female serum. The described technique offers both radioisotopic sensibility and immunologic specificity. Physiological values determined in the serum of 125 healthy males are below 2 ng/ml. No significative differences are observed with age. The proposed technique also shows significant differences between values evaluated for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma [fr

  6. Methodological aspects of core meltdown accidents frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthis, P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the work of the ecological institute relating to models and methods used in the German Risk Study for the assessment of core meltdown accident frequency. A statistical model used by the ecological institute for the estimation of the outage behaviour of components is taken as a comparison, which leads to the conclusion that no appropriate methods for the assessment of component reliability are available to date. Furthermore, there are no secured methods for error propagation computation. The lower limits for the ranges of reliability of components are calculated by approximation. As a result of imperfect modelling and of a number of methodical inaccuracies and neglects, the German Risk Study underestimates the ranges of component reliability by a factor of 3 to 70 (depending on the type of component). (RF) [de

  7. Radioimmunoassay for prostatic acid phosphatase in human serum. Methodologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradalier, N; Canal, P; Pujol, A; Fregevu, Y [Groupe de Recherches du Centre Claudius-Regaud, Toulouse (France); Soula, G [Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Toulouse (France)

    1982-01-01

    We propose a double antibody radioimmunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum for diagnosis and management of prostatic adenocarcinoma under treatment. The antigen is purified from human prostatic fluid by a gel-filtration on Sephadex G 100 followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose. A specific antibody is raised in rabbits and purified by immunoadsorption with a female serum. The described technique offers both radioisotopic sensibility and immunologic specificity. Physiological values determined in the serum of 125 healthy males are below 2 ng/ml. No significative differences are observed with age. The proposed technique also shows significant differences between values evaluated for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  8. Homeopathic drug discovery: theory update and methodological aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman; Pathak, Surajit

    2008-08-01

    Homeopathy treats patient on the basis of totality of symptoms and is based on the principle of 'like cures like'. It uses ultra-low doses of highly diluted natural substances as remedies that originate from plants, minerals or animals. The objectives of this review are to discuss concepts, controversies and research related to understanding homeopathy in the light of modern science. Attempts have been made to focus on current views of homeopathy and to delineate its most plausible mechanism(s) of action. Although some areas of concern remain, research carried out so far both in vitro and in vivo validates the effects of highly diluted homeopathic medicines in a wide variety of organisms. The precise mechanism(s) and pathway(s) of action of highly diluted homeopathic drugs are still unknown.

  9. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC EVENTS CYCLICITY METHOD CONSIDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalia Yur'ievna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyclicity of economic phenomena is not only their immanent property but also the subject of economic analysis. The modern way of making managerial decisions requires analysis of a number of cycles that fill any kind of activity. Accounting and reconciliation of construction, design, investment, purchasing, reproduction, leasing and other cycles is important for the investment and construction sector, both from the point of view of the need for their synchronization and from the position of determining trends in sectoral development. The analysis has showed that three main types of development are characteristic for investment and construction activity. Increasing intensity is inherent in a high level of cyclic synchronization. The degradation trend arises as a result of mismatched cycles. The stabilization character is inherent in the regular modes of maintaining the established proportions and cyclical inter-conformity. The study of the cyclical nature of investment and building processes is impossible without understanding their co-ordination. The principles of synchronization and subordination of the cycles should be used not only for the construction of cost-effective systems but also for the development of management tools.

  10. Methodological aspects transparency financial statements of construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Rozhnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, in terms of general information and integration of the economies, information is one of the main market products. There is becoming urgent task of improving financial statement transparency for enterprises in this situation. One of the most challenging in improving transparency can be considered the construction industry, because of the pursuit of privacy and a high degree of corruption. The paper analyzes the possible reasons for reducing the level of transparency in the construction industry companies. The paper highlighted the general and particular causes that affect the transparency of financial reporting of construction enterprises. Common causes are relevant for companies in any industry, and private causes show features characteristic of the construction itself. In addition, the paper analyzes the various methods of increasing the transparency used by companies all over the world. The analysis highlighted the internal and external methods for improving the transparency of financial statements and transparency of construction companies. Leadership and employees at the enterprise level providing transparency of financial reporting, and non-financial information about the company, having interest to stakeholders, carry out internal methods. External methods are applied at the macro level as the joint forces of the enterprises of the construction industry to form associations and the state. The analysis also considered the possibility of using these methods by the Russian construction companies and advantages and disadvantages of their application.

  11. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNANCE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina TSYBULYAK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses current approaches to the process of assessing rural development governance, reveals its advantages and disadvantages. The article as well presents performance system indicators of governance process by means of two elements of dynamics assessment, rural development (economic, financial, and social sphere, ecology and population health and management process (assessment of strategic plan (concept of development, program of socioeconomic development of rural areas, current activity of local authorities, in particular. More over, it is suggested to use typology of approaches (objective (evolutionary, command and control, economic (infrastructural, complex, and qualitative to definition of process essence of rural development governance and correlation of traditional functions, performed by the subjects of the governance process of rural development (state authorities institutions, local authorities institutions, economic entities, and community. Adjusting traditional functions, performed by governance subjects of local development, their supplementing with new ones, relevant to the present-to-date model of «shared governance» is an important element of analysis of assessment tools for effectiveness of rural development governance. In addition, the author defines functioning of two forms of rural population involvement into the process of rural development governance: active and passive. Active one suggests that rural population participate in making and implementing governance decisions (public meetings, organization of social discussions, and development of territory community self-governance; passive one suggests that the emphasis is placed only on information distribution among population (meetings with parliament members, direct phone lines with territory governors, publication of normative and legal acts and reports on budget execution

  12. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  13. Using smart card technology to monitor the eating habits of children in a school cafeteria: 1. Developing and validating the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N; Plumb, J; Looise, B; Johnson, I T; Harvey, I; Wheeler, C; Robinson, M; Rolfe, P

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using smart card technology to track the eating behaviours of nearly a thousand children in a school cafeteria. Within a large boys' school a smart card based system was developed that was capable of providing a full electronic audit of all the individual transactions that occurred within the cafeteria. This dataset was interfaced to an electronic version of the McCance and Widdowson composition of foods dataset. The accuracy of the smart card generated data and the influence of portion size and wastage were determined empirically during two 5-day trials. The smart card system created succeeded in generating precise data on the food choices made by hundreds of children over an indefinite time period. The data was expanded to include a full nutrient analysis of all the foods chosen. The accuracy of this information was only constrained by the limitations facing all food composition research, e.g. variations in recipes, portion sizes, cooking practices, etc. Although technically possible to introduce wastage correction factors into the software, thereby providing information upon foods consumed, this was not seen as universally practical. The study demonstrated the power of smart card technology for monitoring food/nutrient choice over limitless time in environments such as school cafeterias. The strengths, limitations and applications of such technology are discussed.

  14. Los servicios de las bibliotecas de acceso público argentinas en entorno automatizado: aspectos teórico-metodológicos del Proyecto UBACYT F040 Services of public libraries in Argentina in an automated environment: theoretical-methodological aspects of UBACYT F40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barber

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el proyecto UBACYT F040 en sus aspectos teóricos y metodológicos. Su objetivo apunta a relevar la incidencia de la automatización bibliotecaria en la prestación de servicios orientados al uso de la tecnología de la información en las bibliotecas de acceso público argentinas. La metodología empleada consiste en la aplicación (restringida en una primera etapa al área de Capital Federal y Gran Buenos Aires de un cuestionario diseñado en función de variables seleccionadas acorde a la naturaleza de las bibliotecas estudiadas. A partir de la firma de un convenio de Cooperación y Asistencia Técnica con ONU- Ecuador se vislumbra la realización de estudios comparativos entre ambos países con miras a un diagnóstico regional.UBACYT F040 project is being presented in its theoretical and methodological aspects. It is aimed to exalt the incidence of library automation in the provision of services oriented to the use of information technology in public libraries of Argentina. The methodology is based on the application (restricted in a first stage to the Capital Federal and Gran Buenos Aires area of a questionnaire designed according to selected variables depending on the nature of the studied libraries. From the signature of a Cooperation and Technical Assistance Agreement with United Nations - Ecuador, it is foresaw the realization of comparative researches between both countries having in mind later regional diagnosis.

  15. Los servicios de las bibliotecas de acceso público argentinas en entorno automatizado: aspectos teórico-metodológicos del Proyecto UBACYT F040 = Services of public libraries in Argentina in an automated environment: theoretical-methodological aspects of UBACYT F40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barber, N. Tripaldi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el proyecto UBACYT F040 en sus aspectos teóricos y metodológicos. Su objetivo apunta a relevar la incidencia de la automatización bibliotecaria en la prestación de servicios orientados al uso de la tecnología de la información en las bibliotecas de acceso público argentinas. La metodología empleada consiste en la aplicación (restringida en una primera etapa al área de Capital Federal y Gran Buenos Aires de un cuestionario diseñado en función de variables seleccionadas acorde a la naturaleza de las bibliotecas estudiadas. A partir de la firma de un convenio de Cooperación y Asistencia Técnica con ONU- Ecuador se vislumbra la realización de estudios comparativos entre ambos países con miras a un diagnóstico regional = UBACYT F040 project is being presented in its theoretical and methodological aspects. It is aimed to exalt the incidence of library automation in the provision of services oriented to the use of information technology in public libraries of Argentina. The methodology is based on the application (restricted in a first stage to the Capital Federal and Gran Buenos Aires area of a questionnaire designed according to selected variables depending on the nature of the studied libraries. From the signature of a Cooperation and Technical Assistance Agreement with United Nations – Ecuador, it is foresaw the realization of comparative researches between both countries having in mind later regional diagnosis.

  16. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    ... in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical trial methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research...

  17. Diabetes tipo 2 en niños y adolescentes: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos, patogénicos y terapéuticos Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents: clinicoepidemiological, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Emiliano Licea Puig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: debido al incremento sostenido en la incidencia de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en personas OBJECTIVE: due to the sustained increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in persons under 20, the clinicoepidemiological, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents were reviewed. DEVELOPMENT: in children, it is estimated that type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 2-3 % of all cases. However, in the last years, there has been a ten-fold increase. Its prevalence is higher among Afro-Americans, Hispanics and native Americans, in puberty and in those with history of type 2 maternal diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors (obesity, physical inactivity, poor nutritional habits, among others. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations: severe hyperglycaemia with ketonuria and ketosis to a mild hyperglycaemia. 50 % may be asymptomatic. Obesity, Acantosis nigricans, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, puberty, and type 2 maternal diabetes mellitus are risk factors. It prevails in females, autoimmunity is rare and the dependence on insulin may be episodic. Those with the highest hyperglycaemia have lower levels of insulinemia and peptide C. When hyperglycaemia is mild, diet, physical exercise and, in some cases, the administration of oral drugs, such as metformin, may be useful. CONCLUSIONS: type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents is a reality. Evolutively, most of them do not need insulin therapy. They may have retinopathy, microalbuminuria, dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension on diagnosis. Risk populations should be actively screened.

  18. [Comparison of annual risk for tuberculosis infection (1994-2001) in school children in Djibouti: methodological limitations and epidemiological value in a hyperendemic context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatas, J J; Mohamed Ali, I; Ali Ismaël, H; Barreh Matan, A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe a tuberculin survey conducted in 2001 to assess the trend in the annual risk for tuberculosis infection in Djibouti and compare resulting data with those obtained in a previous survey conducted in 1994. In 2001 cluster sampling allowed selection of 5599 school children between the ages of 6 and 10 years including 31.2% (1747/5599) without BCG vaccination scar. In this sample the annual risk of infection (ARI) estimated using cutoff points of 6 mm, 10 mm, and 14 mm corrected by a factor of 1/0.82 and a mode value (18 mm) determined according to the "mirror" method were 4.67%, 3.64%, 3.19% and 2.66% respectively. The distribution of positive tuberculin skin reaction size was significantly different from the normal law. In 1994 a total of 5257 children were selected using the same method. The distribution of positive reactions was not significantly different from the gaussian distribution and 28.6% (1505/5257) did not have a BCG scar. The ARI estimated using cutoff points of 6 mm, 10 mm, and 14 mm corrected by a factor of 1/0.82 and a mode value (17 mm) determined according to the "mirror" method were 2.68%, 2.52%, 2.75% and 3.32 respectively. Tuberculin skin reaction size among positive skin test reactors was correlated with the presence of a BCG scar, and its mean was significantly higher among children with BCG scar. The proportion of positive skin test reactors was also higher in the BCG scar group regardless of the cutoff point selected. Comparison of prevalence rates and ARI values did not allow any clear conclusion to be drawn, mainly because of a drastic difference in the positive reaction distribution profiles between the two studies. The distribution of the skin test reaction's size 1994 study could be modelized by a gaussian distribution while it could not in 2001. A partial explanation for the positive reaction distribution observed in the 2001 study might be the existence of cross-reactions with environmental

  19. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    There are two important points of view on inclusion or subtype polymorphism in object-oriented programs, namely polymorphic access and dynamic dispatch. These features are essential for object-oriented programming, and it is worthwhile to consider whether they are supported in aspect-oriented......J as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  20. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Children's participation in family food consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for researching children and food consumption in the family. The proposed framework draws on contemporary social science approaches to the study of family decision making, food consumption patterns and routines, and consumer competence and food......-related lifestyle in order to understand children and families through their everyday practices. It suggest a new emphasis on children as active agents in the formation of family food consumption patterns and looks at children's food choices as embedded in everyday family life. We focus especially on the construct...... of the "Consumer Competence" of the child as one important aspect determining the way a child is involved in and gains influence over family food consumption. The paper also demonstrates how a mixed methods design, employing ethnographic and survey techniques, involves advances in methodological and analytical...

  2. Conducta suicida en niños y adolescentes. Aspectos éticos y morales Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents: moral and ethical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A Turiño Pedraja

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal sobre el intento suicida en pacientes pertenecientes a las áreas de salud Este y Julio A. Mella de la ciudad de Camagüey que ingresaron en la sala de Salud Mental del Hospital Pediátrico “Eduardo Agramonte Piña”. La muestra quedó constituida por 16 pacientes que realizaron intentos suicida en el período señalado. Los resultados muestran un alto predominio del sexo femenino (81,3%, los estudiantes externos (62,5%, seguido por los becados (31,2%. La escolaridad segundaria no terminada arrojó el mayor por ciento (56.2% y las familias disfuncionales constituyen el mayor factor de riesgo similar a los conflictos en las relaciones familiares, ambos con un 75%. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el comportamiento de los intento suicidas en la edad de Infanto Juvenil durante el año 2002 en dos áreas de salud del municipio de Camagüey y valorar los aspectos éticos y morales de dicho proceder con la ayuda del enfoque de los estudios de Ciencia - Tecnología - SociedadIt was carried out a descriptive and traverse study on suicidal attempts in patients belonging to “Este” and “Julio A. Mella” health areas in Camagüey city that were admitted to the Mental Health ward of “Eduardo Agramonte Pi ñ a Pediatric Hospital. The sample was constituted by 16 patients that carried out suicidal attempts in the period. The results show a high prevalence of the feminine sex (81,3%, external students (62,5%, and those granted a scholarship (31,2%. Those who didn't finish high school account for the highest percent (56.2% and dysfunctional families constitute number one risk factor together with family relationship conflicts, both with 75%. The objective of this study was to know the behavior of suicidal attempts in these age groups during the year 2002 in two health areas of Camagüey municipality and to value the ethical and moral aspects of this behavior with the help of the Science

  3. Marketing aspect of paramedical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available That's how the primary medical and ecological reasons as the well being for humanity came out of the satisfaction of specific health needs. Through operationally of these outcomes it tried to prove the need and the intentions of the customers, and through methodologies and strategies which stand to our service. Further developing activity acted as a useful to the innovation of the product and vertical structure of marketing, through the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession. The paper is concepted so that the received material inserted to the content part, do the following: 1. Meaning, characteristics and developing possibilities of phytotherapy; 2. Dimensions of market in managing of phytotherapic assortment. By observing the final results, which were obtained through means of representative sources and other research of phytotherapic products, it can be expected that the same can be applicable to broader spectrum in practice with kind input to the marketing ideas. Models, presented here, is meant to be for innovative applications in the medical marketing concept, by the results of wide spending in the food service industry (domain of dietetics, at manufacture of food for children at the manufacture of 'medical cosmetics' and cosmetic-druggist assortments (products for hygiene, shampoos, soap, creams and bubbles for bath.

  4. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, B M; Yeadon, M R

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that the surface is an important factor in the aetiology of injuries. Injury frequencies are reported to be significantly different for different surfaces in several sports. The methodologies used to assess surfaces with respect to load or performance include material tests and tests using experimental subjects. There is only little correlation between the results of these two approaches. Material tests used in many standardized test procedures are not validated which suggests that one should exercise restraint in the interpretation of these results. Point elastic surfaces are widely studied while area elastic surfaces have received little attention to date. Questions of energy losses on sport surfaces have rarely been studied scientifically.

  5. Disentangling Genetic and Environmental Influences on Children's Development:Introducing A Novel Methodology%分离遗传与环境对儿童发展的影响:介绍一个新颖的研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon T. Harold; Katherine H. Shelton; Frances Rice; Jacky Boivin; Dale Hay; Marianne Van Den Bree; Anita Thapar

    2008-01-01

    本文介绍一个可以用于研究遗传与环境互动的新颖方法.此研究收集了上千个4~10岁儿童的数据.这些儿童的出生都借助于不同的辅助受孕技术(Assisted Reproductive Technologies),包括试管婴儿、精子捐赠、卵子捐赠、胚胎捐赠及代孕技术.本项目通过妇科(助孕)医院收集被试的行为数据,包括家庭互动、养育方式、父母婚姻质量、家庭成员的心理健康及经济状况等.本文选择性地介绍一些分析的结果,以彰显这种设计在分离遗传和产前产后环境对儿童发展的贡献.首先,我们比较了"助孕"儿童与"自然孕"儿童在父母冲突、父母对子女敌意以及儿童抑郁症状之间关系的异同.其次,我们比较了这两组儿童在父母抑郁症状、家庭关系质量以及儿童抑郁症状之间关系的异同.再次,本文介绍了这一可分离遗传与环境因素的研究设计.最后,我们讨论了这一设计对发展心理病干预及预防的意义.%The present study describes a novel methodology to examine the interplay between genetic and environmental influences on children's development. Families of children aged 4 - 10 years born by one of five methods of assisted reproductive technologies, specifically homologous in vitro fertilization (IVF), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation, and gestational surrogacy, were contacted through fertility clinics and mailed a set of questionnaires focusing on the quality of family interaction, parenting, marital satisfaction, parent and child psychological health, economic conditions and family demographics. Analyses are described that highlight the novelty of this research design to disentangle genetic, intrauterine and early social environmental influences on children's development. First, results are described whereby comparisons were made between children born through assisted reproductive technologies and children conceived naturally in relation to patterns of

  6. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  7. [Economic aspects of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumosa, A; Herranz, J L

    2000-06-01

    The economic magnitude of epilepsy is determined by its effect on the employment status of the patients, the cost of drug treatment for them and the healthcare system and the repercussion worldwide. Studies of the cost of the disease show that it has economic importance due to the sum of the direct and indirect costs caused by it. In the case of epilepsy, the results of studies in various countries led to the creation of a Commission on Economic Aspects of Epilepsy. The lack of epidemiological studies regarding epilepsy in Spain may explain the lack of publications on this subject in our country. The percentage of the total cost due to antiepileptic drugs is considerable and will probably increase in the future. The pharmaco-economic evaluation made by cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-usefulness analysis and studies to minimize costs should serve to use healthcare resources in the most effective manner and justify the rational use of the new antiepileptic drugs. The economic impact of epilepsy is added to the repercussion of the disease itself on the patient and his family. The different distribution of costs in children and adults with epilepsy suggest the need for intervention at an early age to try to reduce the long term economic and personal repercussions. The pharmaco-economic evaluation of the new antiepileptic drugs will make it clear whether their considerable cost is worth paying for their greater effectivity.

  8. Propuesta Metodológica del Entrenamiento de la Resistencia en Baloncesto mediante la Modificación de Factores Formales y Estructurales del Juego. [Methodological Proposals for Endurance Training in Basketball by Modifying Structural and Formal Aspects of the Game].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau Sacot

    2017-10-01

    heart rate and game intensity depending on the game parameters used during the game situation. Different key words such as conditioning and basketball in different data bases such as Pub Med or ISI web of knowledge were checked throughout the selection process. Finally, 12 articles were included in the review showing that the modification of some game parameters such as number of players, space conditions, time aspects and game rules, can influence the orientation of the endurance training in basketball. Thereby, a methodological proposal was created to illustrate the usefulness of the different game parameters in order to control and plan the endurance training integrated with technical and tactical drills in basketball. However, the background studies of the methodological proposal should be considered since these studies only have analyzed the simple effects of the different parameters and due to the fact, future studies should study the interaction of the different parameters in order to validate the proposal. Nevertheless, it is believed that this methodological proposal can be helpful so as to integrate endurance training with technical and tactical drills.

  9. Temporal and Other Exposure Aspects of Residential Magnetic Fields Measurement in Relation to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children: The National Cancer Institute Children's Cancer Group Study (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baris, D.; Linet, M.; Auvinen, A.; Kaune, W.T.; Wacholder, S.; Kleinerman, R.; Hatch, E.; Robison, L.; Niwa, S.; Haines, C.; Tarone, R.E

    1999-07-01

    Case-control studies have used a variety of measurements to evaluate the relationship of children's exposure to magnetic fields (50 or 60 Hz) with childhood leukaemia and other childhood cancers. In the absence of knowledge about which exposure metrics may be biologically meaningful, studies during the past 10 years have often used time-weighted average (TWA) summaries of home measurements. Recently, other exposure metrics have been suggested, usually based on theoretical considerations or limited laboratory data. In this paper, the rationale and associated preliminary studies undertaken are described as well as feasibility andvalidity issues governing the choice of the primary magnetic field exposure assessment methods and summary metric used to estimate children's exposure in the National Cancer Institute/Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) case-control study. Also provided are definitions and discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the various exposure metrics used in exploratory analyses of the NCI/CCG measurement data. Exposure metrics evaluated include measures of central tendency (mean, median, 30th to 70th percentiles), peak exposures (90th and higher percentiles, peak values of the 24 h measurements), and measurements of short-term temporal variability (rate of change). This report describes correlations of the various metrics with the time-weighted average for the 24 h period (TWA-24-h). Most of the metrics were found to be positively and highly correlated with TWA-24-h, but lower correlations of TWA-24-h with peak exposure and with rate of change were observed. To examine further the relation between TWA and alternative metrics, similar exploratory analysis should be considered for existing data sets and for forthcoming measurement investigations of residential magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. (author)

  10. Bereaved children.

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the s...

  11. Nuclear power plant simulation facility evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology for evaluation of nuclear power plant simulation facilities with regard to their acceptability for use in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) operator licensing exam is described. The evaluation is based primarily on simulator fidelity, but incorporates some aspects of direct operator/trainee performance measurement. The panel presentation and paper discuss data requirements, data collection, data analysis and criteria for conclusions regarding the fidelity evaluation, and summarize the proposed use of direct performance measurment. While field testing and refinement of the methodology are recommended, this initial effort provides a firm basis for NRC to fully develop the necessary methodology

  12. Comparison Of Irms Delhi Methodology With Who Methodology On Immunization Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Padam

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the merits of IRMS Model over WHO Model for Coverage Evaluation Survey? Which method is superior and appropriate for coverage evolution survey of immunization in our setting? Objective: To compare IRMS Delhi methodology with WHO methodology on Immunization Coverage. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Setting: Urban and Rural both. Participants: Mothers& Children Sample Size: 300 children between 1-2 years and 300 mothers in rural areas and 75 children and 75 mothers in urban areas. Study Variables: Rural, Urban, Cast-Group, Size of the stratum, Literacy, Sex and Cost effectiveness. Outcome Variables: Coverage level of immunization. Analysis: Routine Statistical Analysis. Results: IRMS developed methodology scores better rating over WHO methodology, especially when coverage evolution is attempted in medium size villages with existence of socio-economic seggregation-which remains the main characteristic of the Indian villages.

  13. Methodology of the comprehensive program on prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Iranian children and adolescents: The IRAN-Ending childhood obesity (IRAN-ECHO program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Akbar Sayyari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization program on Ending Childhood Obesity (WHO-ECHO has developed a comprehensive and integrated package of recommendations to address childhood obesity. The present study, entitled IRAN-ECHO, was designed and implemented in the framework of the WHO-ECHO program. Methods: The IRAN-ECHO program is implementing multicomponent interventions by considering life course dimensions. The program has two parts: a population approach and an individual approach. The population approach considers different periods in life, including prenatal, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, as well as family and society. The individual approach targets those children or adolescents with overweight or obesity; this part is conducted as a referral system that is now integrated in the current national health system. As part of the population approach, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in six provinces to compare the status before and after implementing parts of the interventions. By intersectoral collaboration with different organizations, multicomponent interventions are conducted for different age groups. Results: The IRAN-ECHO program is being conducted in six provinces, and will be considered in all provinces in the near future. Its main effects could be assessed in future years. Part of this program that was conducted as a quasi-experimental survey comprised 7149 students and showed that a high percentage of students had acceptable knowledge about adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. However, the knowledge about the low nutritional value of unhealthy snacks such as potato chips, puffs, industrial juices, and carbonated drinks was not appropriate. Many participants had the undesirable attitude of skipping one of the main meals when attempting to lose weight. Conclusions: The IRAN-ECHO program is presenting the feasibility of conducting the WHO-ECHO recommendations in Iran. The scope of potential policy

  14. Methodology of the Comprehensive Program on Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The IRAN-Ending Childhood Obesity (IRAN-ECHO) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyari, Ali-Akbar; Abdollahi, Zahra; Ziaodini, Hassan; Olang, Beheshteh; Fallah, Hossein; Salehi, Forouzan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Imanzadeh, Farid; Abasalti, Zahra; Fozouni, Fereshteh; Jafari, Sakineh; Lashkarlouki, Farhad; Sahebdel, Mahnoush; Siadati, Arash; Aslani, Hamideh; Hosseini, Mostafa; Goodarzi, Azam; Yngve, Agneta; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization program on Ending Childhood Obesity (WHO-ECHO) has developed a comprehensive and integrated package of recommendations to address childhood obesity. The present study, entitled IRAN-ECHO, was designed and implemented in the framework of the WHO-ECHO program. Methods: The IRAN-ECHO program is implementing multicomponent interventions by considering life course dimensions. The program has two parts: a population approach and an individual approach. The population approach considers different periods in life, including prenatal, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, as well as family and society. The individual approach targets those children or adolescents with overweight or obesity; this part is conducted as a referral system that is now integrated in the current national health system. As part of the population approach, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in six provinces to compare the status before and after implementing parts of the interventions. By intersectoral collaboration with different organizations, multicomponent interventions are conducted for different age groups. Results: The IRAN-ECHO program is being conducted in six provinces, and will be considered in all provinces in the near future. Its main effects could be assessed in future years. Part of this program that was conducted as a quasi-experimental survey comprised 7149 students and showed that a high percentage of students had acceptable knowledge about adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. However, the knowledge about the low nutritional value of unhealthy snacks such as potato chips, puffs, industrial juices, and carbonated drinks was not appropriate. Many participants had the undesirable attitude of skipping one of the main meals when attempting to lose weight. Conclusions: The IRAN-ECHO program is presenting the feasibility of conducting the WHO-ECHO recommendations in Iran. The scope of potential policy recommendations to decrease

  15. O tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar: uma revisão sistemática e crítica dos aspectos metodológicos dos estudos clínicos modernos The pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic and critical review of the methodological aspects of modern clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Cheniaux

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente os principais estudos clínicos sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar e fazer uma análise crítica de seus aspectos metodológicos. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados Medline, ISI e PsycINFO, utilizando-se os seguintes termos de busca: "bipolar", "randomized", "placebo" e "controlled". Foram selecionados estudos clínicos randomizados, duplo-cegos e controlados por placebo sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar. Além disso, de acordo com os nossos critérios, as amostras deveriam ser de no mínimo 100 pacientes e a substância testada deveria ser usada como monoterapia. RESULTADOS: 34 artigos se adequaram aos critérios de seleção. Todas as substâncias atualmente indicadas para mania, depressão bipolar e para o tratamento de manutenção foram mais eficazes que o placebo em pelo menos um estudo. Todavia, esses estudos tiveram amostras altamente selecionadas, altas taxas de abandono e baixas taxas de resposta clínica. CONCLUSÃO: Os modernos estudos clínicos sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar apresentam algumas importantes limitações metodológicas. Assim, seus resultados devem ser considerados com cautela.OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the main clinical trials on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder and to make a critical analysis of their methodological aspects. METHOD: A search in Medline, ISI and PsycINFO databases was conducted, using the following search terms: "bipolar", "randomized", "placebo" e "controlled". Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder were selected. Besides, according to our criteria, samples had to consist of at least 100 patients and experimental drug had to be used as monotherapy. RESULTS: 34 articles met our selection criteria. All drugs currently indicated for mania, bipolar depression and maintenance treatment of

  16. Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde: aspectos metodológicos e articulação com a Organização Mundial da Saúde World Health Survey: methodological aspects and interface with the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    2008-05-01

    financing and in health status, the proposal received countless criticisms from both conceptual and methodological viewpoints. During the redesign phase, in order to provide information about the health status of the population, the WHO proposed the application of the World Health Survey (WHS. In Brazil, the WHS was carried in 2003 for establishing consistent parameters to evaluate heath status and health care responsiveness, in addition to measuring socioeconomic health inequalities. The survey interviewed 5,000 individuals, aged 18 and above, nationwide. The sample design had three selection stages. In the first stage, 250 census tracts were systematically selected with probability proportional to size. In the second stage, households were selected with equal probability using an inverse sample design to assure 20 interviews by sector. In each household, just one adult (18 years or more was selected with equal probability to respond to the individual questionnaire. A modular questionnaire was translated and adapted from the one originally proposed by the WHO. Sample weights were based on the inverse of probabilities of inclusion in the sample calculated for each selection stage. In this paper, we describe the methodological aspects of the survey and the interface process with the WHO to conduct the WHS in Brazil.

  17. Cold air challenge and specific airway resistance in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    prognosis in preschool children. Cold air challenge and plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) are feasible candidate methods for diagnosis, clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of lung growth and development. Methodology and practical aspects of cold air...... challenge and assessment of sRaw in preschool children are reviewed. Reference values are provided for sRaw and have allowed discrimination between health and respiratory disease, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be determined with acceptable repeatability...

  18. Contemporary aspects of caries prevention in children

    OpenAIRE

    Alimani - Jakupi, Jetmire; Iljovska, Snezana; Pavlevska, Meri; Naskova, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the trends of the caries dispersion in the developed countries in the last 40 years, show signifi cantly diminished values of CIA (caries index average) from11 to 4. But, the situati on in the developing countries is completely diff erent. The caries goes upwards, and CIA is increased for 5 points in the last 20 years. (WHO 2000) The purposel of our study would be to suggest a strategy for preventive dental protecti on which will be applied on the whole territory of the countr...

  19. Clinical aspects of rheumatic diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, L.

    1978-01-01

    Rheumatic fever is no longer the most problematic of rheumatic diseases as it poses some diagnostic, but no radiological problems. The most problematic are chronic inflammatory processes of the joints. Here, the fate in life of the child patients does indeed depend upon an exact diagnosis. (orig./AJ) [de

  20. Some aspects of periodontitis pathogenesis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina I.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory processes in the tissues surrounding tooth root are frequent enough and develop as the direct complication of caries. As acute periodontitis is manifested with grinding toothache and violation of ph¬y¬sio¬logical act of chewing, symptoms of general intoxication, the continuous sluggish chronic periodontitis is harmful and dangerous to the organism as well. It forms the state of chronic оdontogenetic intoxication and chroneosepsis with wrong functioning of some internal organs and body systems. The like complications can cause significant disturbance to the function of kidneys, liver, heart, joints and their treatment without ablating focus of inflammation is often in- effective; this must be taken into account by doctors-interns. However, scanning of the oral cavity by conservative means has its difficulties mostly because of ignoring pathogenesis of such inflammation. That is why activity of ferments of blood dehydrogenases from the periapical tissues of the teeth affected with the chronic periodontitis was studied. The level of succinate dehydrogenase and alpha-glycerophosphate degydrogenase of lymphocytes of 110 schoolchildren aged 13-17 years old was studied. The main group of examined individuals included those of infected with tuber¬culousis – 50 individuals, and the control group (60 individuals – clinically healthy ones without tuberculousis desease. All schoolchildren had 1 or 2 teeth affected with chronic periodontitis of the apical localization. The researchers found that a significant inhibition of activity of succinate dehydrogenase and alpha-glycerophosphate degydrogenase ferments occurs in the inflammatory periodontal tissues, which indicates to local immunity decline, and as a consequence, pathogenic bacteria activation. In people infected with tuberculousis these violations were more developed. Such features of periodontitis pathogenesis must be taken into account when providing a combined treatment.

  1. Fields of Impact of Social Media on Youth – Methodological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juszczyk Stanisław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using social media Web sites is among the most common activities of today’s children and adolescents. Such sites offer today’s youth a portal for entertainment and communication, and have grown exponentially in recent years. Parents and teachers become aware of the nature of social media sites, thus they do not know that not all of them are healthy environments for children and adolescents. This field is important because pedagogists, psychologists and pediatrics need to understand how youth lives in a new, massive, and complex virtual universe, even as they carry on their lives in the real world. In the article I have presented a discussion of a few empirical research carried out by different authors to show various aspects of child and adolescent development in this virtual universe and to present the methodological implications of such types of studies.

  2. Comparative study on software development methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current state of knowledge in the field of software development methodologies. It aims to set the stage for the formalization of a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects. The paper starts by depicting specific characteristics in software development project management. Managing software development projects involves techniques and skills that are proprietary to the IT industry. Also the software development project manager handles challenges and risks that are predominantly encountered in business and research areas that involve state of the art technology. Conventional software development stages are defined and briefly described. Development stages are the building blocks of any software development methodology so it is important to properly research this aspect. Current software development methodologies are presented. Development stages are defined for every showcased methodology. For each methodology a graphic representation is illustrated in order to better individualize its structure. Software development methodologies are compared by highlighting strengths and weaknesses from the stakeholder's point of view. Conclusions are formulated and a research direction aimed at formalizing a software development methodology dedicated to innovation orientated IT projects is enunciated.

  3. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional aspects of spina bifida in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Maria Adriana Gerdina Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Due to advanced medical treatment, more children with spina bifida survive into adulthood. Most outcome studies in the field of spina bifida research focus on disease aspects (‘pathology’) and its relation to one of the domains in the ‘disablement process’ such as physical functioning, cognitive

  5. Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldiwany, B.H.; Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.; Wolfe, K.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper

  6. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  7. Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and ecological evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigations (RI) and the Resource conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) facility investigations (FI) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994), referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and ecological risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  8. Posthumanism as Research Methodology: Inquiry in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jasmine B.

    2017-01-01

    The posthuman turn has radically--and rapidly--shifted what is possible in research methodology. In response, my aim in this conceptual paper is to suggest entry points into posthuman educational research methodology. I outline aspects of posthumanism while recognizing its multiplicity: there are many posthumanisms and each offers different…

  9. Criticality accident studies and methodology implemented at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, Francis; Fouillaud, Patrick; Reverdy, Ludovic; Mijuin, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    Based on the studies and results of experimental programs performed since 1967 in the CRAC, then SILENE facilities, the CEA has devised a methodology for criticality accident studies. This methodology integrates all the main focuses of its approach, from criticality accident phenomenology to emergency planning and response, and thus includes aspects such as criticality alarm detector triggering, airborne releases, and irradiation risk assessment. (author)

  10. A theoretical and experimental investigation of propeller performance methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkan, K. D.; Gregorek, G. M.; Mikkelson, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper briefly covers aspects related to propeller performance by means of a review of propeller methodologies; presentation of wind tunnel propeller performance data taken in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10 x 10 wind tunnel; discussion of the predominent limitations of existing propeller performance methodologies; and a brief review of airfoil developments appropriate for propeller applications.

  11. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Hudson, J.; Stephansson, O.

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  12. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  13. Microeconomic aspects of energy crops cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolelli, V.; Mutinati, G.; Pisani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of energy crops, namely of those crops designed to produce biomass to transform into ethanol, has been explored, in Italy and abroad, in all its technical and agronomical aspects. The microeconomic aspect, including the evaluation of convenience for the farmer in adopting such crops, is, on the contrary, less well researched. RENAGRI has developed a research methodology able to give information about the level of convenience of two energy crops (Sweet Sorghum and Topinambour) and has applied it to different Italian agricultural situations, in order to verify the existence of conditions favourable to the cultivation of the two crops, or to indicate the necessity of eventual subvention. (author)

  14. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  15. Millennial Expectations and Constructivist Methodologies: Their Corresponding Characteristics and Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, much emphasis has been placed on constructivist methodologies and their potential benefit for learners of various ages (Brandt & Perkins, 2000; Brooks, 1990). Although certain aspects of the constructivist paradigm have replaced several aspects of the behaviorist paradigm for a large contingency of stakeholders (particularly,…

  16. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2018-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis...

  17. Methodologies, languages and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, Katsuya

    1994-01-01

    This is a summary of the open-quotes Methodologies, Languages and Toolsclose quotes session in the CHEP'94 conference. All the contributions to methodologies and languages are relevant to the object-oriented approach. Other topics presented are related to various software tools in the down-sized computing environment

  18. Archetype modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat

    2018-03-01

    Clinical Information Models (CIMs) expressed as archetypes play an essential role in the design and development of current Electronic Health Record (EHR) information structures. Although there exist many experiences about using archetypes in the literature, a comprehensive and formal methodology for archetype modeling does not exist. Having a modeling methodology is essential to develop quality archetypes, in order to guide the development of EHR systems and to allow the semantic interoperability of health data. In this work, an archetype modeling methodology is proposed. This paper describes its phases, the inputs and outputs of each phase, and the involved participants and tools. It also includes the description of the possible strategies to organize the modeling process. The proposed methodology is inspired by existing best practices of CIMs, software and ontology development. The methodology has been applied and evaluated in regional and national EHR projects. The application of the methodology provided useful feedback and improvements, and confirmed its advantages. The conclusion of this work is that having a formal methodology for archetype development facilitates the definition and adoption of interoperable archetypes, improves their quality, and facilitates their reuse among different information systems and EHR projects. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be also a reference for CIMs development using any other formalism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  20. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...