WorldWideScience

Sample records for children hierarchical inclusiveness

  1. About wave field modeling in hierarchic medium with fractal inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    The processes of oil gaseous deposits outworking are linked with moving of polyphase multicomponent media, which are characterized by no equilibrium and nonlinear rheological features. The real behavior of layered systems is defined as complicated rheology moving liquids and structural morphology of porous media. It is eargently needed to account those factors for substantial description of the filtration processes. Additionally we must account also the synergetic effects. That allows suggesting new methods of control and managing of complicated natural systems, which can research these effects. Thus our research is directed to the layered system, from which we have to outwork oil and which is a complicated hierarchic dynamical system with fractal inclusions. In that paper we suggest the algorithm of modeling of 2-d seismic field distribution in the heterogeneous medium with hierarchic inclusions. Also we can compare the integral 2-D for seismic field in a frame of local hierarchic heterogeneity with a porous inclusion and pure elastic inclusion for the case when the parameter Lame is equal to zero for the inclusions and the layered structure. For that case we can regard the problem for the latitude and longitudinal waves independently. Here we shall analyze the first case. The received results can be used for choosing criterions of joined seismic methods for high complicated media research.If the boundaries of the inclusion of the k rank are fractals, the surface and contour integrals in the integral equations must be changed to repeated fractional integrals of Riman-Liuvill type .Using the developed earlier 3-d method of induction electromagnetic frequency geometric monitoring we showed the opportunity of defining of physical and structural features of hierarchic oil layer structure and estimating of water saturating by crack inclusions. For visualization we had elaborated some algorithms and programs for constructing cross sections for two hierarchic structural

  2. Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education

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    Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…

  3. Inclusion, children's groups, music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla; Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    2016-01-01

    the children! Initially by rocking in time to the rhythm, and then with dance moves or spontaneous singing. In this chapter, we demonstrate how music and music activities can be used as a means of including vulnerable children in school or preschool settings. Based on experiences from music therapy, we have...

  4. Hybrid Iterative Scheme for Triple Hierarchical Variational Inequalities with Mixed Equilibrium, Variational Inclusion, and Minimization Constraints

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    Lu-Chuan Ceng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze a hybrid iterative algorithm by combining Korpelevich's extragradient method, the hybrid steepest-descent method, and the averaged mapping approach to the gradient-projection algorithm. It is proven that, under appropriate assumptions, the proposed algorithm converges strongly to a common element of the fixed point set of finitely many nonexpansive mappings, the solution set of a generalized mixed equilibrium problem (GMEP, the solution set of finitely many variational inclusions, and the solution set of a convex minimization problem (CMP, which is also a unique solution of a triple hierarchical variational inequality (THVI in a real Hilbert space. In addition, we also consider the application of the proposed algorithm to solving a hierarchical variational inequality problem with constraints of the GMEP, the CMP, and finitely many variational inclusions.

  5. Swiss Children's Moral and Psychological Judgments about Inclusion and Exclusion of Children with Disabilities

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    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Children's judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities were investigated in a Swiss sample of 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms (N = 422). Overall, the majority of children judged it as morally wrong to exclude children with disabilities. Yet, participants were less likely to…

  6. PARENTS ATTITUDE: INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITY

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    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojicic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the attitudes of parents of “normal” developing children toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream education in Macedonia. Specifically, the study was aimed to explore the similarities and differences in the attitudes of two groups of parents: a group of parents of preschool children and a group of parents of school age children. Participants included 88 parents. Generally, many of the parents accept inclusive education, but most of them still think the special school is better place for education of children with disability.

  7. An Inclusive Classroom? A Case Study of Inclusiveness, Teacher Strategies, and Children's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilholm, Claes; Alm, Barbro

    2010-01-01

    A case study of what appears to be an inclusive classroom in Sweden is reported. The group of children in the class studied was very heterogeneous: five of the 15 children had a disability diagnosis at the time of the study. One aim of the study was to develop a methodology which can be used in order to investigate in what sense classrooms are…

  8. Newcomer Children: Experiences of Inclusion and Exclusion, and Their Outcomes

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    Jacqueline Oxman-Martinez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the potential inclusion and exclusion factors affecting the developmental outcomes of immigrant children, and examines the influence of inclusive school environment, social/psychological isolation, and perceived discrimination by peers and teachers on the psychosocial and academic adjustment of immigrant children. Our study is based on a subset of data from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study (NCCYS, a national longitudinal survey including 515 foreign-born immigrant children (11 to 13 years from three ethnic groups (Mainland China, Hong Kong, the Philippines living in the Montreal and Toronto metropolitan areas, Canada. The results show that after controlling for socio-demographic background variables, teachers’ discriminatory attitudes and psychological isolation contribute to the prediction of risk for immigrant children’s self-esteem, social competence, and academic performance. Inclusive school environment has a significant effect on social competence and academic performance of immigrant children. Peer discrimination is also associated with self-esteem and social competence. These findings suggest that inclusive school environment, social/psychological isolation, and discrimination are critical factors affecting the developmental outcomes of immigrant children that, in turn, are connected to future prospects for their eventual inclusion and participation in other social, economic, and political venues of the host country.

  9. Peculiarities of inclusive education of ASD children in Ukraine

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    Larysa Rybchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that special education in Ukraine is quite extensive and eveloped, education itself and social psychological development remain unavailable for children with ASD. The article aim is to show a model of autistic children inclusion in the educational system of Ukraine taking into account the experience of success. The investigated group consists of 20 children with ASD and 20 children with mental retardation from a boarding school aged from 8 to 9 years. The children indices were investigated according to Binet-Simon Scale for intelligence level determination, method of neuropsychological research according to Alexander Luria for psychophysical development level determination and Childhood Autism Rating Scale for autism level determination. The analysis of inclusive education implementation in the educational system of Ukraine has been conducted. The results of studies have shown that children with ASD have substantially lower indices of speech development, capacity for imitation as well as concentration of attention than children with mental retardation. Conductance of social intervention based of TEACCH therapy elements for group of children with ASD has shown their progress in indices of social interaction, emotional reaction and communication. The results obtained allow us to build a model of inclusion of children with ASD in the educational system of Ukraine. The main components of the model are considered.

  10. Working Children and Educational Inclusion in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Yemen has a very high number of working children, employed in a variety of occupations, ranging from street vending to guards on farms, and domestic labour. Including these children in formal education is a major challenge facing the Republic, which has one of the lowest rates of female participation in primary education in the…

  11. Social inclusion of children with cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    Tomič, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades the progress of science has enabled the development of cochlear implant, which is suitable for persons who have defected inner ear, so hearing amplification is no longer enough for them. It allows them to perceive sound and develop verbal language, which provide better quality of life. Because of that, around the world and also in Slovenia, more and more children with cochlear implants are being placed in mainstream school settings. Recently, researchers are paying mor...

  12. Swiss children's moral and psychological judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Children's judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities were investigated in a Swiss sample of 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms (N = 422). Overall, the majority of children judged it as morally wrong to exclude children with disabilities. Yet, participants were less likely to expect the inclusion of children with mental or physical disabilities in academic and athletic contexts compared to social contexts. Moreover, older children more consistently coordinated disability type with context of exclusion. There were also significant differences depending on the type of classroom. The findings extend existing research on exclusion by investigating exclusion based on disability across different age groups and educational settings.

  13. Swiss Children's Moral and Psychological Judgments about Inclusion and Exclusion of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Children's judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities were investigated in a Swiss sample of 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms (N = 422). Overall, the majority of children judged it as morally wrong to exclude children with disabilities. Yet, participants were less likely to…

  14. Inclusion understood from the perspectives of children with disability.

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    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Watkinson, E Jane

    2010-10-01

    This study explored the perspectives of children with disabilities regarding the concept of inclusion in physical activity. Participants were children (two girls, nine boys, Mage = 10 years, five months, age range: 8-12 years) with disabilities, including cerebral palsy, fine and gross motor delays, developmental coordination disorder, muscular dystrophy, nemaline myopathy, brachial plexus injury, and severe asthma. Children's perspectives on inclusion in physical activity (e.g., sports, games, and play) were explored through semistructured interviews. Interviews were digitally audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: gaining entry to play, feeling like a legitimate participant, and having friends. These themes were associated with feeling included to varying degrees in sports, games, and play. In essence, it was the actions of others that were the prominent features identified by children that contributed to feeling more or less included in physical activity contexts. These results are discussed in relation to inclusion in physical education, recreation, and unstructured free play.

  15. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

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    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  16. Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese

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    Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

  17. Enhancing Social Behavior of Children with Autism in an Inclusive Classroom

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    Rovira, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Though laws relating to including children on the autism spectrum and general education in public school settings are in place, inclusion of students is still not a widespread practice in all elementary classrooms. This study examines the social needs of children with autism and in an inclusive classroom. Children with autism are often placed in…

  18. Inclusion for Young Children with Disabilities: A Quarter Century of Research Perspectives

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    Odom, Samuel L.; Buysse, Virginia; Soukakou, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Issues affecting inclusion of young children with disabilities over the last 25 years are discussed. A brief history of early childhood inclusion is followed by a discussion of definition, terminology, and models for inclusive services. A summary of synthesis points derived from the research literature focuses on critical outcomes for children…

  19. The Perceptions of Piano Teachers Regarding the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in the Piano Studio

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    Martiros, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin to examine the factors that contribute to the inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities in piano lessons in private studios. Specifically, using a qualitative approach. the perceptions piano teachers have regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in the piano studio were studied. The…

  20. Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotions Following Exclusion of Children with Disabilities: Relations with Inclusive Education, Age, and Contact Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…

  1. Inclusive practices for children and youths with communication disorders. Ad Hoc Committee on Inclusion for students with Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An array of inclusive service delivery models is recommended for the implementation of services to children and youths with communication disorders. Inclusive practices are intervention services that are based on the unique and specific needs of the individual, and provided in a context that is least restrictive. There are a variety of models through which inclusive practices can be provided, including a direct (pull-out) program, in classroom-based service delivery, community-based models, and consultative interventions. These models should be seen as flexible options that may change depending on student needs. The speech-language pathologist, in collaboration with parents, the student, teachers, support personnel, and administrators, is in the ideal position to decide the model or combination of models that best serves each individual student's communication needs. Implementation of inclusive practices requires consideration of multiple issues, including general education reform, cost effectiveness, and program efficacy. In addition, administrative and school system support, personnel qualifications, staff development, flexible scheduling, and the effects of inclusive practices on all learners need to be considered. At present, available research suggests guarded optimism for the effectiveness of inclusive practices. However, many critical questions have not yet been addressed and additional research is needed to assess the full impact of inclusive practices for students with communication disorders.

  2. Inclusive Education for Children with Specific Learning Difficulties: Analysis of Opportunities and Barriers in Inclusive Education in Slovenia

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    Marija Kavkler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education allows for universal inclusion, participation and achievement of all children, including children with specific learning difficulties (SpLD. Children with SpLD form a heterogeneous group with diverse cognitive deficits, special educational needs (SEN and strengths, and have a legislated right to the continuum of both assistance and support programmes. Although their intellectual capacity is average or above average, their learning achievements in some learning domains are modest, and they are poorly integrated into their social environment, which often results in their discrimination. Barriers and opportunities in the area of SpLD were analysed with the aid of Ball’s model (1994, with factors and conditions being analysed within the contexts of policy influence, text production and practice. The contexts of policy influence and text production provide the basic conditions for the in clusive education of children with SpLD. The context of influence on in clusive policy for children with SpLD represents a systematic approach to policy initiation and to the prerequisites for its implementation in practice. The context of policy text production focuses on professionals and their impact on the enactment of the rights of children with severe SpLD. The context of practice concerns barriers and opportunities for implementing inclusion in practice. Early identification and diagnosis of pupils’ strengths, deficits and SEN, together with intensified treatment corresponding to the SEN of children with SpLD, could significantly influence the efficiency of the educational process. Barriers, primarily of an immaterial nature, are mainly encountered in those schools that do not implement the five-tier Response to Intervention (RTI approach. This approach enables children with SpLD a continuum of team-based diagnostic evaluation, effective adaptations and assistance. The main reasons for the unfavourable situation concern education

  3. Children's moral judgments and moral emotions following exclusion of children with disabilities: relations with inclusive education, age, and contact intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-03-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions.

  4. Inclusion of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Listening and Hearing to Voices from the Grassroots.

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    Majoko, Tawanda

    2016-04-01

    The current significantly high prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) coupled with the paradigm shift from exclusive to inclusive education warrants research on inclusion of children with ASD in mainstream classrooms in Zimbabwe. A qualitative methodology was used to interview 21 regular primary school teachers regarding social barriers and enablers of inclusion of 6-12 year old children with ASD in mainstream classrooms in Harare educational province of Zimbabwe. Data analysis comprised pattern coding and cross-case analysis. Social rejection, communication impairments and behavioural challenges of children with ASD interfered with inclusion in mainstream classrooms. Regular teachers' training, stakeholder collaboration and institutionalization of social support services and programmes would facilitate the inclusion of children with ASD in mainstream classrooms.

  5. An Inclusion Initiative in Singapore for Preschool Children with Special Needs

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    Yeo, Lay See; Neihart, Maureen; Tang, Hui Nee; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a preschool inclusion initiative in Singapore, which currently has no mandate for integrating children with special needs in mainstream schools. This very small-scale qualitative study involving children with mild learning disabilities discusses a therapy outreach programme by a local children's hospital. It explores the…

  6. Children from the Dalit Community in Rural Nepal: A Challenge to Inclusive Education

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    Khanal, Damodar

    2015-01-01

    Based on empirical research carried out in public secondary schools in the western part of Nepal, this article examines how Dalit children experience secondary-level education. Their experiences are explored using in-depth interviews with Dalit children, their parents and teachers. The findings reveal that Dalit children's inclusion is affected by…

  7. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS IN REGULAR SCHOOLS: STUDENTS ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS

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    Ludmila MALCOCI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Moldova started the process of deinstitutionalization of children with disabilities/and special educational needs and their inclusion in biological families and mainstream community based services. Alongside with the deinstitutionalization, inclusion of children with special educational needs in regular community schools became a strategic direction of the educational policies in Moldova. In 2014, the Alliance of NGOs in the field of Social Protection of Family and Child conducted a research on assessment of inclusive education models implemented in pilot schools with the aim to identify positive practices, learned lessons and challenges in developing policies in the field of evidence-based education2 The research was conducted in 20 pilot schools from 12 counties. There were interviewed 200 teachers, 20 school managers, 360 students (162 pupils with SEN, 112 students studying in classes with children with SEN and 86 children studying in classes with no students having SEN. 10 focus group discussions with caregivers, students, teachers, parents (all in total 100 participants and 6 interviews with the general directorates of education and mayors were conducted. The article is focused on comparative analysis of perceptions, attitudes and behaviors of students with SEN and typical students regarding the inclusion of children with SEN in regular schools. The author concluded that the implementation of inclusive education resulted in rather positive changes in respective schools: provision with materials, modern devices, improvement of teaching quality and methods, change in the behaviors of children with SEN and in typical children; the typical children have positive attitudes and perceptions regarding the inclusion of children with SEN in their regular community schools; the level of school satisfaction of both: children with SEN and typical children is pretty high; the social and learning environment in pilot schools is friendly

  8. Effects of Exposure to Inclusion and Socioeconomic Status on Parental Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

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    Most, Tova; Ingber, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the attitudes of parents of normal hearing (NH) children towards the inclusion of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in the educational setting of their child. In particular, it examined the effect of parental socio economic status (SES) and exposure to inclusion (whether their child was in a class…

  9. Inclusion of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Listening and Hearing to Voices from the Grassroots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoko, Tawanda

    2016-01-01

    The current significantly high prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) coupled with the paradigm shift from exclusive to inclusive education warrants research on inclusion of children with ASD in mainstream classrooms in Zimbabwe. A qualitative methodology was used to interview 21 regular primary school teachers regarding social…

  10. 77 FR 11119 - Request for Nominations of Children's Healthcare Quality Measures for Potential Inclusion in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Healthcare Quality Measures for Potential Inclusion in the CHIPRA 2013 Improved Core Set of Health Care... Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA), Public Law 111-3, amended the Social Security Act to enact section 1139A (42... soliciting the submission of measures of children's healthcare quality for potential inclusion in the...

  11. Educational and Social Inclusion of Handicapped Children. Polish Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to a very difficult and important subject--inclusion. Removing barriers, spreading social awareness and firmly established assistantship-guidance: these are the pillars by which inclusion is no longer an idea, but it becomes a process of creating a modern model of human functioning in the world. This pattern is primarily…

  12. Special Needs Education and Inclusive Education : Where are the children with disabilities being taught?

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 浩明; Hiroaki, Ikeda; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between special needs education and inclusive education with regard to where children study. It is said that Special Needs Education is education for students in consideration of individual educational needs according to MEXT. In Japan, children with disabilities usually attend special schools separated from regular schools. However, it seems that the level of inclusive education in Japan is not so different from that in UK and in USA, ...

  13. Inclusion of children with autism spectrum disorders through shared peer activity

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    Stephen Von Tetzchner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X9830Inclusion may be defined as having a full and active part in the life of the mainstream kindergarten or school. There are professional, political and ethical reasons for striving for inclusion and there are different approaches to how inclusive education and training of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD should be organized. The basis for the illustrative case excerpts presented here is a blend of social constructivism, event cognition and ecological psychology. Children with ASD vary widely and intervention has to be based on knowledge about development, learning and autism in general, as well as knowledge about the individual child and his or her proximal environment or ecology. Many children with ASD need some one-to-one education but participation in child-managed activities and events is a core element of true inclusion. The case excerpts illustrate principles for how this may be achieved.   

  14. Exploring Children's Perceptions of Two School-Based Social Inclusion Programs: A Pilot Study

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    Lindsay, Sally; McPherson, Amy C.; Aslam, Henna; McKeever, Patricia; Wright, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although social exclusion among typically developing school-aged children has been well explored, it is under-researched for children with disabilities even though they are at a higher risk for being excluded. While there are a number of different programs available to improve social inclusion at school, the appeal of these programs to…

  15. A Special Challenge for Europe: The Inclusion of Roma Children in Early Years Education and Care

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    Klaus, Sarah; Marsh, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Provision of early childhood education and care (ECEC) for Roma children serves as a litmus test for the broader social inclusion agenda in Europe. The majority of Roma children and families live in substandard, often insecure and isolated housing and have limited access to quality health, social care and education services. There is a growing…

  16. Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools.

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    Horrocks, Judy L; White, George; Roberts, Laura

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to identify the attitudes that principals held regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities, and the relationship between their attitudes and their placement recommendations for children with autism and to identify the relationship between specific demographic factors and attitudes toward inclusion and placement. A stratified random sample was drawn from the active list of 3,070 principals in the Pennsylvania public schools. From 1,500 surveys, 571 principal responses were received. The most significant factor in predicting both a positive attitude toward inclusion of children with disabilities and higher recommendations of placements for children with autism was the principal's belief that children with autism could be included in a regular education classroom.

  17. The Inclusive Classroom: How Inclusive Is Inclusion?

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    Reid, Claudette M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the position that inclusion is limited; inclusion does not go far enough. The inclusive classroom has been assessed to be of benefit both to the teacher and student. There are, however, limits set on inclusion. In most classrooms only children with learning disability are included omitting those with severe disabilities,…

  18. Long-range Correlations and Patterns of Recurrence in Children and Adults’ Attention to Hierarchical Displays

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    Ramon D. Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to make sense of a scene, a person must pay attention to several levels of nested order, ranging from the most differentiated details of the display to the integrated whole. In adults, research shows that the processes of integration and differentiation have the signature of self-organization. Does the same hold for children? The current study addresses this question with children between 6 and 9 years of age, using two tasks that require attention to hierarchical displays. A group of adults were tested as well, for control purposes. To get at the question of self-organization, reaction time data were submitted to a detrended fluctuation analysis and a recurrence quantification analysis. Hurst exponents shows a long-range correlations (1/f noise, and recurrence measures (percent determinism, maximum line, entropy, and trend, show a deterministic structure of variability being characteristic of self-organizing systems. Findings are discussed in terms of organism-environment coupling that gives rise to fluid attention to hierarchical displays.

  19. Inclusive Childcare Services: Meeting the Challenge for Indigenous Children

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    Sims; Margaret; Saggers, Sherry; Frances, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Child care for indigenous children provides an important site for early health and wellbeing interventions, and smooths the transition to school. It is demonstrably protective for children vulnerable to abuse and neglect. Furthermore, employment in child care and/or having access to child care in order to take up other employment provides a…

  20. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES: A COMMUNITY-BASED REHABILITATION APPROACH, INDIA

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    Ram LAKHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities (ID and multiple disabilities (MD in regular schools in India is extremely poor. One of the key objectives of community-based rehabilitation (CBR is to include ID & MD children in regular schools. This study attempted to find out association with age, ID severity, poverty, gender, parent education, population, and multiple disabilities comprising one or more disorders cerebral palsy, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders with inclusion among 259 children in Barwani Block of Barwani District in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.Aim: Inclusion of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities in regular schools through CBR approach in India.Method: Chi square test was conducted to investigate association between inclusion and predictor variables ID categories, age, gender, poverty level, parent education, population type and multiple disabilities. Result: Inclusion was possible for borderline 2(66.4%, mild 54(68.3%, moderate 18(18.2%, and age range from 5 to 12 years 63 (43%. Children living in poor families 63 (30.6%, not poor 11(18.9%, parental edu­ca­ti­on none 52 (26%, primary level 11 (65%, midd­le school 10 (48% high school 0 (0% and bachelor degree 1(7%, female 34 (27.9%, male 40 (29.2%, tribal 40 (28.7%, non-tribal 34(28.3% and multiple disabled with cerebral palsy 1(1.2%, epilepsy 3 (4.8% and psychiatry disorders 12 (22.6% were able to receive inclusive education. Sig­ni­ficant difference in inclusion among ID ca­te­gories (c2=99.8, p < 0.001, poverty (c2=3.37, p 0.044, parental education (c2=23.7, p < 0.001, MD CP (c2=43.9, p < 0.001 and epilepsy (c2=22.4, p < 0.001 were seen.Conclusion: Inclusion through CBR is feasible and acceptable in poor rural settings in India. CBR can facilitate inclusion of children with borderline, mild and moderate categories by involving their parents, teachers and community members.

  1. Longitudinal Analyses of a Hierarchical Model of Peer Social Competence for Preschool Children: Structural Fidelity and External Correlates

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    Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.; Kim, Mina; Krzysik, Lisa; Bost, Kelly K.; McBride, Brent; Santos, Antonio J.; Peceguina, Ines; Coppola, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    Achieving consensus on the definition and measurement of social competence (SC) for preschool children has proven difficult in the developmental sciences. We tested a hierarchical model in which SC is assumed to be a second-order latent variable by using longitudinal data (N = 345). We also tested the degree to which peer SC at Time 1 predicted…

  2. Assistive technologies for promoting inclusion for children with multiple disabilities

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    Fabrizio Stasolla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reported here is aimed at assessing the efficacy of a computer-based alternative and augmentative communication (AAC program for two children with cerebral palsy and multiple disabilities. The results show that both participants’ communication skills improved during intervention and post-intervention phases. This was confirmed by scores from social validation procedures carried out by undergraduate students; these substantiated the hypothesis of the intervention’s rehabilitation value. These results support the clinical validity of the computer-mediated AAC intervention for children with multiple/profound disabilities.

  3. The Role of Speech Pathologist in Inclusive Education of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Tsyrulnikova E.L.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the author’s practical experience in inclusion of children with autism spectrum disorder in a general educational setting, that is, in a group of normally developing peers participating in group lessons aimed at forming basic mathematical concepts. The author hopes that this material might be useful to teachers of kindergartens and schools who are providing education to children with ASD and including them in regular groups and classes.

  4. Labour Force Inclusion of Parents Caring for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that sought to identify the particular problems Canadian parents caring for children with disabilities face in trying to make the transition to work in terms of their child care arrangements and employment-related factors, and best practices in child care arrangements and employment accommodations.…

  5. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  6. Teaching Inclusion Preparation Skills to Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odluyurt, Serhat; Batu, E. Sema

    2010-01-01

    The general purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting embedded in activities for teaching preparatory skills to children with developmental disabilities. Furthermore, determining the perspectives of the teachers about the skills taught to the participants and also to themselves were targeted. Depending…

  7. A Comparison of the Social Competence of Children with Moderate Intellectual Disability in Inclusive versus Segregated School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Sharon; Guerin, Suzanne; Fitzsimons, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n = 20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n…

  8. Parents' Experiences and Decisions on Inclusive Sport Participation of Their Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Eva Hiu-Lun; Fung, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of parents of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) as they sought inclusive sport participation for their children. To understand their experiences, in-depth interviews were conducted with 49 parents. Qualitative data analysis was conducted to identify common themes from the responses. The analysis showed…

  9. Using Children's Picture Books about Autism as Resources in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Miranda L.; Tackett, Mary E.; Azano, Amy Price

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on developing teacher understanding of how to carefully select and use children's picture books about autism as a tool for teaching awareness, empathy, and acceptance in an elementary classroom setting. We describe how the increased rate of autism and growing practice of inclusive educational settings affect classroom practice…

  10. Conceptualisations of Disability and Inclusion: Perspectives of Educators of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Colleen; Underwood, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores beliefs about disability and inclusion from the perspectives of educators of young children in their respective roles as elementary school teachers and early childhood educators, in Ontario, Canada. The social relational model described by Reindal is used as a theoretical framework for interviews with four…

  11. Training Staff to Measure the Engagement of Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Childcare Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Yuriko; Kemp, Coral

    2010-01-01

    Practitioner use of the revised Individual Child Engagement Record--Revised (ICER-R) for observing children with disabilities in inclusive childcare is examined. Training in the use of the ICER-R, which includes both a momentary time sampling observation system and rating scales, was provided across two training phases with five to seven…

  12. Prioritising the Inclusion of Children and Young People with Disabilities in Post-Conflict Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    There has been limited attention paid to the link between conflict and disability and even less recognition for the importance of facilitating inclusion of children and young people with disabilities in post-conflict societies. The end of a civil conflict provides an opportunity for social and political change, and progressive education policies…

  13. A case study: Inclusion for children with psychiatric diagnosis in physical education (PE) at primary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    and Establish and Outsider groups, and micro-sociologist Erving Goffmans theory about Stigma and Dramaturgies.Expected conclusions and findings.The research is at the moment in process and the presentation will only show initial analyses:The inclusion in the PE lessons seems to deviate among the children. Some...

  14. VIDA - Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare - an inclusive ECEC program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte

    Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA...... intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts...... in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs...

  15. Educational Supports for the Inclusive Education for the Children with Severe and Multiple Disabilities in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chang-Wan; Kwon, Hae-Jin; Kim, Moon-Jung; Tanaka, Atsushi; 田中, 敦士

    2012-01-01

    As the inclusive education for students with disabilities has been expanded recently, the number of special class and the number of students who are given inclusive education in regular schools have increased. In spite of the current tendency in South Korea, the children with severe and multiple disabilities have been frequently isolated or neglected from education and the inclusive education has focused on the physical inclusion; the educational supports are not sufficient. In this context, ...

  16. ACTIVITIES AT THE HEAD OF INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES IN EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF PRESCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Grebennikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  is  devoted  to  the  actual  topic  of  pr eschool education the organization of inclusive education of children with disabilities in preschool educational  organizations.  The  aim  of  the article is to describe the activity of the head preschool organiz ation when the children with HIA in the educational space of preschool organization. Solve problems is the fact that in pre-school organizations come a variety of children not only in age, but also with ind ividual special needs, including those with disabil ities. In this connection there is need to create ind ividual educational routes and the development of models  of inclusion  of  children  with  HIA.  This  approach is associated with modern social concept allows to consider inclusion as a dynamically evol ving approach of a positive attitude to diversity of children and in the perception of the individual characteristics, not as a problem but as an opportunity to enrich the learning process. The authors substantiate the thesis that the current situation of education in the most appropriate conditions for carrying out the  process  of  integrating  preschool  children  with HIA  can  be  created  in  the  kindergarten  combined type, which provides for the operation of groups of compensating orientation, recruitment, software and methodical and logistical support. The article ident ified  and  justified by the tasks that need to be a ddressed to the head of preschool educational organizations in the organization of inclusive education.

  17. Inclusion of Children with Hearing Impairment in Schools: A Survey on Teachers’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Santhi S Prakash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classrooms has become the focus of extensive research in education. It has both academic and social benefits for all students, such as providing opportunities for communication and social interaction. The evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion appears to be a good method to determine the success of the programme. Although this has been widely researched in many countries, the available evidence is not consistent. This study was undertaken in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, to measure and compare teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with hearing impairment in schools.Method: A questionnaire developed by Giles and Tanner (1995 measuring three domains - (1 effective strategies for meeting the needs of all students, (2 the support for educational change in their district, and (3 inclusive education - was modified in keeping with cultural and geographical variations and used as the test tool. A hundred teachers of various Government and non-Government schools in 2 districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, participated in the study.Results: Higher scores on domain 1 indicate that teachers feel effective strategies to benefit students with disabilities should be implemented in schools. The results also indicate that most teachers are agreeable to the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classrooms. Significant difference in attitudes was observed, based on the teachers’ qualifications, teaching experience, gender, level of teaching and management.Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a need for intervention to foster more positive attitudes among teachers, if the implementation of inclusive education is to succeed. It also has implications for the framing of laws and policies for children with hearing impairments.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.117

  18. Evaluating Community Inclusion: A Novel Treatment Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Webb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A state-funded, non-profit organization developed an innovative inclusion program for children with Autism spectrum disorders and developmental delays, Including Special Kids, which offers activities for children with developmental delays alongside typically developing children in collaboration with well-established local youth programs. This case study examines the ISK intervention program at the original community host sites to determine if the evidence supports a measurable and demonstrable change in behaviors in a real-world setting that may lead to increased quality of life and greater inclusion in the community. Using evidence-based data, we measured the progress of 30 children over 6-24 months. Children participating in the program showed average improvement in all but two function areas and improvement in all composite scores. While these results do not prove program success, they offer an indication that the program helps children learn skills and behaviors to successfully navigate and become part of community-based, after-school recreational programs.

  19. An evaluation of the Kids are Kids disability awareness program: increasing social inclusion among children with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Despite the intent of integration to promote positive social interactions between children with and without disabilities, there is growing concern that many children with special needs who are in inclusive settings feel socially isolated. The evaluation of interventions designed to promote disability awareness is critical if we are to increase opportunities for social success for these children. This research study was designed to determine whether the Kids Are Kids (KAK) program can positively impact the attitudes of children toward their peers with physical disabilities, as well as increase the social inclusion of these children. Results suggest that the KAK program had a positive impact on the attitudes of children toward their peers with disabilities, immediately following the program. Where social skill building was provided to 1 target child, attitude scores for that class remained elevated 1 month after the program. Two of the 3 target children reported increased social inclusion 1 month after the program.

  20. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN DAY CARE INSTITUTION ESTREA MARA IN BITOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SOTIROVSKA-SIRVINI

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The Day Care Institutions for children are forms of organized protection for improvement of the psycho-physical, emotional and social development of children. In this period, the growth and development are in their most intensive phase when the outside influence plays an extraordinary role both in a positive and in negative a direction. Directed and well-organized protection is of a great importance. By inclusion of children with developmental disorders in the group and with special, individual treatment of each child by adequate specialized staff, their socialization and stimulus for developmental acceleration is achieved.Many years ago, by recommendation of the Advisory Institution for Development, the doctors from the Advisory Institution for small children, the public-health nurses or by the parents initiative, the kindergartens accept children with Down syndrome, children with limited and lower level backwardness, with disharmonious development, with lower level forms of cerebral paralysis and with speech disorders.Children at the earliest age of one month are resided at the Advisory Institu­­tion for Development and receive treatment until they are categorized and are ready to start school, but certain children are sent to the kindergartens at the age of 3.In the previous years, out of five children with Down syndrome treated in the Advisory Institution for Development, four were sent to the kindergarten. Now, one of these children attends the fifth grade and two attend the first grade in a regular elementary school and one attends the special school. Three children with Spastic dyplegia, four children with lower level of retardation, two with surdomutitas and four with disharmonious development are still in the kindergarten.

  1. Obstacles a l'inclusion scolaire des enfants d'age prescolaire ayant des besoins speciaux. [Obstacles to Inclusion of Preschool-Age Special Needs Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Sylvie; Beaupre, Pauline; Giroux, Martine; Gagne, Marie-eve; Guerard, Lucie

    2001-01-01

    Identifies obstacles faced by young children with special needs when trying to integrate into school. Proposes new strategies to prepare and support personnel involved during transition and inclusion in the school setting. Details group discussion of parents, care center educators, teachers, and administrators that resulted in a transition plan.…

  2. Inclusive Special Education: Development of a New Theory for the Education of Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education and special education are based on different philosophies and provide alternative views of education for children with special educational needs and disabilities. They are increasingly regarded as diametrically opposed in their approaches. This article presents a theory of "inclusive special education" that comprises…

  3. Inclusion of blind children in primary schools : a case study of teachers’ opinions in Moroto district-Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Igune, George William

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the teachers’ opinions about inclusion of children who are blind; the factors which may influence their opinions and what they think can be done to include children who are blind in primary schools. It was a qualitative study which purposely involved five teachers from two primary schools. Data was collected through interviews. The centre of interest in the study was on the acceptance of children who are blind by the teachers; participation of children who are blin...

  4. Inclusive Education for Children with Special Education Needs:A Critique of Policy and Practice in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Hornby

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the issue of inclusive education for children with disabilities and special educational needs, in particular with regard to policies and practices in developed countries, such as New Zealand. The article reviews the debate about inclusive education and outlines several confusions about inclusion that have emerged from this debate. It then provides a critique of policies and practices regarding inclusive education in New Zealand, in comparison to those in other developed countries, such as the USA and England. Finally, implications of the issues discussed for developing countries, such as those in the Asia-'‐Pacific region, are outlined.

  5. [Comparing students in inclusive education to those in special schools: the view of parents of children with learning disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klicpera, Christian; Klicpera, Barbara Gasteiger

    2004-12-01

    The paper presents the results of a survey of 755 parents of learning disabled children with certified special needs who either attended classes within regular education or special schools. All parents were involved in the decision on the school placement of their children. The experiences of 547 parents of learning disabled students in inclusive classes were contrasted with those of 207 parents of children in special schools. Besides a rather high satisfaction with previous school experiences of their children a number of differences between the two groups of parents could be observed. Parents of students in special schools viewed their children as rather little challenged by their educational requirements whereas those in inclusive education found their children to be overtaxed. The social development of the students in inclusive education was judged as more positive and, generally, a higher rate of parents of learning disabled students in inclusive classes were satisfied with their choice of the educational setting. Although the requirements for parental support concerning studying were higher in inclusive classes this cannot solely explain the differences of experiences with school. In a second step, satisfied parents were compared to dissatisfied parents. It could be found that the group of dissatisfied parents had to make their choice on the educational setting of their children under less favourable conditions and many could not accept that their child had been classified as having special needs. This applied to parents of students in inclusive education as well as to parents of children in special schools. Additionally, parents of students with German as a second language reported to be discontented more frequently. No significant discrepancies could be found between different grades or federal states with different quotas of inclusive education.

  6. Determinants of Inclusive Education of 8-12 Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy in 9 European Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Ehlinger, Virginie; Michelsen, Susan Ishoy; Marcelli, Marco; Dickinson, Heather Olivia; Arnaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The principle of inclusive education has been increasingly recognised over recent decades and most countries officially support schooling of children with disabilities in mainstream settings. The SPARCLE study offers the opportunity to report on the schooling practices for children with cerebral palsy according to the nature and severity of their…

  7. The Effect of Activity Type on the Engagement and Interaction of Young Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Childcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral; Kishida, Yuriko; Carter, Mark; Sweller, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The engagement and adult and peer interaction of 37 young children with a range of disabilities was measured in free play, group, and meal-routine activities in inclusive childcare settings. A significant effect for activity type was found for total engagement, active engagement, and passive engagement, with the children being more engaged in…

  8. Determinants of inclusive education of 8-12 year-old children with cerebral palsy in 9 European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Ehlinger, Virginie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy;

    2013-01-01

    The principle of inclusive education has been increasingly recognised over recent decades and most countries officially support schooling of children with disabilities in mainstream settings. The SPARCLE study offers the opportunity to report on the schooling practices for children with cerebral ...

  9. The inclusion of children with special needs into optional group dance activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj, Neva

    2012-01-01

    The thesis explores the effects of dance/movement therapy based on the inclusion of two children with special needs into a dance group activity. The aim of the study was to determine to what extent methods of dance/movement therapy assist the development of social skills and influence interpersonal relations within the group. The study also explores to what extent integrating methods of dance/movement therapy into the group influences children’s feeling of satisfaction and success. The main r...

  10. Substituting ICT as a lever for inclusion of children with reading and writing difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents research findings from a 3 year development and research project named Project IT-folder (PIF) that aimed at inclusion of young children with potential reading and writing difficulties into normal classes in a suburb to the Danish capital. The project ran from 2007 to June 2010...... represent an average teacher-population rather than frontrunners. The project's methodology was designed as research based interventions into the everyday practice, while data was collected through qualitative and anthropological methods, collection of student work and school assessment measures. Even...

  11. Using a logic model to evaluate the Kids Together early education inclusion program for children with disabilities and additional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Kathleen; Manning, Claire; Williams, Kathryn; O'Brien, Ginger; Sutherland, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Despite clear evidence that learning and social opportunities for children with disabilities and special needs are more effective in inclusive not segregated settings, there are few known effective inclusion programs available to children with disabilities, their families or teachers in the early years within Australia. The Kids Together program was developed to support children with disabilities/additional needs aged 0-8 years attending mainstream early learning environments. Using a key worker transdisciplinary team model, the program aligns with the individualised package approach of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS).

  12. Theoretical and Technological Basis of the Organization of Inclusive Education of Children in a Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukminova Y. N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Realities of the formed information society made actual for inclusive education a problem of formation of professionals of the new directions capable to apply information technologies to improvement of interaction between participants of process of distance learning. Until recent time the institute of distance learning had no analogs in our educational system. It has to become one of the most important elements of the organization of remote education. Inclusive education becomes the new strategic direction of modern education in Russia, its program of development to 2020 is designated by the Federal law “About the education in the Russian Federation” which has come into force on September 1, 2013. Ideas of inclusive training were born from a pressing need of society to help children to be integrated with features of development into society. Without it a creation of a new civilized society, the education system that meets the requirements of the humanistic principles is not possible. In this connection, creation of a substantial and technological basis of the organization of inclusive education of children in the mode of distance learning is an extremely important for today social, moral and pedagogical problem. In its center are the development of the subject, granting equal opportunities to each pupil to build the individual educational trajectory, culturological cultivation of the person capable to take an independent position in relation to external conditions. Distance learning serves as strong and active technology of socialization of such children. However, in the theory and a technique of training, the problem of distance learning of children with disabilities is insufficiently solved that is caused by unavailability of most of teachers to apply these technologies. There is a contradiction between objective practical need of distance learning for children with disabilities and insufficient readiness of a theoretical and technological

  13. Constructing a short form of the hierarchical personality inventory for children (HiPIC): the HiPIC-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Margarete E; Hampson, Sarah E; Torgersen, Svenn

    2016-05-01

    Children's personality traits are invaluable predictors of concurrent and later mental and physical health. Several validated longer inventories for assessing the widely recognized Five-Factor Model of personality in children are available, but short forms are scarce. This study aimed at constructing a 30-item form of the 144-item Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC) (Mervielde & De Fruyt, ). Participants were 1543 children aged 6-12 years (sample 1) and 3895 children aged 8 years (sample 2). Sample 1 completed the full HiPIC, from which we constructed the HiPIC-30, and the Child Behaviour Checklist (Achenbach, ). Sample 2 completed the HiPIC-30. The HiPIC-30 personality domains correlated over r = .90 with the full HiPIC domains, had good Cronbach's alphas and correlated similarly with CBCL behaviour problems and gender as the full HiPIC. The factor structures of the HiPIC-30 were convergent across samples, but the imagination factor was not clear-cut. We conclude that the HiPIC-30 is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the Five-Factor personality traits in children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Sharon

    2009-03-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n=20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n=25; segregated school). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale-School: 2nd edition. A series of 2 x 2 ANOVAs were carried out on social competence scores using educational placement type (inclusive vs segregated school) and proxy rater (parent vs teacher) as the independent variables. Key findings indicated that children in inclusive schools did not differ significantly from children in segregated schools on the majority of proxy ratings of social competence. This supports the belief that children with intellectual disabilities can function well in different educational settings. Present findings highlight the importance of utilising the functional model of ID when selecting and designing school placements for children with moderate ID.

  15. Contributions of Occupational Therapy for the school inclusion of children suffering from autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carla de Souza Della Barba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to report the experience of occupational therapists based on the theoretical reference of Collaborative Consulting. The experiment was carried out in two children education schools of the regular school network from two small cities in countryside of the state of São Paulo. The methodology is characterized by a case study and the information was gathered within the period of six months, through open interviews and a field diary, along with the intervention planned by the Extension Project Collaborative Consulting on the school inclusion of children suffering from development disorders – an Occupational Therapy procedure proposal. Subjects from two schools were used as targets for this intervention: two students with diagnosed autism, their mothers, and the schools’ technical teams: the pedagogical coordinators, the teachers, the monitors, and the principals. The proposed intervention began with the construction of a corporation between the actors involved and the organization of the meetings, which consisted of an environment for sharing the experiences as well as for action planning. The results were positive concerning the effectiveness of school inclusion, highlighting the access and permanence of children in school, the facilitation of their learning, and the awareness of the involved actors regarding diversity, respect and team work. The action of the occupational therapist occurred on the articulation of the team work, the support towards awareness, and the identification of needs and achievements, evaluating and building together with the strategies and actions. These actions contributed to the analysis of the activities and orientations about their possibilities of adaptation and flexibility, on the support offered to the actors involved regarding the rules, legislation and specific aspects of each child.

  16. What hearing children think regarding the inclusion of deaf children in the regular classroom: a comparative study with Brazilian children in a public and a private school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vargas Dorneles

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how hearing children relate to the presence of a deaf child in a classroom group. An analysis is made of the influence of social class in relation to the acceptance of the deaf child by the hearing children. The 144 children from the 3rd to 5th series that participated in the study were distributed thus: 76 from a private school and 68 from a public school, both from Porto Alegre, RS. The public school largely attended lower level socioeconomic classes, while the private school attended pupils from predominantly middle to upper social classes. All received the same task: Complete a story that describes the reaction of hearing students to the insertion of a new deaf colleague in the classroom group. The study demonstrates that pupils wish to attempt to communicate with the deaf child and would socialize with the child outside the classroom. They demonstrate a somewhat protective discourse in relation to the subject who they consider disabled but not incapable of communicating. Understanding how hearing children relate to, and include a deaf child within the classroom, raises the possibility of new forms of thinking regarding the preparation of hearing children to possible inclusion processes. Recognizing their ideas, feelings and forms of communication aids educational institutions to invest in inclusion policies.

  17. The social representation about handicapped students in inclusive education: the view of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mendonça Vasconcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically excluded, handicapped people have been socially included through new standards guided by egalitarian principles. The Social Representation Theory, which studies how the common sense builds “theories” about relevant objects, was used to answer how this situation affects children socially and psychologically in inclusive schools. We use a multimethodological approach with free associations, drawings and focus groups to study the social representations of 39 third and fourth grade students about their handicapped colleagues, all the children being from a state school in Recife, Pernambuco. The data were submitted to content analysis and analysis using the EVOC software, and the results indicate that handicapped children are seen as people limited by a temporary or permanent shortage or disability; they learn differently from others and disrupt classes; they require constant care and protection; they are allowed to join the group, but not to be part of it. The group seems to be outlining the contours of otherness, which shows a representation under construction.

  18. POVERTY AND COLOR IN CHILDREN'S EDUCATION: NECESSARY OBSERVATIONS TO THE WORK OF SCHOLAR INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Maria Santos de Aguiar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a part of the results of a Master’s research in which the issue of children who face differentiation and inequality processes in their relationships inside school is investigated in terms of its ties to socioeconomic conditions, as well as color/race definitions. The investigation was made using the children’s own perception. The article aims to contribute to the discussion towards both the initial and continuous formation of professionals working at schools, those who should be able to observe and even question their own manners of acting and feeling while working, identifying prejudices and situations of exclusion/marginalization which they may help to produce in the school routine. The research used the ethnographic method, focusing on the children’s narratives, color/race classifications, socioeconomic surveys, field observations and interviews with the children and the teachers. The analysis of the results indicates the need of a discussion of the educational culture and its important role in the process of building identities, since it was possible to identify the daily practices that discriminate and exclude children who should supposedly find, at school, an inclusive environment able to build a positive image of themselves, as well as the African-American population and its aesthetics and culture.

  19. Parental Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities in General Primary Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anke A.; Munde, Vera S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing introduction of inclusive education, children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) are barely included. Because an underlying factor here may be the attitudes of those directly involved, the present study focuses on the attitude of parents and relating variables concerning experience with individuals with…

  20. An Inclusive School Choir for Children with Autism in Israel: Using Grounded Theory to Explore the Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Eilat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role and place of an inclusive children’s choir in Israel for children with autism and neurotypical children. 16 individuals participated in the study, including ten staff members from a school for children with autism, four staff members from a mainstream school, two eleven-year old girls from the mainstream school who sang in the choir, and four parents from both schools whose children sang in the choir. The study utilized grounded theory with purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews. Categorical analysis of the data was used. The description of the results demonstrates that the programme filled six major roles: musical, social, educational, cultural, emotional, and inclusive; although there were challenges to this inclusive music making opportunity. In addition, we found that an inclusive choir can change its participants’ social perceptions of the “other”. Its success is dependent on the administration’s positive attitude, cooperation of educational staff from both schools – mainstream and special education – and the sensitivity of the choir’s conductor.

  1. Inclusive Education and Perceptions of Learning Facilitators of Children with Special Needs in a School in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynert, Mariam John

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concept of inclusion and the degree to which it is being practiced in Swedish municipality schools and tries to draw some conclusions about the nature of pedagogy practiced in Sweden. This is a qualitative case study where primary data are collected from only five facilitators of children of special needs in one school in…

  2. Children and Youth in Behavioural and Emotional Difficulties, Skyrocketing Diagnosis and Inclusion/Exclusion Processes in School Tendencies in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langager, Søren

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with a national school policy on an inclusive school with a marked reduction in the number of pupils who, due to their disruptive behaviour, are referred to educational provisions outside of the ordinary school environment, a sharp rise has been seen in the number of children and teenagers who are given a clinical diagnosis, first and…

  3. Behaviorally Based Interventions for Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Children with ASD in Inclusive Settings: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Síglia Pimentel Höher; Rispoli, Mandy; Ganz, Jennifer; Hong, Ee Rea; Davis, Heather; Mason, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Behaviorally based interventions have been demonstrated to be effective to teach social interaction skills for children with autism spectrum disorders in general education. However, the overall and moderating effects of these interventions have not been previously investigated in inclusive settings. The goal of this study was to investigate the…

  4. The Engagement and Interaction of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Segregated and Inclusive Early Childhood Center-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Yuriko; Kemp, Coral

    2009-01-01

    The engagement and interaction of 12 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were measured during free play in segregated and inclusive prior-to-school early childhood settings to compare the learning opportunities provided in each type of setting. Ratings of overall engagement and the frequency and quality of interaction were also compared…

  5. Perspectives of Canadian Teacher Candidates on Inclusion of Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Nancy; Minnes, Patricia; Burbidge, Julie; Dods, Jenn; Pyle, Angela; Dalton, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study reports on the perspectives of 208 teacher candidates on teaching children with developmental disabilities and delays (DD) in inclusive classrooms from Kindergarten to Grade 6. The questionnaire included items on demographics, experience, knowledge, and feelings of competence, advocacy, and sense of efficacy. Open-ended…

  6. Facing the Storm, Turning the Tide: Using Practitioner Research to Meet Children's and Families' Needs in an Inclusive Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Cynthia; Eyman, Alice; Morris, Laura; Sutton, Tara

    2007-01-01

    The director and two teachers in an inclusive preschool, faced with forces within and outside the school that challenged school policies and practices affecting children with special needs and their families, responded by engaging in a year-long process of practitioner research. This voluntary, systematic, and intentional collaborative study of…

  7. Internet social networks as important agents of social inclusion for contemporary children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khynova J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the use of social networks is a very powerful mean and often the way of socialization and social inclusion of contemporary children and youth. Direct social communication is often substituted by communication through the modern media, which takes places in the cyber space and has a great importance for experience and socialization of current generations. This article is trying to point out that the use of internet social networks is an important component of children’s and youth’s subculture. Potential absence in the world of internet social networks can bring individuals to the marginal position among their peer group. On the basis of the survey made among Czech children and youngsters, from 11 to 19 years, we can find out how important the use of internet social networks for the Czech contemporary young people is. Activities connected with the internet social networks create an important part of leisure time activities for the interviewed respondents. For them it is very considerable to be the part of some internet social community. Moreover, virtual communication helps respondents to keep in touch with their peers and increase their social status in the community. They can also experiment with different identities and find the best way of communication with others.

  8. Art in the inclusion of children with special needs in dentistry A arte na inclusão da criança especial na odontologia

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    Marcio José Possari dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report the use of art and its segments as a source for inclusion of the children with special needs in dentistry. The application of the Art in social therapy activities and workshops was divided in modules: Session of Socialization, Complementary Workshops of Art and Activities, aiming at the cultural anamnesis and artistic preferences of the 313 participants, prior to their dental care treatment at CAOE (Center of Odontological Assistance to patients with special needs FOA Unesp. According to preference of the participants that answered the questionnaires, the music and the painting are the artistic segments that proved to be most helpful in the activities of inclusion and adaptation. The authors concluded that the use of art in the adaptation and environmental inclusion of the patient, prior to dental procedures is favorable and efficient.A proposta deste estudo é relatar a utilização da arte e seus segmentos, como recurso para inclusão da criança portadora de necessidades especiais ao ambiente odontológico. Foi utilizado como método a aplicação da arte em atividades de socioterapia e oficinas, divididas em módulos: sessão de socialização, oficinas de arte e atividades complementares, visando à elaboração de uma anamnese cultural por meio de questionários e a obtenção das preferências artísticas dos 313 participantes, previamente às suas assistências odontológicas no CAOE (Centro de Assistência Odontológica a Portadores de Necessidades Especiais FOA/Unesp. De acordo com os questionários respondidos, a música e a pintura, segundo a preferência dos participantes, são os segmentos artísticos que mais auxiliam nas atividades de inclusão e adaptação. Concluímos que a utilização da arte na adaptação e inclusão ambiental do paciente, previamente à assistência odontológica, é favorável e eficaz.

  9. Social Competence in Preschool Children: Replication of Results and Clarification of a Hierarchical Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antonio J.; Peceguina, Ines; Daniel, Joao R.; Shin, Nana; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested assumptions and conclusions reached in an earlier confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) study of the social competence (SC) construct for preschool children. Two samples (total N = 408; a new Portuguese sample and one from US samples that had participated in the original study) contributed data. Seven SC indicators were tested for…

  10. Using Individualized Reinforcers and Hierarchical Exposure to Increase Food Flexibility in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Bharoocha, Amber A.; Ribnick, Courtney B.; Ribnick, Ryan C.; Bucio, Mario O.; Fredeen, Rosy M.; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2012-01-01

    Inflexibility is a major characteristic of autism. In the present study we addressed inflexible mealtime behaviors and collected longitudinal data across 48 foods for 3 children, ages 6.4-7.8 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, for up to 22 weeks. Participants exhibited severe challenges with adherence to an extremely restricted…

  11. Testing the Hierarchical Structure of the Children's Depression Inventory: A Multigroup Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luis F.; Aluja, Anton; del Barrio, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the aims were (a) to obtain, describe, and compare different solutions of three, five, and six first-order factors raised in the previous literature about the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI); (b) analyze the number and nature of the second-order factors; (c) test which model best reproduces…

  12. Segregation, Integration, Inclusion and Effective Provision: A Case Study of Perspectives from Special Educational Needs Children, Parents and Teachers in Bangalore India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Chalcraft, Sally; Cammack, Paul J.; Harrison, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Educating special educational needs (SEN) children in special schools is the norm in India but there is a growing trend towards inclusive practice. Perspectives were sought from children, their parents and teachers in Bangalore, India to investigate perceptions of effective provision for SEN children using an interpretative approach to provide…

  13. Connections between children's feelings of social inclusion and their musical backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Tiija Rinta; Ross Purves; Graham Welch; Stephanie Stadler Elmer; Raffaela Bissig

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Social inclusion is considered to be a key element in maintaining a balanced society (such as in preventing high rates of unemployment). Music and arts programmes in communities have been found to facilitate feelings of social inclusion in citizens, in particular amongst the youth. The exact influence of such activities on social inclusion is not known, however, nor are there any formal, empirically-tested comprehensive assessment instruments for the concept. The current study (se...

  14. A Quarter Century of Inclusive Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Ontario: Public Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Philip; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hutchinson, Nancy; Box, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the views of the public is an important factor in developing and evaluating policy on inclusive education. This article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted by an alliance of researchers and community partners to measure public perceptions regarding inclusive education of students with an intellectual disability, the…

  15. Modularity and hierarchical organization of action programs in children's acquisition of graphic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoel, Edison de J; Dantas, Luiz; Gimenez, Roberto; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa

    2011-10-01

    The organization of actions is based on modules in memory as a result of practice, easing the demand of performing more complex actions. If this modularization occurs, the elements of the module must remain invariant in new tasks. To test this hypothesis, 35 children, age 10 yr., practiced a graphic criterion task on a digital tablet and completed a complex graphic task enclosing the previous one. Total movement and pause times to draw the figure indicated skill acquisition. A module was identified by the variability of relative timing, pause time, and sequencing. Total movement to perform the criterion task did not increase significantly when it was embedded in the more complex task. Modularity was evidenced by the stability of relative timing and pause time and sequencing. The spatial position of new elements did not perturb the module, so the grammar of action may still have been forming.

  16. Including and teaching blind children in ordinary classrooms Teaching tools teachers use and their influence on the inclusion of blind children ordinary classrooms in a primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Niwagaba, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to investigate what teaching tools do teachers use and how do these tools influence on the inclusion of blind children in ordinary classrooms in a primary school. The study used qualitative approach and Interview method with teachers from one primary school. In depth interviews were chosen as the main instrument of data collection. Purposeful sampling and qualitative analysis was used in exploring and investigating the phenomenon of the study. Three special needs teachers for t...

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL ASPECT OF WORKING WITH CHILDREN WITH SEVERE SPEECH DISORDERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Phanaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern science, including special education, is characterized by a change of paradigms. Special education system has undergone many changes came as a result of the need to give children not only knowledge in various fields, but also to prepare them for independent life in society. One of the priority directions of education of children with severe speech disorders is their social integration, as reflected in the basic regulatory documents. Speech disorder prevents the full communication, the formation of psychological and social readiness to live and work in a new environment, meet unusual and complex situations, moral stability, assimilation of social norms and values, development of social behavior. In the article the problem of development of children with severe speech disorders under conditions of inclusive education. This concept describes the types of abnormalities of speech development.

  18. Inclusive Education in the Philippines: Through the Eyes of Teachers, Administrators, and Parents of Children with Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Arthus G. Muega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study on the knowledge and involvement of schoolteachers, school administrators, and parents of children with special needs (CSN in the implementation of inclusive education (IE. One set of research questions was aimed at determining the participants’ concept of IE and how they are involved in its practice. The other set of questions was aimed at finding whether there is a significant difference among the answers given by the participant groups regarding their concept of and involvement in IE. The problems related to IE were approached using grounded theory and quantitative analysis. Utilizing a modified survey questionnaire, data was collected from 91 participants who have a firsthand knowledge of and experience with inclusive schools located in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. Research hypotheses were tested after open coding had been completed and an answer was given to each qualitative research question. It has been found that the participants neither question nor resist the practice of inclusion in their respective general education settings. They admit, however, that they are not sure whether their understanding of IE conforms to widely accepted definitions. The participants are in doubt whether their claimed practices are potent enough to be responsive to the requirements of high-level inclusive education. No significant difference was noted among the participants’ mean scores in the survey of their knowledge of IE and involvement in IE.

  19. Teachers' perceptions of the inclusion of children with hearing loss in general education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to document the attitudes of 63 classroom teachers in Ottawa, Canada, toward inclusive education for students with hearing loss. The objective was to determine whether teachers had the attitudes, knowledge, and teaching skills proposed to underlie the effective inclusion of these students in regular classrooms. It was found that the teachers had favorable attitudes toward inclusion for students with hearing loss, felt confident in their ability to teach them, and were knowledgeable about the effects of hearing loss on language and learning. They also clearly indicated that their teacher education programs had insufficiently prepared them to teach these students effectively. The results highlight the need for increased emphasis on the unique educational requirements of students with hearing loss in teacher education programs, and for the provision of appropriate supports for both teachers and students to promote successful inclusion.

  20. The Effect of a Disability Camp Program on Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in a Summer Sport and Leisure Activity Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Christina; Evaggelinou, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a specific Disability Camp Program (DCP) in the attitudes of children without disabilities toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in a summer sport and leisure activity camp. Three hundred eighty-seven campers without disabilities participated in the study and were divided into…

  1. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  2. The inclusion of disadvantaged children in preschool programs: The children’s rights and social responsibility

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    Jager Jerneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.

  3. Supporting Congregational Inclusion for Children and Youth with Disabilities and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Boehm, Thomas L.; Annandale, Naomi H.; Taylor, Courtney E.

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable attention has focused on the inclusion of young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in school, work, and residential settings, less is known about their involvement in religious activities. This article focuses on supporting the presence and participation of people with disabilities and their families in…

  4. Inclusion for Children with Dyspraxia/DCD: A Handbook for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Kate

    This guide to helping children with motor-skill problems (dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder [DCD]) examines the motor learning difficulties and their social implications and suggests some strategies to support children through key learning stages. The first chapter discusses terminology, summarizes research on sensory input and…

  5. The Theory, Structure, and Techniques for the Inclusion of Children in Family Therapy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Lori K.; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Haddock, Shelley A.

    2002-01-01

    Many barriers prevent therapists from including young children in family therapy, despite the theoretical belief that every family member should be present. Although there is a wealth of literature describing how to include children, the information has not been compiled in a way that is easily accessible to therapists. In this article, we report…

  6. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  7. Structure of a Questionnaire on Children's Attitudes towards Inclusive Physical Education (CAIPE-CZ [Struktura českého překladu dotazníku "Children's Attitudes toward Inclusive Physical Education" (CAIPE-CZ

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    Julie Wittmannová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The process of educating children with and without disabilities together has had many titles in the past, starting with mainstreaming, changing into integration and finally arriving at the current title of inclusion. While inclusion has become widespread, studies aiming to help us understand this phenomenon and variables that influence it have been limited mainly to the study of inclusion as a process and attitudes of teachers towards inclusive physical education. In order to study inclusion we also need to have questionnaires to measure the beliefs of children without disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to translate and modify the CAIPE-R instrument, to describe the structure of its components and to compare the structure of CAIPE's Czech version (CAIPE-CZ to the original instrument. METHODS: The original questionnaire, CAIPE-R (Block, 1995, was modified and translated using a standard back translation procedure. Data were collected from 140 girls (mean age 13.12 years, SD = 1.61 and 146 boys (mean age 13.26 years, SD = 1.48 and analyzed using SPSS-PC 19.0 software. RESULTS: The results of principal component factor analysis with Varimax rotation have proven the two component structure of the CAIPE-CZ questionnaire. The first four items are loaded in one factor which was titled as "General beliefs about inclusion in physical education". In contrast with the original CAIPE-R questionnaire, the fifth and sixth items are loaded to the second component together with 4 other items. This component was titled "Beliefs about actual behavior". CONCLUSION: CAIPE-CZ was translated using a standardized procedure and shows a high internal consistency and is also sensitive to detecting differences between groups of children with personal experiences with students with disabilities and those without such experiences. Thus CAIPE-CZ is ready to use for future studies about the attitudes of children towards inclusive physical

  8. Fundamental motor skill proficiency is necessary for children's motor activity inclusion

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    José Angelo Barela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor development is influenced by many factors such as practice and appropriate instruction, provided by teachers, even in preschool and elementary school. The goal of this paper was to discuss the misconception that maturation underlies children's motor skill development and to show that physical education, even in early years of our school system, is critical to promote proficiency and enrolment of children's in later motor activities. Motor skill development, as a curricular focus, has been marginalized in many of our physical education proposal and in doing so, we have not promote motor competence in our children who lack proficiency to engage and to participate in later motor activities such as sport-related or recreational.

  9. Inclusion of children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    and the principals at the schools, focus group interviews with the PE teachers and modified Social Network method on the school classes. The empirical framework will be analyzed through process-sociologist Norbert Elias theory of Civilizing (1994) and The Establish and Outsiders (Elias & Scotson, 1994) and micro......-sociologist Erving Goffmans theory about Stigma (2014) and Dramaturgies (2014). The research is at the moment in process and the presentation will only show initial analyses.Some of the children participate and enjoy PE, but the majority of the children often get a feeling of being outsiders. A child’s ability...

  10. «Resource class» model for inclusion of children with ASD from the point of view of education management: risks and possibilities

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    Pogonina O.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available «Resource class», or «Resource zone», is a model of inclusive education for children with autism spectrum disorders that has proved its effectivity in integraing children to comprehensive school system for the past five years. A resource class is a place where the resources for inclusion of a child with autism of other mental disorders into the school community are gathered. Here, the point of ‘resource class’ model is explained, described are the experience of introduction of resource zone technology, risks and problems appearing when creating a resource class in school. Member of the council of the Regional public organization to help children with autism spectrum disorders «Contact», educators, shares her experience in creating a resource class for autistic children with parents’ effort in «School № 2009» in Moscow.

  11. Hierarchical photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2016-05-01

    As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.

  12. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Literacy Instruction: An Exploratory Study of Elementary Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalon, Kelly J.; Hart, Juliet E.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience reading instruction in the context of a natural learning environment. This qualitative study centered on three students with ASD who received reading instruction primarily in the general education classroom setting. Observation, interview, and archival data were…

  13. Back to Basics: Working with Young Children with Autism in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deris, Aaron R.; Di Carlo, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Young children with autism benefit from various adaptations made to an early childhood classroom. This article includes modifications for both teacher-directed and child-initiated activities. Adaptations are given for the classroom environment, daily schedule, sensory needs, transitions and general teaching strategies. The techniques described are…

  14. Children's Right to Be Educated for Tolerance: Minority Rights and Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    States do not make a genuine commitment to peace where children's right to be educated for tolerance is denied. Education for tolerance is considered a central aim of education, as set out in Article 29 of the "Convention on the Rights of the Child" (CRC). Hence, states are obliged under the convention to create conditions conducive to such an…

  15. Inclusive Music Teaching Strategies for Elementary-Age Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, Elizabeth; Knight, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is more prevalent as an "umbrella" disorder than many educators realize. The music educator can play a particularly useful role in helping children in the general or choral classroom cope with DD, given the temporal nature of cognitive issues inherent in the disorder. The purposes of this article are to…

  16. Foundations for Self-Determination in Early Childhood: An Inclusive Model for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Susan B.; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Maude, Susan P.; Stroup-Rentier, Vera; Wu, Hsiang-Yi; Peck, Nancy F.; Zheng, Yuzhu; Weigel, Cindy J.; Chu, Szu-Yin; McGrath, Greg S.; Haines, Shana J.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the Early Childhood Foundations Model for Self-Determination and provides a rationale for the need to consider the foundations of self-determination behavior that begin early in life. This model is based on the premise that young children with disabilities benefit from a collaborative partnership between important adults in…

  17. Inclusive and Integrated Schooling for Children with Limited Abilities: Problems and Conditions Necessary for Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubavina, N. V.

    2014-01-01

    For more than twenty years now the system of education in Russia has been adopting the ideas of integrated schooling for children with limited abilities. The absence of positive outcomes has been confirmed by the results of numerous surveys (Malofeev 2007, 2011; Nazarova 1996, 2009). In this article, N. V. Liubavina writes that the time has now…

  18. Teachers and Speech and Language Therapists Working with Children with Physical Disabilities: Implications for Inclusive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jannet A.; Kersner, Myra

    1999-01-01

    This questionnaire study examined the coordination of speech/language therapists (N=47) with teachers (N=62) in 54 special schools for children with physical disabilities in England. Respondents were positive about the value of collaboration, although many reported problems of limited time available for joint planning and development of…

  19. Role Perceptions of School Administration Team Members Concerning Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Elementary General Schools in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Koss, Cathie

    2015-01-01

    In an ideal school, where inclusion is implemented successfully, staff members collaborate and create an inclusive environment in their schools. In order to achieve such a sustainable environment of inclusion, pedagogical, organisational and psychological restructuring should occur, and a strong inclusion-oriented leadership has to be activated.…

  20. Building scaffolding for care: Teachers' discourse and the inclusion of children and adolescents with impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Franca

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge construction is dialogically and socio-historically driven and guided. This article aims at identifying discourses used by school teachers around the inclusion of students with disabilities. Twelve school teachers with more than five years' worth of experience were interviewed through a semi-structured tape recorded interview that focused on: students' educational histories, their diagnosis and treatment, their follow-up by hospital teachers, their motor and locomotor abilities, and the teaching-learning processes they were involved in. The transcribed interviews were analyzed from a dialogical perspective. The analysis focused on these topics: a diagnosis; b treatment; c development-learning processes. The classroom teachers built meanings out of a conflict between old and new views of the development of students with neuromotor disorders. As our results show, contact between hospital and school teachers contributed to the understanding of the learning process.

  1. The Combined Effects of Social Script Training and Peer Buddies on Generalized Peer Interaction of Children with ASD in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Joel; Rowe, Sarah; Harrison, Erin

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges in supporting young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in inclusive classrooms is the generalization of improved social behaviors. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, this study examined the generalized effects of social script training alone and combined with peer buddies on the interactive play…

  2. Improving Cognitive Abilities and e-Inclusion in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinengo, Chiara; Curatelli, Francesco

    Besides overcoming the motor barriers for accessing to computers and Internet, ICT tools can provide a very useful, and often necessary, support for the cognitive development of motor-impaired children with cerebral palsy. In fact, software tools for computation and communication allow teachers to put into effect, in a more complete and efficient way, the learning methods and the educational plans studied for the child. In the present article, after a brief analysis of the general objectives to be pursued for favouring the learning for children with cerebral palsy, we take account of some specific difficulties in the logical-linguistic and logical-mathematical fields, and we show how they can be overcome using general ICT tools and specifically implemented software programs.

  3. O processo de inclusão de crianças com deficiência auditiva na escola regular: vivências de professores The inclusion process of hearing impaired children in regular schools: the experience of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Vieira de Freitas Rios

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever e discutir, a partir da vivência de professores, o processo de inclusão de crianças com deficiência auditiva em escola regular. Foram selecionadas três crianças entre 05 e 08 anos de idade, e seus respectivos professores. Por meio de entrevistas com as professoras das crianças, foi selecionado o material que permitiu caracterizar o processo de inclusão de cada criança do estudo. Os relatos das professoras sobre suas experiências com as crianças deficientes auditivas deste estudo parecem indicar que, ainda hoje, apesar da evolução das práticas inclusivas, prevalecem nas escolas muito mais os pressupostos da integração do que da inclusão. As professoras foram unânimes em admitir que não vêm sendo suficientemente preparadas para receber deficientes auditivos e pouco sabem sobre o desenvolvimento da audição, da linguagem e sobre como esses aspectos influenciam e determinam formas particulares de apreensão de conteúdos. Prevalece a idéia de que é a criança com necessidades educacionais especiais quem deve se adaptar ao ambiente, empenhar-se para ser nele integrada; ou então, as professoras buscam estratégias individuais de aproximação, sem que essa questão seja problematizada junto ao corpo técnico da escola, que ainda não vem efetivando transformações em sua organização para receber esses alunos.The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the process of inclusion in regular schools of children who are hearing impaired, based on teachers' perceptions of the process. Three children between the ages of 5 and 8 years and their teachers participated in the study. The interviews with the children's teachers were recorded, and material was selected from the transcripts that allowed us to characterize the inclusion process of each child in the study. The teachers' reports about their experiences with the hearing impaired children of this study seem to indicate that, even

  4. "Em meu gesto existe o teu gesto": corporeidade na inclusão de crianças deficientes In my gesture is your gesture: inclusion of disabled children in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a questão da corporeidade (inerente relação corpo-mente-outro-ambiente de crianças com Paralisia Cerebral, em processos de inclusão, por meio de transcrições de videogravações em ambiente escolar. Com base na perspectiva da Rede de Significações, à análise microgenética das cenas de interação, a corporeidade revela-se por meio dos lugares onde essas crianças são colocadas, do modo como os adultos as tratam e como elas reagem, bem como das práticas discursivas sobre educação, inclusão e deficiência presentes. O olhar dos outros derivam das e simultaneamente orientam as práticas e concepções que são construídas contínua e mutuamente em situadas relações entre essas crianças e os outros, em função e a partir de seus corpos, produzindo significações, posições e identidades sociais de modo dinâmico.The aim of this paper is to present a study regarding the embodiment issue (body-mind-other-context relationship, through the investigation of the inclusion of two children with cerebral palsy in school. Based on the Network of Meanings perspective, microgenetic analysis of video recording transcriptions revealed embodiment through the places where such children are put in, through the ways adults treat them and how they react as well as by the discourse practices regarding education, inclusion processes and deficiency. The others' perceptions and glances simultaneously derive from and give directions to the practices and conceptions used. They are continuously and mutually constructed in relations between children and others which are related to the children's and adults' bodies and conceptions; dynamically producing significations, positions and social identities.

  5. Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kunz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

  6. Role and challenges of school social workers in facilitating and supporting the inclusiveness of children with special needs in regular schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Balli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic of the society development is associated with extension of social problems, notably in educational context. The role of school, as the main public institution for social development of the students, is now obvious throughout the world. Consequently the role of social workers in schools is becoming essential, especially in terms of the inclusion of marginalized children from the opportunity of education, by impacting the educational system, to meet the diverse needs of all learners. Social work is focused on the welfare of individuals by increasing and developing their potential, so it goes hand in hand with inclusive education for children with disabilities, which emphasizes the children’ rights to obtain a definite, qualitative and suitable education in regular schools. The main focus of this study was to draw a clear panorama of the school social workers’ role towards the processes of inclusiveness of students with disabilities in Albanian regular schools. The data were collected via in-depth interviews with eight school social workers of the secondary schools in Korça region. The results showed that social service in schools is very important for helping students to develop social competences, intermediating parents in utilizing school and community resources, identifying and reporting bullying phenomenon, etc. School social workers could play a key role to implement the educational reform, which is being undertaken in Albania. Interviewees also shared their difficulties regarding the practical work, especially obstacles related to inclusive education processes.

  7. Missed opportunities of inclusion in a cohort of HIV-infected children to initiate antiretroviral treatment before the age of two in West Africa, 2011 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désiré L Dahourou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO 2010 guidelines recommended to treat all HIV-infected children less than two years of age. We described the inclusion process and its correlates of HIV-infected children initiated on early antiretroviral therapy (EART at less than two years of age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods: All children with HIV-1 infection confirmed with a DNA PCR test of a blood sample, aged less than two years, living at a distance less than two hours from the centres and whose parents (or mother if she was the only legal guardian or the legal caregiver if parents were not alive agreed to participate in the MONOD ANRS 12206 project were included in a cohort to receive EART based on lopinavir/r. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of inclusion. Results: Among the 217 children screened and referred to the MONOD centres, 161 (74% were included and initiated on EART. The main reasons of non-inclusion were fear of father's refusal (48%, mortality (24%, false-positive HIV infection test (16% and other ineligibility reasons (12%. Having previously disclosed the child's and mother's HIV status to the father (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 3.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.55 to 6.69 and being older than 12 months (aOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 4.12 were correlates of EART initiation. At EART initiation, the median age was 13.5 months, 70% had reached WHO Stage 3/4 and 57% had a severe immune deficiency. Conclusions: Fear of stigmatization by the father and early competing mortality were the major reasons for missed opportunities of EART initiation. There is an urgent need to involve fathers in the care of their HIV-exposed children and to promote early infant diagnosis to improve their future access to EART and survival.

  8. Missed opportunities of inclusion in a cohort of HIV-infected children to initiate antiretroviral treatment before the age of two in West Africa, 2011 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahourou, Désiré L; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Coulibaly, Malik; Avit-Edi, Divine; Meda, Nicolas; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Arendt, Vic; Ye, Diarra; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Salamon, Roger; Lepage, Philippe; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines recommended to treat all HIV-infected children less than two years of age. We described the inclusion process and its correlates of HIV-infected children initiated on early antiretroviral therapy (EART) at less than two years of age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods All children with HIV-1 infection confirmed with a DNA PCR test of a blood sample, aged less than two years, living at a distance less than two hours from the centres and whose parents (or mother if she was the only legal guardian or the legal caregiver if parents were not alive) agreed to participate in the MONOD ANRS 12206 project were included in a cohort to receive EART based on lopinavir/r. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of inclusion. Results Among the 217 children screened and referred to the MONOD centres, 161 (74%) were included and initiated on EART. The main reasons of non-inclusion were fear of father's refusal (48%), mortality (24%), false-positive HIV infection test (16%) and other ineligibility reasons (12%). Having previously disclosed the child's and mother's HIV status to the father (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.55 to 6.69) and being older than 12 months (aOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 4.12) were correlates of EART initiation. At EART initiation, the median age was 13.5 months, 70% had reached WHO Stage 3/4 and 57% had a severe immune deficiency. Conclusions Fear of stigmatization by the father and early competing mortality were the major reasons for missed opportunities of EART initiation. There is an urgent need to involve fathers in the care of their HIV-exposed children and to promote early infant diagnosis to improve their future access to EART and survival. PMID:27015798

  9. The Contemporary Socio-Economic Crisis Situation and the Implementation of Inclusive Education for Nomadic Children with Disabilities in Nigeria: Implications for Guidance and Counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester MwandarYakwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present socio-economic crisis situation in Nigeria has affected so many facets of life of the people generally not least of all the life of nomadic children with disabilities. Presently, a lot of focus is being directed at the provision of educational services for children with special needs (including nomadic children through inclusive education. This paper attempts to identify some of the ways that teaching and learning can be effectively carried out for nomadic children with disabilities in Nigeria with particular emphasis on its implications for guidance and counseling. The paper will attempt to identify the methods that can be used in the nomadic education classroom as well as establish the expected roles that guidance and counselling can play in the provision of such programmes for the enhancement of better quality of life for nomadic children with disabilities in the Nigerian educational system. Furthermore, it will strive to identify the problems emanating from the socio-economic crisis situation and how it affects nomadic children with disabilities. In particular, it will attempt to identify the counseling strategies that can be used for the insurance of better quality of life for nomadic children with disabilities generally and make far reaching recommendations to that effect.

  10. A Call to Action: Building a Translational Inclusion Team Science in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Management for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, James H; Vanderbom, Kerri A

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence base of childhood obesity prevention and treatment programs do not adequately consider how to adapt these programs for children with disabilities. We propose a Call to Action for health researchers who conduct studies focused on the general population (i.e., without a disability) to work closely with disability researchers to adapt their programs (e.g., obesity management, increased physical activity, and caregiver training in diet and nutrition) to be relevant to both groups. We refer to this approach as inclusion team science. The hope for this Call to Action is that there will be greater synergy between researchers who have high levels of expertise in a specialty area of health (but little or no knowledge of how to adapt their program for children with disabilities) to work more closely with researchers who have a high level of expertise in adapting evidence-based health promotion recommendations and strategies for children with disabilities. Together, these two areas of expertise will lead to inclusive physical activity and nutrition programs for all children.

  11. How children's victimization relates to distorted versus sensitive social cognition: Perception, mood, and need fulfillment in response to Cyberball inclusion and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A M; van Noorden, Tirza H J; Deutz, Marike H F

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether victimization is associated with negatively distorted social cognition (bias), or with a specific increased sensitivity to social negative cues, by assessing the perception of social exclusion and the consequences for psychological well-being (moods and fundamental needs). Both self-reported and peer-reported victimization of 564 participants (Mage=9.9years, SD=1.04; 49.1% girls) were measured, and social exclusion was manipulated through inclusion versus exclusion in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Children's perceptions and psychological well-being were in general more negative after exclusion than after inclusion. Moreover, self-reported-but not peer-reported-victimization was associated with the perception of being excluded more and receiving the ball less, as well as more negative moods and less fulfillment of fundamental needs, regardless of being excluded or included during the Cyberball game. In contrast, peer-reported victimization was associated with more negative mood and lower need fulfillment in the exclusion condition only. Together, these results suggest that children who themselves indicate being victimized have negatively distorted social cognition, whereas children who are being victimized according to their peers experience increased sensitivity to negative social situations. The results stress the importance of distinguishing between self-reported and peer-reported victimization and have implications for interventions aimed at victimized children's social cognition.

  12. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Children's Loneliness Scale for Students with and without Special Needs in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekinarslan, Ilknur Cifci; Kucuker, Sevgi

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of loneliness in children, especially children with special needs who are at greater risk for loneliness, is crucial for planning appropriate interventions. A review of studies regarding the assessment of loneliness in children reveals the Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS) is commonly used in other cultures whereas information…

  13. A Review of Inclusive Education for Hearing Impaired Children%听障儿童融合教育研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔方方

    2015-01-01

    The inclusive education is a key area for the study of rehabilitation education for hearing-impaired children. This research has discussed the study on inclusive education for hearing-impaired children in the past decades at home and abroad. It analyses not only the implementation, current situation and the measures, which aiming to offer inspirations for future research. The most hearing-impaired children can adapt well in mainstreaming school. Their social adaptation can be affected by hearing and speech intelligibility. Meanwhile, some of them will face challenges such as self-reliance,peer interaction, language and rules understanding and parents’ expectation. Teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive education are related to their knowledge and skills in inclusive education as well as support and cultivation. To promote inclusive education for hearing impaired children,it needs government, schools and parents to play their roles together.%融合教育是听障儿童康复教育研究关注的热点。本文梳理了国内外10余年听障儿童融合教育的相关研究,对融合教育的实施、现状及促进听障儿童融合教育的措施进行了归纳分析,以期对开展听障儿童融合教育有所启发。听障儿童随班就读教育受到听觉能力和言语可懂度的影响,同时,也面临自立能力、同伴交往、语言与规则理解及家长期望误区等困难。随班就读教师对听障儿童融合教育的态度与其接受的培训、获得的支持、知识技能的掌握密切相关。促进听障儿童融合教育需要政府及教育行政部门、学校及家长三方共同发挥作用。

  14. Inclusão de crianças com Síndrome de Down Inclusión de niños con Sindrome de Down Inclusion of children with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Mendonça Rosa Luiz

    2012-12-01

    inclusion process of children with Down's syndrome, with a view to promoting the health of these families. A multiple case study was developed with a qualitative approach, involving 11 families of children with Down's syndrome. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. The results demonstrated that, from the participants' perspective, teachers are not prepared for this inclusion but, nevertheless, this process reveals to benefit child education. The need for articulation between education and health sectors and a change in the educational model paradigm were evidenced. The research appoints aspects which the professionals involved should pay attention to, in order to make the inclusion a process to be lived as best as possible.

  15. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  16. Music Strategies to Promote Engagement and Academic Growth of Young Children with ASD in the Inclusive Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Ogle, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Typical group activities for kindergarten children depend heavily on children's ability to follow directions, respond verbally to adults' prompts, take turns, initiate, and sustain peer interactions. Therefore, young children with autism may often be excluded from academic group activities because their social skills are under-developed or delayed…

  17. Making Schools Inclusive? Educational Leaders' Views on How to Work with Children in Need of Special Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Gunilla; Nilholm, Claes

    2013-01-01

    Educational leaders have a comprehensive responsibility for how preschools and schools work with children in need of special educational support. The aim of this research is to study how educational leaders (a) explain why children have problems in schools, (b) consider how preschools/schools should help children in need of special support and (c)…

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  19. The Role of the School Psychologist in the Inclusive Education of School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan K.; Johnson, Cynthia; Sukhodolsky, Dennis G.

    2005-01-01

    Two independent trends are impacting school psychologists with regard to their involvement in the education of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): increasing prevalence estimates of ASDs and an emphasis on the inclusion of students with special needs in regular education classrooms. In light of these trends and growing awareness of the…

  20. The Role of a Sense of School Belonging in Understanding the Effectiveness of Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Emily Jane; Hadwin, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This review integrates theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence of a sense of school belonging (SOSB) to highlight its importance in understanding the inclusion efficacy research for pupils with special educational needs (SEN). Specifically, it examines the role of a SOSB on pupils' cognitive, affective, behavioural and social developmental…

  1. Inclusion Forum, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Maxine

    1994-01-01

    These two newsletter issues focus on training strategies for developing more inclusive programs for children with disabilities and for developing collaborative programs. An interview with Dr. Barbara Wolfe addresses successful inservice teacher training strategies. Additional information in the first issue includes guidelines for empowering…

  2. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  3. Inclusion in the East: Chinese Students' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…

  4. Inhibitory control efficiency in a Piaget-like class-inclusion task in school-age children and adults: a developmental negative priming study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, G; Poirel, N; Pineau, A; Cassotti, M; Houdé, O

    2013-07-01

    Most children under 7 years of age presented with 10 daisies and 2 roses fail to indicate that there are more flowers than daisies. Instead of the appropriate comparison of the relative numerosities of the superordinate class (flowers) to its subordinate class (daisies), they perform a direct perceptual comparison of the extensions of the 2 subordinate classes (daisies vs. roses). In our experiment, we investigated whether increasing efficiency in solving the Piagetian class-inclusion task is related to increasing efficiency in the ability to resist (inhibit) this direct comparison of the subordinate classes' extensions. Ten-year-old and young adult participants performed a computerized priming version of a Piaget-like class-inclusion task. The experimental design was such that the misleading perceptual strategy to inhibit on the prime (in which a superordinate class had to be compared with a subordinate class) became a congruent strategy to activate on the probe (in which the two subordinate classes' extensions were directly compared). We found a negative priming effect of 291 ms in children and 129 ms in adults. These results provide evidence for the first time (a) that adults still need to inhibit the comparison of the subordinate classes' extensions in class-inclusion tasks and (b) that the ability to inhibit this heuristic increases with age (resulting in a lower executive cost). Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the neo-Piagetian approach of cognitive development that suggests that the acquisition of increasingly complex knowledge is based on the ability to resist (inhibit) heuristics and previously acquired knowledge.

  5. Attitudes toward Inclusion of Children with Special Needs in Regular Schools (A Case Study from Parents' Perspective)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElZein, Heyam Lutfi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to find out the attitudes of parents towards mainstreaming children with special needs into 2 regular private elementary schools in Sidon-Lebanon. A total of 15 parents were interviewed out of 35 whose children have learning disabilities. Sampling was purposeful where the subjects were chosen to facilitate…

  6. Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  8. Hierarchical Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-25

    In this paper, we investigate the use of hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) to speed up the acquisition of cooperative multiagent tasks. We...introduce a hierarchical multiagent reinforcement learning (RL) framework and propose a hierarchical multiagent RL algorithm called Cooperative HRL. In

  9. Inclusive Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Judy; Burnette, Jane

    1994-01-01

    This review of five recent (1992 and 1993) books and journal articles is intended to illuminate characteristics of inclusive schools. The review defines inclusion as more than merely regular class placement for students with disabilities, to include a philosophy which celebrates diversity and the provision of a continuum of educational options.…

  10. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  11. The role of cognitive abilities in children's inferences about social atypicality and peer exclusion and inclusion in intergroup contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer; Lee, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    Children aged 6-7 years judged a loyal and a partially disloyal member of a school in terms of how typical they are within the school group and their likely acceptance by peers from the same school and a different school. Second-order mental-state understanding (SOMSU) predicted whether children thought atypical members would be included differently in the two groups. Counterfactual reasoning ability, multiple classification ability, and working memory ability did not predict children's judgements of group members. Moreover, as predicted by the developmental subjective group dynamics model, only children with higher levels of SOMSU and who discerned differences in the typicality of normative and deviant ingroup members inferred that peers would differently include atypical individuals from the same and different groups.

  12. A training and development project to improve services and opportunities for social inclusion for children and young people with autism in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Greg; Clark, Bruce; Dragan, Ioana; Kalambayi, Fidelie; Slonims, Vicky; Tarpan, Adelaide Katerine; Wittemeyer, Kerstin

    2014-10-01

    In 2010, the Romanian Angel Appeal Foundation launched a 3-year national training and development programme to develop and deliver a model of diagnostic and therapeutic services aimed at promoting social inclusion for children and young people with autism spectrum disorders. The project adopted a number of strategies aimed at developing knowledge and skills among professionals and increasing awareness in political and public spheres: (a) a three-stage training programme designed to increase knowledge of autism spectrum disorders and promote best practice among professionals working in services providing for children with autism spectrum disorders and their families, on a nationwide basis; (b) two online courses for general practitioners and psychiatrists, with content relating to the identification, diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders; (c) a total of 40 counselling and assistance centres for people with autism spectrum disorders were launched in partnership with local authorities; (d) a national strategy for social and professional integration of people with autism spectrum disorders developed through consultation with political, statutory and voluntary sector partners; and (e) a nationwide media campaign to raise awareness of the needs of children and young people with autism spectrum disorders that reached over eight million people. The project provides a transferable model to achieve important improvements in the quantity and quality of services on a national level within a brief time frame.

  13. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...

  14. The Inclusion of Children with ASD: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Theoretical Framework to Explore Peer Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sara; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour to explore the attitudes, behavioural intentions and behaviour of 318 mainstream primary school children in an urban East London borough towards peers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Pupils were presented with a vignette about a hypothetical peer with ASD then completed self-report…

  15. Inclusive and Exclusive Aspects of Diagnosed Children's Self-Concepts in Special Needs Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovlund, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Eight children between 7 and 11 years of age were interviewed about their understanding of their own diagnoses. The diagnoses in question were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and nonverbal learning disorder. They were from different special schools that are segregated from state schools. In addition to the interviews, a role play…

  16. Focus on Inclusive Education: The Educational and Social Challenges of Children with Celiac Disease: What Educators Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Kay A.

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disease in which gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and contaminated oats, attacks the lining of the small intestine. Children with this disease must eliminate gluten from their diet. This article provides educators with essential information on celiac disease and the federal laws that protect the…

  17. Towards Inclusion: The Development of Provision for Children with Special Educational Needs in Ireland from 1991 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadraig, Brian MacGiolla

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the development of policy in regard to the provision for children with special educational needs from the report of the Special Education Review Committee in 1993 to the enactment of the Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs Act in 2004. It begins with definitions of the terms special educational needs and pupils…

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  19. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    of the mechanics of hierarchical materials are listed, among them, the development of "concurrent" modeling techniques for hierarchical materials, optimal microstructure design at multiple scale levels using synergy effects, and the mechanical modeling of atomistic effects.......A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them...

  20. Advanced hierarchical distance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.

  1. Main tasks of social worker in reducing poverty for families with children and social inclusion policy in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodele-Dubrovska I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is an inability of an individual or a group of persons to integrate into society due to poverty, insufficient education, unemployment, discrimination or other causes in Latvia. Welfare of families is influenced not only by the employment of its members, but also by the amount of their salary. Limited amount of family’s financial resources make a person to refuse himself a lot of things or restrict expenses to minimum thus increasing the risk of exclusion of the household. When finding a solution of social problems faced by families with children it is essential to involve a social worker. Well-being of children must be in focus of social work practice, in addition taking the special care for their safety and welfare.

  2. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  3. Inclusão de crianças com Síndrome de Down e paralisia cerebral no ensino fundamental I: comparação dos relatos de mães e professores Inclusion of children with Down Syndrome and cerebral palsy in elementary schools: comparison between parents' and teachers' reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Regina Abdalla Ferraz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O princípio fundamental da escola inclusiva é de que todas as crianças aprendam juntas, independentemente de dificuldades ou diferenças. Hoje, há necessidade de revisão da inclusão de alunos com deficiências e da função da escola como contribuinte do seu desenvolvimento. Diante disso, percebe-se a importância da interação pais e escola para efetivação desse processo. Assim, este trabalho buscou conhecer o processo de inclusão do aluno com Síndrome de Down (SD e Paralisia Cerebral (PC, a partir da comparação dos relatos de pais e professores e analisar como sua interação afeta o processo de inclusão. Participaram deste estudo 4 mães com filhos com PC, 4 mães com filhos com SD e 8 respectivos professores dessas crianças, do ensino público regular de um município na grande São Paulo. Utilizou-se uma entrevista estruturada construída pelos pesquisadores e adaptada para pais e professores. Para análise foram identificadas as categorias que emergiram dos relatos dos grupos. Como resultados observaram-se: oportunidade da inclusão diminuir o preconceito; a expectativa dos pais em matricular o filho na escola regular como possibilidade de aprender a ler e a escrever ao menos o nome. Por outro lado, os professores declaram não se sentirem preparados para este trabalho; entretanto, mesmo sem orientações, recursos e estrutura física adequada, trabalham para efetivação do aprendizado em sala de aula. A escola deve possibilitar condições para que os pais e professores se comuniquem de forma adequada e assim compartilhem conhecimentos indispensáveis para a inclusão e aprendizado efetivo de crianças com SD e PC.The fundamental principle of inclusive schools is that all children learn together, no matter their differences or difficulties. Currently, there is a need to review the inclusion of students who have disabilities, and the role of schools as contributors to their development. Thus, the importance of parent

  4. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...

  5. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach will...

  6. Inclusion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Colver, David

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion analysis is the name given by Operis to a black box testing technique that it has found to make the checking of key financial ratios calculated by spreadsheet models quicker, easier and more likely to find omission errors than code inspection.

  7. ARE INCLUSIVE DESIGNERS DESIGNING INCLUSIVELY?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature exists relating to Inclusive Design. The literature can be divided into theory concerning methodology and case studies concerning practice. With such a large body of theoretical literature available, the question arises as to how closely practice matches that theory....... This paper is a survey of the methods used in the execution of self-declared inclusively design products based on an analysis of academic papers, posters and oral presentations. The case studies are divided into two groups, product design and assistive technology. Design steps were assigned to six categories...

  8. Can we build inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    building and the strategies the pedagogues develop to fulfil their pedagogical intentions. But in one respect, the results gave more and other knowledge than anticipated at the setup of the project: By analysing the interviews, it became clear that especially for a group of children with special......A society is known by how it cares for the weak. This may be how it cares for wheel chair users but is may also be how it includes some children with special requirements in kindergartens or whether they are referred to special institutions. We expect most people would say that they go...... for an inclusive society – e.g. that a kindergarten should be for all children. But in practice this intention may be met by considerable challenges. So many factors influence the process. In this paper the question is raised, whether the physical frame of the kindergartens makes a difference for daily life...

  9. Singing and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  10. 融合团体箱庭在儿童自闭症康复训练中的应用%Applying Inclusive group sandplay in rehabilitation training of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林彩云; 陈顺森; 叶桂青

    2016-01-01

    Participated in sandplay games together with typical children can help autistic children gain specific experience and growth,which is consistent with the principle of the inclusive education.During the process of inclusive group sandplay, demonstration,guidance and assistance from typical children will promote autistic children to develop their peer relation-ships,and to gain ability of social interaction,spontaneous imitation and symbolic game.Therefore,inclusive group sand-play is considered to be an effective measure of autism assistance.%让自闭症儿童与正常儿童共同参与箱庭游戏,收获体验和成长,是融合教育理念的体现。在融合团体箱庭过程中,正常儿童的示范、引导和帮助,有利于帮助自闭症儿童发展出同伴关系,提升社会互动、自发性模仿和象征性游戏等方面能力,融合团体箱庭是行之有效的自闭症援助方式。

  11. More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

  12. Communicative Approach to Inclusive Education in Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraukle, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the basic principles of inclusive education motivates the inclusion of children with special needs in general education schools. The paper presents the process of implementing inclusive education in Latvia and the teachers' and parents' understanding of the role of communication in including children with special needs,…

  13. Comunicação e inclusão de crianças com alterações de linguagem de origem neurológica na perspectiva de pais e educadores Communication and inclusion of children with language disorders due to neurologic aspects from the perspective of parents and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Mayumi Takase

    2010-08-01

    communication and inclusion of children with language disorders due to neurological causes require further attention, specifically in Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences. For the purpose of finding out how professionals in this field can contribute to the inclusion process, the aim of the study is to investigate the expectations, difficulties and support encountered by families and teachers of those children who undergo Speech-Language Pathology therapy. The corpus is composed of 11 children, 12 parents and 7 educators. The data was collected through the study of the children files, as well as from semi-structured interviews with families and teachers, video-recorded and transcribed orthographically. The data was analyzed according to references that support this study. The results show challenges in including some of the children in regular schools, particularly those with the most severe language disorders. There were also issues related to the preparation of the educators and the preparedness of some of the schools that received these students. Nevertheless, the study demonstrated that there have been advances, expressed by the inclusion of most of these children in regular schools and by greater willingness of the schools to receive these students. This finding was deduced from references to parents, educators and Speech-Language Pathologists sharing of information and experiences. From the perspective of the families and teachers, the findings point to the need for specialized health assistance and highlight the contribution of the Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences in communication and feeding in the process of inclusion.

  14. Inclusive Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Charlotte; Rostbøll, Solveig Fogh

    2015-01-01

    and is often a bad experience for students who do not have the required skills or the necessary competitive mentality. The purpose of the study is to generate increased knowledge of how to work with inclusive education in PE in schools. The aims of the study are to identify groups of “outsiders” and to find......EN317 - Inclusive Physical Education - with a focus on active and successful participation Charlotte Østergaard, Solveig Fogh Rostbøll, Department of School and Learning, Metropolitan University College (DK) chao@phmetropol.dk The Danish School Reform 2014 intends to raise the amount and intensity...... of PA in schools. A considerable percentage of Danish children do not participate in PA and are marginalized in PE lessons. One of the primary problems is that PE in Danish schools is characterized by a performative culture. Several studies confirm that PE is characterized by performative ideals...

  15. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods facilitate the analysis of complex models and data structures. Emphasizing data applications, alternative modeling specifications, and computer implementation, this book provides a practical overview of methods for Bayesian analysis of hierarchical models.

  16. Hierarchical auxetic mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I; Azzopardi, Keith M; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-02-11

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  17. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  18. Hierarchical Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I.; Azzopardi, Keith M.; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N.

    2015-02-01

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  19. Carbonic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Thiéry, Régis

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the phase relations in carbonic fluid inclusions with pure, binary and ternary mixtures of the system CO 2-CH 4-N 2, compositions, which are frequently found in geological materials. Phase transitions involving liquid, gas and solid phases in the temperature range between -192°C and 31°C are discussed and presented in phase diagrams ( PT, TX and VX projections). These diagrams can be applied for the interpretation of microthermometry data in order to determine fluid composition and molar volume (or density).

  20. Study on Home-school-community-based Social Inclusion of Children Left behind%家-校-社区为本的留守儿童社会融入研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, it cited sociological perspective of"social action theory"views on the social integration of the concept of social inclusion has been defined, and analyzes the level of social inclusion of children left behind. On this basis, we propose a social work for children left behind in social integration issues involved in the way, that"home-school-community"trinity of social work interventions, should proceed simultaneously from families, schools, communities in three areas to improve so-cial inclusion levels of children left behind.%文章首先引用社会学视角的“社会行动论”中关于社会融入的看法对社会融入进行了概念界定,并分析了我国留守儿童的社会融入水平现状。在此基础上,提出了社会工作对于留守儿童社会融入问题的介入方式,提出“家—校—社区”三位一体的社会工作介入方式,应当从家庭、学校、社区三方面同时着手来提高留守儿童的社会融入水平。

  1. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  2. Grasping the Promise of Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Fern

    A teacher and mother of a child with mental retardation examined the history and current status of the inclusion movement. A review of the historical background considers the origins of special education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, major court cases, and requirements of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with…

  3. Taking Inclusion into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan

    1998-01-01

    According to the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997), education of disabled children should produce outcomes akin to those expected of "regular" students, and disabled students should be educated with other kids. Implementing inclusive programs will require visionary leadership, educator collaboration,…

  4. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  5. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) as a Means to Reducing Barriers to Inclusive Education: Research Study of the Education of Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacakova, Marketa; Closs, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The article supports the view that teachers are key to quality inclusive education and that continuing professional development (CPD) plays an essential role in promoting pro-inclusion changes in education systems. It reports and uses the findings from a research study focused on the educational experiences of two groups of Myanmar (Burmese)…

  6. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  7. Lifelong inclusive education of people with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gluzman Aleksandr Vladimirovich; Boginskaya Yuliya Valerievna

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the current state of lifelong inclusive education of people with disabilities. The authors highlight the conditions of developing a lifelong education system for children and youth with disabilities.

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  9. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of this…

  10. Singing and social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Frederick Welch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  11. Many diversity for an inclusive perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Canevaro

    2010-01-01

    Andrea Canevaro’s paper to the congress: Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti. Approcci culturali, questioni educative, prospettive inclusive. (Students with disabilities, children of migrants: Cultural approaches, educational questions, inclusive perspectives) Bologna, 29 ottober 2010, Cappella Farnese, Comune di Bologna. The congress is part of a study and research project “Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti” (Students with disabilities, children of migrants) run by Bologna City C...

  12. A Case Study on the Inclusive Education of Children with Mild Autism%轻度自闭症幼儿融合教育的个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉红; 秦东方

    2016-01-01

    〔Abstract〕Children with wild autistic exist mild deficit in social interaction, verbal communication and behavior, which is a challenge for them to integrate into ordinary preschool institution. Preschool inclusive education makes children with special needs and normal children receive the education of ordinary preschool institution together. Combined with an autistic children case, on the basis of a comprehensive understanding of his basic situation, this paper clarifies the identify inclusive education goals and intervention strategies, and implements inclusive education for developing his ability in language development, social interaction, activities participation, daily living and so on.%轻度自闭症幼儿在社会交往、言语沟通和行为方面存在轻度缺陷,能真正融入普通托幼机构是一个挑战;而学前融合教育让有特殊需要的幼儿与正常幼儿共同接受普通托幼机构的教育。结合某自闭症幼儿个案,在全面了解其基本情况的基础上,确定融合教育目标、干预策略,实施融合教育,从而使个案在语言发展、社会交往、活动参与、生活自理等方面能力均有所提升。

  13. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  14. Inclusions in DKDP crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The shape and the size of inclusions in DKDP crystal have been observed and measured microscopically.Three kinds of inclusions were found and the components of the inclusions were measured. The formation mechanisms were proposed and discussed.``

  15. O desenvolvimento da consciência fonológica em crianças com Síndrome de Down pode facilitar a alfabetização e contribuir para a inclusão no ensino regular? Can the development of phonological awareness in children with Down Syndrome facilitate literacy and contribute to the inclusion in mainstream education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Coimbra de Azevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As leis educacionais asseguram o direito das crianças ao ensino fundamental a partir dos seis anos, propiciando a elas a exposição antecipada a estratégias pedagógicas que visam à alfabetização. A inclusão escolar de crianças com Síndrome de Down (SD acontece já na educação infantil e se torna cada vez mais frequente, possibilitando oportunidades ímpares para o desenvolvimento cognitivo dessas, o que inclui a alfabetização. A diversidade de aprendizes com necessidades educacionais individuais, sem o devido apoio de uma equipe interdisciplinar, dificulta a aquisição da leitura e escrita de forma igualitária. O desconhecimento, por parte dos educadores, dos pré-requisitos cognitivos mínimos necessários à alfabetização, também contribui para o seu insucesso. Um desses pré-requisitos é a consciência fonológica, pouco trabalhada intencionalmente já na educação infantil. Estratégias que visam orientar educadores no desenvolvimento objetivo da consciência fonológica em crianças com SD podem facilitar a alfabetização e contribuir para a inclusão escolar. Ou será possível incluir pedagogicamente essa população sem que ocorram adaptações curriculares e um trabalho interdisciplinar efetivo?There are laws that ensure the educational rights for children to basic education since they are six years-old, providing early exposure to teaching strategies aiming literacy. Educational inclusion of children with Down syndrome (DS occurs in early childhood education and has become increasingly common, providing unique opportunities for cognitive development, including literacy. The diversity of learners with individual educational needs, without proper support from an interdisciplinary team, hinders the acquisition of reading and writing equally. The educators' misunderstanding about minimum prerequisites necessary for literacy also contributes to their failure. One of these prerequisites is phonological awareness

  16. Collaborative Hierarchical Sparse Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sprechmann, Pablo; Sapiro, Guillermo; Eldar, Yonina C

    2010-01-01

    Sparse modeling is a powerful framework for data analysis and processing. Traditionally, encoding in this framework is done by solving an l_1-regularized linear regression problem, usually called Lasso. In this work we first combine the sparsity-inducing property of the Lasso model, at the individual feature level, with the block-sparsity property of the group Lasso model, where sparse groups of features are jointly encoded, obtaining a sparsity pattern hierarchically structured. This results in the hierarchical Lasso, which shows important practical modeling advantages. We then extend this approach to the collaborative case, where a set of simultaneously coded signals share the same sparsity pattern at the higher (group) level but not necessarily at the lower one. Signals then share the same active groups, or classes, but not necessarily the same active set. This is very well suited for applications such as source separation. An efficient optimization procedure, which guarantees convergence to the global opt...

  17. Hierarchical manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K; Rao, Anil; Price, Anthony N; Wolz, Robin; Hajnal, Jo; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional variations within images. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate its utility in two very different settings: (1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved images of the thoracic cavity; (2) to find discriminative regions of 3D brain images in the classification of neurodegenerative disease,

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  19. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  20. Entrepreneurs of Meaning: Parents and the Process of Inclusive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Kathleen A.; Fisher, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    A study analyzed the process of inclusive education experienced by 20 parents of children with severe disabilities. Results found that the process of inclusion extended beyond the parents' initial placement decision to their ongoing involvement at the school site. At the schools, parents actively participated in the work of inclusion. (Author/CR)

  1. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  2. HDS: Hierarchical Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dave; Walter, Anton; Lupton, W. F.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Lawden, Mike; McIlwrath, Brian; Peden, J. C. M.; Jenness, Tim; Draper, Peter W.

    2015-02-01

    The Hierarchical Data System (HDS) is a file-based hierarchical data system designed for the storage of a wide variety of information. It is particularly suited to the storage of large multi-dimensional arrays (with their ancillary data) where efficient access is needed. It is a key component of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012) and is used by the Starlink N-Dimensional Data Format (NDF) library (ascl:1411.023). HDS organizes data into hierarchies, broadly similar to the directory structure of a hierarchical filing system, but contained within a single HDS container file. The structures stored in these files are self-describing and flexible; HDS supports modification and extension of structures previously created, as well as functions such as deletion, copying, and renaming. All information stored in HDS files is portable between the machines on which HDS is implemented. Thus, there are no format conversion problems when moving between machines. HDS can write files in a private binary format (version 4), or be layered on top of HDF5 (version 5).

  3. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  4. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  5. Best Practices of Inclusion at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carolyn H.; Ellerbee, Keisha L.; Christian, Silas H.

    2011-01-01

    Having inclusion in a school makes every student feel like they are part of the school. The children with disabilities feel accepted and part of the class like everyone else. Students learn to work well with each other and accept differences. Children learn to accept everyone for who they are. The Philosophy of Inclusion website says, Children…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of the Inclusion of Marginalised Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecek, Mojca; Cuk, Ivan; Lesar, Irena

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the concept of inclusion as a process of recognising and minimising the barriers to learning and participation of all children, with teachers as the key players in implementing inclusion in practice. There are two key questions: (1) How do teachers rank different groups of marginalised children? (2) How do teachers see their…

  7. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  8. Teaching Children to Live with Diversity: A Response to "Tocqueville on Democracy and Inclusive Education--A More Ardent and Enduring Love of Equality than of Liberty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Tocqueville on Democracy and Inclusive Education: A More Ardent and Enduring Love of Equality than of Liberty" written by Steven Connolley and Rune Sarromaa Hausstatter. The author agrees with Connolley and Hausstatter that people need to stop and question the assumptions and values associated with…

  9. PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF STUDENTS FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Hentonen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem and the essence of training students for inclusive education in terms of higher education. The implementation of inclusive education is seen in several ways: the traditional school attendance by students with disabilities, learning at home and distance learning. The need for a barrier-free environment in the educational institutions represented by the basic requirements for the training of students for inclusion, providing mastery of pedagogical knowledge, promoting the development of creativity, the ability to generate new ideas, the implementation of a humanistic position that is based on ownership, dialogue, understanding and acceptance of the child with special abilities for granted. Competence approach is the methodological basis of training future teachers to work with children in the conditions of inclusive education. On the basis of this approach, the article presents a set of competencies that can successfully carry out the work with children and families in the conditions of inclusive education. The main competence of professional readiness of students for Inclusive Educ ation: monitoring,  diagnostic and informative.  Mon itoring competence involves tracking the process of training and education of children in inclusive education. Diagnostic ability to work with this category of   children   and   their   parents.   The   content   knowledge  of  the  problems  of  training  and  educ ation, understanding of the content of inclusive ed ucation, acquisition of knowledge and skills in wor king with children with special needs.

  10. Social imaginaries and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this entry is to introduce inclusion as a sociological concept consistent with which exclusion is an internal part of inclusion. When exclusion is the basis of inclusion, the establishment of communities will always involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. Similarly......, the development of inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments will involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. With this starting point, international educational research knowledge about inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments in general will be related to the fundamental dilemma...... that inclusion on the one hand may be seen to be about human rights, solidarity, and democracy, and on the other hand, it is about ensuring the cohesion of neoliberal society by means of every person’s obligation to realize one’s potential through learning, development, and education regardless of one’s needs...

  11. Modelo hierárquico multivariado da inatividade física em crianças de escolas públicas Multivariate hierarchical model for physical inactivity among public school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario M. Bracco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores biológicos e sociodemográficos atribuíveis à inatividade física em crianças de escolas públicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas, através de questionário auto-relatado pelos pais, 2.519 crianças (49,3% meninas, de 7 a 10 anos (média = 7,6±0,9 anos, de oito escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo. Aplicamos a análise de correspondência múltipla para identificar grupos de respostas relacionadas com padrões de atividade e inatividade física e a geração de uma escala ótima. A análise de agrupamento identificou os grupos de crianças ativas e inativas. A análise de curva ROC (receiver operator characteristic, para o estudo das propriedades diagnósticas de uma escala simplificada de inatividade física derivada da escala ótima, mostrou o ponto de corte = 3 como o de melhor sensibilidade e especificidade, sendo utilizado como a variável de resposta no modelo de regressão. Um modelo hierárquico multivariado foi construído, assumindo variáveis categóricas como distais e proximais, adotando-se p OBJECTIVE: To identify biological and sociodemographic factors associated with physical inactivity in public school children. METHODS: Parents of 2,519 children (49.3% of whom were girls, aged 7 to 10 years (mean = 7.6±0.9 years, from eight public schools in São Paulo, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. We used multiple correspondence analysis to identify groups of responses related to levels of physical activity and inactivity and to obtain an optimal scale. The cluster analysis identified groups of active and inactive children. The analysis of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve, for the study of diagnostic properties of a simplified scale for physical inactivity derived from the optimal scale, revealed that a cutoff point of 3 had the best sensitivity and specificity, being therefore used as outcome variable in the regression model. A multivariate hierarchical model was

  12. Index of Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mandira Sarma

    2008-01-01

    The promotion of an inclusive financial system is considered a policy priority in many countries. While the importance of financial inclusion is widely recognized, the literature lacks a comprehensive measure that can be used to measure the extent of financial inclusion across economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by proposing an index of financial inclusion (IFI). The IFI is a multi-dimensional index that captures information on various dimensions of financial inclusion in one sing...

  13. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure......Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  14. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  15. Ambientes inclusivos na educação infantil: possibilidades e impedimentos Ambientes inclusivos en la educación infantil: posibilidades e impedimientos Inclusive environments in children education: possibilities and hindrances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Claire Sekkel

    2010-03-01

    frente a las barreras de actitud en la construcción de un ambiente inclusivo. El proyecto cuenta con el apoyo de la FAPESP.This article discusses the results of a research carried out at a Children Education Municipal School - EMEI - in the city of São Paulo, and aims at identifying both the indicators of involvement in the work with children, and those determining the building of an inclusive environment. The data collection was accomplished through observations during the three steps of Children Education, and through survey on pedagogical documents. The work developed according to diversity presents important contradictions to be thought about, expressed through unequal treatment toward children. The concept of 'inclusion' is restricted to assisting disabled children and the needs of both the remaining children and the professionals working at school are most of the time disregarded. The isolation and the involvement with marginal questions of the pedagogical work are crucial points to be considered when coping with attitude barriers in building an inclusive environment. The project is supported by FAPESP.

  16. Inclusão escolar de crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral: esta é uma realidade possível para todas elas em nossos dias? School inclusion of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: is this possible for all of them in our days?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena C. dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a distribuição escolar de um grupo de crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral (PC e analisar o impacto da função motora grossa e outros déficits no processo de inclusão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de pacientes do Ambulatório de Paralisia Cerebral da Universidade Federal do Paraná, avaliados em 2005. Pais ou cuidador completaram um questionário com dados relativos a: tipo de escola frequentada, dificuldades do aprendizado e necessidade de suporte psicopedagógico e fonoaudiológico. Os dados obtidos incluíram quem era o cuidador primário, seu nível de escolaridade e renda. As variáveis coletadas dos prontuários foram antecedentes perinatais e pós-natais, classificação topográfica da PC e função motora (Sistema de Classificação Motora Grossa - SCFMG, classificação da fala e presença de epilepsia. RESULTADOS: 105 crianças e adolescentes foram incluídos. A média de idade foi 10,8 anos, 61 (58% masculinos. Dentre as 105 crianças, 97 (92% frequentavam a escola, 36 (34% em classe regular, 7 (6,5% em classe especial e 54 (51% em escola especial. Crianças que frequentavam a escolar regular apresentavam predominantemente SCFMG nível I ou II, hemiplegia, epilepsia ausente ou com bom controle e fala normal ou disartria. Aqueles em escola especial eram crianças com SCFMG níveis III, IV e V, diplegia ou tetraplegia, epilepsia refratária e atraso na fala ou sua ausência. CONCLUSÕES: Até o momento, a inclusão de crianças com PC em escolas regulares parece trazer benefícios para aquelas com hemiplegia, nível I ou II do SCMFG, sem epilepsia e com fala normal.OBJECTIVE: To describe the school distribution of a group of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP and to analyze the impact of gross motor function and other deficits in the inclusion process. METHODS: Prospective study of patients from de Outpatient Clinic for Cerebral Palsy of the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, in

  17. Inclusão de crianças com deficiência na escola regular numa região do município de São Paulo: conhecendo estratégias e ações Inclusion of children with disabilities in regular schools in an area of São Paulo: understanding strategies and actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Pires Briant

    2012-03-01

    in order to promotes participation of all students. The purpose of this study is to understand from the point of view of primary and secondary municipal public school teachers, the pedagogical strategies these teachers used to include children with special needs in regular classes. This required conducting semi-structured individual interviews and later semi-structured group interviews with 11 teachers of 5 schools, 1 representative of the Centro de Formação e Acompanhamento à Inclusão (Inclusion Training and Monitoring Center and 1 Learning and Teaching Coordinator. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and after several readings it was possible to identify the key topics: the perceptions and mental images of the teacher on disability, the training of the teacher to promote actual inclusion, as well as the use of dedicated teaching strategies and the formation of a support network at school. The participants used general strategies such as lectures and debates, and specific strategies such as student assessments, adaptation of teaching materials, activities in pairs, and joint work with the assistant teacher and inclusion monitor. Part of the participants shared a positive idea about the special needs students, demonstrating they believed these students had potential for learning. The discourse of the other participants showed that they did not believe in these potentialities. The teachers identified the need for institutional support for their work, such as on-going teacher training based on daily demands. Part of the challenge of implementing an Inclusive Education program integrated to the Educação para Todos (Education for All idea requires us to face demands such as these in order to effectively enforce the rights of children with special learning needs.

  18. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  19. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-11-22

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science.

  20. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  1. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  2. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  3. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  4. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results.

  5. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Allan; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    We propose that foresight can contribute to inclusive development by making innovation policy processes more inclusive, which in turn makes innovation systems more inclusive. Processes of developing future-oriented innovation policies are often unsuccessful and rarely inclusive. We conceptualize ...... and processes in two foresight cases in two emerging economies - Brazil and South Korea. Although the research is exploratory and the results tentative, the empirical studies support our main propositions....

  6. Many diversity for an inclusive perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Canevaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Canevaro’s paper to the congress: Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti. Approcci culturali, questioni educative, prospettive inclusive. (Students with disabilities, children of migrants: Cultural approaches, educational questions, inclusive perspectives Bologna, 29 ottober 2010, Cappella Farnese, Comune di Bologna. The congress is part of a study and research project “Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti” (Students with disabilities, children of migrants run by Bologna City Council , Education Department, and the University of Bologna, Education Faculty. Coordinator: Roberta Caldin.

  7. Inclusion in Middle Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Derrick; Ashley, Mandi; Hayes, Brandalyn

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide school districts within Tennessee with more research about how weekly hours of inclusion impact student achievement. Specifically, researchers examined which models of inclusion were in use in two school districts in Tennessee, administrators' and teachers' perceptions of inclusion, and whether or…

  8. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  9. Towards Inclusive Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…

  10. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; Zee, van der Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal disti

  11. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal distin

  12. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal disti

  13. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    CERN Document Server

    Jelonek, M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of modeling hierarchical linear equations and estimation based on MPlus software. I present my own model to illustrate the impact of different factors on school acceptation level.

  14. Speed up the pace of social inclusion of migrant workers' children, promote the city's inclusive development——social survey on migrant workers' children%加快“农二代”社会融入步伐,推动城市包容性发展——外来务工人员第二代社会调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚平; 韩晓燕

    2012-01-01

    "外来务工人员第二代"在上海已形成一个规模庞大的群体,是上海社会重要的新兴力量,其精神和物质生活状况关系到上海城市未来的发展。本文在详细分析该群体生存现状及其存在问题的基础上,提出了促进该群体全面融入上海城市发展的对策。%The migrant workers' children had become a large-scale social groups and important emerging power in Shanghai. The spiritual and material living conditions are related to the future development of Shanghai. This article analyzed the survival status of migrant workers' children and put forward the countermeasures to promote the social inclusion of migrant workers' children.

  15. Friendship in inclusive physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A

    2009-07-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

  16. The Influence of Horticultural Activities on Preschool-Aged Children's Peer Interaction and Task Engagement in an Inclusive Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedeman-Rouse, Teri

    2012-01-01

    There is great concern by teachers, school administrators and parents regarding the increase in the number of preschool-aged students who exhibit challenging behavior in early childhood settings (Benedict, Horner & Squires 2007), need for early intervention procedures that focus on young children who may be at risk for developing patterns of…

  17. Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

  18. Integration a la population active des parents s'occupant d'enfants ayant des incapacites (Labour Force Inclusion of Parents Caring for Children with Disabilities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that sought to identify the particular problems Canadian parents caring for children with disabilities face in trying to make the transition to work in terms of their child care arrangements and employment-related factors, and best practices in child care arrangements and employment accommodations.…

  19. The Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs in an Intensive French as a Second-Language Program: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Rhonda; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper portrays the activity system of eight classes of Grade 6 children with special educational needs in an Intensive French as a second-language education program. Classroom norms and tools reflected a social-interactionist and social-constructivist approach with scaffolding, social interaction, multiple modes of representing, holistic,…

  20. "Challenging Disabling Attitudes, Building an Inclusive Society": Considering the Role of Education in Encouraging Non-Disabled Children to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Angharad E.

    2009-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…

  1. Inclusive education and social competence development

    OpenAIRE

    Mortimore, T; Zsolnai, A

    2015-01-01

    Students with special educational needs are exposed to the same social and cultural effects as any other child. Their social and emotional development also evolves under those influences and they, too, must adjust to the conditions of their environment. In several cases, however, an inadequate learning environment keeps these children from experiencing and learning social skills and abilities (such as self-confidence and independence). Inclusive education for children with special educational...

  2. Hierarchical Approach for Online Mining--Emphasis towards Software Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Saradhi, M V Vijaya; Satish, P

    2010-01-01

    Several multi-pass algorithms have been proposed for Association Rule Mining from static repositories. However, such algorithms are incapable of online processing of transaction streams. In this paper we introduce an efficient single-pass algorithm for mining association rules, given a hierarchical classification amongest items. Processing efficiency is achieved by utilizing two optimizations, hierarchy aware counting and transaction reduction, which become possible in the context of hierarchical classification. This paper considers the problem of integrating constraints that are Boolean expression over the presence or absence of items into the association discovery algorithm. This paper present three integrated algorithms for mining association rules with item constraints and discuss their tradeoffs. It is concluded that the variation of complexity depends on the measure of DIT (Depth of Inheritance Tree) and NOC (Number of Children) in the context of Hierarchical Classification.

  3. Hierarchical Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) is an important technique in studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag $\\tau$ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of $\\tau$ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass $M_{\\rm BH}$. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure $\\tau$. Recently, Fine et al (2012) introduced a new approach to RM where the BLR light curve is sparsely sampled, but this is counteracted by observing a large sample of AGN, rather than a single system. The results are combined to infer properties of the sample of AGN. In this letter we implement this method using a hierarchical Bayesian model and contrast this with the results from the previous stacked cross-correlation technique. We find that our inferences are more precise and allow fo...

  4. Onboard hierarchical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Luca; Armbruster, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a suitable hierarchical networking solution to improve capabilities and performances of space systems, with significant recurrent costs saving and more efficient design & manufacturing flows. Classically, a satellite can be split in two functional sub-systems: the platform and the payload complement. The platform is in charge of providing power, attitude & orbit control and up/down-link services, whereas the payload represents the scientific and/or operational instruments/transponders and embodies the objectives of the mission. One major possibility to improve the performance of payloads, by limiting the data return to pertinent information, is to process data on board thanks to a proper implementation of the payload data system. In this way, it is possible to share non-recurring development costs by exploiting a system that can be adopted by the majority of space missions. It is believed that the Modular and Scalable Payload Data System, under development by ESA, provides a suitable solution to fulfil a large range of future mission requirements. The backbone of the system is the standardised high data rate SpaceWire network http://www.ecss.nl/. As complement, a lower speed command and control bus connecting peripherals is required. For instance, at instrument level, there is a need for a "local" low complexity bus, which gives the possibility to command and control sensors and actuators. Moreover, most of the connections at sub-system level are related to discrete signals management or simple telemetry acquisitions, which can easily and efficiently be handled by a local bus. An on-board hierarchical network can therefore be defined by interconnecting high-speed links and local buses. Additionally, it is worth stressing another important aspect of the design process: Agencies and ESA in particular are frequently confronted with a big consortium of geographically spread companies located in different countries, each one

  5. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Romain G; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stephane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoum, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-01-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups. The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by g...

  6. Hierarchical clustering for graph visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a graph visualization methodology based on hierarchical maximal modularity clustering, with interactive and significant coarsening and refining possibilities. An application of this method to HIV epidemic analysis in Cuba is outlined.

  7. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  8. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  9. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  10. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-12-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm.

  11. Student Behaviour Self-Monitoring Enabling Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Disruptive, antisocial behaviour remains an ongoing issue for all schools, and particularly those identified as inclusive. Children who exhibit elevated levels of antisocial behaviour have an increased risk of numerous negative life consequences, including impaired social relationships, escalating aggressive behaviours, substance abuse, and school…

  12. Working towards an inclusive curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Y; Parkhouse, J

    1998-01-01

    The move towards an inclusive model of education presents teachers with the difficulty of differentiating the curriculum for children with speech, language and communication impairments. This paper focuses on the 'WiSaLT Curriculum Appendix'-a tool which can be used by teachers and speech and language therapists to help such children access the mainstream curriculum and to promote improvement in their language and communication skills. As well as highlighting potential areas of difficulty within each attainment target for key stage one, the appendix guides users to specific strategies and activities. Thus the speech and language therapist and teacher can identify which attainment targets might prove problematic for any one child and also have access to ideas which can help.

  13. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2016-01-01

    We propose that foresight can contribute to inclusive development by making innovation systems more inclusive. Processes of developing future oriented innovation policies are often unsuccessful and rarely inclusive. We conceptualize such processes as foresighting. We focus on how the ex-ante design...... of policymaking processes affects the actual process with a focus on inclusion, and we discuss how it affects policy effectiveness and innovation system transformation. Our argument is that processes of policymaking must be inclusive to affect and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors......, rather than ministries and innovation agencies, is the gatekeepers of change. From this perspective, inclusion is a precondition rather than an obstacle for transformation. Based on the notion of innovation system foresight, we develop an analytical framework that we use to study design and processes...

  14. Bott periodicity of inclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Mare, Augustin-Liviu

    2011-01-01

    When looking at Bott's original proof of his periodicity theorem for the stable homotopy groups of the orthogonal and unitary groups, one sees in the background a differential geometric periodicity phenomenon. We show that this geometric phenomenon extends to the standard inclusion of the orthogonal group into the unitary group. This explains the periodicity of the group homomorphisms between stable homotopy groups which are induced by the inclusion map. Standard inclusions between other classical Riemannian symmetric spaces are also discussed.

  15. Identification of Intestinal Ion Transport Defects in Microvillus Inclusion Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravtsov, Dmitri V; Ahsan, Kaimul; Kumari, Vandana; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Kumar, Anoop; Gujral, Tarunmeet; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Ameen, Nadia A

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the actin motor Myosin Vb (Myo5b) lead to Microvillus Inclusion Disease (MVID) and death in newborns and children. MVID results in secretory diarrhea (SD), brush border (BB) defects, villus atrophy and microvillus inclusions (MVIs) in enterocytes. How loss of Myo5b resu

  16. Socialization of Students with Disabilities in an Inclusive Educational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvoleyko, Elena V.; Kalashnikova, Svetlana A.; Klimenko, Tatiana K.

    2016-01-01

    With the implementation of the Educational Standard for children with disabilities, the need for definition of parameters of an inclusive educational environment is high. The article highlights the groups of special conditions of socialization for students with disabilities in an inclusive educational environment; the authors give the content…

  17. Inclusive Pedagogy and Knowledge in Special Education: Addressing the Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Joseph; Wyse, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus in policy and practice on adopting inclusive pedagogy as a way of reconceptualising how schools work with children with special educational needs (SEN). The paper considers the split between knowledge and pedagogy inherent in some dominant strains of "inclusive pedagogy". Drawing on the "knowledge…

  18. Preschool Inclusion: Key Findings from Research and Implications for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Smith, Sheila; Banerjee, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    A recent policy statement issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and U.S. Department of Education (DOE) on early childhood inclusion presents extensive recommendations for state and local actions that could improve young children's access to high quality inclusive early childhood programs (HHS/DOE, 2015). This brief…

  19. Towards Inclusion: Provision for Diversity in the Transition to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriwskyj, Anne; Thorpe, Karen; Tayler, Collette

    2014-01-01

    Policies of inclusion challenge the construct of readiness and require schools to prepare for the diversity of children as they transition to school. However, there is limited empirical evidence concerning how this challenge is met. This paper presents two Australian studies that investigate inclusive practices in the transition to school. Study 1…

  20. MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Semenovskikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the phenomenon of "multidime nsionality of inclusion", which is considered by the author  in  two  dimensions:  "vertical"  and  "horizontal". "Vertical" dimensional model includes five fu ndamental systems functioning inclusive society: social, economic, institutional, territorial and symbolic. "Horizontal" multidimensionality of inclusion – the inclusion of a person in group activities, his su bjective feeling. The author gives a classification of socio-cultural markers of inclusion in University of Tyumen, with an emphasis on availability and motivation of quality education, additional educational opportunities,  professional  training  (described  by the course "Tutor in inclusive education". The tutor in the inclusive educational environment – the person  having  the  higher  vocational  education  in  the field of special pedagogy and psychology; experience  of  pedagogical,  practical  activities  with  persons with limited opportunities of health; having practical  ideas  of  those  spheres  of  activity  which have a direct bearing on their training. The tutor in inclusion is the reflexive and reflexing personality understanding and holding a framework of the pr ofessional activity. The tutor, during the work with the resource card of the person is also neutral. "The multidimensionality of inclusion" is a metaphor, the translational motion vector from inclusive education to inclusive society.

  1. Child wellness and social inclusion: values for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilleltensky, Isaac

    2010-09-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) with children and youth is at the intersection of child wellness and social inclusion. Exclusion and marginalization detract from personal and collective health. Inclusion, on the contrary, contributes to wellness. Hence, we should study inclusion and exclusion in the overall context of child wellness. This special issue offers a wealth of methodologies and lessons for fostering inclusion of young people through PAR. In an effort to synthesize my concerns with child wellness, inclusion, and the scholarly work of this special issue, this paper will (a) articulate the values underpinning the philosophy of social inclusion and child wellness, (b) suggest roles and responsibilities for putting these values into action, and (c) integrate the contributions of this special issue into the emerging framework for social inclusion and child wellness.

  2. Hierarchical topic modeling with nested hierarchical Dirichlet process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-qun DING; Shan-ping LI; Zhen ZHANG; Bin SHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of latent topic hierarchies in text corpora. The height of the topic tree is assumed as fixed, while the number of topics on each level as unknown a priori and to be inferred from data. Taking a nonparametric Bayesian approach to this problem, we propose a new probabilistic generative model based on the nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the inference of the topic tree structure as welt as the word distribution of each topic and topic distribution of each document. Our theoretical analysis and experiment results show that this model can produce a more compact hierarchical topic structure and captures more free-grained topic relationships compared to the hierarchical latent Dirichlet allocation model.

  3. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  4. What Counts as Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E.; Nel, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the years since the publication in South Africa of White Paper Six: Special needs education (Department of Education (DoE) 2001) various schools in the state and independent sectors have begun to implement inclusive policies and practices. With reference to the Guidelines for full-service/inclusive schools issued in 2009, and by discussing a…

  5. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  6. Towards Inclusive Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Uses classroom vignettes to examine reasons why schools in the United Kingdom are not yet generally successful in including students with disabilities and suggests simple ways that ordinary teachers can implement inclusive practices. These include the importance of teamwork, a school climate which encourages inclusive practices, and teacher…

  7. Index for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  8. Determinants of early cognitive development: hierarchical analysis of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques dos Santos, Letícia; Neves dos Santos, Darci; Bastos, Ana Cecília Sousa; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Prado, Matildes Silva; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2008-02-01

    The study describes the relationship between anthropometric status, socioeconomic conditions, and quality of home environment and child cognitive development in 320 children from 20 to 42 months of age, randomly selected from 20,000 households that represent the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil. The inclusion criterion was to be less than 42 months of age between January and July 1999. Child cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales for Infant Development, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Inventory (HOME) was applied to assess quality of home environment. Anthropometric status was measured using the indicators weight/age and height/age ratios (z-scores), and socioeconomic data were collected through a standard questionnaire. Statistical analysis was conducted through univariate and hierarchical linear regression. Socioeconomic factors were found to have an indirect impact on early cognitive development mediated by the child's proximal environment factors, such as appropriate play materials and games available and school attendance. No independent association was seen between nutritional status and early cognitive development.

  9. ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lukyanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the modern concept of the FGOS the most urgent problem is the role of psychological and pe dagogical support of children in inclusive education. Talking about inclusive education, it should be noted that it is not only the creation of technical conditions for unimpeded access of children with disabilities in educational institutions, but also the specifics of the educational  process,  which  should  be  built  taking into account the psycho-physical capabilities of a child with disabilities. Thus inclusive education is understood and becomes in fact a complex and mu ltifaceted process of joint education and training of persons  with  disabilities  and  normally  devel oping peers. That is, inclusive education and the system of psycho-pedagogical support allow children with di sabilities more effectively progress in social development, which is based on social adaptation. It becomes obvious that psychological support is a cting as one of the key components of the education system in general and the basic, fundamental, component of inclusive education. This position of psych ological support to successfully implement individual opportunities of personal  development  and  provi ding  a  fully  adaptive,  mutual  perception:  the  child microenvironment microenvironment-child. Psychological support a systematic approach is the key to efficient operation of the educational institution that seeks  to  implement a  program  of  inclusive  educ ation.

  10. Structural integrity of hierarchical composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interface mechanical problems are of paramount importance in engineering and materials science. Traditionally, due to the complexity of modelling their mechanical behaviour, interfaces are often treated as defects and their features are not explored. In this study, a different approach is illustrated, where the interfaces play an active role in the design of innovative hierarchical composites and are fundamental for their structural integrity. Numerical examples regarding cutting tools made of hierarchical cellular polycrystalline materials are proposed, showing that tailoring of interface properties at the different scales is the way to achieve superior mechanical responses that cannot be obtained using standard materials

  11. Inclusive Education: from Policy to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina S.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The author has made an attempt to analyze the current stage in the devel- opment of an inclusive process in the domestic education. We considered the specifics of the Russian development model of the inclusion in education; defined levels of socio-psychological of actuation process as follows: 1 the system; 2 or- ganizational; 3 group; 4 individual; noted the basic tendencies and contradictions of the transition from policy-making to practical implementation. The paper also covered an issue of the dynamics of the inclusion process in children with disabilities throughout the country. We choose Federal State Primary Education Standard for students with disabilities as a reference point of the inclusion process development. Author is deeply convinced that idea of inclusive education is deeply social. Social efficiency depends not only on the development of systems additional, general, and vocational education, but also on the acceptance and understanding of the inclusion idea by the professional community, and this will keep the link between the basic requirements of education policy and the possibility of practical implementation.

  12. Inclusion in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Allan Galis

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of reform policy focused on inclusive education in the 1990s in the state of Georgia, United States of America. Program modifications including, individualizing instructional methods, adapting the instructional environment, and lowering maximum class size emerged as significant issues. We found that policies related to these areas were compounded by the less experienced educators not readily accepting change strategies for serving students. Apparently younger educators are engrossed in surviving daily routine and have difficulty coping with the complex demands of change. Regular education teachers have difficulty with the idea of inclusion. Legal aspects dealing inclusion need clarification, especially for regular education teachers.

  13. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN KAZAKHSTAN: SELECTED ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Zholtayeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently government of the Republic of Kazakhstan considers education of children with disabilities as one of the main priorities of education and society development in a whole. Thus, the most efficient means of achieving the ultimate goal for it is to reveal the most efficient ways of training of children with mental retardation. Inclusive or integrated education is becoming a powerful tool in this case if the range of educational institutions creates atmosphere which allows receiving high-quality education, correctional help and professional training. Every child and family is valued equally and deserves the same opportunities and experiences in meaningful ways. Inclusive education enables children with disabilities entering the society as full-fledged citizens who are capable of productive and independent life, building relationships and memberships with people around. As for Kazakhstan society the statistics shows: special educational services for the children with mental retardation are provided in 37 special kindergartens and 101 correctional schools, 240 special groups and 1098 special classes in compulsory schools.Moreover, nearly 10 thousand children are involved in home learning within individual study program.Since 2004 work on elaboration and publishing of Kazakhstani textbooks and educational-methodical complexes for special correctional educational organizations of 8 major kinds and types has been carried out. At the present time there are 56 medical-psychological-pedagogical rooms in the country. These institutions render medical-psychological-pedagogical support and social help to population how to diagnose and consult the children with disabilities 

  14. Memory Stacking in Hierarchical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westö, Johan; May, Patrick J C; Tiitinen, Hannu

    2016-02-01

    Robust representations of sounds with a complex spectrotemporal structure are thought to emerge in hierarchically organized auditory cortex, but the computational advantage of this hierarchy remains unknown. Here, we used computational models to study how such hierarchical structures affect temporal binding in neural networks. We equipped individual units in different types of feedforward networks with local memory mechanisms storing recent inputs and observed how this affected the ability of the networks to process stimuli context dependently. Our findings illustrate that these local memories stack up in hierarchical structures and hence allow network units to exhibit selectivity to spectral sequences longer than the time spans of the local memories. We also illustrate that short-term synaptic plasticity is a potential local memory mechanism within the auditory cortex, and we show that it can bring robustness to context dependence against variation in the temporal rate of stimuli, while introducing nonlinearities to response profiles that are not well captured by standard linear spectrotemporal receptive field models. The results therefore indicate that short-term synaptic plasticity might provide hierarchically structured auditory cortex with computational capabilities important for robust representations of spectrotemporal patterns.

  15. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  16. Inclusive Education for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Balakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111

  17. Encouraging Social Skills through Dance: An Inclusion Program in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bok; Kim, Jeongil; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hyo-Shin

    2002-01-01

    Two American teachers in a Korean school used their expertise with song and dance to teach social skills to an inclusive group of kindergartners. The group of 10 included three children with disabilities. The children with disabilities showed behavior changes in both appropriate response behaviors and inappropriate response behaviors. (Contains…

  18. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  19. Cognitive-graphic method for constructing of hierarchical forms of basic functions of biquadratic finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astionenko, I. O.; Litvinenko, O. I.; Osipova, N. V.; Tuluchenko, G. Ya.; Khomchenko, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    Recently the interpolation bases of the hierarchical type have been used for the problem solving of the approximation of multiple arguments functions (such as in the finite-element method). In this work the cognitive graphical method of constructing of the hierarchical form bases on the serendipity finite elements is suggested, which allowed to get the alternative bases on a biquadratic finite element from the serendipity family without internal knots' inclusion. The cognitive-graphic method allowed to improve the known interpolation procedure of Taylor and to get the modified elements with irregular arrangement of knots. The proposed procedures are universal and are spread in the area of finite-elements.

  20. Hierarchical Prisoner's Dilemma in Hierarchical Public-Goods Game

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    The dilemma in cooperation is one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public-goods game, each individual pays a cost for cooperation, or to prevent defection, and receives a reward from the collected cost in a group. Thus, defection is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individual players also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical public-goods (HPG) game in which two groups compete for finite resources by utilizing costs collected from individuals in each group. Analyzing this HPG game, we found a hierarchical prisoner's dilemma, in which groups choose the defection policy (say, armaments) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group's benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual within a group, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical d...

  1. Democratic Governance for Inclusion: A Case Study of a Greek Primary School Welcoming Roma Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noula, Ioanna; Cowan, Steven; Govaris, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is how changes in school governance in one state primary school in a city in central Greece have resulted in a significant degree of inclusion for Roma children. This inclusivity runs counter to the disturbing occurrence of the social and ethnic segregation of a group of locally resident Roma children within schools. This…

  2. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  3. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  4. Intuitionistic fuzzy hierarchical clustering algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zeshui

    2009-01-01

    Intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) is a set of 2-tuple arguments, each of which is characterized by a mem-bership degree and a nonmembership degree. The generalized form of IFS is interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS), whose components are intervals rather than exact numbers. IFSs and IVIFSs have been found to be very useful to describe vagueness and uncertainty. However, it seems that little attention has been focused on the clus-tering analysis of IFSs and IVIFSs. An intuitionistic fuzzy hierarchical algorithm is introduced for clustering IFSs, which is based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between IFSs: the Hamming distance, normalized Hamming, weighted Hamming, the Euclidean distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, and the weighted Euclidean distance. Subsequently, the algorithm is extended for clustering IVIFSs. Finally the algorithm and its extended form are applied to the classifications of building materials and enterprises respectively.

  5. Hierarchical Formation of Galactic Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, B G

    2006-01-01

    Young stellar groupings and clusters have hierarchical patterns ranging from flocculent spiral arms and star complexes on the largest scale to OB associations, OB subgroups, small loose groups, clusters and cluster subclumps on the smallest scales. There is no obvious transition in morphology at the cluster boundary, suggesting that clusters are only the inner parts of the hierarchy where stars have had enough time to mix. The power-law cluster mass function follows from this hierarchical structure: n(M_cl) M_cl^-b for b~2. This value of b is independently required by the observation that the summed IMFs from many clusters in a galaxy equals approximately the IMF of each cluster.

  6. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  7. Hierarchical structure of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-Cuarón, Carlos; Rivera, Ana L; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    A general theory of biological systems, based on few fundamental propositions, allows a generalization of both Wierner and Berthalanffy approaches to theoretical biology. Here, a biological system is defined as a set of self-organized, differentiated elements that interact pair-wise through various networks and media, isolated from other sets by boundaries. Their relation to other systems can be described as a closed loop in a steady-state, which leads to a hierarchical structure and functioning of the biological system. Our thermodynamical approach of hierarchical character can be applied to biological systems of varying sizes through some general principles, based on the exchange of energy information and/or mass from and within the systems. PMID:24145961

  8. TOWARDS AN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía López Menéndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays schools have to direct all efforts towards the comprehensive development of all students whatever their individual characteristics and their environment; they have to give a quality educational attention a qualified educational attention to the diversity in all their schools. This article presents an approach on the possibilities of developing a self-assessment using the Guide: "Index for Inclusion": “Index for Inclusion” published in the United kingdom by Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE Tony Booth - Mel Ainscow (2002. This guide is a simple tool intended for schools to evaluate their reality in relation to important aspects of school organization and teaching-learning from the perspective of inclusion. From this self-assessment they can design specific programs to guide their educacional practice.

  9. Hierarchical Clustering and Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, E; Manrique, A

    2000-01-01

    The growth of Super Massive Black Holes and the parallel development of activity in galactic nuclei are implemented in an analytic code of hierarchical clustering. The evolution of the luminosity function of quasars and AGN will be computed with special attention paid to the connection between quasars and Seyfert galaxies. One of the major interests of the model is the parallel study of quasar formation and evolution and the History of Star Formation.

  10. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  11. The Effects of Training on Teachers’ Perceptions of Inclusion of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In today’s society, many general education and special education teachers struggle with the concept of inclusion of students with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the general education classroom setting and perceive that inclusion of ID students impedes the learning of others. The purpose of this project was to establish if a 60-min training session on the benefits of inclusion would alter teachers’ perceptions of inclusion of children with ID in the general education setting as measured by ...

  12. Is it time to Leave Behind the Revised Hierarchical Model of Bilingual Language Processing after Fifteen Years of Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Duyck, Wouter

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM) of bilingual language processing dominates current thinking on bilingual language processing. Recently, basic tenets of the model have been called into question. First, there is little evidence for separate lexicons. Second, there is little evidence for language selective access. Third, the inclusion of…

  13. Collaborative Support for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja-Gavaldà, Josep M.; Olmos-Rueda, Patricia; Morón-Velasco, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in Catalonia, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly in regular schools although their presence, participation, learning and success are unequal. Barriers towards inclusion often depend on how to organise supporting at regular schools and the teachers' collaboration during this process. In this paper, the support…

  14. Penile Epidermal Inclusion Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Shazly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst in a 32-year-old male. This was a complication of circumcision that was neglected over years to form stones and urethrocutaneous fistula. Complete excision of the cyst and repair of the fistula were performed successfully. Histopathological examination confirmed our diagnosis.

  15. Raising Achievement through Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose of…

  16. Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme...

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of «inclusive ed ucation» as a process of training and education of children with special educational needs in mainstream institutions. The basic values of inclusive education, first of all respect, tolerance, mutual aid, the development of the deposits of all students. We describe  the  function  and  status  of  the  assistant coordinator in the conditions of inclusive education, carrying out individual or group support students. Determined psycho-pedagogical conditions of inclusive education pedagogical support and educational support, set their differences. Pedagogical maintenance is considered as the creation of resource conditions methodical support; subjectdeveloping environment; participate fully in  school life for all students; education in schools located in the  community;  availability  of  psycho -pedagogical diagnosis of subjective manifestations of the child; development and implementation of individual educational routes of children; pedagogical and social support; changing social attitudes towards the child with disabilities. We give interpretation of pedagog ical support of a direct interaction of the teacher and the child, characterized by unity of purpose in the education of a child's responsibility; subjectivity of the pedagogical process, is a special way of its o rganization; intersubject interaction, based on coo peration and dialogue; social and individual character development of child socio-cultural experiences; integrality of the pedagogical process, lies in its continuity and  Polystructural  pedagogical  process, including target, informative, efficient organizational, productive components. We consider the line teacher interaction with other professionals in the cond itions of inclusive education, «psychologist -teacher», «social    pedagogue-teacher»,    «teacher-therapist», «teacher-therapist», «teacher-specialist physiotherapy (physical therapy

  18. Two Perspectives on Inclusion In The United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of schooling for students with disabilities in the United States is marked by exclusion and, until the passage of the Education for All Children Act in the 1970s, a substantial number of students with disabilities were denied free public education and many more were poorly served by public schools. The requirement that all children be educated in the “least restrictive environment” gradually allowed many students with disabilities to be educated alongside their peers without disabilities and today a majority of students with disabilities spend more than 80% of their school days in regular classroom settings. Still, the meaning of inclusion is bitterly disputed, fueled in large part by two contrasting views of disability. This paper discusses these two views – a deficit stance and a social constructivist perspective – and the effects of these views on the meaning of inclusion, the purpose of inclusion, and how inclusive education is achieved.

  19. Educação e inclusão social das crianças e dos adolescentes Educación e inclusión social de los niños y de los adolescentes Education and the social inclusion of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Maria Noronha P. de Queiroz

    2012-03-01

    democrático sociopolítico, involucrando Gobierno y Sociedad. Los protagonistas de las acciones serían profesionales de reconocida competencia para desarrollar la propuesta, incluyendo las funciones de monitoreamiento, acompañamiento y evaluación necesarios para una mayor eficiencia y eficacia de sus acciones y a quien serían concedidas condiciones laborales físicas y financieras compatibles con su función, así como posibilidad de ascenso profesional.This article deals with the proposal for social inclusion of children and teenagers, having education as the main changing agent, aiming to give them a desirable level of human development. In order to understand the current situation, we present an abbreviated analysis of the legislation related to Brazilian children and teenagers, as well as indicators of health and education, based on data from the Ministry of Health, Education, PNAD, IBGE, and the reality of the relationship education and work. We propose the creation of Poles, focusing mostly schools, health posts and social assistance posts already existent, that should be defined in a democratic socio-political process, involving Government and Society. The protagonists of the actions should be professionals of well-known competence to develop the proposal, including the functions of monitoring, following-up and evaluating needed for the best efficiency and effectiveness of their actions and to whom physical and financial working conditions, compatible with their functions, should be granted as well as the possibility of professional promotion.

  20. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising...

  1. PROVIDING PSYCHOLOGICAL SECURITY TO PARTICIPANTS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Yurchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the education of children with disabilities is one of the most topical and controversial issues of modern education. The main problem is that today children with disabilities face many barriers to getting a quality education related to social inequalities that are possible and necessary to overcome. A big obstacle for the successful implementation of inclusion plays a conservative society and, in particular, the ossification views of parents of healthy children, who are often opposed to their children studying together with people with disabilities. A big obstacle for the successful implementation of inclusion is played by social ossification and, in particular, by obsolescent opinions of parents of healthy children that are often opposed to their kids studying together with disabled children. This article declares that many schools and, moreover, the teachers are not ready for changes in traditional forms, principles and teaching methods as for working with children with special educational demands requires knowledge in correctional and special education and psychology. There is no developed unified national Russian program of social integration of children with special needs that increases the level of tolerance, selfawareness and helping behavior from healthy people. The article describes the results of the authorial program in providing psychological security of individuals in inclusive education which report the development of sufficient skills of coping with emotional distress, decrease in anxiety manifestations, development of children's'  emotional  stability.  The  study notes  that  the main purpose of the program is to eliminate discrimination and promote tolerance: children who receive inclusive education are taught the acts of kindness, mutual respect and tolerance.

  2. Hierarchical Structures in Hypertext Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdan, Eniko; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Bezdan, E., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 9 September). Hierarchical Structures in Hypertext Learning Environments. Presentation for the visit of KU Leuven, Open University, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  3. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  4. Children's Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities: Supporting Positive Attitude Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jihee; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Diamond, Karen E.

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive programs and community settings are important contexts to help foster acceptance and understanding among all children. Research has shown that children enrolled in inclusive programs become more accepting of people who are different from them. Inclusion of children with disabilities in classroom activities requires the involvement of…

  5. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment.

  6. Una aproximación a la intervención educativa con menores migrantes no acompañados en España: paradojas de la inclusión social Uma aproximação à intervenção educativa com menores migrantes não acompanhados na Espanha: paradoxos da inclusão social An approach to educational intervention with unaccompanied migrant children in Spain: paradox of social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Del- Sol- Flórez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo centra su atención, desde una visión multidisciplinar, en un conjunto de factores que erosionan el proceso de inclusión de los menores migrantes no acompañados en el marco del sistema de instituciones de protección de menores en el contexto español. La pertinencia de su análisis se configura como una labor prioritaria, de cara a visibilizar al colectivo, para así dar cuenta de la comprensión de algunos de los elementos que contribuyen a una eclosión de la educación inclusiva. Al mismo tiempo, se parte del presupuesto de (reconocer las fortalezas y potencialidades de estos niños y jóvenes transmigrantes, con una cosmovisión proactiva, constructivista y empoderadora.O presente artigo centra sua atenção, a partir de uma visão multidisciplinar, em um conjunto de fatores que erosionam o processo de inclusão dos menores migrantes não acompanhados no marco do sistema de instituições de proteção de menores no contexto espanhol. A pertinência de sua análise se configura como um trabalho prioritário, para a visibilizar o coletivo e assim dar conta da compreensão de alguns dos elementos que contribuem para uma eclosão da educação inclusiva. Ao mesmo tempo, parte- se do pressuposto de (reconhecer as fortalezas e potencialidades destes meninos e jovens transmigrantes, com uma cosmovisão proativa, construtivista e empoderadora.This article focuses, from a multidisciplinary approach, on a number of factors that undermine the process of inclusion of unaccompanied migrant children under the system of child protection institutions in the Spanish context. The relevance of its analysis is set as a priority task, in order to draw attention to the group, thus accounting for the understanding of some of the elements that contribute to the emergence of inclusive education. At the same time, we start from the assumption of (re learning the strengths and potential of these children and young transmigrants, with a

  7. Assessment of inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the way teachers, in teams can work with assessing the inclusive practice in their own classes. In 2012 a joint effort between CEPRA, teachers and school administrators from the municipality of Hjørring developed a dialog based model for continually assessing......, and in this light discuss how theories of learning based on cooperative learning can show the potential of the tool from both teacher and student perspectives....

  8. Age-related change in shifting attention between global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, M.; Burack, J.A.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was the developmental pattern of the ability to shift attention between global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. Children aged 7 years and 11 years and 21-year-old adults were administered a task (two experiments) that allowed for the examination of 1) the direction o

  9. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  10. Dynamic Organization of Hierarchical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, external objects are categorized in a hierarchical way. Although it is widely accepted that objects are represented as static attractors in neural state space, this view does not take account interaction between intrinsic neural dynamics and external input, which is essential to understand how neural system responds to inputs. Indeed, structured spontaneous neural activity without external inputs is known to exist, and its relationship with evoked activities is discussed. Then, how categorical representation is embedded into the spontaneous and evoked activities has to be uncovered. To address this question, we studied bifurcation process with increasing input after hierarchically clustered associative memories are learned. We found a "dynamic categorization"; neural activity without input wanders globally over the state space including all memories. Then with the increase of input strength, diffuse representation of higher category exhibits transitions to focused ones specific to each object. The hierarchy of memories is embedded in the transition probability from one memory to another during the spontaneous dynamics. With increased input strength, neural activity wanders over a narrower state space including a smaller set of memories, showing more specific category or memory corresponding to the applied input. Moreover, such coarse-to-fine transitions are also observed temporally during transient process under constant input, which agrees with experimental findings in the temporal cortex. These results suggest the hierarchy emerging through interaction with an external input underlies hierarchy during transient process, as well as in the spontaneous activity.

  11. Supporting Teachers in Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina S.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the issues of support provision to teachers involved in inclusive education as the main requirement for successful realization of inclusion. The methodological framework used in the study is a resource approach. The article describes the ways of extending the means of supporting teachers. The article also arguments for consolidating all the educators of inclusive schools into inclusive teams equally interested in joint work of administration and educators of intervention programs.

  12. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  13. 外来居民子女社会融入影响因素研究--以上海市虹口区为例%Research on Factors Influencing the Social Inclusion of Migrant Children--The Case of Hongkou District,Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段菲菲; 马一翔

    2015-01-01

    Based on the questionnaires and interviews on migrant children from several junior high schools of relatively high proportion of migrant children in Hongkou District, Shanghai, this paper researches on social inclusion of migrant children and measures the degree of social inclusion by five aspects respectively, sense of belonging, identity, acceptance, communication intention, and expectation of exclusion. Furthermore, it analyses the factors influencing the social integration and their influence level from the perspectives of society, living space, school and family.%本文通过在上海市虹口区几所外来居民子女比例较高的学校进行问卷及访谈,对外来居民子女社会融入情况进行了分析,并分别从归属感、身份认同、接纳程度、交往意愿和排斥预期5个指标衡量了这些学生的社会融入程度。之后从社会层面、居住空间层面、校园空间层面及家庭环境层面分析出影响这些指标的因素以及影响程度。

  14. Discursive Hierarchical Patterning in Economics Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply Lung's (2008) model of the discursive hierarchical patterning of cases to a closer and more specific study of Economics cases and proposes a model of the distinct discursive hierarchical patterning of the same. It examines a corpus of 150 Economics cases with a view to uncovering the patterns of discourse construction.…

  15. Discovering hierarchical structure in normal relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical clustering is a widely used tool for structuring and visualizing complex data using similarity. Traditionally, hierarchical clustering is based on local heuristics that do not explicitly provide assessment of the statistical saliency of the extracted hierarchy. We propose a non-param...

  16. A Model of Hierarchical Key Assignment Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhigang; ZHAO Jing; XU Maozhi

    2006-01-01

    A model of the hierarchical key assignment scheme is approached in this paper, which can be used with any cryptography algorithm. Besides, the optimal dynamic control property of a hierarchical key assignment scheme will be defined in this paper. Also, our scheme model will meet this property.

  17. The role of interpreters in inclusive classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, S D; Kreimeyer, K H

    2001-10-01

    The roles of interpreters in an inclusive classroom were examined through a qualitative, 3-year case study of three interpreters in an inclusive school. Interviews were conducted with interpreters, classroom teachers, special education teachers, and administrators. The interview data were supplemented with observations and field notes. Results indicate that in addition to sign interpreting between American Sign Language and speech, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept the teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress. The interpreter/aides and the classroom teachers preferred this full-participant interpreter role, while the special educators and administrators preferred a translator role. Classroom teachers were more comfortable with full-time interpreters who knew the classroom routine, while the special educators and administrators feared that full-time interpreters fostered child and teacher dependence. These issues are discussed in terms of congruence with the Registry of Interpreters code of ethics and how integration of young children might be best facilitated.

  18. Hierarchical Identity-Based Lossy Trapdoor Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Escala, Alex; Libert, Benoit; Rafols, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Lossy trapdoor functions, introduced by Peikert and Waters (STOC'08), have received a lot of attention in the last years, because of their wide range of applications in theoretical cryptography. The notion has been recently extended to the identity-based scenario by Bellare et al. (Eurocrypt'12). We provide one more step in this direction, by considering the notion of hierarchical identity-based lossy trapdoor functions (HIB-LTDFs). Hierarchical identity-based cryptography generalizes identitybased cryptography in the sense that identities are organized in a hierarchical way; a parent identity has more power than its descendants, because it can generate valid secret keys for them. Hierarchical identity-based cryptography has been proved very useful both for practical applications and to establish theoretical relations with other cryptographic primitives. In order to realize HIB-LTDFs, we first build a weakly secure hierarchical predicate encryption scheme. This scheme, which may be of independent interest, is...

  19. A neural signature of hierarchical reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Fernandes, José J F; Solway, Alec; Diuk, Carlos; McGuire, Joseph T; Barto, Andrew G; Niv, Yael; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2011-07-28

    Human behavior displays hierarchical structure: simple actions cohere into subtask sequences, which work together to accomplish overall task goals. Although the neural substrates of such hierarchy have been the target of increasing research, they remain poorly understood. We propose that the computations supporting hierarchical behavior may relate to those in hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL), a machine-learning framework that extends reinforcement-learning mechanisms into hierarchical domains. To test this, we leveraged a distinctive prediction arising from HRL. In ordinary reinforcement learning, reward prediction errors are computed when there is an unanticipated change in the prospects for accomplishing overall task goals. HRL entails that prediction errors should also occur in relation to task subgoals. In three neuroimaging studies we observed neural responses consistent with such subgoal-related reward prediction errors, within structures previously implicated in reinforcement learning. The results reported support the relevance of HRL to the neural processes underlying hierarchical behavior.

  20. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zheng; Guo, Yanbing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  1. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej

    2012-01-01

    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... years. The primary part of the sum is to be used on new large hospital complexes. The 5 danish regions are the quarantor of healthcare quality and responsible for the projects of 5 new hospital complexes. The complexes are planned to be the size of willages of 5000-8000 inhabitants…. Finding your way...

  2. Hierarchical mutual information for the comparison of hierarchical community structures in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perotti, Juan Ignacio; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The quest for a quantitative characterization of community and modular structure of complex networks produced a variety of methods and algorithms to classify different networks. However, it is not clear if such methods provide consistent, robust and meaningful results when considering hierarchies as a whole. Part of the problem is the lack of a similarity measure for the comparison of hierarchical community structures. In this work we give a contribution by introducing the {\\it hierarchical mutual information}, which is a generalization of the traditional mutual information, and allows to compare hierarchical partitions and hierarchical community structures. The {\\it normalized} version of the hierarchical mutual information should behave analogously to the traditional normalized mutual information. Here, the correct behavior of the hierarchical mutual information is corroborated on an extensive battery of numerical experiments. The experiments are performed on artificial hierarchies, and on the hierarchical ...

  3. Groups possessing extensive hierarchical decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Januszkiewicz, T; Leary, I J

    2009-01-01

    Kropholler's class of groups is the smallest class of groups which contains all finite groups and is closed under the following operator: whenever $G$ admits a finite-dimensional contractible $G$-CW-complex in which all stabilizer groups are in the class, then $G$ is itself in the class. Kropholler's class admits a hierarchical structure, i.e., a natural filtration indexed by the ordinals. For example, stage 0 of the hierarchy is the class of all finite groups, and stage 1 contains all groups of finite virtual cohomological dimension. We show that for each countable ordinal $\\alpha$, there is a countable group that is in Kropholler's class which does not appear until the $\\alpha+1$st stage of the hierarchy. Previously this was known only for $\\alpha= 0$, 1 and 2. The groups that we construct contain torsion. We also review the construction of a torsion-free group that lies in the third stage of the hierarchy.

  4. Quantum transport through hierarchical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, S; Varghese, C; Novotny, M A

    2011-04-01

    The transport of quantum electrons through hierarchical lattices is of interest because such lattices have some properties of both regular lattices and random systems. We calculate the electron transmission as a function of energy in the tight-binding approximation for two related Hanoi networks. HN3 is a Hanoi network with every site having three bonds. HN5 has additional bonds added to HN3 to make the average number of bonds per site equal to five. We present a renormalization group approach to solve the matrix equation involved in this quantum transport calculation. We observe band gaps in HN3, while no such band gaps are observed in linear networks or in HN5. We provide a detailed scaling analysis near the edges of these band gaps.

  5. Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Shanhe; Land, Kenneth C

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates an ill-posed problem (multicollinearity) in Hierarchical Linear Models from both the data and the model perspectives. We propose an intuitive, effective approach to diagnosing the presence of multicollinearity and its remedies in this class of models. A simulation study demonstrates the impacts of multicollinearity on coefficient estimates, associated standard errors, and variance components at various levels of multicollinearity for finite sample sizes typical in social science studies. We further investigate the role multicollinearity plays at each level for estimation of coefficient parameters in terms of shrinkage. Based on these analyses, we recommend a top-down method for assessing multicollinearity in HLMs that first examines the contextual predictors (Level-2 in a two-level model) and then the individual predictors (Level-1) and uses the results for data collection, research problem redefinition, model re-specification, variable selection and estimation of a final model.

  6. Hierarchical networks of scientific journals

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Gergely; Mones, Enys; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Scientific journals are the repositories of the gradually accumulating knowledge of mankind about the world surrounding us. Just as our knowledge is organised into classes ranging from major disciplines, subjects and fields to increasingly specific topics, journals can also be categorised into groups using various metrics. In addition to the set of topics characteristic for a journal, they can also be ranked regarding their relevance from the point of overall influence. One widespread measure is impact factor, but in the present paper we intend to reconstruct a much more detailed description by studying the hierarchical relations between the journals based on citation data. We use a measure related to the notion of m-reaching centrality and find a network which shows the level of influence of a journal from the point of the direction and efficiency with which information spreads through the network. We can also obtain an alternative network using a suitably modified nested hierarchy extraction method applied ...

  7. Galaxy formation through hierarchical clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods for studying the formation of galaxies by gas condensation within massive dark halos are presented. The present scheme applies to cosmogonies where structure grows through hierarchical clustering of a mixture of gas and dissipationless dark matter. The simplest models consistent with the current understanding of N-body work on dissipationless clustering, and that of numerical and analytic work on gas evolution and cooling are adopted. Standard models for the evolution of the stellar population are also employed, and new models for the way star formation heats and enriches the surrounding gas are constructed. Detailed results are presented for a cold dark matter universe with Omega = 1 and H(0) = 50 km/s/Mpc, but the present methods are applicable to other models. The present luminosity functions contain significantly more faint galaxies than are observed.

  8. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective.

  9. Inclusive Business - What It Is All About? Managing Inclusive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the challenges we face today, the inclusive business models are future business models through which the Millennium Development Goals can be fostered and strengthen. These are the models which, through their strategic orientation on inclusivity, include low income communities in their value chain. This can be done through combining variety of strategies which all have two common points – recognition of stakeholders and adjustment of the product to the target market. The paper presents the analysis of inclusive markets. Hence, the research results show the dispersion of inclusive businesses worldwide, type of the organization, sector coverage, and contribution to MDGs as well as the particular way of inclusion of low income communities in their value chain. The aim is to present how inclusive business benefits not only the low income societies, but the companies that operate in this way as well.

  10. Culturally Responsive Professional Development for Inclusive Education in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world (World Bank, 2014). Yet, our experiences working with rural schools suggest that the Malawi education system may be far ahead of many developed nations, including the United States, in terms of their practical and philosophical commitment to inclusive education for all children, including…

  11. SATurated Models of Pupildom: Assessment and Inclusion/Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathy; Collins, Janet; Benjamin, Shereen; Nind, Melanie; Sheehy, Kieron

    2004-01-01

    Adopting a sociocultural theoretical framework and based on ethnographic data from two primary schools, this article seeks to answer the question: what meanings about inclusion and exclusion are encoded in school and classroom practices? It documents the (inclusionary and) exclusionary pedagogic processes that influence learning and children's…

  12. Addressing the Inclusion Imperative: An Urban School District's Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatthews, David Edward; Mawhinney, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Over the past forty years, schools across the United States have become more inclusive for students with disabilities. However, in many high-poverty urban school districts, a disproportionate number of minority children with disabilities are segregated from their non-disabled peers. This article presents findings from a qualitative case study of…

  13. Supporting Schools to Create an Inclusive Environment for Refugee Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Karen; Cross, Suzanne; Riggs, Elisha; Gibbs, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In a context of increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers globally, recognition of the importance of the school environment for promoting successful settlement outcomes and inclusion for refugee-background young people is growing. Yet schools may be poorly equipped to recognise and respond to the multiple challenges faced by children and…

  14. Effective Practice in Inclusive and Special Needs Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buli-Holmberg, Jorun; Jeyaprathaban, Sujathamalini

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to evaluate the effective teaching practice for children with special learning needs. The research question framed in the present study for investigation is which practice will be effective in different inclusive classroom settings and what are the factors that contribute for effective practices? Qualitative research was…

  15. Inclusive physical education – premises for the development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Stănesc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In last years, one of the major educational interests was to assure conditions for inclusion in normal school for children withspecial educational needs. This paper is part of a national research project (CNCSIS 931/2007 that finally intends toelaborate „Models of curricular design for adapted and inclusive physical education”. By starting from this project, thepresent study aims, on the one hand, at identifying the way in which the physical education teachers in mass schoolsperceive the integration of children with some disabilities into the physical education class, and, on the other hand, atidentifying the way in which the teachers working in special schools manage to involve them into the sport activitiespracticed by normal children, so that one could talk about integrated physical activities, where each pupil, with or without adisability, is equally important. Knowing the way of approaching the activity within the inclusive sport activities can facilitatethe disabled children’s better involvement into the respective practice and their better social integration.To this purpose, weinitiated two parallel studies. They were based on questionnaires and on direct observation, and were conducted on a 4-month period. The integration models through inclusive school determine the specialists to pay more attention to physical forall, where the disabled children are integrated in normal school classes.

  16. Practical Bibliotherapy Strategies for the Inclusive Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquinta, Anita; Hipsky, Shellie

    2006-01-01

    This article was developed to assist the regular education elementary classroom teacher in utilizing practical bibliotherapy strategies for the inclusive classroom. Using quality children's literature for bibliotherapy helps students to grow socio-emotionally by identifying with the main character in the story with a disability which leads to…

  17. Interdisciplinary Education of Social Inclusion Facilitators in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Able-Boone, Harriet; Harrison, Melody F.; West, Tracey

    2002-01-01

    Successful inclusion of very young children with disabilities in natural environments requires professionals to have specialized skills including: collaboration with the child's parents and caregivers and other professionals, ecologically valid assessment of the child within the context of his or her natural environment, and the design of an…

  18. The Roma Education Fund: A New Tool for Roma Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Alexandre; Bercus, Costel

    2007-01-01

    In January 2005, the Roma Education Fund (REF) came into existence as a Swiss foundation with the goal of increasing the inclusion of Roma children in mainstream classes in Central and Eastern Europe. The fund gives priority to countries that make a political commitment to design and finance actions to improve Roma living conditions, by taking…

  19. Problems of implementation of inclusive education in the USA and European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liventseva N. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an analytical review of empirical studies covering the problems of inclusive education in the developed countries: the USA, Great Britain, Scandinavian countries. The article examines 18 scientific publications on inclusive education in psychological periodicals of the USA and Europe issued in 2006—2011. They give coverage to empirical findings concerning the implementation of inclusive education and are subdivided into two thematically different groups. The first one includes investigations focused on the study of professional training for inclusion educators. It means the organization of the effective system of training for educators which can make them ready to provide inclusive education in classrooms; problems of educators' attitudes to inclusion as factors providing its successful implementation; development of educators' basic skills in their interactions with special children and their families. The second group of studies focuses on the problems of adaptation, namely, the way children with special needs adjust in a group of nominally healthy peers.

  20. INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Yeni Laksmini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion body myositis (IBM merupakan penyakit inflamasi pada otot yang bersifat progresif dengan penyebab yang tidak diketahui dan tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap berbagai terapi. Gambaran histopatologi IBM ditandai dengan infiltrat sel-sel limfosit diantara ruangan endomisial, di dalam otot dan di sekitar otot dengan fokus-fokus inklusi di dalam miosit (rimmed vacuole serta beberapa serat otot terlihat atrofi dan nekrosis. Dilaporkan wanita, usia 46 tahun dengan IBM. Keluhan utama pasien berupa kelemahan pada kedua tangan, kaki kanan terasa berat jika diangkat sehingga susah berjalan. Pemeriksaan saraf sensorik ekstremitas dekstra dan sinistra dalam batas normal. Pemeriksaan enzim cretinine kinase meningkat secara dramatik. Pemeriksaan histopatologi dari biospi otot gastrocnemius menunjukkan gambaran yang sesuai untuk IBM dan telah dilakukan penanganan dengan pemberian oral methilprednisolon 3x32 mg dan mecobalmin 1x500ìg intravena, namun tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap terapi dan akhirnya pasien meninggal. [MEDICINA 2013;44:118-123].

  1. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  2. A Model for Slicing JAVA Programs Hierarchically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi-Xin Li; Xiao-Cong Fan; Jun Pang; Jian-Jun Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Program slicing can be effectively used to debug, test, analyze, understand and maintain objectoriented software. In this paper, a new slicing model is proposed to slice Java programs based on their inherent hierarchical feature. The main idea of hierarchical slicing is to slice programs in a stepwise way, from package level, to class level, method level, and finally up to statement level. The stepwise slicing algorithm and the related graph reachability algorithms are presented, the architecture of the Java program Analyzing Tool (JATO) based on hierarchical slicing model is provided, the applications and a small case study are also discussed.

  3. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  4. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  5. Financial Stability and Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Peter J; Pontines, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...

  6. Inclusion in a Polarised World

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This paper on inclusion was presented to the at the 2005 summer school of DEEEP (Development Education Exchange in Europe Project), Härnösand - Sweden, 5 - 12 June 2005. It addresses the significance of the concept of world civilisation. It assesses how meaning may be attached to the concept of inclusion in an economically polarised world. It develops a critique of the conception of economic inclusion, by means of an exploration of linguistic inclusion and the notion of ‘disability’. ‘...

  7. "We Are Inclusive. We Are a Team. Let's Just Do It": Commitment, Collective Efficacy, and Agency in Four Inclusive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Wanda E.; Thompson, S. Anthony; Timmons, Vianne

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of inclusive education for children with disabilities continues to vary across and within Canadian provinces and territories leading us to question why some schools move forward while others maintain traditional segregated approaches. Drawing from Appreciative Inquiry methodology, this study used semi-structured interviews to gather…

  8. Image meshing via hierarchical optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao XIE; Ruo-feng TONG‡

    2016-01-01

    Vector graphic, as a kind of geometric representation of raster images, has many advantages, e.g., defi nition independence and editing facility. A popular way to convert raster images into vector graphics is image meshing, the aim of which is to fi nd a mesh to represent an image as faithfully as possible. For traditional meshing algorithms, the crux of the problem resides mainly in the high non-linearity and non-smoothness of the objective, which makes it difficult to fi nd a desirable optimal solution. To ameliorate this situation, we present a hierarchical optimization algorithm solving the problem from coarser levels to fi ner ones, providing initialization for each level with its coarser ascent. To further simplify the problem, the original non-convex problem is converted to a linear least squares one, and thus becomes convex, which makes the problem much easier to solve. A dictionary learning framework is used to combine geometry and topology elegantly. Then an alternating scheme is employed to solve both parts. Experiments show that our algorithm runs fast and achieves better results than existing ones for most images.

  9. Image meshing via hierarchical optimization*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao XIE; Ruo-feng TONGS

    2016-01-01

    Vector graphic, as a kind of geometric representation of raster images, has many advantages, e.g., definition independence and editing facility. A popular way to convert raster images into vector graphics is image meshing, the aim of which is to find a mesh to represent an image as faithfully as possible. For traditional meshing algorithms, the crux of the problem resides mainly in the high non-linearity and non-smoothness of the objective, which makes it difficult to find a desirable optimal solution. To ameliorate this situation, we present a hierarchical optimization algorithm solving the problem from coarser levels to finer ones, providing initialization for each level with its coarser ascent. To further simplify the problem, the original non-convex problem is converted to a linear least squares one, and thus becomes convex, which makes the problem much easier to solve. A dictionary learning framework is used to combine geometry and topology elegantly. Then an alternating scheme is employed to solve both parts. Experiments show that our algorithm runs fast and achieves better results than existing ones for most images.

  10. Hierarchical Bayes Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyrulnikov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF), when applied to high-dimensional systems, suffers from an inevitably small affordable ensemble size, which results in poor estimates of the background error covariance matrix ${\\bf B}$. The common remedy is a kind of regularization, usually an ad-hoc spatial covariance localization (tapering) combined with artificial covariance inflation. Instead of using an ad-hoc regularization, we adopt the idea by Myrseth and Omre (2010) and explicitly admit that the ${\\bf B}$ matrix is unknown and random and estimate it along with the state (${\\bf x}$) in an optimal hierarchical Bayes analysis scheme. We separate forecast errors into predictability errors (i.e. forecast errors due to uncertainties in the initial data) and model errors (forecast errors due to imperfections in the forecast model) and include the two respective components ${\\bf P}$ and ${\\bf Q}$ of the ${\\bf B}$ matrix into the extended control vector $({\\bf x},{\\bf P},{\\bf Q})$. Similarly, we break the traditional backgrou...

  11. Enacting Inclusion : A Framework for Interrogating Inclusive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Lani; Spratt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development and use of an analytical framework for interrogating the practice of newly qualified mainstream teachers recently graduated from a one-year Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) that was informed by a concept of inclusive pedagogy. Inclusive pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning that…

  12. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak;

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  13. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION, IN RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  14. An Automatic Hierarchical Delay Analysis Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FaridMheir-El-Saadi; BozenaKaminska

    1994-01-01

    The performance analysis of VLSI integrated circuits(ICs) with flat tools is slow and even sometimes impossible to complete.Some hierarchical tools have been developed to speed up the analysis of these large ICs.However,these hierarchical tools suffer from a poor interaction with the CAD database and poorly automatized operations.We introduce a general hierarchical framework for performance analysis to solve these problems.The circuit analysis is automatic under the proposed framework.Information that has been automatically abstracted in the hierarchy is kept in database properties along with the topological information.A limited software implementation of the framework,PREDICT,has also been developed to analyze the delay performance.Experimental results show that hierarchical analysis CPU time and memory requirements are low if heuristics are used during the abstraction process.

  15. Generation of hierarchically correlated multivariate symbolic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tumminello, Mi; Mantegna, R N

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to generate multivariate series of symbols from a finite alphabet with a given hierarchical structure of similarities. The target hierarchical structure of similarities is arbitrary, for instance the one obtained by some hierarchical clustering procedure as applied to an empirical matrix of Hamming distances. The algorithm can be interpreted as the finite alphabet equivalent of the recently introduced hierarchically nested factor model (M. Tumminello et al. EPL 78 (3) 30006 (2007)). The algorithm is based on a generating mechanism that is different from the one used in the mutation rate approach. We apply the proposed methodology for investigating the relationship between the bootstrap value associated with a node of a phylogeny and the probability of finding that node in the true phylogeny.

  16. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009

    2010-01-01

    The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...

  17. Hierarchical Network Design Using Simulated Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The hierarchical network problem is the problem of finding the least cost network, with nodes divided into groups, edges connecting nodes in each groups and groups ordered in a hierarchy. The idea of hierarchical networks comes from telecommunication networks where hierarchies exist. Hierarchical...... networks are described and a mathematical model is proposed for a two level version of the hierarchical network problem. The problem is to determine which edges should connect nodes, and how demand is routed in the network. The problem is solved heuristically using simulated annealing which as a sub......-algorithm uses a construction algorithm to determine edges and route the demand. Performance for different versions of the algorithm are reported in terms of runtime and quality of the solutions. The algorithm is able to find solutions of reasonable quality in approximately 1 hour for networks with 100 nodes....

  18. Conservation Laws in the Hierarchical Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Gallavotti, G.; Knops, H.

    1974-01-01

    An exposition of the renormalization-group equations for the hierarchical model is given. Attention is drawn to some properties of the spin distribution functions which are conserved under the action of the renormalization group.

  19. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  20. Living and Learning in the Presence of the Other: Defining Religious Education Inclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebben, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in praxis and theory of religious education point to the growing interest in inclusive forms of didactics. Interreligious learning invites children and young people to deal constructively with religious diversity in the classroom. In this paper, philosophical and theological arguments for inclusive religious education are…

  1. Numeracy in Inclusive Early Childhood Classrooms: Embedding Learning Opportunities and Using Effective Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    This literature review will address issues to consider related to teaching numeracy and mathematics to children with disabilities in inclusive early childhood classrooms. As inclusive settings and instruction in numeracy/mathematics at an early age become more common, it is important to closely examine teaching strategies and make appropriate…

  2. The Impact of Social Cognitive and Personality Factors on Teachers' Reported Inclusive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Claire; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Durkin, Kevin; Elliott, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inclusive education of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is intended to maximize their educational experience within the mainstream school setting. While policy mandates inclusion, it is classroom teachers' behaviours that determine its success. Aims: This study provided a novel application of the theory of planned behaviour…

  3. General Education Teacher Perceptions of Self-Efficacy Regarding Teaching Students with Autism in Inclusion Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrey, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    With an increase in the number of children being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder comes an increase in students with autism being integrated into regular education classrooms. While general education teachers strongly support inclusion, they do not feel prepared to implement inclusion practices in their classrooms. This dissertation was…

  4. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers and Inclusive Education: Attitudes, Concerns and Perceived Skill Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangope, Boitumelo; Mannathoko, Magdeline C.; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain Botswana physical education (PE) student teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in the general education classrooms and also to identify their concerns and perceived skill needs with regards to inclusion. A two-part questionnaire consisting of background variables and…

  5. Competencies for Early Childhood Educators in the Context of Inclusion: Issues and Guidance for States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Pam; West, Tracey

    2011-01-01

    This concept paper identifies issues and provides guidance to states as they develop, revise, and utilize early educator competencies in the context of inclusion. Key issues include ensuring that early educator competencies reflect knowledge, skills and emerging research on effective practices for working in inclusive settings with children with…

  6. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly chan...

  7. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    . In current practice, structures are often optimized individually without considering benefits of having a hierarchy of protection structures. It is here argued, that the joint consideration of hierarchically integrated protection structures is beneficial. A hierarchical decision model is utilized to analyze...... and compare the benefit of large upstream protection structures and local downstream protection structures in regard to epistemic uncertainty parameters. Results suggest that epistemic uncertainty influences the outcome of the decision model and that, depending on the magnitude of epistemic uncertainty...

  8. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  9. Angelic Hierarchical Planning: Optimal and Online Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-06

    restrict our attention to plans in I∗(Act, s0). Definition 2. ( Parr and Russell , 1998) A plan ah∗ is hierarchically optimal iff ah∗ = argmina∈I∗(Act,s0):T...Murdock, Dan Wu, and Fusun Yaman. SHOP2: An HTN planning system. JAIR, 20:379–404, 2003. Ronald Parr and Stuart Russell . Reinforcement Learning with...Angelic Hierarchical Planning: Optimal and Online Algorithms Bhaskara Marthi Stuart J. Russell Jason Wolfe Electrical Engineering and Computer

  10. Psycho-pedagogical Research of Inclusive Education in the Undergraduates Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyohina S. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the cultural and historical psychology as a methodological basis of research in the inclusive process of education. The article presents the current trends in research of inclusive education such as the design of organizational and psychological and pedagogical conditions for reinforcing the cultural norms of inclusion in the school: individual development in inclusive education; designing an inclusive educational environment. The article describes the logic of the research master students training. The author suggests for discussion some variants of design and research tasks in order to form the necessary research and development competencies of master students. The author is convinced that the quality of an inclusive process in basic education linked to the development of inclusive practice based on scientific research. Cultural-historical framework and its main idea becomes the methodological basis of psychological research as it claims a leading role of social environment in the development and educating of children

  11. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-07-15

    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  12. BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH ASD IN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS : A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased and more and more children with ASD are educated in inclusive classrooms. Although their inclusion can have several benefits, teachers face some challenges. The main reason is these students’ problem behavior or lack of a desirable behavior. The aim of this systematic literature review was to analyze interventions for behavior management of students with ASD, since the ratification of S...

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  14. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  15. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  16. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  17. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  18. HIERARCHICAL OPTIMIZATION MODEL ON GEONETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In existing construction experience of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI, GeoNetwork, as the geographical information integrated solution, is an effective way of building SDI. During GeoNetwork serving as an internet application, several shortcomings are exposed. The first one is that the time consuming of data loading has been considerately increasing with the growth of metadata count. Consequently, the efficiency of query and search service becomes lower. Another problem is that stability and robustness are both ruined since huge amount of metadata. The final flaw is that the requirements of multi-user concurrent accessing based on massive data are not effectively satisfied on the internet. A novel approach, Hierarchical Optimization Model (HOM, is presented to solve the incapability of GeoNetwork working with massive data in this paper. HOM optimizes the GeoNetwork from these aspects: internal procedure, external deployment strategies, etc. This model builds an efficient index for accessing huge metadata and supporting concurrent processes. In this way, the services based on GeoNetwork can maintain stable while running massive metadata. As an experiment, we deployed more than 30 GeoNetwork nodes, and harvest nearly 1.1 million metadata. From the contrast between the HOM-improved software and the original one, the model makes indexing and retrieval processes more quickly and keeps the speed stable on metadata amount increasing. It also shows stable on multi-user concurrent accessing to system services, the experiment achieved good results and proved that our optimization model is efficient and reliable.

  19. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...... identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment...

  20. Reflection of hierarchical medium structures of different scales in the space time data of wave fields distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The last decades are characterized by active development of Earth's sciences. The modern research methods and technologies give the opportunity to obtain new data about the Earth's structure and processes, which occur in its interior. The conception development about the nonlinear geodynamics practically coincides with research of nonlinear processes in different parts of physics. In geology soliton and auto wave conceptions are developed, principles of synergetic and self organization become be used, in geodynamics the macro quantum behavior of large mass matter, which are in critical state, in geophysics the auto wave nature of geophysical fields is researched in a frame of a new structural model with hierarchical inclusions. It is very significant to define the time of reaction lagging, in spite of the influence on the massif can be assumed as elastic. The unique model which can explain that effect is a model of the massif with a hierarchic structure. We developed a mathematical algorithm using integral and integral-differential equations for 2-D model for two problems in a frequency domain: diffraction a sound wave and linear polarized transverse wave through a arbitrary hierarchy rank inclusion plunged in an N-layered medium. That algorithm differs from the fractal model approach by a freer selecting of heterogeneities position of each rank. And the second, the problem is solved in the dynamical approach. The higher the amount of the hierarchic ranks the more is the degree of nonlinearity of the massive response and the longer can be the time of massive reaction lag of the influence. For research of hierarchic medium we had developed an iterative algorithm for electromagnetic and seismic fields in the problem setting similar to analyze higher for layered-block models with homogeneous inclusions. We had developed an iterative algorithm of inverse problem solution for the same models, using the approach of three stage interpretation. For that we had developed a

  1. 进城务工人员随迁子女的学业成就及其影响因素——基于多层次线性模型(HLM)的分析%The Empirical Study on The Academic Achievement of Children of Migrant Workers And Its Inlfuencing Factors:Basing on analysis of Hierarchical Linear Model(HLM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚伟伟

    2015-01-01

    This study investigate the student's academic performance of 3800 children of migrant workers form Henan province Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Xuchang city, and then adopt the method of Hierarchical Linear Modeling(HLM), explores the impact of different level factors of the individuals, families and schools for children's academic achievement of migrant workers. The results showed that: the migrant children schools and public schools there were signiifcant differences in students' academic achievement, the academic achievement differences are 6.13% between schools; From inside the public schools, the academic achievement exist obvious differences in the group between the children of migrant workers and local children; Peer relations, parents' education expectation and expectation by themselves have a signiifcantly positive inlfuence on students' academic achievement, frequency of transfering and lfowing, the way to school time on students' academic achievement is a signiifcant negative impact; The level of teachers' wages have signiifcant positive inlfuence on students' academic achievement, but the training number of teachers have negative inlfuence on students' academic achievement.%本研究对河南省郑州、洛阳、许昌三所城市的3714名进城务工人员随迁子女进行了学生学业成就调查,然后采用多层线性模型分析的方法,探索了学生个体、家庭、学校不同层面因素对进城务工人员随迁子女学业成就产生的影响.研究结果显示:民工子弟学校与公立学校在学生学业成就方面存在显著的差异,其中有6.13%的学业成就差异来源于校际之间;在公立学校内部,进城务工人员随迁子女与本地户籍学生的学业成就存在明显的组内差异;同伴关系、父母教育期望以及学生自我期望对学生学业成就均有显著的正向影响,转学流动频率、上学路上花费时间对学生学业成就则有显著的负向影响;教师工资水平对学生学业

  2. PREPARING TEACHERS TO INCLUSIVE EDUCATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lukyanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In  accordance  with  the  content  of  the  new  educ ational standards for general education teachers must be prepared to carry out an inclusive and integrated education for students with different learning needs and opportunities.  At present, the domestic education system is undergoing significant changes, due to socio-economic, political, spiritual and cultural changes  in  society.  Implemented  idea  connected with the change of targets in the field of education from the "Knowledge" to competency. We discussed the  need  to  update  training  technologies  that  i mprove the quality of the educational process. Of particular significance are questions relating to the establishment  of  the  system  of educational  services, ensuring the development of children, regardless of their health status and social position. The problems of the expansion of organizational forms of teaching children with giving parents the right to choose the type and the type of educational institution. Studies conducted during the organization and implement ation of training specialists data showed that for the full organization of vocational training in addition to specific content is necessary, in our opinion, to choose the appropriate technology, focused on the creative development of professional competence of teachers  included  in  the  inclusive  education  process. This will ensure the formation of professional competence of teachers in general education and enable correctly and effectively solve problems r elated to the education of children with limited health capabilities of  the  system,  in terms of the general type of institutions.

  3. Hierarchical linear regression models for conditional quantiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Maozai; CHEN Gemai

    2006-01-01

    The quantile regression has several useful features and therefore is gradually developing into a comprehensive approach to the statistical analysis of linear and nonlinear response models,but it cannot deal effectively with the data with a hierarchical structure.In practice,the existence of such data hierarchies is neither accidental nor ignorable,it is a common phenomenon.To ignore this hierarchical data structure risks overlooking the importance of group effects,and may also render many of the traditional statistical analysis techniques used for studying data relationships invalid.On the other hand,the hierarchical models take a hierarchical data structure into account and have also many applications in statistics,ranging from overdispersion to constructing min-max estimators.However,the hierarchical models are virtually the mean regression,therefore,they cannot be used to characterize the entire conditional distribution of a dependent variable given high-dimensional covariates.Furthermore,the estimated coefficient vector (marginal effects)is sensitive to an outlier observation on the dependent variable.In this article,a new approach,which is based on the Gauss-Seidel iteration and taking a full advantage of the quantile regression and hierarchical models,is developed.On the theoretical front,we also consider the asymptotic properties of the new method,obtaining the simple conditions for an n1/2-convergence and an asymptotic normality.We also illustrate the use of the technique with the real educational data which is hierarchical and how the results can be explained.

  4. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  5. [Determinants of malnutrition in a low-income population: hierarchical analytical model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, M T; Victora, C G; Barros, F C; Tomasi, E

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the determinants of malnutrition among low-income children, the effects of socioeconomic, environmental, reproductive, morbidity, child care, birthweight and breastfeeding variables on stunting and wasting were studied. All 354 children below two years of age living in two urban slum areas of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were included. The multivariate analyses took into account the hierarchical structure of the risk factors for each type of deficit. Variables selected as significant on a given level of the model were considered as risk factors, even if their statistical significance was subsequently lost when hierarchically inferior variables were included. The final model for stunting included the variables education and presence of the father, maternal education and employment, birthweight and age. For wasting, the variables selected were the number of household appliances, birth interval, housing conditions, borough, birthweight, age, gender and previous hospitalizations.

  6. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  7. Hierarchical Model for the Evolution of Cloud Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, N; Sanchez, Nestor; Parravano, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    The structure of cloud complexes appears to be well described by a "tree structure" representation when the image is partitioned into "clouds". In this representation, the parent-child relationships are assigned according to containment. Based on this picture, a hierarchical model for the evolution of Cloud Complexes, including star formation, is constructed, that follows the mass evolution of each sub-structure by computing its mass exchange (evaporation or condensation) with its parent and children, which depends on the radiation density at the interphase. For the set of parameters used as a reference model, the system produces IMFs with a maximum at too high mass (~2 M_sun) and the characteristic times for evolution seem too long. We show that these properties can be improved by adjusting model parameters. However, the emphasis here is to illustrate some general properties of this nonlinear model for the star formation process. Notwithstanding the simplifications involved, the model reveals an essential fe...

  8. Imitation of Hierarchical Structure versus Component Details of Complex Actions by 3- and 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Emma; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We investigated developmental changes in the level of information children incorporate into their imitation when a model executes complex, hierarchically organized actions. A total of 57 3-year-olds and 60 5-year-olds participated, watching video demonstrations of an "artificial fruit" box being opened through a complex series of nine different…

  9. Inclusão e governamentalidade Inclusion and governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Veiga-Neto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo parte dos conceitos de governamento, biopoder, norma e governamentalidade para argumentar no sentido de que as políticas de inclusão - especialmente as políticas de inclusão escolar - são dispositivos biopolíticos para o governamento e o controle das populações. Tomam-se esses e outros conceitos foucaultianos como ferramentas analíticas para argumentar que é preciso examinar as políticas e práticas inclusivas sem assumir antecipadamente qualquer juízo de valor sobre elas. Entendendo a diferença como manifestação da diversidade, e o diferente como um exótico, um portador de algo que os outros não possuem, as políticas de inclusão - nos modos como vêm sendo formuladas e em parte executadas no Brasil - parecem ignorar a própria diferença. Assim, ao invés de promoverem uma educação para todos, elas correm o risco de realizar uma inclusão excludente das diferenças. Discute-se a distinção entre campanhas públicas e políticas de inclusão em termos dos âmbitos em que ambas se efetivam.Based on the concepts of government, biopower, norm and governmentality, this paper argues that the inclusion policies - especially those of school inclusion - are biopolitical devices to govern and control the populations. These and other concepts by Foucault are used as analytical tools to argue that we have to explore the including policies and practices without any previous value judgment on them. Since they understand the difference as a manifestation of diversity, and the different as the exotic, what carries something the others do not have, the inclusion policies - as they are being formulated and partly enforced in Brazil - seem to ignore difference itself. Thus, instead of promoting education for all, they may lead to an inclusion that excludes the differences. The text finally discusses the distinction between public campaigns and inclusion policies in terms of the settings in which both take place.

  10. EDUCATIONAL INCLUSION AND CRITICAL PEDAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Molina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the basic principles of educational inclusion, focusingspecifically on the inclusion of disabled students in mainstream classrooms, and arguesthat inclusive education should be understood as a process of transforming traditionalschools into spaces of learning for all students. The article uses the lens of critical pedagogyto argue that exclusionary educational practices have been developed through themedicalization of learning disabilities which focused on the disability rather than theabilities of disabled students. Following the same line of thinking, the article providesscientific evidence to debunk myths related to the education of disabled students; especiallymyths that contributed to their exclusion from mainstream classrooms. Finally,based on the Learning Communities model, we provide some concrete strategies fortransforming mainstream classrooms into fully inclusive environments.

  11. Inclusion bodies: a new concept

    OpenAIRE

    García-Fruitós Elena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In the last decades, the understanding of inclusion body biology and consequently, of their properties and potential biotechnological applications have dramatically changed. Therefore, the development of new purification protocols aimed to preserve those properties is becoming a pushing demand.

  12. Inclusion bodies: a new concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fruitós, Elena

    2010-11-01

    In the last decades, the understanding of inclusion body biology and consequently, of their properties and potential biotechnological applications have dramatically changed. Therefore, the development of new purification protocols aimed to preserve those properties is becoming a pushing demand.

  13. TEACHER’S ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE INCLUSION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES IN REGULAR SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovena Lika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of children with disabilities in general schools depends on teachers and pupils. The aim of this study is to evaluate the teachers’ role in the inclusion of children with disabilities in general schools. Taking their role into consideration, we will be able to understand factors that influence the positive or negative attitude towards the inclusion of children with disabilities in general classrooms. 146 teachers participated in this study. The instrument used (created by Jeffrey Bailey for data collection consisted on a self-reporting questionnaire divided into two sections. In the first section, demographic information from teachers is required. In the second section, teachers’ attitude towards the inclusion of children with disabilities in general schools is measured. According to the results: Teacher’s gender [t (144 = 0,503, P = 0,616] did not affect their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities in regular schools. Training on inclusive education [r = 0.75, n = 146 and p = 0.001] positively affected the attitudes of the teachers. It was concluded that development of trainings for teachers should be focused on because it creates professionals with knowledge of specific techniques.

  14. Hierarchical machining materials and their performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Levashov, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Machining is an important technological process in many areas of industry. The efficiency of machining determines the quality of many industrial products. Machining efficiency and cost depend on the properties, strength, and microstructure of the machining materials. One of the promising ways...... to increase the reliability and wear resistance of machining tools is the development and use of hierarchical machining materials. In the area of machining materials, designed typically as binder/reinforcement composites, hierarchical structures are realized as lower-scale secondary reinforcements (such...... as nanoparticles in the binder, or polycrystalline, aggregate-like reinforcements, also at several scale levels). Such materials can ensure better productivity, efficiency, and lower costs of drilling, cutting, grinding, and other technological processes. This article reviews the main groups of hierarchical...

  15. Towards a sustainable manufacture of hierarchical zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboekend, Danny; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2014-03-01

    Hierarchical zeolites have been established as a superior type of aluminosilicate catalysts compared to their conventional (purely microporous) counterparts. An impressive array of bottom-up and top-down approaches has been developed during the last decade to design and subsequently exploit these exciting materials catalytically. However, the sustainability of the developed synthetic methods has rarely been addressed. This paper highlights important criteria to ensure the ecological and economic viability of the manufacture of hierarchical zeolites. Moreover, by using base leaching as a promising case study, we verify a variety of approaches to increase reactor productivity, recycle waste streams, prevent the combustion of organic compounds, and minimize separation efforts. By reducing their synthetic footprint, hierarchical zeolites are positioned as an integral part of sustainable chemistry.

  16. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  17. Hierarchical self-organization of tectonic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Morra, Gabriele; Müller, R Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's surface is subdivided into eight large tectonic plates and many smaller ones. We reconstruct the plate tessellation history and demonstrate that both large and small plates display two distinct hierarchical patterns, described by different power-law size-relationships. While small plates display little organisational change through time, the structure of the large plates oscillate between minimum and maximum hierarchical tessellations. The organization of large plates rapidly changes from a weak hierarchy at 120-100 million years ago (Ma) towards a strong hierarchy, which peaked at 65-50, Ma subsequently relaxing back towards a minimum hierarchical structure. We suggest that this fluctuation reflects an alternation between top and bottom driven plate tectonics, revealing a previously undiscovered tectonic cyclicity at a timescale of 100 million years.

  18. Universal hierarchical behavior of citation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Many of the essential features of the evolution of scientific research are imprinted in the structure of citation networks. Connections in these networks imply information about the transfer of knowledge among papers, or in other words, edges describe the impact of papers on other publications. This inherent meaning of the edges infers that citation networks can exhibit hierarchical features, that is typical of networks based on decision-making. In this paper, we investigate the hierarchical structure of citation networks consisting of papers in the same field. We find that the majority of the networks follow a universal trend towards a highly hierarchical state, and i) the various fields display differences only concerning their phase in life (distance from the "birth" of a field) or ii) the characteristic time according to which they are approaching the stationary state. We also show by a simple argument that the alterations in the behavior are related to and can be understood by the degree of specializatio...

  19. Hierarchical silica particles by dynamic multicomponent assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. W.; Hu, Q. Y.; Pang, J. B.;

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Aerosol-assisted assembly of mesoporous silica particles with hierarchically controllable pore structure has been prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH3)CH2],OH) as co-templates. Addition of the hydrophobic PPO significantly...... influences the delicate hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance in the well-studied CTAB-silicate co-assembling system, resulting in various mesostructures (such as hexagonal, lamellar, and hierarchical structure). The co-assembly of CTAB, silicate clusters, and a low-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 425) results...... in a uniform lamellar structure, while the use of a high-molecular-weight PPO (average M-n 2000), which is more hydrophobic, leads to the formation of hierarchical pore structure that contains meso-meso or meso-macro pore structure. The role of PPO additives on the mesostructure evolution in the CTAB...

  20. Incentive Mechanisms for Hierarchical Spectrum Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Iosifidis, George; Alpcan, Tansu; Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    2011-01-01

    We study spectrum allocation mechanisms in hierarchical multi-layer markets which are expected to proliferate in the near future based on the current spectrum policy reform proposals. We consider a setting where a state agency sells spectrum to Primary Operators (POs) and in turn these resell it to Secondary Operators (SOs) through auctions. We show that these hierarchical markets do not result in a socially efficient spectrum allocation which is aimed by the agency, due to lack of coordination among the entities in different layers and the inherently selfish revenue-maximizing strategy of POs. In order to reconcile these opposing objectives, we propose an incentive mechanism which aligns the strategy and the actions of the POs with the objective of the agency, and thus it leads to system performance improvement in terms of social welfare. This pricing based mechanism constitutes a method for hierarchical market regulation and requires the feedback provision from SOs. A basic component of the proposed incenti...

  1. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meifeng Dai; Jie Liu; Feng Zhu

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present trapping issues of weight-dependent walks on weighted hierarchical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. Assuming that edge’s weight is used as local information by a random walker, we introduce a biased walk. The biased walk is that a walker, at each step, chooses one of its neighbours with a probability proportional to the weight of the edge. We focus on a particular case with the immobile trap positioned at the hub node which has the largest degree in the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a method based on generating functions, we determine explicitly the mean first-passage time (MFPT) for the trapping issue. Let parameter (0 < < 1) be the weight factor. We show that the efficiency of the trapping process depends on the parameter a; the smaller the value of a, the more efficient is the trapping process.

  2. Hierarchical Neural Network Structures for Phoneme Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vasquez, Daniel; Minker, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In this book, hierarchical structures based on neural networks are investigated for automatic speech recognition. These structures are evaluated on the phoneme recognition task where a  Hybrid Hidden Markov Model/Artificial Neural Network paradigm is used. The baseline hierarchical scheme consists of two levels each which is based on a Multilayered Perceptron. Additionally, the output of the first level serves as a second level input. The computational speed of the phoneme recognizer can be substantially increased by removing redundant information still contained at the first level output. Several techniques based on temporal and phonetic criteria have been investigated to remove this redundant information. The computational time could be reduced by 57% whilst keeping the system accuracy comparable to the baseline hierarchical approach.

  3. Improving broadcast channel rate using hierarchical modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Meric, Hugo; Arnal, Fabrice; Lesthievent, Guy; Boucheret, Marie-Laure

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the design of a broadcast system where the aim is to maximise the throughput. This task is usually challenging due to the channel variability. Forty years ago, Cover introduced and compared two schemes: time sharing and superposition coding. The second scheme was proved to be optimal for some channels. Modern satellite communications systems such as DVB-SH and DVB-S2 mainly rely on time sharing strategy to optimize throughput. They consider hierarchical modulation, a practical implementation of superposition coding, but only for unequal error protection or backward compatibility purposes. We propose in this article to combine time sharing and hierarchical modulation together and show how this scheme can improve the performance in terms of available rate. We present the gain on a simple channel modeling the broadcasting area of a satellite. Our work is applied to the DVB-SH standard, which considers hierarchical modulation as an optional feature.

  4. ENLACE Social Inclusion Trust Fund: Social Inclusion Survey: Staff Perceptions on Social Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mary S. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    This paper is intended to contribute to the promotion of social inclusion as a cross-cutting priority in the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), a key issue in the Bank's Renewed Strategic Framework, as a key approach to reducing poverty and inequality in Latin America. It is based upon a staff opinion survey, designed and implemented under the framework of the IDB-UK ENLACE Social Inclusion Trust Fund, to assess how staff view social inclusion as an operational approach. The results of th...

  5. Hierarchical social networks and information flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Luis; F. F. Mendes, Jose; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2002-12-01

    Using a simple model for the information flow on social networks, we show that the traditional hierarchical topologies frequently used by companies and organizations, are poorly designed in terms of efficiency. Moreover, we prove that this type of structures are the result of the individual aim of monopolizing as much information as possible within the network. As the information is an appropriate measurement of centrality, we conclude that this kind of topology is so attractive for leaders, because the global influence each actor has within the network is completely determined by the hierarchical level occupied.

  6. Hierarchical Analysis of the Omega Ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Paulson, Patrick R.

    2009-12-01

    Initial delivery for mathematical analysis of the Omega Ontology. We provide an analysis of the hierarchical structure of a version of the Omega Ontology currently in use within the US Government. After providing an initial statistical analysis of the distribution of all link types in the ontology, we then provide a detailed order theoretical analysis of each of the four main hierarchical links present. This order theoretical analysis includes the distribution of components and their properties, their parent/child and multiple inheritance structure, and the distribution of their vertical ranks.

  7. Genetic Algorithm for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Hussain

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Large scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs can be used for various pervasive and ubiquitous applications such as security, health-care, industry automation, agriculture, environment and habitat monitoring. As hierarchical clusters can reduce the energy consumption requirements for WSNs, we investigate intelligent techniques for cluster formation and management. A genetic algorithm (GA is used to create energy efficient clusters for data dissemination in wireless sensor networks. The simulation results show that the proposed intelligent hierarchical clustering technique can extend the network lifetime for different network deployment environments.

  8. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis;

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  9. DC Hierarchical Control System for Microgrid Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.; Huang, Lipei

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the DC side performance of AC-DC hybrid microgrid,a DC hierarchical control system is proposed in this paper.To meet the requirement of DC load sharing between the parallel power interfaces,droop method is adopted.Meanwhile,DC voltage secondary control is employed to restore the deviation in the DC bus voltage.The hierarchical control system is composed of two levels.DC voltage and AC current controllers are achieved in the primary control level.

  10. Hierarchic Models of Turbulence, Superfluidity and Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaivarainen, A

    2000-01-01

    New models of Turbulence, Superfluidity and Superconductivity, based on new Hierarchic theory, general for liquids and solids (physics/0102086), have been proposed. CONTENTS: 1 Turbulence. General description; 2 Mesoscopic mechanism of turbulence; 3 Superfluidity. General description; 4 Mesoscopic scenario of fluidity; 5 Superfluidity as a hierarchic self-organization process; 6 Superfluidity in 3He; 7 Superconductivity: General properties of metals and semiconductors; Plasma oscillations; Cyclotron resonance; Electroconductivity; 8. Microscopic theory of superconductivity (BCS); 9. Mesoscopic scenario of superconductivity: Interpretation of experimental data in the framework of mesoscopic model of superconductivity.

  11. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  12. Hidden Contradictions and Conditionality: Conceptualisations of Inclusive Education in International Human Rights Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bronagh

    2013-01-01

    The nature of education that children with disabilities should receive has been subject to much debate. This article critically assesses the ways in which the international human rights framework has conceptualised "inclusive education". It argues that the right to education for children with disabilities in international law is…

  13. Inclusive Education in India: Interpretation, Implementation, and Issues. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard-Lindsay, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    Children with disabilities are a minority that are not prioritised in the context of education programmes in India, although they are often found in many marginalised groups that are catered for if non-disabled, for example, girls, scheduled tribe, scheduled caste, and other backward caste children. Inclusive education may be a way of merging…

  14. The Role of an Epistemology of Inclusivity on the Pursuit of Social Justice: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Social justice education emphasizes how schools can better serve traditionally marginalized students. This case study examines the pursuit of social justice education in an unlikely setting: a Catholic elementary school that both espouses inclusion of all children and effectively includes children with a wide range of disabilities. The article…

  15. Children's participation in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig

    2012-01-01

    and research in their own preschool settings. This article offers an argument based on theory and practical examples for the inclusion of children in educational and educational research. It also introduces some of the problems which warrant consideration if researchers are to understand and cooperate...... with children as co-researchers. The author 15 portrays the educational process and the research process as a possible way for the democratisation of children....

  16. Semiparametric Quantile Modelling of Hierarchical Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Zai TIAN; Man Lai TANG; Ping Shing CHAN

    2009-01-01

    The classic hierarchical linear model formulation provides a considerable flexibility for modelling the random effects structure and a powerful tool for analyzing nested data that arise in various areas such as biology, economics and education. However, it assumes the within-group errors to be independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) and models at all levels to be linear. Most importantly, traditional hierarchical models (just like other ordinary mean regression methods) cannot characterize the entire conditional distribution of a dependent variable given a set of covariates and fail to yield robust estimators. In this article, we relax the aforementioned and normality assumptions, and develop a so-called Hierarchical Semiparametric Quantile Regression Models in which the within-group errors could be heteroscedastic and models at some levels are allowed to be nonparametric. We present the ideas with a 2-level model. The level-l model is specified as a nonparametric model whereas level-2 model is set as a parametric model. Under the proposed semiparametric setting the vector of partial derivatives of the nonparametric function in level-1 becomes the response variable vector in level 2. The proposed method allows us to model the fixed effects in the innermost level (i.e., level 2) as a function of the covariates instead of a constant effect. We outline some mild regularity conditions required for convergence and asymptotic normality for our estimators. We illustrate our methodology with a real hierarchical data set from a laboratory study and some simulation studies.

  17. Strategic games on a hierarchical network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Among complex network models, the hierarchical network model is the one most close to such real networks as world trade web, metabolic network, WWW, actor network, and so on. It has not only the property of power-law degree distribution, but growth based on growth and preferential attachment, showing the scale-free degree distribution property. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation on a hierarchical network model, adopting the prisoner's dilemma (PD) game and snowdrift game (SG) as metaphors of the interplay between connected nodes. BA model provides a unifying framework for the emergence of cooperation. But interestingly, we found that on hierarchical model, there is no sign of cooperation for PD game, while the frequency of cooperation decreases as the common benefit decreases for SG. By comparing the scaling clustering coefficient properties of the hierarchical network model with that of BA model, we found that the former amplifies the effect of hubs. Considering different performances of PD game and SG on complex network, we also found that common benefit leads to cooperation in the evolution. Thus our study may shed light on the emergence of cooperation in both natural and social environments.

  18. Ultrafast Hierarchical OTDM/WDM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Sotobayashi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast hierarchical OTDM/WDM network is proposed for the future core-network. We review its enabling technologies: C- and L-wavelength-band generation, OTDM-WDM mutual multiplexing format conversions, and ultrafast OTDM wavelengthband conversions.

  19. A Hierarchical Grouping of Great Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Donald G.

    1977-01-01

    Great educators of history were categorized on the basis of their: aims of education, fundamental ideas, and educational theories. They were classed by Ward's method of hierarchical analysis into six groupings: Socrates, Ausonius, Jerome, Abelard; Quintilian, Origen, Melanchthon, Ascham, Loyola; Alciun, Comenius; Vittorino, Basedow, Pestalozzi,…

  20. Hierarchical Scaling in Systems of Natural Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. These scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper is devoted to revealing the scaling patterns in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the hierarchy with cascade structure. The cities of America, Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to make empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the size and area of the natural cities. The size-number and area-number scaling exponents are close to 1, and the allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results suggest that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws and hierarchical conservation law. Zipf's law proved to be one of the indications of the hierarchical scaling, and the primate law of city-size distribution represents a local pattern and can be mer...

  1. Complex Evaluation of Hierarchically-Network Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polishchuk, Dmytro; Yadzhak, Mykhailo

    2016-01-01

    Methods of complex evaluation based on local, forecasting, aggregated, and interactive evaluation of the state, function quality, and interaction of complex system's objects on the all hierarchical levels is proposed. Examples of analysis of the structural elements of railway transport system are used for illustration of efficiency of proposed approach.

  2. Equivalence Checking of Hierarchical Combinational Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Hulgaard, Henrik; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method for verifying that two hierarchical combinational circuits implement the same Boolean functions. The key new feature of the method is its ability to exploit the modularity of circuits to reuse results obtained from one part of the circuits in other parts. We demonstra...... our method on large adder and multiplier circuits....

  3. Statistical theory of hierarchical avalanche ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Olemskoi, Alexander I.

    1999-01-01

    The statistical ensemble of avalanche intensities is considered to investigate diffusion in ultrametric space of hierarchically subordinated avalanches. The stationary intensity distribution and the steady-state current are obtained. The critical avalanche intensity needed to initiate the global avalanche formation is calculated depending on noise intensity. The large time asymptotic for the probability of the global avalanche appearance is derived.

  4. Managing Clustered Data Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; Li, Yan; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Condie, Rachel; Diep, Cassandra S.; Murano, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in nutrition research often use cluster or multistage sampling to gather participants for their studies. These sampling methods often produce violations of the assumption of data independence that most traditional statistics share. Hierarchical linear modeling is a statistical method that can overcome violations of the independence…

  5. Sharing the proceeds from a hierarchical venture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Tvede, Mich;

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributing the proceeds generated from a joint venture in which the participating agents are hierarchically organized. We introduce and characterize a family of allocation rules where revenue ‘bubbles up’ in the hierarchy. The family is flexible enough to accommodate...

  6. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lao, Jing Yu; Banerjee, Debasish

    2007-11-13

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  7. Hierarchical Optimization of Material and Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Helder C.; Guedes, Jose M.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a hierarchical computational procedure for optimizing material distribution as well as the local material properties of mechanical elements. The local properties are designed using a topology design approach, leading to single scale microstructures, which may be restricted...... in various ways, based on design and manufacturing criteria. Implementation issues are also discussed and computational results illustrate the nature of the procedure....

  8. Hierarchical structure of nanofibers by bubbfil spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymer bubble is easy to be broken under a small external force, various different fragments are formed, which can be produced to different morphologies of products including nanofibers and plate-like strip. Polyvinyl-alcohol/honey solution is used in the experiment to show hierarchical structure by the bubbfil spinning.

  9. Supramolecular aggregates formed by sulfadiazine and sulfisomidine inclusion complexes with α- and β-cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, N.; Venkatesh, G.; Saravanan, J.

    2014-08-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDA) and sulfisomidine (SFM) inclusion complexes with two cyclodextrins (α-CD and β-CD) are studied in aqueous as well as in solid state. The inclusion complexes are characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, time correlated single photon counting, FTIR, DSC, PXRD and 1H NMR techniques. The self assembled SDA/CD and SFM/CD inclusion complexes form different types of nano and microstructures. The self assembled nanoparticle morphologies are studied using SEM and TEM techniques. SDA/α-CD complex is formed hierarchal morphology, SDA/β-CD and SFM/β-CD complexes form the nanosheet self assembly. However, SFM/α-CD complex forms nanoporous sheet self assembly. van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interaction play a vital role in the self assembling process.

  10. Moving within Urban Hierarchical Spaces: Children’s Trajectories in the Urban Scenario of Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bolotta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes slums and slum children (dek salam in Bankgok from two perspectives. From a diachronic perspective, slums and slum children will be considered as the discursive product of specific historical, economic and socio-cultural changes that hit Thailand after WWII and reproduced a structural conflict between the state, society and transnational agencies. From a synchronic point of view, the article will consider the impact of such discursive formations on the lives of slum children, their subjective experience of being in the world and their positioning within the hierarchical spaces and relations of Thai society. It will focus in particular on the children’s trajectories within the slum and on some of the international charitable institutions for children established outside the slum.

  11. Hierarchical clusters in families with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solano, Beatriz; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C; Gómez-Meza, Marco V; García-Madrid, Guillermina; Flores-Merlo, Marcela; García-Solano, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Families represent more than a set of individuals; family is more than a sum of its individual members. With this classification, nurses can identify the family health-illness beliefs obey family as a unit concept, and plan family inclusion into the type 2 diabetes treatment, whom is not considered in public policy, despite families share diet, exercise, and self-monitoring with a member who suffers type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the characteristics, functionality, routines, and family and individual health in type 2 diabetes describes the differences and similarities between families to consider them as a unit. We performed an exploratory, descriptive hierarchical cluster analysis of 61 families using three instruments and a questionnaire, in addition to weight, height, body fat percentage, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. The analysis produced three groups of families. Wilk’s lambda demonstrated statistically significant differences provided by age (Λ = 0.778, F = 2.098, p = 0.010) and family health (Λ = 0.813, F = 2.650, p = 0.023). A post hoc Tukey test coincided with the three subsets. Families with type 2 diabetes have common elements that make them similar, while sharing differences that make them unique. PMID:27347419

  12. Generic hierarchical engine for mask data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, Christian K.; Roessl, Wolfgang; Schnitker, Uwe; Simecek, Michal

    2002-07-01

    Electronic layouts are usually flattened on their path from the hierarchical source downstream to the wafer. Mask data preparation has certainly been identified as a severe bottleneck since long. Data volumes are not only doubling every year along the ITRS roadmap. With the advent of optical proximity correction and phase-shifting masks data volumes are escalating up to non-manageable heights. Hierarchical treatment is one of the most powerful means to keep memory and CPU consumption in reasonable ranges. Only recently, however, has this technique acquired more public attention. Mask data preparation is the most critical area calling for a sound infrastructure to reduce the handling problem. Gaining more and more attention though, are other applications such as large area simulation and manufacturing rule checking (MRC). They all would profit from a generic engine capable to efficiently treat hierarchical data. In this paper we will present a generic engine for hierarchical treatment which solves the major problem, steady transitions along cell borders. Several alternatives exist how to walk through the hierarchy tree. They have, to date, not been thoroughly investigated. One is a bottom-up attempt to treat cells starting with the most elementary cells. The other one is a top-down approach which lends itself to creating a new hierarchy tree. In addition, since the variety, degree of hierarchy and quality of layouts extends over a wide range a generic engine has to take intelligent decisions when exploding the hierarchy tree. Several applications will be shown, in particular how far the limits can be pushed with the current hierarchical engine.

  13. Hierarchical organisation in perception of orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, D; Antonucci, G; Daini, R; Martelli, M L; Zoccolotti, P

    1999-01-01

    According to Rock [1990, in The Legacy of Solomon Asch (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates)], hierarchical organisation of perception describes cases in which the orientation of an object is affected by the immediately surrounding elements in the visual field. Various experiments were performed to study the hierarchical organisation of orientation perception. In most of them the rod-and-frame-illusion (RFI: change of the apparent vertical measured on a central rod surrounded by a tilted frame) was measured in the presence/absence of a second inner frame. The first three experiments showed that, when the inner frame is vertical, the direction and size of the illusion are consistent with expectancies based on the hierarchical organisation hypothesis. An analysis of published and unpublished data collected on a large number of subjects showed that orientational hierarchical effects are independent from the absolute size of the RFI. In experiments 4 to 7 we examined the perceptual conditions of the inner stimulus (enclosure, orientation, and presence of luminance borders) critical for obtaining a hierarchical organisation effect. Although an inner vertical square was effective in reducing the illusion (experiment 3), an inner circle enclosing the rod was ineffective (experiment 4). This indicates that definite orientation is necessary to modulate the illusion. However, orientational information provided by a vertical or horizontal rectangle presented near the rod, but not enclosing it, did not modulate the RFI (experiment 5). This suggests that the presence of a figure with oriented contours enclosing the rod is critical. In experiments 6 and 7 we studied whether the presence of luminance borders is important or whether the inner upright square might be effective also if made of subjective contours. When the subjective contour figure was salient and the observers perceived it clearly, its effectiveness in modulating the RFI was comparable to that observed with

  14. Interpreting Inclusivity: An Endeavour of Great Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlach, Richard George; Chambers, Dianne Joy

    2011-01-01

    Commencing with a historical account of how special needs education has informed the inclusivity debate, the authors consider the knotty problem of what is meant by inclusivity. An examination of the characteristics of inclusivity is then undertaken, and a functional school-based inclusivity framework--a three-faceted model--is proposed. The model…

  15. The Sociology of Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at social inclusion from a sociological perspective. It argues that sociology complements biological and other natural order explanations of social stratification. The article interrogates a variety of forms of social integration, including ostracism within 5th century b.c. Greece, 19th-century solidarism, and Goffman’s mid-20th-century work on stigma. It does so to demonstrate how in each of these contexts, social inclusion and exclusion can function as apparati that problematize people on the margins, and by extension, contribute to their governance and control. The article proposes that sociology provides a valuable orientation from which to consider social inclusion because it illuminates how social integration maintains and manages the ways in which people move about and through their socially stratified worlds.

  16. INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena NOVACHEVSKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the pre­school staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.

  17. Category breadth and hierarchical structure in personality: studies of asymmetries in judgments of trait implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, S E; John, O P; Goldberg, L R

    1986-07-01

    Trait breadth and hierarchical organization are central structural principles in personality theory and research. We assume that personality traits serve as categories of behavioral events, and we define the breadth of traits as the diversity of their behavioral manifestations. We show that trait breadth can be measured reliably both by ratings and by direct comparisons within trait pairs. We assess the hierarchical relations between traits differing in breadth, using a task in which subjects select the most meaningful of two statements, such as "To be talkative is a way of being extroverted" versus "To be extroverted is a way of being talkative." The extent of asymmetry in the choices of the subject sample provides an index of the degree of class inclusion. In four studies, we demonstrate that the size of the asymmetry effect is highly predictable from differences in trait breadth, even when the effects of social desirability, familiarity, and meaningfulness are controlled. Moreover, we replicate these findings in two cultural contexts, and even at the level of individual subjects. The availability of traits at different hierarchical levels requires personality psychologists to make an explicit choice about level of abstraction, especially when studying behavioral consistency. We discuss the prospect for identifying a generally preferred or "basic" level of personality description.

  18. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  19. The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…

  20. Oxidative refolding from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher A; Lee, Chung A; Fremont, Daved H

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes the growth and purification of bacterial inclusion body proteins with an option to selenomethionine label the targeted protein through feedback inhibition of methionine biosynthesis in common (non-auxotrophic) strains of E. coli. The method includes solubilization of inclusion body proteins by chemical denaturation and disulfide reduction, renaturation of the solubilized material through rapid dilution by pulsed injection into refolding buffer containing arginine and a mixture of oxidized and reduced glutathione, recovery of the recombinant protein using a stirred cell concentrator, and removal of the aggregated or misfolded fraction by passage over size-exclusion chromatography. The quality of the resulting protein can be assessed by SDS-PAGE.

  1. Inclusion body myositis and myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, K; Dalakas, M C

    1997-10-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis is a frequent, acquired, adult-onset vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles with a distinct, easily identifiable clinical pattern. Although its primary cause is still unknown, autoimmune, viral, and degenerative processes, alone or in combination, are being considered. A uniform and sustained therapeutic response using the currently available immunomodulatory agents has not yet been achieved. Hereditary, inherited noninflammatory rimmed vacuolar myopathies with similar histologic features, collectively called hereditary inclusion body myopathies, are being redefined with the use of molecular genetics. The implications of the recent advances in clinical and basic sciences are discussed in the present review.

  2. Goldenhar Syndrome and full inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Dieter Stobäus; Carla Rejane Crixel Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the information included in Fernandes’ Monograph and opinions of his advisor (Stobäus), centered in interfaces with Special Education/Full Inclusion, pointing anatomic-functional elements of this Syndrome, reviewing difficulties encountered in full inclusion, by an interview with his mother and teacher. http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X4444 Discutimos elementos da Monografia de Conclusão de Curso de Fernandes com opiniões de seu orientador (Stobäus), centrando em interfaces com...

  3. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite E O'Haire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs compared to toys. METHODS: Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers. Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining in the presence of animals compared to toys. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  4. Inclusive Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis

    1996-01-01

    School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...

  5. On the geostatistical characterization of hierarchical media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Shlomo P.; Riva, Monica; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2008-02-01

    The subsurface consists of porous and fractured materials exhibiting a hierarchical geologic structure, which gives rise to systematic and random spatial and directional variations in hydraulic and transport properties on a multiplicity of scales. Traditional geostatistical moment analysis allows one to infer the spatial covariance structure of such hierarchical, multiscale geologic materials on the basis of numerous measurements on a given support scale across a domain or "window" of a given length scale. The resultant sample variogram often appears to fit a stationary variogram model with constant variance (sill) and integral (spatial correlation) scale. In fact, some authors, who recognize that hierarchical sedimentary architecture and associated log hydraulic conductivity fields tend to be nonstationary, nevertheless associate them with stationary "exponential-like" transition probabilities and variograms, respectively, the latter being a consequence of the former. We propose that (1) the apparent ability of stationary spatial statistics to characterize the covariance structure of nonstationary hierarchical media is an artifact stemming from the finite size of the windows within which geologic and hydrologic variables are ubiquitously sampled, and (2) the artifact is eliminated upon characterizing the covariance structure of such media with the aid of truncated power variograms, which represent stationary random fields obtained upon sampling a nonstationary fractal over finite windows. To support our opinion, we note that truncated power variograms arise formally when a hierarchical medium is sampled jointly across all geologic categories and scales within a window; cite direct evidence that geostatistical parameters (variance and integral scale) inferred on the basis of traditional variograms vary systematically with support and window scales; demonstrate the ability of truncated power models to capture these variations in terms of a few scaling parameters

  6. Effective Use of Assistive Technologies for Inclusive Education in Developing Countries: Issues and Challenges from Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Åke; Lim, Nena; Larsson, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries face many obstacles in the process of implementing inclusive education (IE). Effective use of assistive technologies (AT) can help governments in developing countries achieve inclusive education by helping children with disabilities in schools. Despite the importance and positive impact of AT, prior research on the use of AT…

  7. Inclusion and Deaf Education: The Perceptions and Experiences of Young Deaf People in Northern Ireland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Marie Therese

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine what the concept of inclusion means and how it relates to children who are deaf. The paper begins with a background to deaf education, followed by specific reference to how inclusion is perceived in Northern Ireland and in Sweden. It investigates the experiences and opinions of deaf pupils in Schools…

  8. Questioning Inclusion: The Education of Roma/Traveller Students and Young People in Europe and England--A Critical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themelis, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with issues pertinent to the "inclusion" of Roma/Traveller children and young people in Europe and, in particular, England. It discusses some key issues that pertain to the inclusion of Roma/Traveller groups in society and it critically presents some key policies that have been advanced to tackle educational and social…

  9. THE BARRIERS TO INCLUSIVE EDU­CA­TION: MAPPING 10 YEARS OF SERBI­AN TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TO­WARD INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera RAJOVIC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a comparative review of 15 independently written studies on teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion in Serbia between 2002 and 2012. It also attempted to describe teachers’ attitudes toward inclusive education depending on the type of special need, as well as the main obstacles and benefits of a successful inclusion from the in-service teachers’ pointof view. The findings show that shifts in teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion are slow despite numerous reform changes. The results are discussed in two stages, first before and then after the inclusion legislation was enacted. Furthermore, the overview showed that teachers in Serbia hold the most negative attitude toward inclusion of students with sensory impairments in mainstream schools. Despite resistance toward inclusion, teachers in Serbia realize its benefits, emphasizing the importance of developing social skills as well as reducing prejudice toward people with disabilities. The main obstacles to inclusion, as teachers perceive it, are insufficient education and inadequate professional development programs for teachers in Serbia, low peer status of children with disabilities in regular classrooms and lack of resources, which is in line with reform goals in Serbia.The implications for further reform implementation are discussed, as well as the need for further clarifications in future research.

  10. Rethinking Children: Power, Pedagogy, and Contemporary Art Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashkevich, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Within the modern institution of schooling, educators portray children as lacking in knowledge and maturity and try to restrict their access to the issues that undermine this assumed innocence. Such renditions of children produce hierarchical power relationships in which children's ways of knowing are seen as what Foucault (1980) called…

  11. Difference, inclusion, and mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Lourdes; Healy, Lulu; Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The round-table discussion on Difference, Inclusion and Mathematics Education was in included in the scientific programme of VI SIPEM in recognition and celebration of the emerging body of research into the challenges of building a culture of mathematics education which values and respects the di...

  12. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. Howev...

  13. Inclusive Hard Diffraction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Proskuryakov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recent data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments on hard inclusive diffraction are discussed. Results of QCD analyses of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering processes are reported. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive dijet measurements.

  14. Social Inclusion and Integrative Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cappo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time valuable lessons have been learnt about both effective practices for program and system integration and the sizable barriers, including the challenges in sustaining constructive integration. This paper is a reflection on sustainable integrative practices and is grounded in the direct experience of one of the authors, who held the post of the South Australian Social Inclusion Commissioner. We reflect upon the structure and mechanism of the South Australian Social Inclusion Initiative (2002–2011 as well as using a case study of a successful integrative program of the Social Inclusion Initiative, a program in South Australia’s School Retention Action Plan 2004 Making the Connections (South Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2004 that was implemented to improve school retention. The case study draws out salient factors of clear rationale, coordination, collaboration, communication, team work and trust as skills and ingredients to bring about integration in policy and programs. While the integration literature affirms that these ingredients are primary skills for the development of an integrative framework, we also assert that they are not enough for successful and sustained integration. Absent from much of the literature is a discussion about the use of power and the manner in which horizontal integrative work occurs. We take up this theme to draw out some implications for analysis of sustainable integrative practices.

  15. Error bounds for set inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Xiyin(郑喜印)

    2003-01-01

    A variant of Robinson-Ursescu Theorem is given in normed spaces. Several error bound theorems for convex inclusions are proved and in particular a positive answer to Li and Singer's conjecture is given under weaker assumption than the assumption required in their conjecture. Perturbation error bounds are also studied. As applications, we study error bounds for convex inequality systems.

  16. Inclusion in the Microsoft Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975, Microsoft has been a worldwide leader in software, services, and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. Loren Mikola, the Disability Inclusion Program Manager at Microsoft, ensures that this technology also reaches and includes the special needs population and, through the hiring of individuals with…

  17. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  18. Children's Rights and Research Processes: Assisting Children to (In)formed Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Laura; McEvoy, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging children as rights-holders has significant implications for research processes. What is distinctive about a children's rights informed approach to research is a focus not only on safe, inclusive and engaging opportunities for children to express their views but also on deliberate strategies to assist children in the formation of…

  19. Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

    2008-02-20

    Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

  20. An Hierarchical Approach to Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, M G; Boch, T; Durand, D; Oberto, A; Merin, B; Stoehr, F; Genova, F; Pineau, F-X; Salgado, J

    2016-01-01

    The increasing volumes of astronomical data require practical methods for data exploration, access and visualisation. The Hierarchical Progressive Survey (HiPS) is a HEALPix based scheme that enables a multi-resolution approach to astronomy data from the individual pixels up to the whole sky. We highlight the decisions and approaches that have been taken to make this scheme a practical solution for managing large volumes of heterogeneous data. Early implementors of this system have formed a network of HiPS nodes, with some 250 diverse data sets currently available, with multiple mirror implementations for important data sets. This hierarchical approach can be adapted to expose Big Data in different ways. We describe how the ease of implementation, and local customisation of the Aladin Lite embeddable HiPS visualiser have been keys for promoting collaboration on HiPS.

  1. Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loïc Garoche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.

  2. Non-homogeneous fractal hierarchical weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit.

  3. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2013-01-01

    We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor.

  4. Hierarchical Self-organization of Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-he; WEN Dong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Researches on organization and structure in complex systems are academic and industrial fronts in modern sciences. Though many theories are tentatively proposed to analyze complex systems, we still lack a rigorous theory on them. Complex systems possess various degrees of freedom, which means that they should exhibit all kinds of structures. However, complex systems often show similar patterns and structures. Then the question arises why such similar structures appear in all kinds of complex systems. The paper outlines a theory on freedom degree compression and the existence of hierarchical self-organization for all complex systems is found. It is freedom degree compression and hierarchical self-organization that are responsible for the existence of these similar patterns or structures observed in the complex systems.

  5. First-passage phenomena in hierarchical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study Markov processes and related first passage problems on a class of weighted, modular graphs which generalize the Dyson hierarchical model. In these networks, the coupling strength between two nodes depends on their distance and is modulated by a parameter $\\sigma$. We find that, in the thermodynamic limit, ergodicity is lost and the "distant" nodes can not be reached. Moreover, for finite-sized systems, there exists a threshold value for $\\sigma$ such that, when $\\sigma$ is relatively large, the inhomogeneity of the coupling pattern prevails and "distant" nodes are hardly reached. The same analysis is carried on also for generic hierarchical graphs, where interactions are meant to involve $p$-plets ($p>2$) of nodes, finding that ergodicity is still broken in the thermodynamic limit, but no threshold value for $\\sigma$ is evidenced, ultimately due to a slow growth of the network diameter with the size.

  6. Hierarchical model of vulnerabilities for emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peter J; Mehta, Paras D

    2007-01-01

    Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model of anxiety and depression has had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the dispositional variables underlying emotional disorders. More recently, calls have been made to examine not simply the influence of negative affectivity (NA) but also mediating factors that might better explain how NA influences anxious and depressive syndromes (e.g. Taylor, 1998; Watson, 2005). Extending preliminary projects, this study evaluated two hierarchical models of NA, mediating factors of anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty, and specific emotional manifestations. Data provided a very good fit to a model elaborated from preliminary studies, lending further support to hierarchical models of emotional vulnerabilities. Implications for classification and diagnosis are discussed.

  7. Hierarchical community structure in complex (social) networks

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of community structure in networks is a task of great importance in many disciplines, namely physics, sociology, biology and computer science where systems are often represented as graphs. One of the challenges is to find local communities from a local viewpoint in a graph without global information in order to reproduce the subjective hierarchical vision for each vertex. In this paper we present the improvement of an information dynamics algorithm in which the label propagation of nodes is based on the Markovian flow of information in the network under cognitive-inspired constraints \\cite{Massaro2012}. In this framework we have introduced two more complex heuristics that allow the algorithm to detect the multi-resolution hierarchical community structure of networks from a source vertex or communities adopting fixed values of model's parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are efficient and well-behaved in both real-world and synthetic networks.

  8. Design of Hierarchical Structures for Synchronized Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Hamed; Javan, Anooshe Rezaee; Ghaedizadeh, Arash; Shen, Jianhu; Xu, Shanqing; Xie, Yi Min

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a general method for creating a new type of hierarchical structures at any level in both 2D and 3D. A simple rule based on a rotate-and-mirror procedure is introduced to achieve multi-level hierarchies. These new hierarchical structures have remarkably few degrees of freedom compared to existing designs by other methods. More importantly, these structures exhibit synchronized motions during opening or closure, resulting in uniform and easily-controllable deformations. Furthermore, a simple analytical formula is found which can be used to avoid collision of units of the structure during the closing process. The novel design concept is verified by mathematical analyses, computational simulations and physical experiments.

  9. Object tracking with hierarchical multiview learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Li

    2016-09-01

    Building a robust appearance model is useful to improve tracking performance. We propose a hierarchical multiview learning framework to construct the appearance model, which has two layers for tracking. On the top layer, two different views of features, grayscale value and histogram of oriented gradients, are adopted for representation under the cotraining framework. On the bottom layer, for each view of each feature, three different random subspaces are generated to represent the appearance from multiple views. For each random view submodel, the least squares support vector machine is employed to improve the discriminability for concrete and efficient realization. These two layers are combined to construct the final appearance model for tracking. The proposed hierarchical model assembles two types of multiview learning strategies, in which the appearance can be described more accurately and robustly. Experimental results in the benchmark dataset demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve better performance than many existing state-of-the-art algorithms.

  10. Hierarchical Robot Control In A Multisensor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Thune, Nils; Lee, Jih Kun; Thune, Mari

    1987-03-01

    Automatic recognition, inspection, manipulation and assembly of objects will be a common denominator in most of tomorrow's highly automated factories. These tasks will be handled by intelligent computer controlled robots with multisensor capabilities which contribute to desired flexibility and adaptability. The control of a robot in such a multisensor environment becomes of crucial importance as the complexity of the problem grows exponentially with the number of sensors, tasks, commands and objects. In this paper we present an approach which uses CAD (Computer-Aided Design) based geometric and functional models of objects together with action oriented neuroschemas to recognize and manipulate objects by a robot in a multisensor environment. The hierarchical robot control system is being implemented on a BBN Butterfly multi processor. Index terms: CAD, Hierarchical Control, Hypothesis Generation and Verification, Parallel Processing, Schemas

  11. The Infinite Hierarchical Factor Regression Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, Piyush

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nonparametric Bayesian factor regression model that accounts for uncertainty in the number of factors, and the relationship between factors. To accomplish this, we propose a sparse variant of the Indian Buffet Process and couple this with a hierarchical model over factors, based on Kingman's coalescent. We apply this model to two problems (factor analysis and factor regression) in gene-expression data analysis.

  12. Superhydrophobicity of Hierarchical and ZNO Nanowire Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    KOH (3 wt%), distilled water and isopropyl alcohol (10% vol%) at 95 C for 50 min. Subsequently, a 10 nm ZnO seed layer wasThis journal is © The Royal...ZnO have been widely used in sensors, piezo-nanogenerators, and solar cells. The hierarchical structures of ZnO nanowires grown on Si pyramid surfaces...exhibiting superhydrophobicity in this work will have promising applications in the next generation photovoltaic devices and solar cells

  13. TRANSIMS and the hierarchical data format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.W.

    1997-06-12

    The Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) is a general-purposed scientific data format developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. It supports metadata, compression, and a variety of data structures (multidimensional arrays, raster images, tables). FORTRAN 77 and ANSI C programming interfaces are available for it and a wide variety of visualization tools read HDF files. The author discusses the features of this file format and its possible uses in TRANSIMS.

  14. Modular, Hierarchical Learning By Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre F.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Modular and hierarchical approach to supervised learning by artificial neural networks leads to neural networks more structured than neural networks in which all neurons fully interconnected. These networks utilize general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamical effects. The modular organization, sparsity of modular units and connections, and fact that learning is much more circumscribed are all attractive features for designing neural-network hardware. Learning streamlined by imitating some aspects of biological neural networks.

  15. Hierarchical mixture models for assessing fingerprint individuality

    OpenAIRE

    Dass, Sarat C.; Li, Mingfei

    2009-01-01

    The study of fingerprint individuality aims to determine to what extent a fingerprint uniquely identifies an individual. Recent court cases have highlighted the need for measures of fingerprint individuality when a person is identified based on fingerprint evidence. The main challenge in studies of fingerprint individuality is to adequately capture the variability of fingerprint features in a population. In this paper hierarchical mixture models are introduced to infer the extent of individua...

  16. Resilient 3D hierarchical architected metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Lucas R; Zelhofer, Alex J; Clarke, Nigel; Mateos, Arturo J; Kochmann, Dennis M; Greer, Julia R

    2015-09-15

    Hierarchically designed structures with architectural features that span across multiple length scales are found in numerous hard biomaterials, like bone, wood, and glass sponge skeletons, as well as manmade structures, like the Eiffel Tower. It has been hypothesized that their mechanical robustness and damage tolerance stem from sophisticated ordering within the constituents, but the specific role of hierarchy remains to be fully described and understood. We apply the principles of hierarchical design to create structural metamaterials from three material systems: (i) polymer, (ii) hollow ceramic, and (iii) ceramic-polymer composites that are patterned into self-similar unit cells in a fractal-like geometry. In situ nanomechanical experiments revealed (i) a nearly theoretical scaling of structural strength and stiffness with relative density, which outperforms existing nonhierarchical nanolattices; (ii) recoverability, with hollow alumina samples recovering up to 98% of their original height after compression to ≥ 50% strain; (iii) suppression of brittle failure and structural instabilities in hollow ceramic hierarchical nanolattices; and (iv) a range of deformation mechanisms that can be tuned by changing the slenderness ratios of the beams. Additional levels of hierarchy beyond a second order did not increase the strength or stiffness, which suggests the existence of an optimal degree of hierarchy to amplify resilience. We developed a computational model that captures local stress distributions within the nanolattices under compression and explains some of the underlying deformation mechanisms as well as validates the measured effective stiffness to be interpreted as a metamaterial property.

  17. The Hourglass Effect in Hierarchical Dependency Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sabrin, Kaeser M

    2016-01-01

    Many hierarchically modular systems are structured in a way that resembles a bow-tie or hourglass. This "hourglass effect" means that the system generates many outputs from many inputs through a relatively small number of intermediate modules that are critical for the operation of the entire system (the waist of the hourglass). We investigate the hourglass effect in general (not necessarily layered) hierarchical dependency networks. Our analysis focuses on the number of source-to-target dependency paths that traverse each vertex, and it identifies the core of a dependency network as the smallest set of vertices that collectively cover almost all dependency paths. We then examine if a given network exhibits the hourglass property or not, comparing its core size with a "flat" (i.e., non-hierarchical) network that preserves the source dependencies of each target in the original network. As a possible explanation for the hourglass effect, we propose the Reuse Preference (RP) model that captures the bias of new mo...

  18. A secure solution on hierarchical access control

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Chuan-Sheng; Huang, Tone-Yau; Ong, Yao Lin

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical access control is an important and traditional problem in information security. In 2001, Wu et.al. proposed an elegant solution for hierarchical access control by the secure-filter. Jeng and Wang presented an improvement of Wu et. al.'s method by the ECC cryptosystem. However, secure-filter method is insecure in dynaminc access control. Lie, Hsu and Tripathy, Paul pointed out some secure leaks on the secure-filter and presented some improvements to eliminate these secure flaws. In this paper, we revise the secure-filter in Jeng-Wang method and propose another secure solutions in hierarchical access control problem. CA is a super security class (user) in our proposed method and the secure-filter of $u_i$ in our solutions is a polynomial of degree $n_i+1$ in $\\mathbb{Z}_p^*$, $f_i(x)=(x-h_i)(x-a_1)...(x-a_{n_i})+L_{l_i}(K_i)$. Although the degree of our secure-filter is larger than others solutions, our solution is secure and efficient in dynamics access control.

  19. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  20. SORM applied to hierarchical parallel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    The old hierarchical stochastic load combination model of Ferry Borges and Castanheta and the corresponding problem of determining the distribution of the extreme random load effect is the inspiration to this paper. The evaluation of the distribution function of the extreme value by use of a part......The old hierarchical stochastic load combination model of Ferry Borges and Castanheta and the corresponding problem of determining the distribution of the extreme random load effect is the inspiration to this paper. The evaluation of the distribution function of the extreme value by use...... of a particular first order reliability method (FORM) was first described in a celebrated paper by Rackwitz and Fiessler more than a quarter of a century ago. The method has become known as the Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm. The original RF-algorithm as applied to a hierarchical random variable model...... is recapitulated so that a simple but quite effective accuracy improving calculation can be explained. A limit state curvature correction factor on the probability approximation is obtained from the final stop results of the RF-algorithm. This correction factor is based on Breitung’s asymptotic formula for second...

  1. A New Metrics for Hierarchical Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGuangwen; SHIShuming; WANGDingxing

    2003-01-01

    Hierarchical clustering is a popular method of performing unsupervised learning. Some metric must be used to determine the similarity between pairs of clusters in hierarchical clustering. Traditional similarity metrics either can deal with simple shapes (i.e. spherical shapes) only or are very sensitive to outliers (the chaining effect). The main contribution of this paper is to propose some potential-based similarity metrics (APES and AMAPES) between clusters in hierarchical clustering, inspired by the concepts of the electric potential and the gravitational potential in electromagnetics and astronomy. The main features of these metrics are: the first, they have strong antijamming capability; the second, they are capable of finding clusters of different shapes such as spherical, spiral, chain, circle, sigmoid, U shape or other complex irregular shapes; the third, existing algorithms and research fruits for classical metrics can be adopted to deal with these new potential-based metrics with no or little modification. Experiments showed that the new metrics are more superior to traditional ones. Different potential functions are compared, and the sensitivity to parameters is also analyzed in this paper.

  2. Anisotropic and Hierarchical Porosity in Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Aaron Zev

    The performance of multifunctional porous ceramics is often hindered by the seemingly contradictory effects of porosity on both mechanical and non-structural properties and yet a sufficient body of knowledge linking microstructure to these properties does not exist. Using a combination of tailored anisotropic and hierarchical materials, these disparate effects may be reconciled. In this project, a systematic investigation of the processing, characterization and properties of anisotropic and isotropic hierarchically porous ceramics was conducted. The system chosen was a composite ceramic intended as the cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Comprehensive processing investigations led to the development of approaches to make hierarchical, anisotropic porous microstructures using directional freeze-casting of well dispersed slurries. The effect of all the important processing parameters was investigated. This resulted in an ability to tailor and control the important microstructural features including the scale of the microstructure, the macropore size and total porosity. Comparable isotropic porous ceramics were also processed using fugitive pore formers. A suite of characterization techniques including x-ray tomography and 3-D sectional scanning electron micrographs (FIB-SEM) was used to characterize and quantify the green and partially sintered microstructures. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure was quantified and discrete element simulations (DEM) were used to explain the experimental observations. Finally, the comprehensive mechanical properties, at room temperature, were investigated, experimentally and using DEM, for the different microstructures.

  3. Metal hierarchical patterning by direct nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, Boya; Lim, Su Hui; Saifullah, Mohammad S M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional hierarchical patterning of metals is of paramount importance in diverse fields involving photonics, controlling surface wettability and wearable electronics. Conventionally, this type of structuring is tedious and usually involves layer-by-layer lithographic patterning. Here, we describe a simple process of direct nanoimprint lithography using palladium benzylthiolate, a versatile metal-organic ink, which not only leads to the formation of hierarchical patterns but also is amenable to layer-by-layer stacking of the metal over large areas. The key to achieving such multi-faceted patterning is hysteretic melting of ink, enabling its shaping. It undergoes transformation to metallic palladium under gentle thermal conditions without affecting the integrity of the hierarchical patterns on micro- as well as nanoscale. A metallic rice leaf structure showing anisotropic wetting behavior and woodpile-like structures were thus fabricated. Furthermore, this method is extendable for transferring imprinted structures to a flexible substrate to make them robust enough to sustain numerous bending cycles.

  4. Semantic Image Segmentation with Contextual Hierarchical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-05-01

    Semantic segmentation is the problem of assigning an object label to each pixel. It unifies the image segmentation and object recognition problems. The importance of using contextual information in semantic segmentation frameworks has been widely realized in the field. We propose a contextual framework, called contextual hierarchical model (CHM), which learns contextual information in a hierarchical framework for semantic segmentation. At each level of the hierarchy, a classifier is trained based on downsampled input images and outputs of previous levels. Our model then incorporates the resulting multi-resolution contextual information into a classifier to segment the input image at original resolution. This training strategy allows for optimization of a joint posterior probability at multiple resolutions through the hierarchy. Contextual hierarchical model is purely based on the input image patches and does not make use of any fragments or shape examples. Hence, it is applicable to a variety of problems such as object segmentation and edge detection. We demonstrate that CHM performs at par with state-of-the-art on Stanford background and Weizmann horse datasets. It also outperforms state-of-the-art edge detection methods on NYU depth dataset and achieves state-of-the-art on Berkeley segmentation dataset (BSDS 500).

  5. ADHD AND LONELINESS SOCIAL DISSATISFACTION IN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL FROM AN INDIVIDUAL-CONTEXT PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana LANGHER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ADHD children can experience severe relational problems with peers, and individual treatments are not likely to eradicate peer problems. The school is the main arena in which peer difficulties develop and can be faced.Present study is aimed to explore the hypothesis that even in a fully inclusive educational system, like the Italian one, ADHD children would still experience peer difficulties if compared with children with other special needs, given the relational implications of the disturb. 31 ADHD children, 31 children with other special needs, 31 children with no special needs, matched by gender and age, were recruited from primary and low secondary State mainstream schools. The "Children's Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Rating Scale was administered to all children during class time. A single ANOVA test between the three groups and three planned comparisons were performed on the perceived loneliness and social dissatisfaction scores. The results showed low levels of perceived loneliness and social dissatisfaction for all groups. However, 30% of ADHD children showed a perceived loneliness and social dissatisfaction level twice than the other children, confirming the hypothesis that children with ADHD are at risk of isolation even within a fully inclusive environment.The authors interpretated the results according to a relational perspective, in which ADHD symptoms are not seen as totally dependant on the disorder in itself, but also a specific result of the relational system in which the child is part of. Implications regarding educational strategies and intervention strategies are discussed.

  6. The experience of inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorders in the mainstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova N.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available State general education facility of the Moscow city School Kovcheg № 1321, Moscow, Russia, was founded 25 years ago by professionals of the Center for Curative Pedagogics and parents for education and social ad­aptation of children, including children with disabilities. The school functions based on the principles of in­tegrated education and inclusive approach in education, the educational environment in it was established, and it is adapted for the educational needs of each student on the maximum level. The article describes the experience and organizational forms of inclusion of children with autism spectrum disorders in the educational environment of the Kovcheg school, the main principles and approaches that are used in school education, the directions of the educators' work for creation of the inclusive environment.

  7. Inclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sheri

    1989-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of local PTA involving all parents in their programs, especially parents from minority groups. This article includes a checklist for rating local PTA. Also included is a brief case study of one PTA's successful efforts to increase the ethnic and language diversity of its membership. (IAH)

  8. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  9. Inclusive distributions near kinematic thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E

    2006-01-01

    The main challenge in computing inclusive cross sections and decay spectra in QCD is posed by kinematic thresholds. The threshold region is characterized by stringent phase-space constraints that are reflected in large perturbative corrections due to soft and collinear radiation as well as large non-perturbative effects. Major progress in addressing this problem was made in recent years by Dressed Gluon Exponentiation (DGE), a formalism that combines Sudakov and renormalon resummation in moment space. DGE has proven effective in extending the range of applicability of perturbation theory well into the threshold region and in identifying the relevant non-perturbative corrections. Here we review the method from a general perspective using examples from deep inelastic structure functions, event-shape distributions, heavy-quark fragmentation and inclusive decay spectra. A special discussion is devoted to the applications of DGE to radiative and semileptonic B decays that have proven valuable for the interpretatio...

  10. Inclusive breakup of Borromean nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Mahir S; Frederico, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We derive the inclusive breakup cross section of a three-fragment projectile nuclei, $a = b +x_1 + x_2$, in the spectator model. The resulting four-body cross section for observing $b$, is composed of the elastic breakup cross section which contains information about the correlation between the two participant fragments, and the inclusive non-elastic breakup cross section. This latter cross section is found to be a non-trivial four-body generalization of the Austern formula \\cite{Austern1987}, which is proportional to a matrix element of the form, $\\langle\\hat{\\rho}_{{x_1},{x_2}}\\left|\\left[W_{{x_1}} + W_{{x_2}} + W_{3B}\\right]\\right|\\hat{\\rho}_{{x_1}, {x_2}}\\rangle$. The new feature here is the three-body absorption, represented by the imaginary potential, $W_{3B}$. We analyze this type of absorption and supply ideas of how to calculate its contribution.

  11. School inclusion and schoolars view: from idealized wish to the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Bertoldo Quatrin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the educational process in the last years in Brazil made possible the inclusion of children and adolescents with special needs (SN into normal school classrooms. This research was made in a state school in Santa Maria, RS with the objective of investigating and analyzing what was the scholars view about school inclusion. It also wanted to identify the major difficulties faced by the teachers when working with children and adolescent with special needs in special classrooms and in normal classroom of the above mentioned school. The data collection was done using a questionnaire adapted to eleven teachers. The data analysis was a descriptive one based on the data from the questionnaire used as a research instrument. From them, it was identified that the teachers view concerning school inclusion shows a relevant contradiction between the theoretical idealized proposals about school inclusion, and the classroom reality. The teachers presented a clear, concise and real view about school inclusion because at the same time they consider inclusion to be relevant and positive they feel unprepared, some feel challenged and others skeptical. The contrast between National programs of inclusion and the reality of the school researched is highly significant, which shows the fragility of the existing programs.

  12. Impulsive differential inclusions with constrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Donchev

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we study weak invariance of differential inclusions with non-fixed time impulses under compactness type assumptions. When the right-hand side is one sided Lipschitz an extension of the well known relaxation theorem is proved. In this case also necessary and sufficient condition for strong invariance of upper semi continuous systems are obtained. Some properties of the solution set of impulsive system (without constrains in appropriate topology are investigated.

  13. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  14. The Effects of Special Education Training on Educator Efficacy in Classroom Management and Inclusive Strategy Use for Students with Autism in Inclusion Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Lynn D.; Miller, Heather; Deris, Aaron R.

    2016-01-01

    The rise in the number of students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis combined with the educational trend toward inclusion for students with disabilities has led to an unprecedented number of these students placed in general education classrooms. General educators require appropriate training if these children are to be successful.…

  15. Towards Inclusive Learning Environments (TILE): Developing the "Roadmap for the Inclusion of Students with Special Educational Needs in Vocational Education and Workplace Settings"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andy; Bell, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years after UNESCO's Salamanca Statement enshrined international action for provision for children, youth and adults with special educational needs within the regular educational system, this article presents the current underpinning international and national UK context for developing inclusion in vocational education and training and…

  16. A Comparison of Hierarchical and Non-Hierarchical Bayesian Approaches for Fitting Allometric Larch (Larix.spp. Biomass Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate biomass estimations are important for assessing and monitoring forest carbon storage. Bayesian theory has been widely applied to tree biomass models. Recently, a hierarchical Bayesian approach has received increasing attention for improving biomass models. In this study, tree biomass data were obtained by sampling 310 trees from 209 permanent sample plots from larch plantations in six regions across China. Non-hierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian approaches were used to model allometric biomass equations. We found that the total, root, stem wood, stem bark, branch and foliage biomass model relationships were statistically significant (p-values < 0.001 for both the non-hierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian approaches, but the hierarchical Bayesian approach increased the goodness-of-fit statistics over the non-hierarchical Bayesian approach. The R2 values of the hierarchical approach were higher than those of the non-hierarchical approach by 0.008, 0.018, 0.020, 0.003, 0.088 and 0.116 for the total tree, root, stem wood, stem bark, branch and foliage models, respectively. The hierarchical Bayesian approach significantly improved the accuracy of the biomass model (except for the stem bark and can reflect regional differences by using random parameters to improve the regional scale model accuracy.

  17. Inclusive Classes in Physical Education: Teachers' Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloi, Gabriela Gallucci; Manzini, Eduardo José; Spoldaro, Diego Machado; Zacarias, Lucas Ventura

    2016-01-01

    The successful inclusion of students with special needs in physical education classes requires much planning and preparation. Lack of preparation of physical education teachers working in inclusive settings in Brazil has demonstrated the need for specialized training in strategies for implementing inclusion. The goal of this study was to identify,…

  18. An inclusion measure between fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new inclusion measure between fuzzy sets. Firstly, we select an axiomatic definition for the inclusion measure. Then, we present a new computation formula based on the selected axiomatic definition, and demonstrate its two properties. Finally, we give examples to validate its performance. The results show that the new inclusion measure is rational for fuzzy sets.

  19. Full averaging of fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Skripnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the substantiation of the method of full averaging for fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions is studied. We extend the similar results for impulsive differential inclusions with Hukuhara derivative (Skripnik, 2007, for fuzzy impulsive differential equations (Plotnikov and Skripnik, 2009, and for fuzzy differential inclusions (Skripnik, 2009.

  20. Inclusion: By Choice or by Chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Derrick; Armstrong, Ann Cheryl; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the development internationally of the inclusive education perspective. Inclusive education as a late modernity reform project is exemplified in the call for "Education for All". Despite the simplicity of its message, inclusion is highly contestable. We argue in this paper that the key questions raised by the concept of…